H Bombs vs. A Bombs

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					 Nuclear Weapons

         Period 3
Katie, Lauren, Yash, ZJ, &
        Dominique
                      Introduction
        Nuclear Weapons:
        weapons of mass
        destruction powered
        by atomic, rather than
        chemical, processes
        Nuclear weapons
        produce large
        explosions and
        hazardous radioactive
        byproducts by means
        of either nuclear
        fission or nuclear
        fusion
Katie
              History of the first atomic bombs

      A great Danish physicist, Niel Bohr’s discovery of fission in early in 1939

      made atomic bombs possible. After he announced this to the world, many
      scientists became alarmed that Germany would try to create a Nazi atomic
      bomb. Einstein wrote a letter to the president expressing these concerns.
      Following this, Robert J. Oppenheimer held a study with some of the
      brightest physicists at his University of California offices to explore the
      possibility of developing an atomic bomb, work at Los Alamos began
      (named the Manhattan project).
      Recognizing that a supersonic shock wave created by high explosives could
      be used to crush a ball of plutonium (to initiate a fission chain reaction),
      Oppenheimer focused on the laboratory's efforts on developing a successful
      method to implode plutonium. By early spring 1945, the design for the
      implosion gadget was set. This new plutonium bomb, called Fat Man, was
      such a radical departure from established technology. Doubts about its
      success made necessary the test, codenamed Trinity, conducted in July
      1945.
Zenjaia M.
                                Continued…
       Although most of the work done at Los Alamos was centered on implosion development,
       scientists continued to work on a uranium gum device, which was later on given the name
       Little Boy. Uranium didn’t spark many problems, the scientist were confident in what they
       had made, and a test would waste the huge source of Uranium that couldn’t be replaced
       easily so a proof test wasn’t conducted.
       Little Boy exploded over Hiroshima with a force of approximately fourteen kilotons on
       August 6, 1945.
       Fat Man exploded over Nagasaki with a force of twenty kilotons on August 9, 1945.




Zenjaia M.
       Countries with nuclear arsenal
   The nuclear-weapon countries are the five countries—China, France,
     Russia, United Kingdom, and the United States—officially recognized
     as possessing nuclear weapons by the NPT (Nuclear Non Proliferation
     Treaty).
   Estimates of each nuclear-weapon state’s nuclear holdings, including both strategic
       warheads (the forward section of a self-propelled missile, bomb, torpedo, or the
       like, containing the explosive, chemical, or atomic charge.) and lower-yield
       devices referred to as tactical weapons:
      China: 100-200 warheads.

      France: Approximately 350 strategic warheads.
      Russia: 4,237 strategic warheads, approximately 2,000-3,000 operational
       tactical warheads, and approximately 8,000-10,000 stockpiled strategic and
       tactical warheads.
      United Kingdom: Less than 160 deployed strategic warheads.
       United States: 5,914 strategic warheads, approximately 1,000 operational
       tactical operational tactical weapons, and approximately 3,000 reserve strategic
       and tactical warheads.
Zenjaia M.
                  Continued…
       India, Israel, and Pakistan—never joined
       the NPT and are known to possess
       nuclear weapons.




Zenjaia M.
       How does it work?
There are two ways to make atomic
bombs. Through “fusion” and “fission”.
Fusion is the process in which two of the
same element, (usually hydrogen) are
combined. In this process, a neutron is lost
and this creates an explosion.

YASH
                Fission
Fission is the process in which one
element, (usually uranium 235) is split into
two smaller fragments.




YASH
               Energy
The energy is formed in one of three ways.
Through either radioactive decay, fusion,
or fission. Energy is released from the
atomic nucleus of the element used.
E=mc2 is the formula used to calculate the
amount of energy given off or created in
the explosion.

YASH
     •Elements that are used in Atomic weapons
     include Uranium 235 and 238, Hydrogen -
     Tritium and Deuterium and Amercium.
     •Amercium is used more for “dirty bombs”. It is
     a more discrete element that is very sensitive.
Lauren
         Fusion Bomb test site
Lauren
                 Process of Fusion
  •      The process of fusion “fuses” two atoms together and produces a stronger
         atomic nucleus who’s mass is shown in the form of kinetic energy.

             1. Fission bomb is primary device that has an inward
                explosion that gives off X-rays.
             2. These X-rays give off heat inside the bomb which
                causes the tamper to dissolve and create pressure and
                shockwaves are initiated form the fission rod.
             3. The rod gives off heat and neutrons that
               create tritium and deuterium(fuel for reaction) which
              cause a reaction that makes more radiation and
              neutrons.
             4. Thus creating the explosion.
Lauren
                 Nuclear Fusion
         http://science.howstuffworks.com/nucle
         ar-bomb3.htm




Lauren
                     The Sun
         The sun also uses nuclear fusion - the
         heat / light / and mild radiation are
         products of the fusion that is going on
         inside the sun.




Lauren
         Elements Capable of Fusion
         Hydrogen - isotopes Protium, Deuterium, and
         Tritium
         Helium 3 and 4

         Problems with Fusion
         Deuterium and Tritium are hard to store.
         Tritium is in short supply.
         Both have to be highly compressed at high
         temps in order to start reactions.


Lauren
             H Bombs vs. A Bombs
        Hydrogen Bombs             Atomic Bombs
        – Gets energy from         – Gets energy from the
          nuclear fusion of          fission (splitting) of
          hydrogen isotopes          heavy nuclei
        – Use limited to testing   – Deployed in WWII on
          and not in combat          Hiroshima and
        – First produced in the      Nagasaki
          United States            – First produced in the
        – Composed with an           United States
          Atomic Bomb at its       – Used singularly for
          core to initiate           mass destruction
          destructive explosion

Katie
                     Dirty Bombs
                                     Dirty bomb is a warhead
                                     that uses conventional
                                     chemical explosives to
                                     disperse radioactive
                                     material
                                     Threats:
                                      – Radiation sickness
                                      – Contamination of
   •Radiation sickness is the           food supplies
   harmful effect produced on body    – Contamination of
   tissues by exposure to               water supplies
   radioactive substances.
Katie
             Effects of a Nuclear Bomb
  • From where the bomb
  explodes to 3 miles away
  everything within this
  radius would immediately
  perish
  •A second radius extending
  to ¾ mile would collapse
  buildings
  •A final circle with a
  distance of about 1.5
  miles would be consumed
  with fires and fatal
  radiation
Dominique Bryant
      Effects of a Nuclear Bomb cont.
         High energy gamma rays strip electrons
        from atoms in the air creating electric
        surges
        ( electromagnetic pulse) This pulse alone
        would be powerful enough to destroy
        virtually every electrical device.
        The explosion also leads to the emission
        of ionizing radiation

Dominique Bryant
               Hiroshima and Nagasaki
      •Two Atomic bombs were dropped on
      Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6th and
      9th of 1945
      •Killed 150,000 -220,000 from burns
      building collapses and radioactivity .
      •Radioactive poison remained in the air for
      many years afterward killing thousands
      more.
Dominique Bryant
                    Summary
        History of Nuclear
        Weapons
        How Fission and Fusion
        Work
        Hydrogen Bombs
        Dirty Bombs
        Effects of Nuclear
        Bombs

Katie

				
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