Chapters 01 to 10

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					               24 August 2007



            Homework Service Book

               Physical Science
            Chapters 01 to 10

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              Homework Service Book — Physical Science                                 -2 -
00 Editing Examples                          03-08 Fluid Forces and Pressure
00-01 Standard Problem Layouts               03-09 Hydraulic Devices
00-02 Basic Control Structures               03-10 Collisions
00-03 Advanced Control Structures            03-11 Buoyancy and Fluid Flow
00-04 Algorithmic Functions                  03-99 Associated problems in Chapter 03
00-05 Manipulate Numbers and Characters      04 Work and Energy
00-06 Tables                                 04-01 Work
00-07 Special TEX Formatting                 04-02 Power
00-08 General PSTricks Techniques            04-03 Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy
00-09 Graphs                                 04-04 Conservation of Energy
00-10 Special Figures                        04-05 Forms and Sources of Energy
00-11 Define and Name Figures                 04-06 Simple and Compound Machines
00-12 Chemistry Techniques                   04-07 Non-conservative Energy
00-13 Mathematics Techniques                 04-08 Rotational Energy
00-14 Physics Techniques                     04-09 Torque
00-99 Associated problems in Chapter 00      04-10 Rolling Motion
01 Measurement                               04-11 Simple Harmonic Motion
01-01 The Senses                             04-12 Pendulum
01-02 Concepts and Fundamental Quantities    04-99 Associated problems in Chapter 04
01-03 Standard Units                         05 Temperature and Heat
01-04 Derived Quantitites and Conversion     05-01 Temperature
      Factors                                05-02 Heat
01-05 Measurement of Circles                 05-03 Specific Heat and Latent Heat
01-06 Experimental Error                     05-04 Thermodynamics
01-07 Scientific Notation                     05-05 Heat Transfer
01-08 Scientific Method                       05-06 Phases of Matter
01-09 Tools of Measurement                   05-07 The Gas Laws and Kinetic Theory
01-10 Safety in the Laboratory               05-08 Heating and Cooling Systems
01-99 Associated problems in Chapter 01      05-09 Thermal Pollution
02 Motion                                    05-99 Associated problems in Chapter 05
02-01 Frame of Reference                     06 Waves
02-02 Straight-line Motion                   06-01 Wave Properties
02-03 Speed and Velocity                     06-02 Electromagnetic Waves
02-04 Acceleration                           06-03 Color
02-05 Acceleration in Uniform Circular Mo-   06-04 Sound Waves
      tion                                   06-05 Standing Waves and Resonance
02-06 Projectile Motion                      06-06 The Doppler Effect
02-07 Vectors                                06-99 Associated problems in Chapter 06
02-08 Relative Velocity                      07 Wave Effects
02-09 Angular and Linear Quantities          07-01 Reflection
02-99 Associated problems in Chapter 02      07-02 Refraction and Dispersion
03 Force and Motion                          07-03 Diffraction, Interference, and Polariza-
03-01 Force                                        tion
03-02 Newton’s First Law of Motion           07-04 Spherical Mirrors
03-03 Newton’s Second Law of Motion          07-05 Lenses
03-04 Newton’s Law of Gravitation            07-99 Associated problems in Chapter 07
03-05 Newton’s Third Law of Motion           08 Electricity and Magnetism
03-06 Friction                               08-01 Electric Charge
03-07 Momentum                               08-02 Electricity
              Homework Service Book — Physical Science                                 -3 -
08-03 Electric Circuits                      13-05 Avogadro’s Number
08-04 Magnetism                              13-06 Solutions
08-05 Electromagnetism                       13-99 Associated problems in Chapter 13
08-06 Electronics                            14 Chemical Reactions
08-07 Capacitance                            14-01 Basic Concepts
08-08 AC Circuits                            14-02 Energy and Rate of Reaction
08-99 Associated problems in Chapter 08      14-03 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
09 Atomic Physics                            14-04 Electrochemical Reactions
09-01 The Dual Nature of Light               14-05 Acids and Bases
09-02 The Bohr Theory of the Hydrogen        14-06 Acids and Bases in Solution
      Atom                                   14-99 Associated problems in Chapter 14
09-03 Quantum-Physics Applications           15 Complex Molecules
09-04 Matter Waves and Quantum Mechan-       15-01 Common Organic Compounds
      ics                                    15-02 Biochemistry
09-05 Atomic Quantum Numbers                 15-03 The Ingredients of Life and the Genetic
09-06 Multielectron Atoms and the Periodic         Code
      Table                                  15-04 Artificial Molecules — Plastics
09-99 Associated problems in Chapter 09      15-05 Drugs
10 Nuclear Physics                           15-99 Associated problems in Chapter 15
10-01 The Atomic Nucleus                     16 The Sky
10-02 Nuclear Stability                      16-01 Introduction
10-03 Radioactive Decay                      16-02 The Sky and Its Motion
10-04 Nuclear Reactions                      16-03 Cycles of the Sky
10-05 Fission and Fusion                     16-04 The Origin of Modern Astronomy
10-99 Associated problems in Chapter 10      16-05 Gravitation
11 The Periodic Table                        16-06 Radiation and Spectra
11-01 Elements                               16-07 Astronomical Instruments
11-02 The Periodic Table                     16-99 Associated problems in Chapter 16
11-03 Classification of Elements              17 The Stars
11-04 Periodic Characteristics               17-01 Starlight
11-05 Groups of Elements                     17-02 The Sun
11-99 Associated problems in Chapter 11      17-03 The Family of Stars
12 Compounds, Molecules, and Ions            17-04 Celestial Distances
12-01 Principles of Compound Formation       17-05 Gas and Dust in Space
12-02 Ionic Compounds                        17-06 Formation and Structure of Stars
12-03 Properties of Ionic Compounds          17-07 Evolution of Stars
12-04 Covalent Compounds                     17-08 Deaths of Stars
12-05 Properties of Covalent Compounds       17-09 Neutron Stars and Black Holes
12-06 Oxidation Number                       17-99 Associated problems in Chapter 17
12-07 Naming Compounds                       18 The Galaxies
12-08 Carbon and Some Simple Organic         18-01 The Milky Way Galaxy
      Compounds                              18-02 Galaxies
12-09 Hydrocarbons                           18-03 Active Galaxies, Quasars, Giant Black
12-99 Associated problems in Chapter 12            Holes
13 Some Chemical Principles                  18-04 Cosmology
13-01 Types of Matter                        18-05 Evolution, Distribution of Galaxies
13-02 Early Chemical Laws                    18-99 Associated problems in Chapter 18
13-03 Atomic and Molecular Weights           19 The Solar System
13-04 Molecular Volumes                      19-01 Origin of the Solar System
                Homework Service Book — Physical Science                               -4 -
19-02 Earth, the Terrestrial Planets, and the   25-09 Cenozoic: Tertiary Period
      Moon                                      25-10 Cenozoic: Quaternary Period
19-03 The Large Planets                         25-11 Cenozoic Life
19-04 Rings, Moons and Pluto                    25-99 Associated problems in Chapter 25
19-05 Asteroids, Comets and Meteors             26 The Atmosphere
19-99 Associated problems in Chapter 19         26-01 Composition
20 The Universe                                 26-02 Origin
20-01 The Big Bang                              26-03 Vertical Structure
20-02 Life in the Universe                      26-04 Energy Content
20-99 Associated problems in Chapter 20         26-05 Atmospheric Measurement
21 Earth                                        26-99 Associated problems in Chapter 26
21-01 Dynamic and Evolving Planet               27 Winds and Clouds
21-02 Minerals and Rocks                        27-01 Causes of Air Motion
21-03 Igneous Rocks, Intrusive Activity         27-02 Local Winds and World Circulation
21-04 Volcanism and Volcanoes                   27-03 Jet Streams
21-05 Weathering, Erosion, Soil                 27-04 Cloud Classification
21-06 Sediment, Sedimentary Rocks               27-05 Cloud Formation
21-07 Metamorphism, Metamorphic Rocks           27-06 Condensation and Precipitation
21-99 Associated problems in Chapter 21         27-99 Associated problems in Chapter 27
22 Structural Geology                           28 Air Masses and Storms
22-01 Geologic Time                             28-01 Air Masses
22-02 Earthquakes                               28-02 Fronts and Cyclonic Disturbances
22-03 Earth’s Interior                          28-03 Local Storms
22-04 The Seafloor                               28-04 Tropical Storms
22-05 Plate Tectonics                           28-99 Associated problems in Chapter 28
22-99 Associated problems in Chapter 22         29 Weather Forecasting
23 Isostasy                                     29-01 The National Weather Service
23-01 Deformation, Mountain Building            29-02 Data Collection and Weather Observa-
23-02 Running Water                                   tion
23-03 Groundwater                               29-03 Weather Maps
23-04 Glaciers and Glaciation                   29-04 Folklore and the Weather
23-05 Wind and Deserts                          29-99 Associated problems in Chapter 29
23-06 Shorelines                                30 Pollution and Climate
23-07 Mass Wasting                              30-01 Pollutants
23-99 Associated problems in Chapter 23         30-02 Sources of Pollution
24 Concepts and Principles                      30-03 The Cost of Pollution
24-01 Fossils                                   30-04 Pollution, Weather, and Climate
24-02 Evolution: Theory, Evidence               30-99 Associated problems in Chapter 30
24-03 Primate and Human Evolution               31 Oceanography
24-99 Associated problems in Chapter 24         31-01 Origins
25 Eons and Eras                                31-02 History
25-01 Precambrian: Hadean, Archean              31-03 Plate Tectonics
25-02 Precambrian: Proterozoic                  31-04 Ocean Basins
25-03 Early Paleozoic History                   31-05 Sediments
25-04 Late Paleozoic History                    31-06 Water
25-05 Paleozoic Invertebrates                   31-07 Atomspheric Circulation
25-06 Paleozoic Vertebrates and Plants          31-08 Ocean Circulation
25-07 Mesozoic History                          31-09 Waves
25-08 Mesozoic Life                             31-10 Tides
                 Homework Service Book — Physical Science   -5 -
31-11   Coasts
31-12   Life in the Ocean
31-13   Pelagic Communities
31-14   Benthic Communities
31-15   Uses and Abuses
31-99   Associated problems in Chapter 31
                                Chapter 1, section 1, The Senses                                6

                                                    2. hits the rear of the bus slightly before it
             Approaching Cars                      hits the front.
01:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                    3. hits the front and back of the bus simul-
                   Part 1 of 3                     taneously.
  Two cars approach each other; both cars
are moving westward, one at 78 km/h, the             4. Not enough information to form a conclu-
other at 64 km/h.                                  sion.
  What is the magnitude of the velocity of the
first car relative to (in the frame of reference
of) the second car?

                Part 2 of 3
What is the direction of the resultant veloc-
ity?

 1. westward

 2. eastward

 3. Unable to determine.

                 Part 3 of 3
After they pass, how will their relative veloc-
ity change?

 1. Less than before.

 2. Greater than before.

 3. No change.

 4. Unable to determine.

             Relative Speeds 01
01:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

   A flashbulb is placed in the middle of a
bus. When the flashbulb goes off, light from
the bulb strikes the rear and front of the bus
simultaneously, as seen by an observer, Karl,
sitting in the bus.
   As seen by another observer, Fred, standing
on the curb as the bus moves past, the light
           .

 1. hits the front of the bus slightly before it
hits the rear.
                  Chapter 1, section 2, Concepts and Fundamental Quantities   7


               Comparison 50
01:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

  Which is the biggest number?

 1. 3 × 10−8

 2. 3.0 × 10−18

 3. 4 × 10−8

 4. 4 × 10−18
                             Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units                                  8


               Conversion 01                                     Conversion 105
01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.     01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

  Which conversion factor would you use to          How     many       miles      are     there    in
change 18 kilometers to meters?                   5100 kilometers?
    1000 m
 1.                                                              Conversion 106
     1 km                                         01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
     1 km
 2.
    1000 m                                          How many         kilometers     are    there   in
    100 m                                         5100 miles?
 3.
    1 km
    1 km                                                         Conversion 107
 4.                                               01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
    100 m
               Conversion 100                       How many centimeters are there in
01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.           5.1 yards?

 A temperature of 0.5 ◦ C corresponds to                         Conversion 108
 ? ?                                              01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

               Conversion 101                       How many seconds are there in 510 days?
01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                                 Conversion 109
  Convert a temperature of 270 ◦ C into           01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
Kelvin.
                                                    How many days are there in 595.5 seconds?
               Conversion 102
01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                                 Conversion 110
  260 Kelvin is the same as how many ◦ F?         01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

               Conversion 103                       How many kilograms             are    there    in
01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.           5500 milligrams?

  Convert 5.1 gallons into the equivalent                        Conversion 111
number of liters.                                 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

               Conversion 104                       How many         milligrams     are    there   in
01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, fixed.             5.1 pounds?

  There are special instruments called mi-                       Conversion 112
crometers which are able to measure distances     01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
              1
as small as       of an inch.
            10000
                                 1                  How many liters are there in 43 milliliters?
  How many millimeters is              of an
                               10000
inch?                                                            Conversion 113
                                                  01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                 Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units                                 9


  How many         milliliters    are    there    in                  Conversion 122
0.465 liters?                                          01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

               Conversion 114                            How many        milliliters    are   there   in
01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.                0.465 liters?

  Convert 5.1 gallons into the equivalent                             Conversion 123
number of milliliters.                                 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

               Conversion 115                            500 K is equal to what ◦ F?
01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                                      Conversion 124
  How many centimeters are there in                    01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
5.1 yards?
                                                         How many        millipoise     are   there   in
               Conversion 116                          0.54 kilopoise?
01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                                      Conversion 125
  How many         kilometers      are    there   in   01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
5100 miles?
                                                         How many        kilopoise      are   there   in
               Conversion 117                          55 millipoise?
01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                                      Conversion 126
  How     many       miles       are     there    in   01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
5100 kilometers?
                                                          Convert a temperature of 18 degrees Kelvin
               Conversion 118                          into ◦ C.
01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                                      Conversion 127
  How many seconds are there in 510 days?              01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

               Conversion 119                            300 Kelvin is the same as how many ◦ F?
01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                                      Conversion 128
  Convert the temperature 1.58114×109◦ C to            01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, fixed.
Kelvin. (Only use three significant digits.)
                                                         There are special instruments called mi-
               Conversion 120                          crometers which are able to measure distances
01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.                as small as 1/10000 of an inch.
                                                         How many millimeters is 1/10000 of an
  How many liters are there in 43 milliliters?         inch?

               Conversion 121                                         Conversion 129
01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.                01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

  How many         centifeet      are    there    in     How     many      miles       are    there   in
5.1 millifeet?
                                Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units                              10

5100 kilometers?
                                                       2. 10460
               Conversion 130
01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.                3. 12590

  How many         kilometers     are   there   in     4. 14920
5100 miles?
                                                       5. 83700
               Conversion 131
01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.                             Conversion 52
                                                     01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
  How many centimeters are there in
5.1 yards?                                              A liter is 1000 cm3 .
                                                        What is the length of any side (in cm) of a
               Conversion 132                        regular cube which will have a volume of 1000
01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.              liters?

  Assume       that   all   chickens   have            1. 10 cm
5500 feathers.
  If it takes you 5.5 seconds to pluck                 2. 100 cm
54.5 feathers, how many hours would it take
you to defeather 4950 chickens?                        3. 1000 cm

               Conversion 133                          4. None of these
01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                                    Conversion 53
  The side of a square is 5.1 centimeters.           01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
  What is the area of the square?
                                                        A sample of 354. g iron is the same as:
               Conversion 50
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.          1. 0.354 kg

  42.7 g of Cu represents how many kg?                 2. 3.54 kg

 1. 0.0427 kg                                          3. 35.4 kg

 2. 4.27 × 101 kg                                      4. none of the other answers is correct

 3. 42,700 kg                                                       Conversion 54
                                                     01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 4. 4.27 × 104
                                                        A sheet of typing paper is 11.5 inches long.
               Conversion 51                            How many centimeters is this?
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                       1. 16.2 cm
 A 2000 kilocalorie diet corresponds to how
many kilojoules?                                       2. 18.7 cm

 1. 8368                                               3. 24.3 cm
                            Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units                            11

                                                 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 4. 29.2 cm
                                                    Convert 3.97 g/cm3 to lb/in3 .
               Conversion 55
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.      1. .143 lb/in3

  A weight of 0.16 kilogram is   ?   .             2. .0222 lb/in3

 1. 1600 mg                                        3. 110. lb/in3

 2. 1.6 × 105 mg                                   4. 6.99 lb/in3

 3. 16000 mg                                                    Conversion 59
                                                 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 4. 1.6 × 10−4 mg
                                                    Convert: 35.0 cc =    ?   mL
               Conversion 56
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.      1. 35.0

  Assuming that a sheet of typing paper is         2. 35
21.50 cm wide, what is the width expressed in
meters?                                            3. 350

 1. 0.2150                                         4. 3.50

 2. 0.215                                                       Conversion 60
                                                 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 3. 215.0
                                                   Earl Campbell, FB 1974-77 and the 1977
 4. 215                                          Heisman Trophy Winner, rushed for 4443
                                                 yards in 765 attempts for his career at UT.
               Conversion 57                       Calculate his average gain per rush in me-
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.    ters.

  Austin’s average rainfall per year is 31.5       1. 5.81
inches.
  Convert this measurement to meters per           2. 5.31
decade. (1 in = 2.54 cm, and 1 decade = 10
years)                                             3. .188

 1. 8.00                                           4. 3.69

 2. 80.0                                                        Conversion 61
                                                 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 3. .125
                                                    Express 1.09 kcal in J.
 4. 315.
                                                   1. 4560 J
               Conversion 58
                                Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units                             12

 2. 4560. J
                                                       4. 1.1076 × 10−2
 3. 1090 J
                                                       5. 1 × 10−2
 4. 4.56 J
                                                                    Conversion 65
               Conversion 62                         01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                       How many calories is 130. joules? (1 calorie
                    2
  Express 13.4 cm in square millimeters.             = 4.18 joules)

 1. 0.134 mm2                                          1. 31.1

 2. 1.34 mm2                                           2. 3.11

 3. 1340 mm2                                           3. 543

 4. 13400 mm2                                          4. 54.3

 5. 13.4 mm2                                                        Conversion 66
                                                     01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
               Conversion 63
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.           How many grams are in 268. mg?

  Five liters is also   ?   .                          1. 2.68 g

 1. 5000 mL                                            2. 26.8 g

 2. 500 mL                                             3. 0.268 g

 3. 50000 mL                                           4. none of the other answers is correct

 4. 5 × 105 mL                                                      Conversion 67
                                                     01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
               Conversion 64
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.           How many grams of tomatoes are equiv-
                                                     alent to 1.50 pounds of tomatoes? (1 lb =
  For the conversion of 0.0003140 kilograms          453.6 g)
to ounces, the conversion factors are 103
grams per kilogram, 1 pound per 453.6 grams            1. 453.
and 16 ounces per pound.
  The correctly expressed answer is ?                  2. 680.
ounces.
                                                       3. 920.
 1. 1.1 × 10−2
                                                       4. 1300.
 2. 1.11 × 10−2
                                                                    Conversion 68
 3. 1.108 × 10−2                                     01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                            Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units                                  13


  How many kilograms are in 120. lbs? (1 lb        1. 2.5 × 102 cm2
= 453.6 g)
                                                   2. 2.5 × 10−1 m2
 1. 54.43
                                                   3. 2.5 m2
 2. 54.4
                                                   4. 2.5 × 104 mm2
 3. 26.45
                                                                Conversion 72
 4. 26.5                                         01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

 5. 5.44 × 107                                     The density of aluminum is 1.424 oz./in3 .
                                                   In the SI system it is ( 1 in3 = 16.4 mL; 1
               Conversion 69                     oz = 31.1 g)
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                   1. 2.70 g/mL
  How many microns (µm) are in a kilometer
(km)?                                              2. 2.70 mL/g

 1. thousand                                       3. 0.751 g/mL

 2. million                                        4. 726 mL/g

 3. billion                                                     Conversion 73
                                                 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 4. trillion
                                                      The length of 4 meters is the same as   ?    .
 5. bajillion
                                                   1. 400 mm
               Conversion 70
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.      2. 40 mm

   One liter, a volume of a cube with sides of     3. 4000 mm
length 10 cm, is the same as
                                                   4. 40000 mm
 1. 100 cm3
                                                                Conversion 74
 2. 1000 cm3                                     01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

 3. 10 cm3                                            The number of millimeters in 0.101 meter
                                                 is
 4. none of the other answers is correct
                                                   1. 1.01 × 10−4 mm
               Conversion 71
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.      2. 1.01 × 10−3 mm

 The area of a square with 50 cm sides is          3. 1.01 × 104 mm
 ? .
                            Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units                               14

 4. 1.01 × 102 mm                                               Conversion 78
                                                 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 5. 9.90 × 103 mm
                                                   What is the weight in milligrams of 0.0013
               Conversion 75                     kg of iron?
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                   1. 130 mg
  The weight of one atom of carbon weighing
12.01 u when expressed in ounces is ? . (1         2. 1300 mg
u is 1.66 × 10−24 gram and 16.0 oz is 453.6
grams)                                             3. 13 mg

 1. 7.03 × 10−25                                   4. 1.3 mg

 2. 3.19 × 10−22                                                Conversion 79
                                                 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 3. 1.99 × 10−23
                                                    Which distance is longest?
 4. 7.23 × 1024
                                                   1. one mile
               Conversion 76
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.      2. one kilometer

  How many centimeters are there in 0.500          3. 1000 centimeters
mile? (1 mile = 5280 ft and 2.54 cm. = 1
inch.)                                             4. 10,000 millimeters

 1. 8.05 × 104                                                  Conversion 80
                                                 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 2. 8.048 × 103
                                                    Which is the largest energy unit?
                3
 3. 6.70 × 10
                                                   1. a calorie
                5
 4. 1.61 × 10
                                                   2. a Calorie
               Conversion 77
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.      3. a joule

 Using the identity 2.540 cm = 1 inch, how         4. a kilojoule
many centimeters are in 1 yard (36 in)?
                                                                Conversion 81
 1. 9.144 cm                                     01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

 2. 14.17 cm                                        Which of the following units is largest?

 3. 23.31 cm                                       1. all are equivalent

 4. 91.44 cm                                       2. 100 cm
                            Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units                               15

 3. 0.00100 km                                    01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

 4. 1.00 m                                           How many grams of tomatoes are equiva-
                                                  lent to 1.50 pounds of tomatoes?
 5. 1000 mm
                                                   1. 453.
               Conversion 82
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.      2. 680.

   Which of the following units of volume is       3. 920.
largest?
                                                   4. 1300.
 1. mL
                                                                 Conversion 86
 2. L                                             01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

 3. cL                                               How many liters of milk are there in 1 gallon
                                                  of milk?
 4. dL
                                                   1. 3.78
 5. qt.
                                                   2. 3.92
               Conversion 83
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.      3. 4.03

  You are shopping for a new washing ma-           4. 4.57
chine.
  If you have 36 inches of space (width) avail-                  Conversion 87
able, will a machine of 97 cm width fit?           01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

 1. yes                                             Assume that a sheet of typing paper is 21.50
                                                  centimeters wide.
 2. no                                              What is the width expressed in meters?

               Conversion 84                       1. 0.2150
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                   2. 0.215
  A sheet of typing paper is 11.5 inches long.
  How many centimeters is it?                      3. 215.0

 1. 16.21                                          4. 215

 2. 18.71                                                        Conversion 88
                                                  01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 3. 24.31
                                                    The average lead pencil is 190. mm long.
 4. 29.2                                            What is its length in inches?

               Conversion 85                       1. 7.48
                            Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units                            16

                                                 scale?
 2. 48.26
                                                   1. 77 K
 3. 482.6
                                                   2. 112 K
 4. 74.8
                                                   3. 362 K
               Conversion 89
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.      4. 210 K

  For the conversion of 0.0003140 kilograms        5. 146 K
to ounces, 1 × 103 grams = 1 kilogram, 1
pound = 453.58 grams, and 16 ounces = 1                         Conversion 92
pound                                            01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
  The correct answer is ? ounces.
                                                    How many liters is 50 milliliters?
 1. 1.1 × 10−2
                                                   1. .050 L
 2. 1.11 × 10−2
                                                   2. .50 L
 3. 1.108 × 10−2
                                                   3. 5.0 L
 4. 1.1076 × 10−2
                                                   4. 50 L
 5. 1.0 × 10−2
                                                   5. 500 L
               Conversion 90
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.                   Conversion 93
                                                 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
  For the conversion of 0.073 gallons to
milliliters, 4 quarts = 1 gallon and 1.057         The boiling point of liquid oxygen (LOX) is
quarts 1 liter.                                  54.4 K.
  The correct answer is ? mL.                      What is its boiling point on the Fahrenheit
                                                 scale?
 1. 2.8 × 102
                                                   1. −361.8◦ F
             2
 2. 3 × 10
                                                   2. −336.2◦ F
                     2
 3. 2.763 × 10
                                                   3. −451.4◦ F
                 2
 4. 2.76 × 10
                                                   4. −425.8◦ F
 5. 2.7625 × 102
                                                   5. −139.3◦ F
               Conversion 91
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.                   Conversion 94
                                                 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
  Liquid nitrogen boils at −321◦ F.
  What is its boiling point on the Kelvin           The boiling point of zinc is 420◦ C.
                             Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units                            17

  What is this in ◦ F?
                                                    1. 11
 1. 251◦ F
                                                    2. 10.6
 2. 216◦ F
                                                    3. 0.094
 3. 724◦ F
                                                    4. 10.58
 4. 962◦ F
                                                    5. 0.0945
 5. 788◦ F
                                                                 Conversion 98
               Conversion 95                      01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                     0.0367 seconds is equal to how many mil-
                         ◦
  Copper melts at 1083 C.                         liseconds?
  What is its melting temperature in ◦ F?
                                                    1. 36.7
 1. 1324◦ F
                                                    2. 0.0367
 2. 583◦ F
                                                    3. 3.67
 3. 619◦ F
                                                    4. 3.67 × 10−5
 4. 797◦ F
                                                    5. 3.67 × 10−6
 5. 1981◦ F
                                                                 Conversion 99
               Conversion 96                      01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                                            ◦
                                                    A temperature of 2          F corresponds to
  Express 13.4 square centimeters in square         ? ?
millimeters.
                                                                   Density 01
 1. 0.134 mm2                                     01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

 2. 1.34 mm2                                        A block of wood has a volume of 64 cm3
                                                  and a mass of 640 g.
 3. 1340 mm2                                        What would be its density?

 4. 13400 mm2                                                      Density 02
                                                  01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
 5. 13.4 mm2
                                                    A marble is found to have a volume of 4 mL
               Conversion 97                      and a mass of 16 g.
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.       What would be its density?

  There are 36 inches in a yard.                                    Error 50
  How many yards are in a 381 inch ribbon?        01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                              Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units                            18

                                                     2. length * width
   What is the percent relative error of the               mass
length of a paper clip which has a measured          3.
value of 1.05 inches with the uncertainty of              volume
0.05 inches?                                         4. mass * volume

 1. 2100%                                                          Formula 03
                                                   01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 2. 476%
                                                      The formula for area is
 3. 4.76%
                                                     1. length * width * height
 4. 4.0%
                                                     2. length * width
 5. 2.10%
                                                           mass
                                                     3.
               Estimation 50                              volume
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.        4. mass * volume

  A liter is about                                                   Metric 01
                                                   01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 1. a cup
                                                      The kilogram is a unit of
 2. a pint
                                                     1. mass.
 3. a quart
                                                     2. volume.
 4. a gallon
                                                     3. length.
                Formula 01
01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.        4. temperature.

  The formula for density is                                         Metric 02
                                                   01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 1. length * width * height
                                                                                  1
                                                      The prefix that means           is
 2. length * width                                                              1000
       mass                                          1. kilo.
 3.
      volume
                                                     2. centi.
 4. mass * volume
                                                     3. milli.
                Formula 02
01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.        4. micro.

  The formula for volume is                                          Metric 03
                                                   01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 1. length * width * height
                                                      Length is to meter as
                              Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units                             19


 1. mass is to kilogram.                             3. fraction that has a larger numerator than
                                                    denominator.
 2. liter is to distance.
                                                     4. fraction that has a larger denominator
 3. weight is to mass.                              than numerator.

 4. density is to volume.                                             Metric 07
                                                    01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                  Metric 04
01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.         One tenth (0.1) of a meter is called

 Which of the following has the greatest             1. centimeter.
mass?
                                                     2. dekameter.
 1. a slice of bread
                                                     3. decimeter.
 2. a snail
                                                     4. millimeter.
 3. your science textbook
                                                                      Metric 08
 4. a child                                         01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

                  Metric 05                           A gram is what part of a kilogram?
01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                     1. 0.5
  Dimensional analysis is the
                                                     2. 0.01
  1. ability to identify the properties of a sub-
stance.                                              3. 0.001

  2. skill of using a conversion factor effec-        4. 0.1
tively.
                                                                      Metric 09
 3. skill of converting one unit of measure to      01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
another.
                                                      Which of the following is equivalent to a
  4. ability to identify a problem and solve        cubic centimeter?
it.
                                                     1. liter
                  Metric 06
01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.        2. centiliter

  A factor that always equals one is a               3. milliliter

  1. fraction that has been simplified to its         4. deciliter
lowest terms.
                                                                      Metric 10
 2. conversion factor.                              01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                            Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units                            20

                                                   3. 60 m2
  Liquid volume can best be measured in
                                                   4. 60 m3
 1. liters.
                                                   5. 60 m
 2. cubic centimeters.
                                                   6. 60 cm
 3. meters.
                                                                   Metric 14
 4. grams.                                       01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

                  Metric 11                        The length of this piece of paper could best
01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.    be measured in

 The length of a ”normal” car would best be        1. centimeters.
measured in
                                                   2. dekameters.
 1. liters.
                                                   3. hectometers.
 2. dekameters.
                                                   4. meters.
 3. millimeters.
                                                                   Metric 15
 4. meters.                                      01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

                  Metric 12                         A school bus would be       a meter.
01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                   1. longer than
   Which of the following would you use for
filling your gas tank?                              2. shorter than

 1. milliliters                                    3. the same as

 2. kiloliters                                                     Metric 16
                                                 01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 3. liters
                                                    10 km =          m.
 4. meters
                                                   1. 100.
                  Metric 13
01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      2. 1000.

  If a room measures 10 m by 6 m, what             3. 10,000.
would its area be?
                                                   4. 100,000.
 1. 60 cm2
                                                                   Metric 17
 2. 60 cm3                                       01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                            Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units                            21

  Which of the following would equal 5 me-         4. 1000
ters?
                                                   5. log 10
 1. 50 Dm
                                                               Metric System 51
 2. 50 dm                                        01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

 3. 0.5 Hm                                         Velocity is measured as    ?   in the metric
                                                 system.
 4. 50 cm
                                                   1. m/s
                  Metric 18
01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      2. m3 /s

  Mass can be measured in units called             3. m/s3

 1. grams.                                         4. m2 /s2

 2. liters.                                                    Metric System 52
                                                 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 3. cubic centimeters.
                                                      Volume in the metric system is measured
 4. None of these                                as     ? .

                  Metric 19                        1. meter
01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                   2. liter
  Volume can be measured in units called
                                                   3. m2
 1. grams.
                                                   4. L3
 2. liters.
                                                               Metric System 53
 3. square centimeters.                          01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

 4. None of these                                  Which set of units is NOT in order of in-
                                                 creasing magnitude?
              Metric System 50
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.      1. µW < kW < MW

  The metric system of measurement is based        2. µg < mg < ng
on units of ?
                                                   3. cPa < dPa < kPa
 1. 100
                                                   4. mm < cm < dm
 2. 10
                                                   5. µL < dL < kL
 3. 1
                                                               Metric System 54
                            Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units                          22

01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.      6. 1.87 km

 Which set of units is in order of increasing      7. 1.9 km
magnitude?
                                                   8. 2 km
 1. nL < mL < dL
                                                                  Part 2 of 3
 2. mg < dg < cg                                 NOTE: For this problem use significant fig-
                                                 ures.
 3. mW < kW < cW                                   You observe your speedometer reading at
                                                 60 mph. Convert this into the proper SI unit
 4. Mm < km < cm                                 with the proper prefix.

 5. mA < µA < cA                                   1. 26.82 m/s

              Metric System 55                     2. 26.8 m/s
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                   3. 27 m/s
  Which answer is expressed to the nearest
milligram?                                         4. 30 m/s

 1. 14.7 g                                         5. 1.342×105 m/s

 2. 14.72 g                                        6. 134 km/s

 3. 14.721 g                                       7. 130 km/s

 4. 14.7213 g                                      8. 100 km/s

    PS303 Unit Conversion Sig Figs                                 Part 3 of 3
01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.    NOTE: For this problem use significant fig-
                                                 ures.
                 Part 1 of 3                       A marathon is 26.3 miles. How many cen-
  NOTE: For this problem use significant fig-      timeters is that?
ures.
  You measure a distance to be 3 miles. Con-       1. 4.232×106 cm
vert this into the proper SI unit with the
proper prefix.                                      2. 4.23×106 cm

 1. 4.827 km                                       3. 4.2×106 cm

 2. 4.83 km                                        4. 4.0×106 cm

 3. 4.8 km                                         5. 4×106 cm

 4. 5 km                                           6. 42.3167×106 cm

 5. 1.865 km                                       7. 0.423×103 cm
                            Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units                              23

 8. 42.3×106 cm                                             Scientific Notation 52
                                                 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
           Scientific Notation 01
01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.         The number 0.00875 in scientific notation
                                                 is
  What is the standard form for 2 × 10−3 ?
                                                   1. .0875 × 101
 1. 2000
                                                   2. 8.75 × 10−3
 2. 200
                                                   3. 8.75 × 103
 3. 20
                                                   4. 8.8 × 10−3
 4. 2
                                                            Scientific Notation 53
 5. 0.2                                          01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

 6. 0.02                                              The number 0.0540 in scientific notation is

 7. 0.002                                          1. 5.40 × 10−2 .

 8. 0.0002                                         2. 5.4 × 10−3 .

           Scientific Notation 50                   3. 5.4 × 10−2 .
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                   4. 5.4 × 102 .
  0.00397 in scientific notation is   ?   .
                                                            Scientific Notation 54
                −3                               01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 1. 3.97 × 10

 2. 3.97 × 103                                     The ? of a number tells how many times
                                                 the number must be multiplied by itself.
 3. 3.97 × 105
                                                   1. exponent
 4. 39.7 × 10−5
                                                   2. significant digit
           Scientific Notation 51
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.      3. scientific notation

  45,500,000,000 in scientific notation is          4. mantissa

 1. 4.55 × 1010                                    5. base number

 2. 4.55 × 10−10                                            Scientific Notation 55
                                                 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 3. 455. × 107
                                                    When coding a number in scientific nota-
                −7                               tion, moving the decimal point to the left
 4. 455. × 10
                                                 corresponds to multiplying by a ? power
                                  Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units                            24

of 10.
                                                                  Scientific Notation 59
 1. positive                                           01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

 2. negative                                             Express the number 0.0006584 in scientific
                                                       notation to 3 significant figures.
           Scientific Notation 56
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.            1. 6.580 × 10−4

   Actor Kevin Costner, who played baseball              2. 6.58 × 10−3
for Cal State Fullerton, earned $48 million in
the years 1991-1992.                                     3. 6.59 × 10−4
   Express his earnings in appropriate scien-
tific notation.                                           4. 6.58 × 10−4

 1. 4.8 × 107                                                     Scientific Notation 60
                                                       01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 2. 48 × 106
                                                         Express the number 9067.5 in scientific no-
                     7
 3. 4.8000000 × 10                                     tation to 4 significant figures.

 4. 48,000,000                                           1. 9.068 × 103

           Scientific Notation 57                         2. 9.067 × 103
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                         3. 906.7 × 101
  Express 4592.3 to two (2) significant fig-
ures.                                                    4. 90.67 × 102

 1. 4.5 × 103                                                     Scientific Notation 61
                                                       01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 2. 4.592 × 103
                                                         Express 4592.3 to two (2) significant fig-
                2
 3. 4.59 × 10                                          ures.

 4. 4.6 × 103                                            1. 4.5 × 103

           Scientific Notation 58                         2. 4.592 × 103
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                         3. 4.59 × 102
                         −4
  Express 3.90 × 10           in decimal notation.
                                                         4. 4.6 × 103
 1. 0.000390
                                                                  Scientific Notation 62
 2. 0.00039                                            01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

 3. 39,000                                               In a measurement which digit(s) is/are an
                                                       approximation?
 4. 3.900
                            Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units                            25

 1. first
                                                            Scientific Notation 66
 2. last                                         01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

 3. only those in proper scientific notation        A factor of 1.0 × 103 corresponds to the
                                                 prefix ? .
 4. no digit is uncertain
                                                   1. kilo
           Scientific Notation 63
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.      2. centi

  A factor of 1.0 × 10−12 corresponds to the       3. deci
prefix ? .
                                                   4. hecto
 1. pico
                                                            Scientific Notation 67
 2. femto                                        01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

 3. nano                                           A factor of 1.0 × 10−3 corresponds to the
                                                 prefix ? .
 4. micro
                                                   1. milli
           Scientific Notation 64
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.      2. centi

  A factor of 1.0 × 102 corresponds to the         3. deci
prefix ? .
                                                   4. kilo
 1. hecto
                                                            Scientific Notation 68
 2. kilo                                         01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

 3. deci                                           A factor of 1.0 × 106 corresponds to the
                                                 prefix ? .
 4. centi
                                                   1. mega
           Scientific Notation 65
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.      2. giga

  A factor of 1.0 × 10−2 corresponds to the        3. tera
prefix ? .
                                                   4. kilo
 1. centi
                                                            Scientific Notation 69
 2. kilo                                         01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

 3. deka                                           A factor of 1.0 × 10−6 corresponds to the
                                                 prefix ? .
 4. milli
                              Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units                            26

 1. micro
                                                     5. none of these
 2. milli
                                                              Scientific Notation 73
 3. mega                                           01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

 4. nano                                             The prefix centi corresponds to a factor of
                                                     ? .
           Scientific Notation 70
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.        1. 1.0 × 10−2

  A factor of 1.0 × 10−9 corresponds to the          2. 1.0 × 102
prefix ? .
                                                     3. 1.0 × 104
 1. nano
                                                     4. 1.0 × 10−4
 2. milli
                                                              Scientific Notation 74
 3. micro                                          01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

 4. pico                                              The prefix centi means

           Scientific Notation 71                     1. one thousand (1000)
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                     2. one hundred (100)
                        12
  The factor 1.0 × 10        corresponds to the
prefix ? .                                            3. one thousandth (1/1000)

 1. tera                                             4. one hundredth (1/100)

 2. kilo                                                      Scientific Notation 75
                                                   01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 3. giga
                                                     The prefix deci corresponds to a factor of
 4. mega                                             ? .

           Scientific Notation 72                     1. 1.0 × 10−1
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                     2. 1.0 × 101
  The measurement 3.2 × 10−3 g could also
be written as:                                       3. 1.0 × 10−3

 1. 3.2 g                                            4. 1.0 × 103

 2. 3.2 kg                                                    Scientific Notation 76
                                                   01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 3. 3.2 pg
                                                     The prefix giga corresponds to a factor of
 4. 3.2 mg                                           ? .
                            Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units                            27

                                                   4. 1.0 × 10−8
 1. 1.0 × 109
                                                            Scientific Notation 80
 2. 1.0 × 10−9                                   01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

 3. 1.0 × 106                                      The prefix milli corresponds to a factor of
                                                   ? .
 4. 1.0 × 10−6
                                                   1. 1.0 × 10−3
           Scientific Notation 77
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.      2. 1.0 × 103

 The prefix kilo corresponds to a factor of         3. 1.0 × 104
 ? .
                                                   4. 1.0 × 10−4
 1. 1.0 × 103
                                                            Scientific Notation 81
 2. 1.0 × 10−3                                   01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

 3. 1.0 × 106                                       The prefix milli means

 4. 1.0 × 10−6                                     1. one thousand (1000)

           Scientific Notation 78                   2. one hundred (100)
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                   3. one thousandth (1/1000)
 The prefix mega corresponds to a factor of
 ? .                                               4. one hundredth (1/100)

 1. 1.0 × 106                                               Scientific Notation 82
                                                 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 2. 1.0 × 10−6
                                                    The SI prefix that corresponds to a multi-
 3. 1.0 × 109                                    plication factor of 1000 is

 4. 1.0 × 10−9                                     1. milli

           Scientific Notation 79                   2. kilo
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                   3. micro
 The prefix micro corresponds to a factor of
 ? .                                               4. centi

 1. 1.0 × 10−6                                              Scientific Notation 83
                                                 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 2. 1.0 × 106
                                                    The SI prefix that corresponds to a multi-
 3. 1.0 × 10−7                                   plication factor of 0.01 is
                            Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units                            28

 1. mega
                                                   4. 2.4 × 10−1
 2. kilo
                                                   5. 2.4 × 10−2
 3. micro
                                                   6. 2.4 × 10−3
 4. centi
                                                   7. None of these
           Scientific Notation 84
01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.                  Significant Digits
                                                 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
  Write 635000.0 in scientific notation.
                                                    The number x = 0.0411 has how many
                   5
 1. 6.35 × 10                                    significant digits?

 2. 6.35 × 10−5                                              Significant Digits 02
                                                 01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 3. 63.5 × 104
                                                                   Part 1 of 2
 4. 63.5 × 10−4                                       The number of significant digits in 0.0314
                                                 is
               3
 5. 635 × 10
                                                   1. 1
               −3
 6. 635 × 10
                                                   2. 2
 9. None of these
                                                   3. 3
            Significant Digits 01
01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      4. 4

               Part 1 of 2                         5. 5
  The number of significant digits in 2400 is
                                                                  Part 2 of 2
 1. 1                                            Scientific notation for 0.0314 is

 2. 2                                              1. 3.14 × 103

 3. 3                                              2. 3.14 × 102

 4. 4                                              3. 3.14 × 101

                 Part 2 of 2                       4. 3.14 × 10−3
Scientific notation for 2400 is
                                                   5. 3.14 × 10−2
               1
 1. 2.4 × 10
                                                   6. 3.14 × 10−1
               2
 2. 2.4 × 10
                                                   7. None of these
 3. 2.4 × 103
                           Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units                              29

           Significant Digits 100
01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.           What is pq if p = 5.1 × 10−3 and q =
                                                5.1 × 104 ?
  Keeping in mind scientific notation, round-
ing, and significant figures, what is 60 / 30 /              Significant Digits 109
14.5?                                           01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

           Significant Digits 102                     What is p/q if p = 0.0051 and q = 51000 ?
01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                           Significant Digits 110
  Keeping in mind scientific notation, round-    01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
ing, and significant figures, what is
  12.5 + 10.05 + 48.5?                            Write the following number in scientific no-
                                                tation: 1.000/ 0.00016 .
 1. 71.1
                                                           Significant Digits 111
 2. 71.05                                       01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

 3. 70                                             Indicate in scientific notation the number
                                                of significant figures in the following: r= 1.5 x
 4. 100                                         103 .

 5. None of these                                          Significant Digits 112
                                                01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
           Significant Digits 103
01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.           Evaluate the following expression:           (
                                                                                           −7
                                                0.105 )( 0.084 )( 285 )/(( 1.05 )( 3.5 x 10 ))
  Keeping in mind scientific notation, round-
ing and significant figures, what is 20 − 58?                Significant Digits 113
                                                01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, fixed.
           Significant Digits 104
01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.              (3.785 × 10−3 ) × (4.81 × 105 ) = ?

  What is p + q if p = 0.51 and q = 51?                    Significant Digits 114
                                                01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, fixed.
          Significant Digits 106
01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-         0.000859 =? in scientific notation
mal.
                                                           Significant Digits 115
  What is p − q if p = 0.51 and q = 51?         01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, fixed.

           Significant Digits 107                     The number 186,000 in scientific notation
01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.         is

  If p = 5.1 × 10−3 and q = 5.1 × 10−4 , find              Significant Digits 116
p − q.                                          01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
                                                mal.
           Significant Digits 108
01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                            Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units                            30

  What is p times q if p = 5.1 x 10−3 and q =
5.1 x 104 ?                                        2. 27.6 cm2 .

           Significant Digits 117                   3. 27.7 cm2 .
01:03, basic, numeric, < 1 min, normal.
                                                   4. 28.0 cm2 .
  What is p − q if p = 0.51 and q = 51?
                                                             Significant Digits 53
            Significant Digits 50                 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                              (6.34 cm) (1.2 cm)
                                                    Calculate                    , round off if
  A bathroom scale can weigh something up                         (1.217 cm2 )
to 200 lbs. The 200 lbs is divided into one      necessary, and apply the rule for multiplica-
pound increments. A boy’s weight falls be-       tion and division of data numbers.
tween 113 and 114 pounds on this scale.
  How many significant figures can be re-            1. 6.2514379
ported in his weight?
                                                   2. 6.251
 1. 2
                                                   3. 6.25
 2. 3
                                                   4. 6.2
 3. 4
                                                   5. 6.3
 4. 5
                                                             Significant Digits 54
            Significant Digits 51                 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                   Calculate 124. mm − 87.2 mm, round off if
   Calculate 13.21 m × 61.5 m, round off if       necessary, and apply the rule for addition and
necessary, and apply the rule for multiplica-    subtraction of data numbers.
tion and division of data numbers.
                                                   1. 37.0 mm.
                2
 1. 812.415 m
                                                   2. 36.8 mm.
 2. 812. m2
                                                   3. 37. mm.
 3. 812.4 m2
                                                   4. 36. mm.
 4. 812.42 m2
                                                             Significant Digits 55
            Significant Digits 52                 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                   Calculate 3217. km + 13.1 km + 1.30 km,
   Calculate 21.3 cm × 1.3 cm, round off if       round off if necessary, and apply the rule for
necessary, and apply the rule for multiplica-    addition and subtraction of data numbers.
tion and division of data numbers.
                                                   1. 3230. km
 1. 27.69 cm2 .
                            Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units                              31

 2. 3231. km                                       1. greatest; least

 3. 3231.4 km                                      2. least; least

 4. 3231.40 km                                     3. same; least

 5. 3200. km                                       4. greatest; most

            Significant Digits 56                   5. least; most
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                              Significant Digits 59
  How many significant figures are in the           01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
number 0.00038?
                                                    In calculating 12.34 × 2.36 = 29.1224, how
 1. 5                                             many significant figures are you allowed to
                                                  retain?
 2. 4
                                                   1. 1
 3. 3
                                                   2. 2
 4. 2
                                                   3. 3
 5. 1
                                                   4. 4
            Significant Digits 57
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.                 Significant Digits 60
                                                  01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
  How many significant figures are in the
number 0.00204?                                      Keeping in mind the rules for rounding,
                                                  significant digits and scientific notation, what
 1. 3                                             is 0.0025 × 111.09?

 2. 5                                              1. 0.278

 3. 2                                              2. 0.27

 4. 6                                              3. 0.3

 5. 4                                              4. 0.28

            Significant Digits 58                              Significant Digits 61
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.     01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

   In any calculations involving multiplication      Keeping in mind the rules for rounding,
or division, the answer should be expressed in    significant digits, and scientific notation, what
the ? number of digits that are present in           975.0321
                                                  is          ?
the ? precise number used in the calcula-             0.0003
tion.                                              1. 325010.7
                            Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units                            32


 2. 3.250107 × 106                                           Significant Digits 65
                                                 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 3. 3 × 106
                                                    Find 3.87 × 10−1 − 4.670 × 102 .
                   6
 4. 3.25 × 10
                                                   1. −466.6
               6
 5. 3.3 × 10
                                                   2. 466.613
            Significant Digits 62
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.      3. −4.67 × 102

   Keeping in mind the rules for significant        4. 467
digits, if we multiply 11.55 by 2.5, how many
significant digits are we allowed to keep?                    Significant Digits 66
                                                 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 1. 2
                                                            9.188 × 1019
                                                    Find                 .
 2. 4                                                       6.02 × 10−14
                                                   1. 1.53 × 1033
 3. 3
                                                   2. 1.5262 × 1033
 4. 5
                                                   3. 1.5333
            Significant Digits 63
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.      4. 1.53 × 10−34
  Find 0.00147 × 8.314 × 7.100.                              Significant Digits 67
                                                 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 1. 8.68 × 10−2
                                                    Round 0.046151 to three significant figures.
 2. 8.677 × 10−2
                                                   1. .0462
 3. .087
                                                   2. .046
 4. 8.7 × 102
                                                   3. .0461
            Significant Digits 64
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.      4. 4.615 × 10−2
  Find 1.14 + 274.1 + 12.041 + 0.5817.                       Significant Digits 68
                                                 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 1. 287.9
                                                   State the number of significant figures in
 2. 287.8627                                     the following:
                                                   3610.; 8.90; 0.003010; 6.3 × 10−2
 3. 287.863
                                                   1. 4; 3; 4; 2
 4. 287.86
                               Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units                            33


 2. 3; 2; 3; 2                                        3. 2

 3. 4; 2; 6; 2                                        4. 4

 4. 3; 3; 3; 3                                        5. 5

            Significant Digits 69                                Significant Digits 72
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.       01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

  The largest crowd to ever see a UT foot-            The number 0.0920007 has      ?   significant
ball game in Memorial Stadium was 83,053 vs         digits.
Houston in 1978.
  How many significant digits are in this              1. 6
count?
                                                      2. 3
 1. 5
                                                      3. 8
 2. 4
                                                      4. 7
 3. infinite
                                                      5. 0
 4. 1
                                                                Significant Digits 73
            Significant Digits 70                    01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                      The number 03.045 has        ?    significant
  The number 0.000001010 has         ?   signifi-    digits.
cant digits.
                                                      1. 4
 1. 4
                                                      2. 5
 2. 3
                                                      3. 3
 3. 2
                                                      4. 2
 4. 10
                                                      5. 1
 5. 9
                                                                Significant Digits 74
            Significant Digits 71                    01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                       The number 1.091 has    ?   significant dig-
   The number 0.02 has     ?     significant dig-    its.
its.
                                                      1. 5
 1. 1
                                                      2. 4
 2. 3
                            Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units                              34

 3. 3                                              4. 604.046

 4. 2                                              5. 604.0465

 5. 1                                                        Significant Digits 78
                                                 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
            Significant Digits 75
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.                                           3.42
                                                    Using correct significant figures,         =
                                                                                       4.731
  The number 199,078 has       ?   significant      1. 0.72
digits.
                                                   2. 0.723
 1. 6
                                                   3. 0.7229
 2. 5
                                                   4. 0.72289
 3. 4
                                                   5. 84
 4. 3
                                                             Significant Digits 79
 5. 2                                            01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

            Significant Digits 76                    Using significant figures, 8.90 + 15.3274 =
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                   1. 24
  The number 4.0500 rounded to two signifi-
cant figures is                                     2. 24.2

 1. 4.06                                           3. 24.22

 2. 4.05                                           4. 24.23

 3. 4.1                                            5. 24.2274

 4. 4.0                                                      Significant Digits 80
                                                 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 5. 4
                                                    Which digits in 0.00139 are significant?
            Significant Digits 77
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.      1. All six digits.

  Using significant figures, 28.03 × 21.55 =         2. The first three digits only.

 1. 604                                            3. The las three digits only.

 2. 604.0                                          4. The 1 only.

 3. 604.04                                         5. The 3 and 9 only.
                            Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units                             35

            Significant Digits 81
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.                 Significant Digits 84
                                                  01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
   Which of the following rules for determining
significant digits is false?                         Find 3.22 × (4 × 101 ) × 13.250.

 1. All nonzero figures are significant.             1. 1706.6

 2. All final zeroes are significant.                2. 1707

 3. Zeroes between significant figures are sig-      3. 1710
nificant.
                                                   4. 1700
 4. You never start counting significant digits
until you reach the first nonzero figure.            5. 2000

            Significant Digits 82                              Significant Digits 85
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.     01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

  Michael Jordan received a record high             In the calculation 12.34 × 2.35 = 28.9990,
2,451,136 votes to go to the NBA All-Star         how many significant digits are you allowed
game.                                             to retain?
  How many significant figures is that num-
ber?                                               1. 1

 1. six                                            2. 2

 2. seven                                          3. 3

 3. infinite                                        4. 4

 4. four                                           5. 5

 5. none                                                      Significant Digits 86
                                                  01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
            Significant Digits 83
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.       How many significant digits are present in
                                                  the number 1090.?
  Find 3.12 + 40.124 + 1.2.
                                                   1. 2
 1. 44.444
                                                   2. 3
 2. 44.44
                                                   3. 4
 3. 44.4
                                                   4. 5
 4. 44
                                                              Significant Digits 87
 5. 40                                            01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                            Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units                            36

                                                   Rounded off to 3 significant figures, this
  How many significant figures are there in        number becomes ? .
0.004309?
                                                   1. 2.00 g
 1. 7
                                                   2. 2.01 g
 2. 4
                                                   3. 2.04 g
 3. 6
                                                   4. 2.05 g
 4. 3
                                                   5. 2.06 g
            Significant Digits 88
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.                Significant Digits 91
                                                 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
  Express the answer to 3.42 / 4.731 using
the correct significant figures.                     Three samples were weighed using three
                                                 different balances. All measurements are as
 1. 0.72                                         accurate as the precision below indicates. The
                                                 weights are 1.21 kg, 546 mg, and 23.14 g.
 2. 0.723                                          The total mass should be reported as ? .

 3. 0.7229                                         1. 1233.676 g

 4. 0.72289                                        2. 1233.68 g

 5. 84                                             3. 1233.7 g

            Significant Digits 89                   4. 1234 g
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                   5. 1.23 × 103 g
  Express the answer to 8.90 + 15.3274 using
the correct significant figures.                               Significant Digits 92
                                                 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 1. 24
                                                   Express 14.80 × 12.10 × 5.05 in scientific
 2. 24.2                                         notation with the proper significant figures.

 3. 24.22                                          1. 904

 4. 24.23                                          2. 9.04 × 102

 5. 24.2274                                        3. 9.044 × 102

            Significant Digits 90                   4. 904.4
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                             Significant Digits 93
  The mass of a piece of sodium metal was        01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
determined to be 2.0050 g.
                                 Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units                            37

  What is the proper solution for
                                                        2. 0.0140
           115.016 + 12.0 + 3.5182 =?
                                                        3. 1.070
 1. 130.                                                4. 0.016
 2. 130.5                                               5. 7,203.002
 3. 130.53                                                        Significant Digits 97
                                                      01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
 4. 130.534
                                                        Keeping in mind scientific notation, round-
 5. 130.5342                                          ing, and significant figures, what is 22.5 ×
                                                      15?
            Significant Digits 94
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.                             Time
                                                      01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
  Convert 6.65 × 10−1 to decimal form:
                                                        The modern standard of length is 1 m and
 1. 0.665                                             the speed of light is 3 ×108 m/sec.
                                                        Find the time ∆t taken to cover one meter
 2. 0.0665                                            at the given speed.
 3. 6.65                                                1. 3.3 ×10−7 s
 4. 66.5                                                2. 3.3 ×10−8 s
            Significant Digits 95                        3. 3.3 ×10−9 s
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                        4. 3.3 ×10−10 s
  Give the proper answer for the summation
                                                                        Units 50
                   7491 + (1 × 102 ) =
                                                      01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

 1. 7.591 × 103                                         A cube with sides of 0.1 meter has a volume
                                                      of ? .
 2. 7.59 × 103
                                                        1. 1 liter
               3
 3. 7.6 × 10
                                                        2. 100 cm3
 4. 8 × 103
                                                        3. 1 × 106 cm3
            Significant Digits 96
01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.           4. 1 m3

  Which one has three significant figures?

 1. 16.07
              Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors                  38


         Acceleration Conversion                       A block of material has dimensions 4 cm by
01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.             7 cm by 3 cm. Its mass is 566 gm.
                                                       What is its density?
  An acceleration of 2 mi/h/s is equal to:
                                                                  Building a Fence
             Air in a Classroom                     01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                      John and Mary Smith plan to put a wooden
                Part 1 of 2                         fence around their yard in order to keep the
   A classroom measures 40 m by 20 m by             mean cats away from their dog Fido.
12 m. The density of air is 1.29 kg/m3 .              What total length of fence is required to
   What is the volume of the room in cubic          enclose a rectangular yard whose sides are
feet?                                               11 m and 21 m in length? There is a gate
                                                    that is 1 m long. (Remember that 1 m =
               Part 2 of 2                          3.281 ft.)
What is the weight of air in the room, in
pounds?                                                            Conversion 134
                                                    01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
           Air in a Classroom 2
01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.               Given that 1 liter is equal to 1000 cubic
                                                    centimeters, how many liters are there in 2.5
                Part 1 of 2                         cubic meters?
   A classroom measures 40 m by 20 m by
12 m. The density of air is 1.29 kg/m3 .             1. 2500
   What is the volume of the room in cubic
feet?                                                2. 250

               Part 2 of 2                           3. 25000
What is the weight of air in the room, in
pounds?                                              4. 25

                Area of a Lot                                      Conversion 135
01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.             01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

  A rectangular building lot is 100 ft by 150 ft.     Express 300 liters of water in gallons.
  Find the area of this lot in m2 .
                                                     1. 79.25
                Bike Chain
01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.              2. 39.63

   To protect her new two-wheeler, Iroda Bike        3. 158.50
buys a length of chain. She finds that its
linear density is 0.9 lb/ft.                         4. 60.0
   If she wants to keep its weight below 1.7 lb,
what length of chain is she allowed?                               Conversion 136
                                                    01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
               Block Density
01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.               If a leaking faucet drips at a rate of one
             Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors               39

drop per second and the volume of each drop                      Conversion 140
is 0.05 ml, calculate the volume, in liters, of   01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
water wasted per day.
                                                    How much volume does a 55 carat diamond
 1. 4320                                          occupy?

 2. 4.320                                                       Cube Density 04
                                                  01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
 3. 2160
                                                    Calculate the density of a solid cube that
 4. 8.64                                          measures 5 cm on each side and has a mass of
                                                  350 g.
               Conversion 137
01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.                   Cube Density 05
                                                  01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
  A pint of blood would be how many mL? (1
L = 1.057 qt and 1 qt = 2 pints.)                   The mass of a solid cube is 856 g, and each
                                                  edge has a length of 5.35 cm.
 1. 529 mL                                          Find the density of the cube.

 2. 946 mL                                                        Density 100
                                                  01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
 3. 473 mL
                                                     A sample of air, analyzed for particulate
 4. 454 mL                                        matter, is found to contain 0.0185 grams of
                                                  particulate matter in 54.5 m3 of air.
               Conversion 138                        What is the concentration of this particu-
01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.     late matter in µg/m3 ?

  This evening after the final, Ralph plans to                     Density 101
consume at least 255 g of milk.                   01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
  Calculate this volume in milliliters.
                                                    A sample of air contains 52.5 µg/m3 of
 1. 281                                           asbestos.
                                                    How much asbestos would be present in
 2. 232                                           a room with dimensions 12.5 meters by
                                                  17.5 meters by 11 meters?
 3. 280.8
                                                                  Density 102
 4. 231.6                                         01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

 5. 256                                             A sample of air contains 27.5 µg/m3 of
                                                  beryllium dust.
               Conversion 139                       How many atoms of beryllium are present
01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.           in a room with dimensions of 10 feet by
                                                  12.5 feet by 17.5 feet?
   Convert the volume of 3.5 in3 of mercury to
its volume in milliliters.                                        Density 103
                                                  01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, fixed.
             Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors                   40

                                                  volume where π = 3.1416.)
                                    3
  The density of water is 1 gm/cm .
  What is the mass of 426 cm3 of water?            1. 0.00152

                Density 104                        2. 660.
01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                   3. 0.0420
  What is the mass of 17.5 cubic centimeters
of mercury? Its density is 13.6 grams per          4. 0.00476
cubic centimeter.
                                                   5. 210.
                Density 105
01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.                            Density 51
                                                  01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
  What is the mass of 5.1 milliliters of a
solution that has a density of 1 grams per          Given:
milliliter?                                         1 pennyweight = 1.55 grams
                                                    1 hogshead = 238.5 liters
                Density 106                         1 peck = 9.091 liters
01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.             Calculate the density of copper in penny-
                                                  weights per peck for a piece of copper with
  A substance has a density of 2.35 grams per     a volume of 0.250 hogsheads and a mass of
cubic centimeter.                                 54.424 kg.
  What volume of this substance weighs
55 grams?                                          1. 5.35 × 103 pw/peck

                Density 107                        2. 1.90 × 10−4 pw/peck
01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                   3. 3.45 × 103 pw/peck
  An object occupies a volume of 51 cubic
centimeters and weighs 510 grams.                  4. 6.57 pw/peck
  What is the density of the object?
                                                   5. 157.22 pw/peck
                Density 108
01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.                            Density 52
                                                  01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
   A metal cube having a mass of 80 grams is
dropped into a graduated cylinder that con-         1 mole of silver has a volume of 10.3 mL.
tains 28.5 mL of water. This causes the water       What is the density of silver?
level to rise to 42 mL.
   What is the density of the metal?               1. 10.5 g/L

                 Density 50                        2. 10.5 g/mL
01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                   3. 0.0971 g/mL
  Big Bertha is the largest bass drum in the
world. It measures 54 inches in radius r, has a    4. 2.73 g/L
width w of 36 inches, and weighs 500. pounds.
  Find the density in g/cm3 . (Use πr2 w for
              Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors                41

 5. 2.73 g/mL
                                                                    Density 56
                 Density 53                        01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                      An insoluble solid has a mass of 20.0 g. It
   A graduated cylinder contains 20.0 mL of        is placed in a graduated cylinder containing
water. An irregularly shaped object is placed      40.00 ml of water. The final volume is read as
in the cylinder and the water level rises to the   46.00 ml.
31.2 mL mark.                                         What is the density of the solid?
   If the object has a mass of 47.9 g, what is
its density?                                        1. 0.300 g/ml

 1. 4.28 g/cm3                                      2. 0.500 g/ml

 2. 1.53 g/mL                                       3. 2.30 g/ml

 3. 2.40 g/mL                                       4. 3.33 g/ml

 4. 2.34 g/cm3                                                      Density 57
                                                   01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                 Density 54
01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.        Calculate the density of mercury if 272
                                                   grams occupies 20 milliliters.
  A liquid has a density of 1.20 g/mL.
  How many mL of the liquid are there in a          1. 272 g
60.0 g sample?
                                                    2. 20 mL
 1. 50.0 mL
                                                    3. 272 mL
 2. 36.0 mL
                                                    4. 0.07 g/mL
 3. 54.0 mL
                                                    5. 13.6 g/mL
 4. 72.0 mL
                                                                    Density 58
                 Density 55                        01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                      Copper has a density of 8.96 g/cm3 .
  A liquid has a density of 1.50 g/mL.                If a cylinder of copper weighing 42.38 g is
  How many mL of the liquid are there in a         dropped into a graduated cylinder containing
30.0 g sample?                                     20.00 mL of water, what will be the new water
                                                   level?
 1. 20.0 mL
                                                    1. 4.73 mL
 2. 30.0 mL
                                                    2. 24.73 mL
 3. 40.0 mL
                                                    3. 20.21 mL
 4. 45.0 mL
              Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors              42

 4. .211 mL                                                       Density 62
                                                 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                 Density 59
01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.       Find the volume of the Hope Diamond
                                                 given the density of diamond (carbon) is 3.51
   Copper has a density of 8.96 g/cm3 .          g/cm3 and the weight is 44 karats. (Conver-
   If a cylinder of copper weighing 48.85 g is   sion: 1 karat = 0.200 g)
dropped into a graduated cylinder containing
20.00 mL of water, what will be the new water      1. 2.5 cm3
level?
                                                   2. 772.00 cm3
 1. 5.45 mL
                                                   3. 63 cm3
 2. 24.7 mL
                                                   4. 31 cm3
 3. 25.5 mL
                                                                  Density 63
 4. 45.8 mL                                      01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

 5. 68.9 mL                                         If a pure gold crown weighed 2271.0 g in
                                                 air and 2153 g when submerged in water, the
                 Density 60                      weight of the water displaced by the crown is
01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.    118 g.
                                                    Find the density of the metal in the crown.
  Density is measured as     ?   .
                                                   1. 19.2 g/cm3
 1. kg/m3
                                                   2. .0520 g/cm3
 2. kg/m
                                                   3. 18.2 g/cm3
 3. kg/m2
                                                   4. 19.246 g/cm3
 4. m2 /kg
                                                                  Density 64
                 Density 61                      01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                    The density of ethyl alcohol is 0.790 g/mL.
  Density is the   ?   of a substance.              How many liters are in 1507 grams of ethyl
                                                 alcohol? (Use significant digits.)
 1. mass per unit volume
                                                   1. 1.907
 2. weight per unit volume
                                                   2. 1.91
 3. mass per unit weight
                                                   3. 1.190
 4. volume per unit mass
                                                   4. 1.19
 5. volume per unit weight
                                                                    Density 65
             Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors               43

01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.   01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

  The density of gold is 19.3 g/mL.               Which of the following is NOT a unit for
  What is the mass of a gold nugget which       density?
has a volume of 3.28 mL?
                                                  1. g/cm3
 1. 63.3 g
                                                  2. g/L
 2. 5.88 g
                                                  3. pounds/L
 3. .170 g
                                                  4. mg/mL
 4. 30.4 g
                                                  5. g/cm2
                 Density 66
01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.                    Density 69
                                                01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
  What is the density of a wood block that
has a mass of 97.5 g and measures 12 cm ×         Which two properties must be known to
3.33 cm × 4.2 cm? (Use significant digits.)      calculate the density of an object?

 1. 0.58 g/cm3                                    1. mass, temperature

 2. 0.5809381 g/cm3                               2. mass, melting point

 3. 0.581 g/cm3                                   3. boiling point, mass

 4. 1.72 g/cm3                                    4. volume, mass

 5. 1.723538 g/cm3                                5. boiling point, volume

                 Density 67                                      Density 70
01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.   01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

   What is the density of an apple that occu-     You need 100.00 mL of H2 O and 5.00 mL
pies 24 cm3 and has a mass of 45.0 g? (Use      of liquid plant food to make a solution for
significant digits.)                             your plants. You forgot to bring a measuring
                                                cup out to the greenhouse, but you do have
 1. 1.875 g/cm3                                 a scale and know that the density of H2 O =
                                                1.00 g/cm3 , the density of liquid plant food =
 2. 1.9 g/cm3                                   1.21 g/cm3 and 1 cm3 = 1 mL.
                                                  How many g of the liquid plant food would
 3. 0.53 g/cm3                                  you use?

 4. 0.5 g/cm3                                     1. 6.05 g

 5. 0.2536 g/cm3                                  2. 0.242 g

                  Density 68                      3. 4.13 g
               Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors                   44

                                                    3. 0.0108
 4. 6.21 g
                                                    4. 36.1
 5. 3.79 g
                                                                   Density 74
                 Density 71                       01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                    Suppose a solid object has a volume of 2
   You need 50.0 g of milk for a cookie recipe,   milliliters and a mass of 1.5 grams. Suppose
but you don’t have a scale. You do know that      some liquid has a volume of 0.5 liter and a
milk has a density of 1.10 g/cm3 .                mass of 0.6 kilogram.
   Knowing that 1 cm3 = 1 mL, how many mL           If this solid is placed in this liquid, the solid
of milk should you should use for this cookie       ? .
recipe?
                                                    1. will sink to the bottom
 1. 45.5 mL choice20.022 mL
                                                    2. will float to the top
 3. 55.0 mL
                                                    3. will remain wherever we put it
 4. 51.1 mL
                                                                   Density 75
 5. 48.90 mL                                      01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

                 Density 72                          1.00 mole of silver has a volume of 10.3 mL.
01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.        What is the density of silver?

  The density of gold is 19.3 g/ml.                 1. 10.5 g/L
  What is the volume of a 2.00 g gold ingot?
                                                    2. 10.5 g/mL
 1. 0.104 ml
                                                    3. 0.0971 g/mL
 2. 9.65 ml
                                                    4. 2.73 g/L
 3. 21.3 ml
                                                    5. 2.73 g/mL
 4. 38.6 ml
                                                                   Density 76
 5. none of these                                 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

                 Density 73                          Ethyl alcohol has a density of 0.789 g/mL.
01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.        What is the mass of 250 mL of this alcohol?

  The density of octane is 0.702 g/cm3 .            1. 197 grams
  What is the mass of 65.00 cm3 of octane?
                                                    2. 317 grams
 1. 45.6
                                                    3. 171 grams
 2. 92.6
                                                    4. 250 grams
             Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors              45

                                                                 Density 80
                 Density 77                     01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                 What is the density of an object that has a
  The density of Pepsi is 0.972 g/mL.           mass of 47.5 g and occupies 75 cm3 ?
  How many ounces of Pepsi are in a 205 ml
cup? (1 gram = 0.035302 ounces.)                                 Density 81
                                                01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
 1. 7.24 ounces
                                                   You are stranded on a tropical island and
 2. 7.44 ounces                                 have limited kitchen utensils. You have de-
                                                cided to make a coconut milkshake. You need
 3. 5640 ounces                                 7.5 mL of coconut milk, but do not have a
                                                measuring cup. You do have a scale.
 4. 7.03 ounces                                    Knowing 1 cm3 = 1 mL and that coconut
                                                milk has a density of 27.5 g/mL how many
 5. 199 ounces                                  grams of coconut milk would you weigh out?

                 Density 78                                      Density 82
01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.   01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

  Compare the densities of 1 liter of water       At normal temperature and pressure, air
with a bathtub-full of water.                   has a density of 0.001184 g/mL.
  The density of 1 liter of water is              What is the mass of air in a room that is
                                                3.35 meters by 3.25 meters by 3.1 meters?
 1. the same as for a bath-tub full.
                                                                 Density 83
 2. less than for a bath-tub full.              01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

 3. greater than for a bath-tub full.             A scary vapor has a density of 2.35 mg/cm3 .
                                                  How much will 291.5 liters of this haunting
                 Density 79                     substance weigh?
01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                                 Density 84
  A block of wood is 105 cm × 5.1 cm × 6.2      01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
cm and weighs 2.26 kg.
  What is its density?                            A substance has a density of 2.35 g/cm3 .
                                                  What volume of this substance weighs
 1. 0.68 g/cm3                                  55 grams?

 2. 6.8 × 10−4 g/cm3                                             Density 85
                                                01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
 3. 1.5 × 103 g/cm3
                                                   Suppose you are scheduled to receive 5.1 mg
 4. 1.5 g/cm3                                   of vitamin B daily.
                                                   If the container from which your shot is
 5. not enough information given to answer      drawn is labeled 0.51 mg of vitamin B per
the question                                    mL, how many mL will you receive daily?
             Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors               46

                 Density 86                       cylinder and liquid 11.5 grams; reading from
01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.           cylinder 6.5 mL.
                                                    Calculate the density of this liquid using
  An object occupies a volume of 51 cm3 and       the data.
weighs 510 grams.
  What is the density of the object per cm3 ?                      Density 93
                                                  01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                 Density 87
01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.              A 10 gram sample of a granulated metal
                                                  with a density of 5.25 was added to a gradu-
  What is the weight of 5.1 ml of a solution      ated cylinder containing 6.5 mL of water.
that has a density of 1 g/mL?                        What is the apparent volume reading of the
                                                  water in the cylinder containing the granu-
                 Density 88                       lated metal sample?
01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                                   Density 94
   At normal temperature and pressure, air        01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
has a density of 0.01184 g/mL.
   What is the weight of the air in a room that     5.5 grams of a liquid with a density of
is 3.3 meters by 3.3 meters by 3.3 meters?        5.75 g/mL was added to a graduated cylin-
                                                  der.
                 Density 89                         What volume reading does the liquid
01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.           have?

  A spherical particle has a radius of 1.4 ×                       Density 95
10−8 cm and a mass of 1.25 × 10−19 g.             01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
  What is the density of the particle?
                                                    An object with a volume of 4.9 milliliters
                 Density 90                       has a mass of 49 grams.
01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.             What is the density of the object?

 How many mL of water would 7 grams of a                           Density 96
metal with a density of 5.05 g/mL displace?       01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

                 Density 91                         A gas cylinder having a volume of 16 mL
01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.           contains 3.6 g of gas.
                                                    What is the density of the gas L?
  A granular sample of metal weighs
15 grams. It displaces 6.5 mL of water.                            Density 97
  What is the density of the metal?               01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

                 Density 92                         Calculate the mass of 3.5 in3 of mercury.
01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.           (The density of Hg( )=13.6 g/cm3 .)

  The density of a liquid can be determined                        Density 98
by weighing a known volume of the liquid in       01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
a graduated cylinder.
  The data from the experiment is as fol-           A sample of organic liquid has density 1.54
lows: weight of cylinder 10.5 grams; weight of    g/mL.
             Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors                47

  What does 70 mL of the liquid weigh?
                                                    A human hair is approximately 50 µm in
                 Density 99                       diameter.
01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, fixed.               Express this diameter in meters.

  What is the density of a substance if 3.8 g      1. 5 × 10−5 m
occupies 1.47 cm3 ?
                                                   2. 5 × 105 m
           Distance Conversion
01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.            3. 5 × 10−6 m

  Convert 60 mi/h to m/s. You may need 1           4. 5 × 106 m
mi = 1609 m.
                                                   5. 5 × 10−7 m
                 Fill a Pool
01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.            6. 5 × 107 m

   Water flows into a swimming pool at the          7. None of these
rate of 5 gal/min.
   If the pool dimensions are 20 ft wide, 40 ft                 Holt SF 01A 02
long and 10 ft deep, how long does it take to     01:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
fill the pool? (1 gallon = 231 cubic inches)       mal.

             Fill a Water Bottle                    A typical radio wave has a period of 1 µs.
01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.             Express this period in seconds.

  A plastic tube allows a flow of 15 cm3 /s of                   Holt SF 01A 03
water through it.                                 01:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
  How long will it take to fill a 211 cm3 bottle   mal.
with water?
                                                                   Part 1 of 3
                Heartbeats                          A hydrogen atom has a diameter of about
01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.           10 nm.
                                                    a) Express this diameter in meters.
  Assuming 60 heartbeats/min, estimate the
total number of times the heart of a human                          Part 2 of 3
beats in an average lifetime of 70 years.         b) Express this diameter in millimeters.

              Holt SF 01A 01                                        Part 3 of 3
01:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-      c) Express this diameter in micrometers.
mal.
                                                                Holt SF 01A 04
  A human hair is approximately 50 µm in          01:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
diameter.                                         mal.
  Express this diameter in meters.
                                                                    Part 1 of 2
             Holt SF 01A 01M                         The distance between the sun and the Earth
01:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-      is about 1.5 × 1011 m.
mal.                                                 a) Express this distance with an SI prefix.
                Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors            48


 1. 1.5 × 10−1 Tm                                    6. 1.5 × 1011 km

 2. 1.5 × 10−1 Pm                                    7. None of these

 3. 1.5 × 10−1 Gm                                               Holt SF 01A 05
                                                   01:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
 4. 1.5 × 10−1 Mm                                  wording-variable.

 5. 1.5 × 10−1 mm                                   The average mass of an automobile in the
                                                   United States is about 1.440 × 106 g.
 6. 1.5 × 10−1 km                                   Express this mass in kilograms.

 7. None of these                                    1. 1.440 × 103 kg

                  Part 2 of 2                        2. 1.440 × 109 kg
b) Express this distance in kilometers.
                                                     3. 1.440 × 1012 kg
            8
 1. 1.5 × 10 km
                                                     4. 1.440 × 10−3 kg
            9
 2. 1.5 × 10 km
                                                     5. 1.440 × 10−6 kg
 3. 1.5 × 106 km
                                                     6. 1.440 × 10−9 kg
 4. 1.5 × 107 km
                                                     7. 1.440 × 10−12 kg
 5. 1.5 × 1010 km
                                                     8. 1.440 × 100 kg
 6. 1.5 × 1011 km
                                                     9. None of these
 6. None of these
                                                                Holt SF 01Rev 11
             Holt SF 01A 0402                      01:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
01:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-       mal.
mal.
                                                                    Part 1 of 7
   The distance between the sun and the Earth         a) Express 2 dm in millimeters.
is about 1.5 × 1011 m. Express this distance
in kilometers.                                                      Part 2 of 7
                                                   b) Express 2 h 10 min in seconds.
 1. 1.5 × 108 km
                                                                     Part 3 of 7
 2. 1.5 × 109 km                                   c) Express 16 g in micrograms.

 3. 1.5 × 106 km                                                    Part 4 of 7
                                                   d) Express 0.75 km in centimeters.
 4. 1.5 × 107 km
                                                                    Part 5 of 7
 5. 1.5 × 1010 km                                  e) Express 0.675 mg in grams.
                Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors                49

                                                                Holt SF 01Rev 38
                 Part 6 of 7                       01:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
f) Express 462 µm in centimeters.                  mal.

                Part 7 of 7                          A billionaire offers to give you $5 billion if
g) Express 35 km/h in meters per second.           you will count out the amount in $1 bills or
                                                   a lump sum of $5000. Assume that you can
             Holt SF 01Rev 12                      count at an average rate of one bill per second,
01:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-       and be sure to allow for the fact that you need
mal.                                               about 10 hours a day for sleeping and eating.
                                                   Which offer should you accept?
                  Part 1 of 5                        In order to answer this, how long will it
  Use the SI prefixes to convert these hy-          take you to count out the $5 billion?
pothetical units of measure into appropriate
quantities.                                                     Holt SF 01Rev 39
  a) Express 10 rations in dekarations.            01:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
                                                   mal.
               Part 2 of 5
b) Express 2000 mockingbirds in kilomock-            Exactly 1 qt of ice cream is to be made in
ingbirds.                                          the form of a cube.
                                                     What should be the length of one side in
                      Part 3 of 5                  meters for the container to have the appropri-
c) Express 10   −6
                     phones in microphones.        ate volume? 4 qt = 3.786 × 10−3 m3 .

                      Part 4 of 5                                Holt SF 01Rev 42
d) Express 10   −9
                     goats in nanogoats.           01:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

                      Part 5 of 5                    If one micrometeorite (a sphere with a di-
e) Express 10   19
                     miners in examiners.          ameter of 1.0 × 10−6 m) struck each square
                                                   meter of the moon each second, it would take
            Holt SF 01Rev 13                       many years to cover the moon with microme-
01:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            teorites to a depth of 1.0 m. Consider a cubic
wording-variable.                                  box, 1.0 m on a side, on the moon.
                                                     How long would it take to completely fill
  Use the fact that the speed of light in a        the box with micrometeorites?
vacuum is about 3.00 × 108 m/s to determine
how many kilometers a pulse from a laser                        Holt SF 01Rev 43
beam travels in exactly one hour.                  01:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
                                                   mal.
             Holt SF 01Rev 14
01:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-         One cubic centimeter 1.0 cm3 of water
mal.                                               has a mass of 0.001 kg at 25◦ C.
                                                     Find the mass of 1 m3 of water at 25◦ C.
  A metric ton is 1.000 × 103 kg.
  How many 85 kg people can safely occupy                       Holt SF 01Rev 44
an elevator that can hold a maximum mass of        01:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
exactly 1 metric ton?                              mal.

                                                                     Part 1 of 2
             Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors                   50

   Assuming biological substances are 90%            Find the density of this planet (The volume
water and the density of water is 1000 kg/m3 ,                            4
                                                  of a sphere is given by π r3 .)
estimate the masses of the following:                                     3
   a) a spherical cell with a diameter of 1 µm
                                                                     Part 2 of 2
             4
  volume = πr3 .                                  Find its surface area s in square feet. (The
             3                                    surface area of a sphere is given by 4π r 2 .)
                Part 2 of 2
b) a fly, which can be approximated by a                       Population Density
cylinder 4 mm long and 2 mm in diameter           01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
 volume = πr 2 .
                                                    Mivalle has a population of 40200 people
               House Volume                       and an area of 6.84 mi2 .
01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.             What is its population density?

                   Part 1 of 2                                    Rain Density
  A house is 50 ft long and 26 ft wide, and       01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
has 8 ft high ceilings.
  What is the volume of the house?                   Rain drops fall on a tile surface at a density
                                                  of 4675 drops/ft2 . There are 16 tiles/ft2 .
               Part 2 of 2                           How many drops fall on each tile?
What is the volume of the house in cubic
centimeters?                                                     Rectangle Area
                                                  01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
             Mass Comparisons
01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.             What is the area of a rectangle whose sides
                                                  are 5 m and 4 m?
   One cubic meter (1.0 m3 ) of aluminum has
a mass of 2700 kg, and a cubic meter of iron                     Room Volume
has a mass of 7860 kg.                            01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
   Find the radius of a solid aluminum sphere
that has the same mass as a solid iron sphere       A room is 15 ft deep, 20 ft wide and 7 ft
of radius 2 cm.                                   high.
                                                    Express the volume of this room in cubic
            Mass Density Ratio                    meters. You will need 1 inch = 2.54 cm.
01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                               Saturn Density 01
  The planet Jupiter has an average radius        01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, fixed.
10.95 times that of the Earth and a mass
317.4 times that of the Earth.                                      Part 1 of 2
  Calculate the ratio of Jupiter’s mass density     The mass of the planet Saturn is 5.64 ×
to the mass density of the Earth.                 1026 kg and its radius is 6 × 107 m.
                                                    a) Calculate its density.
               Planet Density
01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.                              Part 2 of 2
                                                  b) If this planet were placed in a large enough
                 Part 1 of 2                      ocean of water, would it float?
  The radius of a certain planet is 5.85 ×
107 m, and its mass is 5.68 × 1026 kg.             1. No
                Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors                  51

                                                      A ?      is a measure for the      ?   of elec-
 2. Yes                                            tricity.

 3. More information is needed.                      1. coulomb, quantity

             Saturn Density 02                       2. coulomb, quality
01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                     3. luminosity, quantity
  The mass of the planet Saturn is 5.64 ×
  26
10 kg and its radius is 6 × 107 m.                   4. luminosity, quality
  a) Calculate its density.
                                                                     Units 53
                Sphere Mass                        01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                     A(n)     ?       is a measurement of electrical
  A sphere of metal has a radius of 4.6 cm           ? .
and has a density of 7.9 gm/cm3 .
  What is the mass of the sphere?                    1. ohm, resistance

                  Units 03                           2. ohm, capacitance
01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                     3. volt, resistance
                 Part 1 of 3
  Express the following distances in meters:         4. volt, capacitance
  The length of a 100 yd dash.
                                                                     Units 54
                 Part 2 of 3                       01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
The length of a marathon run of 26 mi, 385 yd.
                                                     A pascal is a unit of measurement of        ?
                 Part 3 of 3                       and is defined as ? .
The distance from Seattle, Washington, to
Miami, Florida ( 3273 mi).                           1. pressure, kg/m-s2

                  Units 51                           2. pressure, kg/m-s
01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                     3. temperature, ◦ C/m2
  A farad is a measure of electrical    ?   .
                                                     4. temperature, ◦ C/m
 1. capacitance
                                                                     Units 55
 2. differential resistance                         01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

 3. shock                                             A unit of energy is

 4. potential                                        1. a calorie

                  Units 52                           2. a degree centigrade
01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                     3. electricity
                Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors                52

                                                   sured in      ?   .
 4. heat
                                                     1. volts
                  Units 56
01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.        2. watts

  A unit of temperature is a                         3. farads

 1. calorie                                          4. ohms

 2. Kelvin                                                           Units 60
                                                   01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 3. specific heat
                                                     Energy is defined as kg m2 /s2 which is
 4. joule                                          called a ? .

                  Units 57                           1. joule
01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                     2. watt
  A ? , which is a unit of force, is defined
as kg m/s2 .                                         3. volt

 1. newton                                           4. ohm

 2. watt                                                             Units 61
                                                   01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 3. ohm
                                                     kg m2 /s3 defines the unit of measurement
 4. volt                                           called a ? .

                  Units 58                           1. watt
01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                     2. candela
  An SI unit of energy is
                                                     3. volt
 1. meter, m
                                                     4. ampere
 2. kilogram, kg
                                                                     Units 62
 3. Kelvin, K                                      01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

 4. joule, J                                          The base unit for length is the   ?   .

 5. second, s                                        1. meter

                  Units 59                           2. gram
01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                     3. millimeter
  Electrical potential differences are mea-
               Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors                53

 4. milligram
                                                    2. minute
                  Units 63
01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.       3. hour

  The base unit for mass is the   ?   .             4. day

 1. kilogram                                                        Units 67
                                                  01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 2. centimeter
                                                     The calorie is a unit of
 3. meter
                                                    1. length
 4. degree
                                                    2. volume
                  Units 64
01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.       3. temperature

  The base unit for temperature on the abso-        4. energy
lute scale is ? .
                                                    5. density
 1. kelvin
                                                                    Units 68
 2. celsius                                       01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

 3. fahrenheit                                      The Kelvin scale is more commonly used by
                                                  chemists because it is ?
 4. degree
                                                    1. easier to spell than Fahrenheit.
                  Units 65
01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.       2. the only scale which has a temperature
                                                  for boiling water.
   The base unit for the amount of a substance
is the ? .                                          3. the only temperature scale with an abso-
                                                  lute zero.
 1. mole
                                                    4. the same size as a Fahrenheit degree.
 2. gram
                                                    5. None of these
 3. meter
                                                                    Units 69
 4. liter                                         01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

                  Units 66                          What is the zero point on the absolute scale
01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.     defined as?

  The base unit for time is the   ?   .            1. The temperature at which water freezes
                                                  and ice melts.
 1. second
               Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors                54

  2. The temperature at which molecular mo-         2. meter
tion ceases.
                                                    3. mole
 3. The temperature at which water boils.
                                                    4. density
                        ◦
 4. The equivalent to 0 C.
                                                                   Volume 50
                        ◦
 5. The equivalent to 0 F.                        01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

                  Units 70                                                    4
                                                    The volume of a sphere is πr3 , r being the
01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.                                 3
                                                  radius.
                                                    Calculate the volume of a ball (in cm3 ) that
  Which of the following is a fundamental
                                                  has a diameter of 9.3 inches. (1 inch = 2.54
unit of measure?
                                                  cm exactly)
 1. velocity
                                                    1. 4.95 × 101
 2. volume
                                                    2. 6.9 × 103
 3. length
                                                    3. 3.369 × 103
 4. density
                                                    4. 1.21095 × 105
 5. energy
                                                    5. 5.5212 × 105
                  Units 71
                                                                   Volume 51
01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                  01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
  Which of the following is a fundamental
                                                     Which one has the largest volume?
unit of measure?
                                                    1. 380 g water (density = 1 g/cm3 )
 1. volume
                                                    2. 600 g chloroform (density = 1.5 g/cm3 )
 2. mass
                                                    3. 0.5 L milk (density = 1.05 g/cm3 )
 3. area
                                                    4. 100 cm3 steel (density = 7.86 g/cm3 )
 4. pressure
                                                              Volume Conversion
 5. energy
                                                  01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                  Units 72
                                                    Convert the volume 8.5 in.3 to m3 , recalling
01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                  that 1 in. = 2.54 cm and 1 cm = 10−2 m.
  Which of the following is not a fundamental
                                                           Washington Monument
unit?
                                                  01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
 1. grams
                                                     The Washington Monument in the District
              Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors   55

of Columbia has a height of 555 ft, 5 in.
   Express this height in meters to four signif-
icant figures.

                 Wire Mass
01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

  A piece of wire has a density of 6.4 gm/cm.
  What is the mass of 13.6 cm of the wire?
                        Chapter 1, section 5, Measurement of Circles   56


            Holt SF 01Rev 37
01:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.

                  Part 1 of 4
  Consider a circle of radius 3.5 cm.
  a) Calculate its circumference (C = 2πr).

                  Part 2 of 4
b) Calculate its area A = πr 2 .

                  Part 3 of 4
Consider a circle of radius 4.65 cm.
  c) Calculate its circumference (C = 2πr).

                  Part 4 of 4
d) Calculate its area A = πr 2 .

             Holt SF 01Rev 41
01:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
mal.

                  Part 1 of 2
  An ancient unit of length called the cubit
was equal to approximately 50 centimeters,
which is, or course, approximately 0.50 me-
ters. It has been said that Noah’s ark was
300 cubits long, 50 cubits wide, and 30 cubits
high.
  a) Estimate the volume of the ark using 1
palm = 0.08 m and 6 palms = 1 cubit.

                   Part 2 of 2
b) Estimate the volume of a typical home
(2000 ft2 in size and 10 ft tall).
                              Chapter 1, section 7, Scientific Notation                         57

                                                     on a fairly large but smooth water surface.
            Hewitt CP9 01 E05                        The resulting ”oil slick” that forms on the
01:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.        surface of the water will be approximately
                                                     one molecule thick.
  When you step from the shade into the                 Given an oil droplet with a mass of 9.00 ×
sunlight the Sun’s heat is as evident as the         10 −7
                                                           kg and a density of 918 kg/m3 that
heat from hot coals in a fireplace in an oth-         spreads out to form a circle with a radius of
erwise cold room. You feel the Sun’s heat            41.8 cm on the water surface, what is the
not because of its high temperature (higher          approximate diameter of an oil molecule?
temperatures can be found in some welder’s
torches), but because the Sun is big.
  Which do you estimate is larger, the Sun’s
radius or the distance between the moon and
the Earth? Do you find your answer surpris-
ing?

 1. Sun’s radius is larger.

 2. Sun’s radius is smaller.

 3. Equal size.

 4. Unable to determine.

            Hewitt CP9 01 P07
01:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

   Let the solar image fall upon a coin, say a
dime, lying on cardboard. Position the card-
board so the image just covers the coin. This
is a convenient way to measure the diame-
ter of the image–the same as the diameter of
the easy-to-measure coin. Then measure the
distance between the cardboard and the coin.
Your ratio of image size to image distance
                   1
should be about       . This is the ratio of solar
                  100
diameter to solar distance to the Earth.
   Using the information that the Sun is
150,000,000 kilometers distant, calculate the
diameter of the Sun.

            Holt SF 01Rev 40
01:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.

   You can obtain a rough estimate of the
size of a molecule with the following simple
experiment: Let a droplet of oil spread out
                            Chapter 1, section 8, Scientific Method                            58

                                                    3. the amount of light
               Experiment 01
01:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.       4. the color of the light

                   Part 1 of 4                                     Part 4 of 4
   Two students noticed that plants growing       d) Which of the plants are in the experimental
close to a window grew better than the same       group?
kind of plant growing at the back of the room
under a colored light bulb. They thought            1. Plants A and B
the difference might be the type of light the
plants received. To see if they were correct,       2. Plants B and C
they placed plant A in white (normal) light,
plant B under a violet light, and plant C under     3. Plants A and C
green light. They watched and measured the
3 plants over a two-week period, making sure        4. All three plants
all three plants got the same amount of water.
They found plant A grew 8 cm, plant B grew          5. None of the plants
6 cm, and plant C grew 3 cm.
   a) What was their hypothesis?                              Experiment mod02
                                                  01:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 1. Light comes in different colors.
                                                                     Part 1 of 5
 2. Plants grow in light.                            Two students noticed that plants growing
                                                  close to a window grew better than the same
 3. Colored light helps plants grow.              kind of plant growing at the back of the room
                                                  under a colored light bulb. They thought
 4. The type of light affects a plant’s            the difference might be the type of light the
growth.                                           plants received. To see if they were correct,
                                                  they placed plant A in white (normal) light,
                 Part 2 of 4                      plant B under a violet light, and plant C under
b) Which plant could be considered a control?     green light. They watched and measured the
                                                  3 plants over a two-week period, making sure
 1. Plant A                                       all three plants got the same amount of water.
                                                  They found plant A grew 8 cm, plant B grew
 2. Plant B                                       6 cm, and plant C grew 3 cm.
                                                     a) What was their hypothesis?
 3. Plant C
                                                    1. Light comes in different colors.
 4. All three plants
                                                    2. Plants grow in light.
 5. None of the plants
                                                    3. Colored light helps plants grow.
                 Part 3 of 4
c) What is the variable being tested?               4. Color of light affects plant growth.

 1. humidity                                                       Part 2 of 5
                                                  b) Which variable is the independent variable
 2. the amount of water                           in this experiment?
                             Chapter 1, section 8, Scientific Method                             59

 1. the amount of water the plants receive
                                                     5. None of the variables listed here
 2. the color of the light
                                                               Hewitt CP9 01 E01
 3. the temperature of the plants                  01:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 4. the amount the plants grow                       Which of the following is not a scientific
                                                   hypotheses?
 5. None of the variables listed here
                                                     1. Chlorophyll makes grass green.
               Part 3 of 5
c) What is the dependent variable in this            2. The Earth rotates about its axis because
experiment?                                        living things need an alternation of light and
                                                   darkness.
 1. the amount of water the plants receive
                                                     3. Tides are caused by the moon.
 2. the color of the light
                                                     4. The Earth rotates around the Sun.
 3. the temperature of the plants
                                                     5. The wind is caused by the Sun.
 4. the amount the plants grow
                                                               Hewitt CP9 01 P01
 5. None of the variables listed here              01:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

                 Part 4 of 5                         What is fact?
d) What is an example of a controlled variable
in this experiment?                                  1. A phenomenon about which competent
                                                   observers who have made a series of observa-
 1. the amount of water the plants receive         tions are in agreement.

 2. the color of the light                          2. An educated guess; a reasonable expla-
                                                   nation of an observation or experimental re-
 3. the temperature of the plants                  sult that is not fully accepted as factual until
                                                   tested over and over again by experiment.
 4. the amount the plants grow
                                                     3. A general hypothesis or statement about
 5. None of the variables listed here              the relationship of natural quantities that has
                                                   not been contradicted; also known as a prin-
                  Part 5 of 5                      ciple.
e) What is an example of a uncontrolled vari-
able in this experiment?                             4. An orderly method for gaining, organiz-
                                                   ing, and applying new knowledge.
 1. the amount of water the plants receive
                                                    5. A synthesis of a large body of information
 2. the color of the light                         that encompasses well-tested and verify hy-
                                                   potheses about certain aspects of the natural
 3. the temperature of the plants                  world.

 4. the amount the plants grow                                 Hewitt CP9 01 P02
                            Chapter 1, section 8, Scientific Method                              60

01:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      that encompasses well-tested and verify hy-
                                                   potheses about certain aspects of the natural
  What is a hypothesis?                            world.

  1. A phenomenon about which competent                        Hewitt CP9 01 P04
observers who have made a series of observa-       01:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
tions are in agreement.
                                                     What is the scientific method?
 2. An educated guess; a reasonable expla-
nation of an observation or experimental re-         1. A phenomenon about which competent
sult that is not fully accepted as factual until   observers who have made a series of observa-
tested over and over again by experiment.          tions are in agreement.

  3. A general hypothesis or statement about        2. An educated guess; a reasonable expla-
the relationship of natural quantities that has    nation of an observation or experimental re-
not been contradicted; also known as a prin-       sult that is not fully accepted as factual until
ciple.                                             tested over and over again by experiment.

  4. An orderly method for gaining, organiz-         3. A general hypothesis or statement about
ing, and applying new knowledge.                   the relationship of natural quantities that has
                                                   not been contradicted; also known as a prin-
 5. A synthesis of a large body of information     ciple.
that encompasses well-tested and verify hy-
potheses about certain aspects of the natural        4. An orderly method for gaining, organiz-
world.                                             ing, and applying new knowledge.

            Hewitt CP9 01 P03                       5. A synthesis of a large body of information
01:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      that encompasses well-tested and verify hy-
                                                   potheses about certain aspects of the natural
  What is law?                                     world.

  1. A phenomenon about which competent                        Hewitt CP9 01 P05
observers who have made a series of observa-       01:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
tions are in agreement.
                                                     What is theory?
 2. An educated guess; a reasonable expla-
nation of an observation or experimental re-         1. A phenomenon about which competent
sult that is not fully accepted as factual until   observers who have made a series of observa-
tested over and over again by experiment.          tions are in agreement.

  3. A general hypothesis or statement about        2. An educated guess; a reasonable expla-
the relationship of natural quantities that has    nation of an observation or experimental re-
not been contradicted; also known as a prin-       sult that is not fully accepted as factual until
ciple.                                             tested over and over again by experiment.

  4. An orderly method for gaining, organiz-         3. A general hypothesis or statement about
ing, and applying new knowledge.                   the relationship of natural quantities that has
                                                   not been contradicted; also known as a prin-
 5. A synthesis of a large body of information     ciple.
                             Chapter 1, section 8, Scientific Method                           61

                                                   step is to
  4. An orderly method for gaining, organiz-
ing, and applying new knowledge.                     1. gather information on the problem.

 5. A synthesis of a large body of information       2. form a hypothesis.
that encompasses well-tested and verify hy-
potheses about certain aspects of the natural        3. record and analyze data.
world.
                                                     4. state the problem.
            Hewitt CP9 01 P06
01:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.                 Scientific Method 02
                                                   01:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
   Poke a hole in a piece of cardboard and hold
the cardboard in the sunlight. Note the image        In any experiment, the one factor that is
of the sun that is cast below.                     being tested is the
   Try a square hole; what is the image of the
sun?                                                 1. variable.

 1. triangular                                       2. control.

 2. round                                            3. experiment.

 3. square                                           4. data.

 4. pentagon                                                  Scientific Method 03
                                                   01:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 5. hexagon
                                                     The set of steps used to solve problems in
            Hewitt CP9 01 R01                      an orderly way.
01:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                     1. experiment
  Which of the following activities involves
the upmost human expression of passion, tal-         2. observation
ent, and intelligence?
                                                     3. scientific method
 1. painting and sculpture
                                                     4. variable
 2. literature
                                                     5. control
 3. music
                                                              Scientific Method 04
 4. religion                                       01:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 5. science                                          A procedure for testing a hypothesis.

           Scientific Method 01                       1. experiment
01:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                     2. observation
  When using the scientific method, the first
                           Chapter 1, section 8, Scientific Method   62

 3. scientific method

 4. variable

 5. control

           Scientific Method 05
01:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

  Any factor in an experiment that affects the
results of the experiment.

 1. hypothesis

 2. observation

 3. scientific method

 4. variable

 5. control

           Scientific Method 50
01:08, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

   A scientific statement, often mathematical
in form, that summerizes experimental data
is called a ? .

 1. law

 2. theory

 3. hypothesis

 4. proposition
                               Chapter 1, section 9, Tools of Measurement                                             63

                                                                 0   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   80   90 100
                 Length 01
                                                                 0   100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                                 0   1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9   10
                       Part 1 of 3
                                                            What is the measurement?
  Consider             the       metric            ruler.
        a                    b          c
                                                                               Mass 02
                                                            01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

             1     2       3     4     5       6             Consider the scale on a balance. fig[1,210]
a) What is the measurement for a?                           What is the measurement?

                Part 2 of 3                                                    Mass 03
b) What is the measurement for b?                           01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

                                                             Consider the scale on a balance. fig[1,210]
                Part 3 of 3
                                                            What is the measurement?
c) What is the measurement for c?
                                                                          Measurement 50
                 Length 02
                                                            01:09, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                                ? refers to how closely a measured value
   Consider the metric ruler. fig[1,100] What
                                                            agrees with the correct value.
is the measurement?
                                                             1. accuracy
                 Length 03
01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                             2. precision
   Consider the metric ruler. fig[1,100] What
                                                                          Measurement 51
is the measurement?
                                                            01:09, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                  Liquid 01
                                                                ? refers to how closely individual mea-
01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                            surements agree with each other.
  A word meaning the shape of a liquid at its
                                                             1. precision
surface is
                                                             2. accuracy
 1. meniscus.
                                                                          Measurement 52
 2. control.
                                                            01:09, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 3. variable.
                                                              You bought a 5 pound bag of sugar at
                                                            H.E.B. Not trusting the store, you weighed
 4. capillarity.
                                                            the sugar at home to make sure that you got
                                                            what you paid for. Your scale reports that the
                   Mass 01
                                                            store’s 5 pound bag of sugar does weigh 5 lbs.
01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                              This is an example of
  Consider       the     scale    on       a   balance.
                          Chapter 1, section 9, Tools of Measurement                         64

 1. accuracy.
                                                    1. metric ruler
 2. precision.
                                                    2. triple-beam balance
              Measurement 53
01:09, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.       3. graduated cylinder

  You have a reported 1 pound bar of gold,          4. Celsius thermometer
but every time you weigh it, the scale reports
that it weighs 937.00 g.                                        Measurements 04
  This is an example of                           01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 1. precision.                                      Which instrument would be used to mea-
                                                  sure the mass of a cube of sugar?
 2. accuracy.
                                                    1. metric ruler
              Measurements 01
01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.       2. triple-beam balance

  Which instrument would be used to mea-            3. graduated cylinder
sure the mass of a small stone?
                                                    4. Celsius thermometer
 1. metric ruler
                                                                Measurements 05
 2. triple-beam balance                           01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 3. graduated cylinder                              Which instrument would be used to mea-
                                                  sure the volume of a small jar of juice?
 4. Celsius thermometer
                                                    1. metric ruler
              Measurements 02
01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.       2. triple-beam balance

  Which instrument would be used to mea-            3. graduated cylinder
sure the length of your finger?
                                                    4. Celsius thermometer
 1. metric ruler
                                                                Measurements 06
 2. triple-beam balance                           01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 3. graduated cylinder                              Which instrument would be used to mea-
                                                  sure the air temperature?
 4. Celsius thermometer
                                                    1. metric ruler
              Measurements 03
01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.       2. triple-beam balance

  Which instrument would be used to mea-            3. graduated cylinder
sure the temperature of a glass of lemonade?
                          Chapter 1, section 9, Tools of Measurement                         65

 4. Celsius thermometer
                                                    1. metric ruler
              Measurements 07
01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.       2. triple-beam balance

  Which instrument would be used to mea-            3. graduated cylinder
sure the mass of a handful of powder?
                                                    4. Celsius thermometer
 1. metric ruler
                                                                Temperature 01
 2. triple-beam balance                           01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 3. graduated cylinder                                              Part 1 of 2
                                                    Consider     the Celsius      thermometers.
 4. Celsius thermometer                                     a)         80    b)       10

                                                                                       5
              Measurements 08
01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.                          70              0

                                                                                      -5
  Which instrument would be used to mea-
sure the volume of a diamond?                                          60             -10

                                                  a) What is the first measurement?
 1. metric ruler
                                                                   Part 2 of 2
 2. triple-beam balance                           b) What is the second measurement?
 3. graduated cylinder
                                                                Temperature 02
                                                  01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 4. Celsius thermometer
                                                                   Part 1 of 2
              Measurements 09                       Consider the Celsius thermometers.
01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.     fig[1,50] a) What is the first measurement?
  Which instrument would be used to mea-
                                                                   Part 2 of 2
sure your height?
                                                  b) What is the second measurement?
 1. metric ruler
                                                                Temperature 03
                                                  01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 2. triple-beam balance
                                                                   Part 1 of 2
 3. graduated cylinder
                                                    Consider the Celsius thermometers.
                                                  fig[1,50] a) What is the first measurement?
 4. Celsius thermometer
                                                                   Part 2 of 2
              Measurements 10
                                                  b) What is the second measurement?
01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

  Which instrument would be used to mea-                           Volume 01
sure the mass of a coin?                          01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                            Chapter 1, section 9, Tools of Measurement   66


                 Part 1 of 2
  Consider     the   graduated          cylinders.
         a)                  b)
                     4

                     3                  50

                     2

                     1                  40

a) What is the first measurement?

                 Part 2 of 2
b) What is the second measurement?

                 Volume 02
01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 Consider the graduated cylinder. fig[1,50]
What is the measurement?

                 Volume 03
01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

  Consider     the         graduated    cylinder.
                     100          100
                     90           90
                     80           80
                     70           70
                     60           60
                     50           50
                     40           40
                     30
                     20
                     10



What is the measurement?
                          Chapter 1, section 10, Safety in the Laboratory                       67


                  Safety 01                           4. None of these
01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                                       Safety 04
  When diluting an acid, always pour                 01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 1. the water into the acid.                           Always point a test tube that is being
                                                     heated
 2. the acid into the water.
                                                      1. away from you and toward others.
 3. the base into the water.
                                                      2. toward you and away from others.
 4. the water into the base.
                                                      3. toward you and others.
                  Safety 02
01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.         4. away from you and others.

  When inserting glass tubing into a rubber           5. straight up.
stopper,
   A. use a turning motion.                                            Safety 05
   B. apply a lubricant.                             01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
   C. force the tubing into the stopper.
                                                       When working with chemicals and burners,
 1. Only A is true.                                  always wear
                                                        A. safety goggles.
 2. Only B is true.
                                                        B. a laboratory apron or coat.
 3. Only C is true.                                     C. long sleeves.
                                                      1. Only A is true.
 4. A and B are true.
                                                      2. Only B is true.
 5. B and C are true.
                                                      3. Only C is true.
 6. A and C are true.
                                                      4. A and B are true.
 7. None is true.
                                                      5. A and C are true.
 8. All three are true.
                                                      6. B and C are true.
                  Safety 03
01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.         7. All are true.

  To protect glassware from an open flame,             8. None is true.

 1. use a wire or asbestos screen.                                     Safety 06
                                                     01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 2. immerse the glasware in water.
                                                       To test the odor of fumes,
 3. hold the glassware over the flame.
                        Chapter 1, section 10, Safety in the Laboratory                         68

 1. inhale the fumes directly from the con-
tainer.                                                              Safety 10
                                                   01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 2. gently wave the fumes toward your nose.
                                                      After cutting glass tubing, always fire pol-
 3. heat the substance before smelling it.         ish the ends

 4. take a deep breath and inhale.                  1. to remove impurities.

                  Safety 07                         2. for easier insertion into stoppers.
01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                    3. to remove sharp edges.
  When using scalpels or razor blades, cut
the material                                        4. and place in cold water.

 1. away from you.                                                   Safety 11
                                                   01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 2. on a right angle.
                                                     Consider the following statements:
 3. toward you.                                      A. Never perform activities that are not
                                                         authorized by your teacher.
 4. in your hand.                                    B. When working with acids and bases,
                                                         pour them over your work bench.
                  Safety 08
01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.        C. You may heat liquids in a closed
                                                         container.
  To dispose of all chemicals,                      1. Only A is true.
 1. follow your teacher’s instructions.             2. Only B is true.
 2. throw them in the trash.                        3. Only C is true.
 3. burn them in a burner.                          4. A and B are true.
 4. flush them down the sink.                        5. B and C are true.

                  Safety 09                         6. A and C are true.
01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                    7. None is true.
  You should know the location of safety
equipment in the laboratory and                     8. All three are true.

 1. where it is produced.                                            Safety 12
                                                   01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 2. use or test it once a week.
                                                     Consider the following statements:
 3. use or test it once a month.

 4. how to use it properly.
                          Chapter 1, section 10, Safety in the Laboratory                           69

  A. When you finish an experiment,
       leave all of the equipment at your             8. All three are true.
       work station for the next group.
                                                                       Safety 14
  B. Always use a clamp or tongs when                01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
       handling hot containers.
  C. If you spill any material, quickly                Which of the following is a safe lab proce-
       clean it up with a cloth.                     dure?
 1. Only A is true.                                    1. Carry out experiments you do not under-
                                                     stand.
 2. Only B is true.
                                                      2. Work alone in the lab.
 3. Only C is true.
                                                      3. Wear safety goggles when heating chemi-
 4. A and B are true.                                cals.
 5. B and C are true.                                 4. Remove your safety goggles to check a
                                                     flame.
 6. A and C are true.
                                                      5. None of these is safe.
 7. None is true.
                                                      6. All of these are safe.
 8. All three are true.
                                                                       Safety 15
                  Safety 13
                                                     01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                      If acid is splashed on your lab partner, im-
  Consider the following statements:                 mediately do which of the following?
  A. Rinse any acids off your skin or
      clothing with water.                            1. Wipe them off with a paper towel.
  B. Always keep the lids of all chemical
      containers open.                                2. Flush the area with lots of water.
  C. Glassware may be heated before it
                                                      3. Wrap them in the fire blanket.
      has completely dried.
 1. Only A is true.                                   4. Spray them with the fire extinguisher.

 2. Only B is true.                                                    Safety 16
                                                     01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 3. Only C is true.
                                                       An important rule to follow in class is to
 4. A and B are true.
                                                      1. follow your teacher’s instructions.
 5. B and C are true.
                                                      2. be very popular in your lab group.
 6. A and C are true.
                                                      3. eat lots of healthy snacks during lab.
 7. None is true.
                        Chapter 1, section 10, Safety in the Laboratory   70

  4. get to lab early so you can start before
class.

                  Safety 17
01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

  At the end of an experiment, you should

  1. leave the lab equipment out for the next
class to use.

 2. clean your lab equipment and area.

 3. wear your goggles out of the room.

 4. dispose of all trash in the sinks.

                  Safety 18
01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

  MSDS (Material Safety and Data Sheets)
are used to tell

 1. a chemical’s shelf life.

 2. information on any potentially harmful
chemical in the lab.

 3. where the chemical can be found natu-
rally.

 4. how to use a chemical for home experi-
ments.
                   Chapter 1, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 01                  71


            Holt SF 01Rev 16                        4. 3
01:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                   5. 5

                 Part 1 of 5                        6. 6
  How many significant figures are in the fol-
lowing measurements?                                7. None of these
  a) 300 000 000 m/s.
                                                                   Part 4 of 5
 1. 1                                             d) 1.004 J.

 2. 2                                               1. 4

 3. 3                                               2. 1

 4. 4                                               3. 2

 5. 5                                               4. 3

 6. 6                                               5. 5

 7. None of these                                   6. 6

                   Part 2 of 5                      7. None of these
         ◦
b) 25.030 C.
                                                                   Part 5 of 5
 1. 5                                             e) 1.3 05 20 MHz.

 2. 1                                               1. 6

 3. 2                                               2. 1

 4. 3                                               3. 2

 5. 4                                               4. 3

 6. 6                                               5. 4

 7. None of these                                   6. 5

                   Part 3 of 5                      7. None of these
c) 0.006 070◦ C.
                                                              Holt SF 01Rev 18
 1. 4                                             01:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                  wording-variable.
 2. 1
                                                                   Part 1 of 3
 3. 2                                               The value of the speed of light is now known
                              Chapter 1, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 01                72

to be 2.997 924 58 × 108 m/s. Express the
speed of light                                                 3. 3.00 × 108 m/s
  a) with three significant figures.
                                                               4. 2.998 × 108 m/s
 1. 3 × 108 m/s
                                                               5. 2.9979 × 108 m/s
 2. 3.00 × 108 m/s
                                                               6. 2.997925 × 108 m/s
 3. 3.0 × 108 m/s
                                                               7. 2.99792 × 108 m/s
 4. 2.998 × 108 m/s
                                                               8. 2.9979246 × 108 m/s
 5. 2.9979 × 108 m/s
                                                               9. None of these
 6. 2.99792 × 108 m/s
                                                                          Holt SF 01Rev 19
 7. 2.997925 × 108 m/s                                       01:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
                                                             mal.
 8. 2.9979246 × 108 m/s
                                                                              Part 1 of 4
 9. None of these                                              How many significant figures are in the fol-
                                                             lowing measurements?
                  Part 2 of 3                                  a) 78.9 ± 0.2 m.
b) with five significant figures.
                                                               1. 3
          8
 1. 3 × 10 m/s
                                                               2. 1
              8
 2. 3.0 × 10 m/s
                                                               3. 2
                  8
 3. 3.00 × 10 m/s
                                                               4. 4
                          8
 4. 2.9979 × 10 m/s
                                                               5. 5
                      8
 5. 2.998 × 10 m/s
                                                               6. 6
                              8
 6. 2.99792 × 10 m/s
                                                               7. None of these
                                  8
 7. 2.997925 × 10 m/s
                                                                                Part 2 of 4
                                      8                                   9
 8. 2.9979246 × 10 m/s                                       b) 3.788 × 10 s.

 9. None of these                                              1. 4

                  Part 3 of 3                                  2. 1
c) with seven significant figures.
                                                               3. 2
 1. 3 × 108 m/s
                                                               4. 3
 2. 3.0 × 108 m/s
                    Chapter 1, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 01                  73

 5. 5
                                                     1. Whole number (797 g)
 6. 6
                                                     2. Hundredths (796.53 g)
 7. None of these
                                                     3. Tenths (796.5 g)
                    Part 3 of 4
c) 2.46 × 106 kg.                                    4. Tens (800 g)

 1. 3                                                5. Three significant figures (797 g)

 2. 1                                                6. Two significant figures (800 g)

 3. 2                                                7. One significant figure (800 g)

 4. 4                                                8. None of these

 5. 5                                                               Part 2 of 4
                                                                         3.2 m
                                                   b) Find the quotient         .
 6. 6                                                                   3.563 s
                                                     1. Two significant figures (0.90 m/s)
 7. None of these
                                                     2. One significant figure (0.9 m/s)
                    Part 4 of 4
d) 0.0032 mm.                                        3. Three significant figures (0.898 m/s)

 1. 2                                                4. Four significant figures (0.8981 m/s)

 2. 1                                                5. Tenths (0.9 m/s)

 3. 3                                                6. Hundredths (0.90 m/s)

 4. 4                                                7. Thousandths (0.898 m/s)

 5. 5                                                8. None of these

 6. 6                                                               Part 3 of 4
                                                   c) Find the product of 5.67 mm and π.
 7. None of these
                                                     1. Three significant figures (17.8 mm)
            Holt SF 01Rev 20
01:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,              2. Two significant figures (18 mm)
wording-variable.
                                                     3. Four significant figures (17.81 mm)
                  Part 1 of 4
  Use significant figures to calculate the fol-        4. Five significant figures (17.813 mm)
lowing:
  a) Find the sum of the measurements 756 g,         5. Whole number (18 mm)
37.2 g, 0.83 g, and 2.5 g.
                  Chapter 1, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 01                  74

 6. Tenths (17.8 mm)
                                                   5. Two significant figures (230 cm)
 7. Hundredths (17.81 mm)
                                                   6. Three significant figures (229 cm)
 8. Thousandths (17.813 mm)
                                                   7. Four significant figures (228.8 cm)
 9. None of these
                                                   8. Five significant figures (228.76 cm)
                 Part 4 of 4
d) Find the difference of 27.54 s and 3.8 s.        9. None of these

 1. Tenths (23.7 s)                                          Holt SF 01Rev 22
                                                 01:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
 1. Tens (20 s)                                  wording-variable.

 1. Whole number (24 s)                             A farmer measures the distance around a
                                                 rectangular field. The length of each long side
 1. Hundredths (23.74 s)                         of the rectangle is found to be 38.44 m, and
                                                 the length of each short side is found to be
 3. One significant figure (20 s)                  19.5 m.
                                                    What is the total distance around the field?
 3. Two significant figures (24 s)
                                                   1. Tenths (115.9 m)
 3. Three significant figures (23.7 s)
                                                   2. Whole number (116 m)
 3. Four significant figures (23.74 s)
                                                   3. Hundredths (115.88 m)
 4. None of these
                                                   4. Hundreds (120 m)
            Holt SF 01Rev 21
01:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            5. Two significant figures (120 m)
wording-variable.
                                                   6. Three significant figures (116 m)
   A fisherman catches two sturgeons. The
smaller of the two has a measured length of        7. Four significant figures (115.9 m)
93.46 cm (two decimal places and four signif-
icant figures), and the larger fish has a mea-       8. Five significant figures (115.88 m)
sured length of 135.3 cm (one decimal place
and four significant figures).                       9. None of these
   What rule must be used on the sum to find
the total length of the two fish?                               PS303 Notation
                                                 01:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 1. Tenths (228.8 cm)
                                                                 Part 1 of 3
 2. Whole number (229 cm)                         Select the best conclusion to the sentence.
                                                 We use significant figures ...
 3. Hundredths (228.76 cm)
                                                  1. to indicate uncertainty in a measure-
 4. Hundreds (230 cm)                            ment.
                 Chapter 1, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 01                      75

                                                  2. for convenience in writing and reading.
 2. for convenience in writing and reading.
                                                  3. because they are more accurate.
 3. because they are more accurate.
                                                  4. to indicate the measurement tool used.
 4. to indicate the measurement tool used.
                                                  5. because we like that they confuse physical
 5. because we like that they confuse physical   science students.
science students.
                                                  6. to speed up the measurement process.
 6. to speed up the measurement process.
                                                   7. because it was mandated in the US Con-
 7. because they were mandated in the US         stitution.
Constitution.
                                                  8. because they are an international stan-
 8. because they are an international stan-      dard.
dard.
                                                          PS303 Unit I Problem 4
                  Part 2 of 3                    01:99, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
Select the best conclusion to the sentence. We
use scientific notation ...                                         Part 1 of 3
                                                   The following are some measurements of
 1. to indicate uncertainty in a measure-        the gas mileage for a car (in miles per hour):
ment.

 2. for convenience in writing and reading.            20.4 mph   21.4 mph    22.4 mph
                                                       23.4 mph   24.4 mph    25.4 mph
 3. because it is more accurate.                       26.4 mph   27.4 mph    28.4 mph
                                                       29.4 mph   30.4 mph    31.4 mph .
 4. to indicate the measurement tool used.
                                                   What is the average gas mileage?
 5. because we like that it confuses physical
science students.                                                Part 2 of 3
                                                 What is the uncertainty in this result?
 6. to speed up the measurement process.
                                                                   Part 3 of 3
  7. because it was mandated in the US Con-      What is the relative uncertainty?
stitution.

 8. because it is an international standard.

                  Part 3 of 3
Select the best conclusion to the sentence.
We use SI units such as meters, kilograms and
seconds ...

 1. to indicate uncertainty in a measure-
ment.
                          Chapter 2, section 1, Frame of Reference                             76

                                                    a) Where is runner A with respect to the
                 Motion 03                        parking lot?
02:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                   1. −5 km from the lot.
  Motion is
                                                   2. −10 km from the lot.
 1. an increase in the speed of an object.
                                                   3. +5 km from the lot.
 2. a decrease in the speed of an object.
                                                   4. +10 km from the lot.
  3. the stopping of an object relative to a
frame of reference.                                                Part 2 of 2
                                                  b) The parking lot is
 4. a change in position relative to a frame of
reference.                                         1. a position between the two runners.

                 Motion 10                         2. the displacement between the two run-
02:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.     ners.

   The object or point from which movement         3. a reference point for the two runners.
is determined is called
                                                   4. a distance between the two runners.
 1. terminal velocity.
                                                               Relative Velocities
 2. motion.                                       02:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

 3. momentum.                                                        Part 1 of 3
                                                    Two cars approach each other. Both cars
 4. frame of reference.                           are moving westward, one at v1 = 70 km/h,
                                                  the other at v2 = 60 km/h.
                 Motion 11                          What is the magnitude of the velocity of the
02:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.     first car relative to (in the frame of reference
                                                  of) the second car?
  The most common frame of reference is
                                                                  Part 2 of 3
 1. the Earth.                                    What is the direction of the resultant veloc-
                                                  ity?
 2. the object you are observing.
                                                   1. Unable to determine.
 3. you.
                                                   2. eastward
 4. the sky.
                                                   3. westward
                 Motion 12
02:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.                     Part 3 of 3
                                                  After they pass, will their relative velocity
                 Part 1 of 2                      change?
  Runner A is 5 km east of runner B, who is
5 km east of a parking lot.                        1. yes
                           Chapter 2, section 1, Frame of Reference   77


 2. no

 3. Unable to determine.

             Speeding Electron
02:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

  An electron travels 1.63 m in 5.7 × 10−8 s.
  How fast is it traveling?

        Upstream vs Downstream
02:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

  You head downstream on a river in a canoe.
You can paddle at 5 km/h and the river is
flowing at 2 km/h.
  How far downstream will you be in 30 min?
                         Chapter 2, section 2, Straight-line Motion                         78

                                                 has a 15 min lead on the slower car?
             Average Speed 01
02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.                      Cars Leaving School
                                                 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
  A person takes a trip, driving with a con-
stant speed 89.5 km/h except for a 22 min                          Part 1 of 4
rest stop.                                         Both car A and car B leave school at the
  If the person’s average speed is 77.8 km/h,    same time, traveling in the same direction.
how far is the trip?                             Car A travels at a constant speed of 75 km/h,
                                                 while car B travels at a constant speed of
            Average Velocity 01                  85 km/h.
02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.            How far is Car A from school 2 h later?

                Part 1 of 2                                        Part 2 of 4
  After 12.5 s, a jogger’s displacement is       How far is car B from school 2 h later?
400 m. What is the average velocity in
  a) m/s?                                                          Part 3 of 4
                                                 How long does it take car A to reach a gas
                 Part 2 of 2                     station a distance 100 km from the school?
b) in km/h?
                                                                 Part 4 of 4
              Blown Off Course                    How long does it take car B to reach the gas
02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.          station?

                   Part 1 of 2                              Coasting Down a Hill
  A ship is expecting to travel to its home      02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
port 500 km due East. Before the ship starts
to travel, a severe storm comes up and blows                      Part 1 of 3
the ship 400 km due South.                         The position of a car coasting down a hill
  How far is the ship from its home port?        was observed at various times and the results
                                                 are summarized in the table below.
                   Part 2 of 2
Consider: East to be 0◦ and North 90◦ .                       time           distance
  At what angle North of East must the ship
travel to reach its destination?                               0s               0m
                                                               1s               3m
               Building a Lead                                 2s             10.5 m
02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.                        3s              23 m
                                                               4s             40.5 m
                  Part 1 of 2                                  5s              63 m
  Two cars travel in the same direction along
a straight highway, one at 55 mi/h and the         a) Find the average velocity of the car dur-
other at 70 mi/h.                                ing the first second.
  Assuming they start at the same point, how
much sooner does the faster car arrive at a                        Part 2 of 3
destination 10 miles away?                       b) Find the average velocity of the car during
                                                 the last three seconds.
               Part 2 of 2
How far must the faster car travel before it                          Part 3 of 3
                          Chapter 2, section 2, Straight-line Motion                          79

c) Find the average velocity of the car during      3. The east component of the vector is 1
the entire period of observation.                  mile; the south component is 3 miles.

           Constant Velocity 01                     4. The west component of the vector is 1
02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.            mile; the south component is 3 miles.

  At 1:00 p.m., a car, traveling at a constant      5. The east component of the vector is three
velocity of 94 km/h toward the west, is 20 km      miles; the south component is 3 miles.
to the west of our school.
  Where will it be at 3:30 p.m.?                    6. The east component of the vector is 1
                                                   mile; the north component is 3 miles.
                  Cyclist
02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.             7. None of these.

                   Part 1 of 2                                   Displacement 01
   A cyclist maintains a constant velocity of      02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
5 m/s headed away from point A. At some
initial time, the cyclist is 250 m from point A.                    Part 1 of 2
   What will be his displacement from his             Tammy leaves the office, drives 26 km due
starting position after 60 s?                      north, then turns onto a second highway and
                                                   continues in a direction of 30 ◦ north of east
                 Part 2 of 2                       for 62 km.
What will be his position from point A after          What is her total displacement from the
that time?                                         office?

               Darting Child                                         Part 2 of 2
02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.            At what angle is her displacement? (Consider
                                                   east to be 0◦ and north 90◦ .)
  Ann is driving down a street at 55 km/h.
Suddenly a child runs into the street.                           Displacement 02
  If it takes Ann 0.75 s to react and apply the    02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
brakes, how far will she have moved before
she begins to slow down?                                             Part 1 of 2
                                                     John is running at 5 m/s along the x axis.
                 Directions                        He runs for 4 s. How far does John run?
02:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                                     Part 2 of 2
   When giving directions to your house, you       What is the relationship should be used to
tell someone to drive two miles east, then         solve the previous problem?
three miles north, then one mile west.                       v
   What are the components of a vector that         1. x =
                                                             t
points from his house to yours?
                                                    2. x = v × t
 1. The west component of the vector is three
miles; the north component is 3 miles.              3. x = v + t

 2. The west component of the vector is 1           4. x = v − t
mile; the north component is 3 miles.
                                                    5. None of these.
                         Chapter 2, section 2, Straight-line Motion                                           80


       Displacement and Distance                   9. 8 m
02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                 10. None of these
                  Part 1 of 2
  A physics book is moved once around the                Displacement and Velocity
perimeter of a table of dimensions 1 m by 3      02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
m.
  If the book ends up at its initial position,                     Part 1 of 3
what is its displacement?                           A particle moving along the x axis is located
                                                 at 12 m at 1 s and at 4 m at 3 s.
 1. 0 m                                             a) Find its displacement during this time
                                                 interval.
 2. 1 m
                                                                 Part 2 of 3
 3. 2 m                                          b) What is its average velocity during this
                                                 time interval?
 4. 3 m
                                                                   Part 3 of 3
 5. 4 m                                          c) Calculate the particle’s average speed dur-
                                                 ing this time interval.
 6. 5 m
                                                                  Distance
 7. 6 m                                          02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

 8. 7 m                                            How far will an object move in 2 s if its
                                                 average speed during that time is 52 m/s?
 9. 8 m
                                                          Distance Time Graph 01
10. None of these                                02:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                 Part 2 of 2                                     Part 1 of 6
What is the distance traveled?                      Consider the following graph of motion.
                                                                                50
 1. 0 m                                                                         40
                                                                 Distance (m)




                                                                                30

 2. 1 m                                                                         20
                                                                                10
                                                                                 0
 3. 2 m                                                                              0   1     2 3 4      5
                                                                                             Time (sec)

 4. 3 m                                          a) How far did the object travel between 2 s
                                                 and 4 s?
 5. 4 m
                                                   1. 10 m
 6. 5 m
                                                   2. 20 m
 7. 6 m
                                                   3. 30 m
 8. 7 m
                                                  Chapter 2, section 2, Straight-line Motion                         81

 4. 40 m                                                                    3. 150 m

 5. 50 m                                                                    4. 200 m

                Part 2 of 6                                                 5. 250 m
b) The graph indicates
                                                                            6. 300 m
 1. constant position.
                                                                            7. 350 m
 2. constant velocity.
                                                                            8. 400 m
 3. increasing velocity.
                                                                            9. 450 m
 4. decreasing velocity.
                                                                          10. 500 m
 5. no motion.
                                                                                           Part 5 of 6
                 Part 3 of 6                                              e) The graph indicates
c) What is the speed from 2 s to 4 s?
                                                                            1. constant position.
 1. 10 m/s
                                                                            2. constant velocity.
 2. 20 m/s
                                                                            3. increasing velocity.
 3. 5 m/s
                                                                            4. decreasing velocity.
 4. 15 m/s
                                                                            5. no motion.
 5. 0 m/s
                                                                                           Part 6 of 6
               Part 4 of 6                                                f) What is the average speed from 3 s to 9 s?
Consider the following graph of motion.
                          400                                               1. 20 m
                          350
                          300                                               2. 25 m
           Distance (m)




                          250
                          200
                                                                            3. 30 m
                          150
                          100
                                                                            4. 36 m
                           50
                           0
                                0   1   2   3     4 5 6      7   8   9      5. 40 m
                                                Time (sec)

d) How far did the object travel between 3 s                                6. 47 m
and 9 s?
                                                                            7. 50 m
 1. 50 m
                                                                            8. 58 m
 2. 100 m
                                                                            9. 60 m
                                                Chapter 2, section 2, Straight-line Motion                                                      82
                                                                                                 400

         Distance Time Graph 02                                                                  350
                                                                                                 300
02:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.




                                                                                  Distance (m)
                                                                                                 250
                                                                                                 200
                Part 1 of 3
                                                                                                 150
  Consider the following graph of motion.
                                 30                                                              100


                 Distance (km)
                                 20                                                               50
                                 10                                                                0
                                                                                                       0   1   2   3     4 5 6      7   8   9
                                 0                                                                                     Time (sec)
                                      0   1    2 3 4
                                              Time (hr)                 c) The distance is
a) What distance was covered in the first 3
hours?                                                                    1. constant.

 1. 5 km                                                                  2. increasing.

 2. 10 km                                                                 3. decreasing.

 3. 15 km                                                                             Distance vs Time
                                                                        02:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 4. 20 km
                                                                          The slope at any point of a distance-time
 5. 25 km                                                               graph represents

 6. 30 km                                                                 1. displacement.

                Part 2 of 3                                               2. average acceleration.
b) The graph indicates
                                                                          3. instantaneous acceleration.
 1. constant position.
                                                                          4. instantaneous velocity.
 2. constant velocity.
                                                                          5. average force.
 3. changing velocity.
                                                                                       Elevator Speed
 4. no acceleration.                                                    02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

 5. no motion.                                                                            Part 1 of 2
                                                                           The elevators in the John Hancock building
               Part 3 of 3                                              in Chicago move 900 ft in 30 s.
Consider the following graph of motion.                                    a) What is their speed?

                                                                                          Part 2 of 2
                                                                        b) What is this speed in miles per hour?

                                                                                   Glacier Movement 01
                                                                        02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

                                                                                                           Part 1 of 2
                                           Chapter 2, section 2, Straight-line Motion                      83

  A glacier advances at 4.8 × 10−6 cm/s.                                          Part 2 of 7
  How far will it move in 63000 s?                                 b) How far can Swimmer 2 cover in 30 sec-
                                                                   onds?
                 Part 2 of 2
How far in 7 years?                                                  1. 10 m

           Glacier Movement 02                                       2. 20 m
02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                                     3. 30 m
                                                     −6
  A glacier advances at 4.8 × 10 cm/s.
  How far will it move in 7 years?                                   4. 40 m

          Graphical Analysis 01                                      5. 50 m
02:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                                     6. 60 m
                Part 1 of 7
  Consider the following graph of motion.                            7. 70 m
                            100
                             80                                      8. 80 m
             Distance (m)




                                               1




                             60
                                           er




                                                                     9. 90 m
                                         m




                                                   er 2
                                      im




                             40                  m
                                    Sw




                                           S wim
                             20                                    10. 100 m
                              0
                                  0 10 20 30 40 50
                                      Time (sec)
                                                                                     Part 3 of 7
                                                                   c) Predict the distance Swimmer 1 can go in
a) How many meters can Swimmer 1 cover in                          60 seconds.
30 seconds?
                                                                     1. 40 m
 1. 10 m
                                                                     2. 50 m
 2. 20 m
                                                                     3. 60 m
 3. 30 m
                                                                     4. 70 m
 4. 40 m
                                                                     5. 80 m
 5. 50 m
                                                                     6. 90 m
 6. 60 m
                                                                     7. 100 m
 7. 70 m
                                                                     8. 110 m
 8. 80 m
                                                                     9. 120 m
 9. 90 m
                                                                   10. 130 m
10. 100 m
                                                                                        Part 4 of 7
                           Chapter 2, section 2, Straight-line Motion                                              84

d) Predict the distance Swimmer 2 can go in          7. 7 m/s.
60 seconds.
                                                     8. 8 m/s.
 1. 40 m
                                                     9. None of these
 2. 50 m
                                                                    Part 7 of 7
 3. 60 m                                           g) The speed of Swimmer 2 is

 4. 70 m                                             1. 1 m/s.

 5. 80 m                                             2. 2 m/s.

 6. 90 m                                             3. 3 m/s.

 7. 100 m                                            4. 4 m/s.

 8. 110 m                                            5. 5 m/s.

 9. 120 m                                            6. 6 m/s.

10. 130 m                                            7. 7 m/s.

               Part 5 of 7                           8. 8 m/s.
e) Which swimmer has the greatest speed?
                                                     9. None of these
 1. Swimmer 1
                                                             Graphical Analysis 02
 2. Swimmer 2                                      02:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, nor-
                                                   mal.
 3. The speeds are the same.
                                                                   Part 1 of 3
 4. Unable to determine.                              Consider the following graph of motion.
                                                                          80
                                                                                                              C
                 Part 6 of 7                                              70
f) The speed of Swimmer 1 is                                                                            arB
                                                                          60                         dC
                                                                                                   an
                                                          Distance (km)




                                                                          50                   A
 1. 1 m/s.                                                                                 Car
                                                                          40
                                                                                    rA
 2. 2 m/s.                                                                30      Ca
                                                                          20
                                                                                       B




 3. 3 m/s.
                                                                                     r
                                                                                  Ca




                                                                          10
 4. 4 m/s.                                                                0
                                                                               0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6
                                                                                          Time (hr)
 5. 5 m/s.
                                                   a) How long does it take for the cars to be at
                                                   the same position?
 6. 6 m/s.
                         Chapter 2, section 2, Straight-line Motion                            85

 1. 0.5 hr                                         4. Unable to determine

 2. 0.1 hr                                                   Hewitt CP9 02 E01
                                                 02:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 3. 0.2 hr
                                                    A ball is rolling across the top of a billiard
 4. 0.3 hr                                       table and slowly rolls to a stop.
                                                    How would Aristotle interpret this observa-
 5. 0.4 hr                                       tion? How would Galileo interpret it?

 6. 0.6 hr                                        1. They both would say that the ball comes
                                                 to rest because the ball seeks its natural state
 7. 1.5 hr                                       of rest.

 8. 1.4 hr                                         2. They both would say that it comes to
                                                 rest because of some forces acting on it–likely
                 Part 2 of 3                     friction between the ball and table surface and
b) How far apart are they after 0.3 h?           with the air.

 1. 8 km                                           3. Aristotle would say that the ball comes to
                                                 rest because the ball seeks its natural state of
 2. 5 km                                         rest. Galileo would likely have said it comes to
                                                 rest because of some forces acting on it–likely
 3. 6.4 km                                       friction between the ball and table surface and
                                                 with the air.
 4. 7.3 km
                                                   4. Galileo would say that the ball comes to
 5. 1.5 km                                       rest because the ball seeks its natural state
                                                 of rest. Aristotle would likely have said it
 6. 3.0 km                                       comes to rest because of some forces acting on
                                                 it–likely friction between the ball and table
 7. 9 km                                         surface and with the air.

 8. 11 km                                          5. All are wrong.

 9. 10.5 km                                                  Hewitt CP9 02 E03
                                                 02:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
10. 2 km
                                                    What Aristotelian idea did Galileo discredit
                 Part 3 of 3                     in his fabled Leaning Tower demonstration?
c) Which car maintained a constant speed for
the entire trip?                                   1. He discredited Aristotle’s idea that the
                                                 rate at which bodies fall is directly propor-
 1. Car A                                        tional to their weight.

 2. Car B                                         2. He discredited Aristotle’s idea that the
                                                 rate at which bodies fall is not related to their
 3. Both cars                                    weight.
                          Chapter 2, section 2, Straight-line Motion                           86

  3. He discredited Aristotle’s idea that the
rate at which bodies fall is inversely propor-      5. All are wrong.
tional to their weight.
                                                                   Jet in Flight
  4. He discredited Aristotle’s idea of gravita-   02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
tion.
                                                                     Part 1 of 3
 5. All are wrong.                                   A jet travels at 400 m/s.
                                                     How long does it take to travel 200 m?
            Hewitt CP9 02 E07
02:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.                       Part 2 of 3
                                                   How long to travel 5 km?
   A space probe may be carried by a rocket
into outer space. What keeps the probe mov-                         Part 3 of 3
ing?                                               How long to travel 5 in.?

 1. The air keeps the probe moving.                                 Jogging 01
                                                   02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
 2. The gravitation force keeps the probe
moving.                                                              Part 1 of 2
                                                     A boy runs 3 blocks north, 4 blocks north-
 3. Nothing keeps the probe moving. In the         east, and 5 blocks west.
absence of a propelling force it would continue      Determine the length of the displacement
moving in a straight line.                         vector that goes from the starting point to his
                                                   final position.
 4. Nothing keeps the probe moving. The
probe will stop and drop to the earth.                               Part 2 of 2
                                                   Determine the direction of the displacement
 5. All are wrong.                                 vector. (Use counterclockwise as the positive
                                                   angular direction, between the limits of −180◦
            Hewitt CP9 02 E09                      and +180◦ from east)
02:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                                    Jogging 02
  Your friend says that inertia is a force that    02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
keeps things in their places, either at rest or
motion.                                                              Part 1 of 2
  Do you agree? Why or why no?                       A jogger runs in a straight line with an
                                                   average velocity of 5 m/s for 4 min, and then
 1. Agree. Only force can keep things in their     with an average velocity of 4 m/s for 3 min.
places.                                              What is her total displacement?
 2. Disagree. Inertia is a force that keeps                      Part 2 of 2
things moving.                                     What is her average velocity during this
                                                   time?
 3. Agree. Inertia is not a force that keeps
things moving.
                                                             Light From the Sun 01
                                                   02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, fixed.
 4. Disagree. Inertia is a property of matter
to behave this way, not some kind of force.          Light from the sun reaches Earth in 8.3 min.
                         Chapter 2, section 2, Straight-line Motion                         87

The velocity of light is 3 × 108 m/s.            02:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
  How far is the Earth from the sun?
                                                  Which of the following are important in
                Light Speed                      measuring motion?
02:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                   1. distance, time, speed
  The time it takes for light, traveling at a
speed of 3.0 × 108 m/s, to cover 300 m is:         2. velocity, acceleration, density

 1. 10−6 s                                         3. distance, volume, speed

 2. 1011 s                                         4. acceleration, momentum, speed

 3. 106 s                                                         Motion 02
                                                 02:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 4. 10−11 s
                                                   The distance traveled by an object per unit
 5. None of these                                time is called

              Mile Markers 01                      1. velocity.
02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                   2. speed.
                 Part 1 of 2
  While John is traveling along an interstate      3. momentum.
highway, he notices a(n) 160 mi marker as he
passes through town. Later John passes a(n)        4. acceleration.
115 mi marker.
  a) What is the distance between town and                        Motion 04
John’s current location?                         02:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

                Part 2 of 2                        Find the speed of an object that covers
b) What is John’s current position?              400 km in 5 hr.

              Mile Markers 02                      1. 40 km/hr
02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                   2. 80 km/hr
                  Part 1 of 2
   While John is traveling along a straight        3. 2000 km/hr
interstate highway, he notices that the mile
marker reads 260 km. John travels until he         4. 800 km/hr
reaches the 150 km marker and then retraces
his path to the 175 km marker.                                    Motion 05
   What is John’s resultant displacement from    02:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
the 260 km marker?
                                                    Velocity is
                 Part 2 of 2
How far has he traveled?                           1. the same as speed.

                 Motion 01                         2. the same as acceleration.
                           Chapter 2, section 2, Straight-line Motion                         88

                                                   in college football history, and the only UT
 3. speed in a specific direction.                  player, to rush for more than 1000 yards in
                                                   each of three consecutive seasons. In 1967
 4. the same as momentum.                          vs. TCU, he had Texas’ longest run from
                                                   scrimmage, 96 yards.
                 Motion 14                           At an average speed of 4.9 s for 40.0 yards,
02:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      how long did this run take?

                    Part 1 of 2                      1. 12 s
     Consider a position-time graph.
     a) The position is to be graphed                2. 8.5 s

 1. along the vertical axis.                         3. 11.76 s

 2. along the horizontal axis.                       4. 12.63 s

 3. along either axis you choose.                                   Motion 51
                                                   02:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                  Part 2 of 2
b) The slope of the graph is                         How many feet will a snail travel in 4.80
                                                   hours if it moves at an average speed of 1.26
 1. the velocity.                                  inches per minute?

 2. the speed.                                       1. 30.2 ft

 3. the displacement.                                2. 6.3 ft

 4. the acceleration.                                3. .0331 ft

                 Motion 15                           4. 24. ft
02:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                                    Motion 52
     When an object is moving, average velocity    02:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
is
                                                     The 440 yard dash in track has been re-
 1. total distance divided by total time.          placed by the 400 meter dash.
                                                     Which is the longer distance and by how
 2. changes in comparison to a reference           many meters? 1 meter = 39.37 inches
point.
                                                     1. 400 meters; 2.34 meters longer
 3. distance covered by a moving object per
unit of time.                                        2. 440 yards; 2.34 meters longer

 4. the average of all the velocities.               3. 400 meters; 40.3 meters longer

                 Motion 50                           4. 440 yards; 40.3 meters longer
02:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                                    Motion 53
     Chris Gilbert, 1966-68, was the first person   02:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                         Chapter 2, section 2, Straight-line Motion                           89


  What is the velocity of 55 miles/hour ex-                       Motion 57
pressed in meter/sec?                            02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, fixed.

 1. 25 m/s                                          A molecule of N2 in air travels at about
                                                 1000 ft/sec.
 2. 2.5 × 103 m/s                                   If the supersonic transport Concorde trav-
                                                 els at 1500 miles/hour, how fast does it travel
 3. 1.5 × 103 m/s                                in ft/sec? (1 mile = 5280 ft)

 4. 8.9 × 104 m/s                                             Newspaper Route
                                                 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
 5. 2.1 m/s
                                                                   Part 1 of 2
                 Motion 54                         A girl delivering newspapers covers her
02:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.    route by traveling 3 blks west, 4 blks north,
                                                 then 6 blks east.
  A sprinter completes the 100. yard dash in
9.30 seconds.                                       a) What was her resultant displacement?
  How long would it take her to complete 100.
meters if she continued at the same speed?                        Part 2 of 2
                                                 b) What was the total distance she traveled?
 1. 10.2 sec
                                                             Position vs Time 01
 2. 10.9 sec                                     02:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 3. 9.30 sec                                       An object was suspended in a fixed place
                                                 (y = 0) and then allowed to drop in a free fall.
 4. 10.7 sec                                       Which of the following graphs correctly rep-
                                                 resents its motion as the magnitude of the
                 Motion 55                       vertical displacement vs time?
02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

  A jogger runs 105 yd in 10.00 seconds.           1.
  What would be his time for a 450 m run at                       |y|
the same rate?
                                                                                 t
                 Motion 56
02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                   2.
   The distance between bases on a baseball
                                                                  |y|
diamond (a perfect square) is 90. feet and
the pitchers mound is one-half the distance
between home and second base.                                                    t
   If Burt Hooton (All SWC, RHP, 1969-1971,
ERA 1.14, 35 career wins, an average 11.94
strikeouts per 9 innings) throws a slider at       3.
87.5 mi/hr, how many seconds will it take for
the ball to reach the plate?
                                     Chapter 2, section 2, Straight-line Motion                           90

                            |y|                              scale on the horizontal axis is 2 s per divi-
                                                             sion and on the vertical axis 3 m per division.
                                              t




                                                                            position (m)
 4.
                            |y|
                                                                                           time (s)

                                              t              What is the time represented by the second
                                                             tic mark on the horizontal axis?

                                                                              Part 2 of 3
 5.
                                                             What is the position represented by the third
                            |y|
                                                             tic mark on the vertical axis?

                                              t                               Part 3 of 3
                                                             What is the position when t = 4 s?

            Position vs Time 02                                          Position vs Time 04
02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.                      02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

                            Part 1 of 3                                       Part 1 of 4
   The                                                          The
scale on the horizontal axis is 2 s per divi-                scale on the horizontal axis is 2 s per divi-
sion and on the vertical axis 3 m per division.              sion and on the vertical axis 3 m per division.
                                                                            position (m)
             position (m)




                                                                                           time (s)

                                   time (s)                     What is the time represented by the fourth
What is the time represented by the third tic                tic mark on the horizontal axis?
mark on the horizontal axis?
                                                                              Part 2 of 4
                  Part 2 of 3                                What is the position represented by the third
What is the position represented by the fourth               tic mark on the vertical axis?
tic mark on the vertical axis?
                                                                              Part 3 of 4
                 Part 3 of 3                                 What velocity is represented by the graph?
What is the position when t = 6 s?
                                                                              Part 4 of 4
            Position vs Time 03                              In which direction is the motion?
02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                               1. forward
                            Part 1 of 3
  The                                                          2. backward
                                     Chapter 2, section 2, Straight-line Motion                          91


 3. Unable to determine.                                                     Part 2 of 7
                                                             b) How far can Swimmer 2 cover in 30 sec?
            Position vs Time 05
02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.                        1. 10 m

                            Part 1 of 2                        2. 20 m
   The
scale on the horizontal axis is 2 s per divi-                  3. 30 m
sion and on the vertical axis 4 m per division.
                                                               4. 40 m
             position (m)




                                                               5. 50 m

                                                               6. 60 m

                                   time (s)                    7. 70 m
What is the position when t = 6 s?
                                                               8. 80 m
                 Part 2 of 2
What is the velocity when t = 6 s?                             9. 90 m

                                                             10. 100 m
                 Snail Race
02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                                               Part 3 of 7
                 Part 1 of 7                                 c) Predict the distance Swimmer 1 can go in
  Consider the following lineup of a race:                   60 sec.
fig[1,120] fig[2,120] fig[3,120] a) How many
meters can Swimmer 1 cover in 30 sec?                          1. 40 m

 1. 10 m                                                       2. 50 m

 2. 20 m                                                       3. 60 m

 3. 30 m                                                       4. 70 m

 4. 40 m                                                       5. 80 m

 5. 50 m                                                       6. 90 m

 6. 60 m                                                       7. 100 m

 7. 70 m                                                       8. 110 m

 8. 80 m                                                       9. 120 m

 9. 90 m                                                     10. 130 m

10. 100 m                                                                         Part 4 of 7
                           Chapter 2, section 2, Straight-line Motion                         92

d) Predict the distance Swimmer 2 can go in          7. 7 m/sec.
60 sec.
                                                     8. 8 m/sec.
 1. 40 m
                                                     9. None of these
 2. 50 m
                                                                    Part 7 of 7
 3. 60 m                                           g) The speed of Swimmer 2 is

 4. 70 m                                             1. 1 m/sec.

 5. 80 m                                             2. 2 m/sec.

 6. 90 m                                             3. 3 m/sec.

 7. 100 m                                            4. 4 m/sec.

 8. 110 m                                            5. 5 m/sec.

 9. 120 m                                            6. 6 m/sec.

10. 130 m                                            7. 7 m/sec.

               Part 5 of 7                           8. 8 m/sec.
e) Which swimmer has the greatest speed?
                                                     9. None of these
 1. Swimmer 1
                                                                Tortoise and Hare
 2. Swimmer 2                                      02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

 3. The speeds are the same.                                        Part 1 of 2
                                                     A speedy tortoise can run at 10 cm/s, and a
 4. Unable to determine.                           hare can run 20 times as fast. In a race, they
                                                   start at the same time, but the hare stops to
                 Part 6 of 7                       rest for 2 min and so the tortoise wins by a
f) The speed of Swimmer 1 is                       shell (20 cm).
                                                     How long does the race take?
 1. 1 m/sec.
                                                                    Part 2 of 2
 2. 2 m/sec.                                       What is the length of the race?

 3. 3 m/sec.                                                    Traveling Electron
                                                   02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
 4. 4 m/sec.
                                                     An electron travels 1.63 m in 4.23 × 10−8 s.
 5. 5 m/sec.                                       How fast does it travel?

 6. 6 m/sec.                                                     Tugboat Foghorn
                                                   02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                         Chapter 2, section 2, Straight-line Motion   93


  A sound wave, traveling at 340 m/s, is
emmitted by the foghorn of a tugboat. An
echo is heard 2.6 s later.
  How far away is the reflecting object?

            Waiting at the End
02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

  You and a friend each drive 50 km to the
same destination. You travel at 90 km/h and
your friend at 95 km/h.
  How long will your friend wait for you at
the end of the trip?
                          Chapter 2, section 3, Speed and Velocity                               94


            Hewitt CP9 03 E01                        The ocean’s level is currently rising at
02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-      about 1 mm per year.
mal.                                                 At this rate, in how many years will sea
                                                  level be 3 m higher than now?
  What is the impact speed when a car mov-
ing at 100 km/h bumps into the rear of an-                   Hewitt CP9 03 P07
other car traveling in the same direction at      02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
98 km/h?                                          wording-variable.

            Hewitt CP9 03 E03                        A reconnaissance plane flies 600 km away
02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.     from its base at 400 m/s, then flies back to its
                                                  base at 600 m/s.
  You are stopped for speeding.                      What is its average speed?
  Which of the following is your traffic fine
based on?                                                      Holt SF 02A 01
                                                  02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
 1. Average speed                                 wording-variable.

 2. Instantaneous speed                              Heather and Matthew walk eastward with
                                                  a speed of 0.98 m/s east.
 3. Linear speed                                     If it takes them 34 min to walk to the store,
                                                  how far have they walked?
 4. Circle speed
                                                               Holt SF 02A 02
 5. None of these                                 02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                  wording-variable.
            Hewitt CP9 03 E09
02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.        If Joe rides south on his bicycle in a straight
                                                  line for 15 min with an average speed of 12.5
  Which of the following is wrong?                km/h, how far has he ridden?

  1. The dragster rounded the curve at a con-                  Holt SF 02A 03
stant velocity of 100 km/h.                       02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                  wording-variable.
 2. The dragster rounded the curve at a
changing velocity of 100 km/h.                                      Part 1 of 2
                                                    It takes you 9.5 min to walk with an average
 3. The dragster rounded the curve at a           velocity of 1.2 m/s to the north from the bus
changing speed of 100 km/h.                       stop to the museum entrance.
                                                    a) How far did you walk?
 4. The dragster ran along a line at a constant
velocity of 100 km/h.                                              Part 2 of 2
                                                  b) What is your direction?
 5. All are wrong.
                                                   1. North
            Hewitt CP9 03 P01
02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-       1. East
mal.
                          Chapter 2, section 3, Speed and Velocity                                              95

 1. South                                        school from your house.
                                                   If the average velocity of the bus is 19.0
 1. West                                         km/h to the east, what is the displacement?

           Holt SF 02A 04 05                                 Holt SF 02Rev 10
02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,          02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                wording-variable.

                  Part 1 of 2                                      Part 1 of 2
  Simpson drives his car with an average ve-       Consider the position-time graph for a
locity of 48.0 km/h to the east.                 squirrel running along a clothesline.
  a) How long will it take him to drive 144
                                                                     4
                                                                                      




km on a straight highway?
                                                                     3
                                                                              




                                                     position (m)
                 Part 2 of 2
                                                                     2
                                                                                                             




b) How much time would Simpson save by
increasing his average velocity to 56.0 km/h                         1
to the east?                                                         0
                                                                          




                                                                                 1       2          3   4   5
                                                                    −1
                                                                                                         




             Holt SF 02A 06
02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                             −2
                                                                                                 




wording-variable.                                                                            time (s)

                  Part 1 of 2                      a) What is the squirrel’s displacement at
   A bus travels 280 km south along a straight   the time t = 4.0 s?
path with an average velocity of 88 km/h to
the south. The bus stops for 24 min, then it                      Part 2 of 2
travels 210 km south with an average velocity    b) What is the squirrel’s average velocity dur-
of 75 km/h to the south.                         ing the time interval between 0.0 s and 4.0
   a) How long does the total trip last?         s?

                Part 2 of 2                                 Holt SF 02Rev 10A
b) What is the average velocity for the total    02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
trip?                                            wording-variable.

            Holt SF 02Rev 08                                       Part 1 of 2
02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            Consider the position-time graph for a
wording-variable.                                squirrel running along a clothesline.

  A bus travels from El Paso, Texas, to an
area near Chihuahua, Mexico, in 5.2 h with
an average velocity of 73 km/h to the south.
  What is the bus’s displacement?

            Holt SF 02Rev 09
02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.

  A school bus takes 0.530 h to reach the
                                        Chapter 2, section 3, Speed and Velocity                            96

                    4
                                     




                    3
                             




    position (m)    2
                                                        




                    1                                                                CarA            CarA

                    0
                         




                                                                      CarB                           CarB
                                1   2      3       4   5
                   −1
                                                    




                   −2
                                            




                                        time (s)                       Note: Figure is not drawn to scale.
                                                                    a) Find the displacement of Car A after 5.0
  a) What is the squirrel’s displacement at                    s.
the time t = 3.5 s?
                                                                                 Part 2 of 4
                 Part 2 of 2                                   b) Find the displacement of Car B after 5.0 s.
b) What is the squirrel’s average velocity dur-
ing the time interval between 0.0 s and 3.5                                     Part 3 of 4
s?                                                             c) Find the average velocity of Car A during
                                                               5.0 s.
              Holt SF 02Rev 11
02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.                                   Part 4 of 4
                                                               d) Find the average velocity of Car B during
   The Olympic record for the marathon is 2                    5.0 s.
h, 9 min, 21 s.
   If the average speed of a runner achieving                              Holt SF 02Rev 13
this record is 5.436 m/s, what is the marathon                 02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
distance?                                                      wording-variable.

            Holt SF 02Rev 12                                                    Part 1 of 2
02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                          Sally travels by car from one city to an-
wording-variable.                                              other. She drives for 30.0 min at 80.0 km/h,
                                                               12.0 min at 105 km/h, and 45.0 min at 40.0
                 Part 1 of 4                                   km/h, and she spends 15.0 min eating lunch
  Two cars are traveling on a desert road                      and buying gas.
between three consecutive poles, as shown in                     a) Find the total distance traveled.
the figure. After 5.0 s, they are side by side
at the next telephone pole. The distance                                        Part 2 of 2
between the poles is 70.0 m.                                   b) Find the average speed for the trip.

                                                                           Holt SF 02Rev 14
                                                               02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                               wording-variable.

                                                                                Part 1 of 6
                                                                 The figure shows the position of a runner at
                                                               different times during a run.
                                                 Chapter 2, section 3, Speed and Velocity                          97

                                                                        constant velocity of 8.0 km/h due west.
                      5                               




                                                                          How far are the runners from the flagpole
position (× 1000 m)   4                       
                                                                        when their paths cross?

                                                                                     Holt SF 02Rev 47
                      3
                                      
                                                                        02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
                      2                                                 mal.

                      1                                                                   Part 1 of 2
                                                                           Two cars travel westward along a straight
                      0                                                 highway, one at a constant velocity of
                           




                              0      10     20      30      40          85 km/h, and the other at a constant velocity
                                           time (min)                   of 115 km/h.
                                                                           a) Assuming that both cars start at the
                                                                        same point, how much sooner does the faster
                              Note: Figure is drawn to scale.           car arrive at a destination 16 km away?

  a) For the time interval between t = 0 min                                              Part 2 of 2
and t = 10 min, what is the runner’s displace-                          b) How far must the cars travel for the faster
ment?                                                                   car to arrive 15 min before the slower car?

                  Part 2 of 6                                                       Holt SF 02Rev 60
b) For the same time interval, find the run-                             02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
ner’s average velocity.                                                 wording-variable.

                 Part 3 of 6                                               One swimmer in a relay race has a 0.50 s
c) For the time interval between t = 10 min                             lead and is swimming at a constant speed of
and t = 20 min, what is the runner’s displace-                          4.00 m/s. The swimmer has 50.0 m to swim
ment?                                                                   before reaching the end of the pool. A second
                                                                        swimmer moves in the same direction as the
                  Part 4 of 6                                           leader.
d) For the same time interval, find the run-                                What constant speed must the second
ner’s average velocity.                                                 swimmer have in order to catch up to the
                                                                        leader at the end of the pool?
                 Part 5 of 6
e) What is the runner’s total displacement?                                         Holt SF 03Rev 59
                                                                        02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                Part 6 of 6                                             wording-variable.
f) Find the average velocity for the entire
run.                                                                       How long does it take an automobile trav-
                                                                        eling 60.0 km/h to become even with a car
            Holt SF 02Rev 15                                            that is traveling in another lane at 40.0 km/h
02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                                 if the cars’ front bumpers are initially 125 m
wording-variable.                                                       apart?

   Runner A is initially 6.0 km west of a flag-                                         Mountain Hike
pole and is running with a constant velocity                            02:03, basic, numeric, < 1 min, normal.
of 9.0 km/h due east. Runner B is initially 5.0
km east of the flagpole and is running with a                               You are on a hike in the mountains. You
                          Chapter 2, section 3, Speed and Velocity                             98

have 3.5 km left to go before your next camp-      8. None of these
site. The sun will set in 2.5 h. What averave
speed must you walk to get to camp at sunset?                       Part 3 of 5
Answer in km/hr.                                  How fast is the apple traveling relative to you?

            Relative Speeds 02                     1. 60 m/s
02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
mal.                                               2. 120 m/s

                   Part 1 of 5                     3. 180 m/s
  You are sitting in a bus that is traveling
along a straight, level road at 60 m/s.            4. 240 m/s
  a) How fast are you traveling relative to the
road?                                              5. 30 m/s

 1. 60 m/s                                         6. 15 m/s

 2. 120 m/s                                        7. 0 m/s

 3. 180 m/s                                        8. None of these

 4. 240 m/s                                                       Part 4 of 5
                                                  If you drop the apple, what kind of motion
 5. 30 m/s                                        will you see?

 6. 15 m/s                                         1. Vertical motion straight down.

 7. 0 m/s                                           2. Curved motion downward with initial ver-
                                                  tical velocity.
 8. None of these
                                                   3. Projectile motion with initial horizontal
                   Part 2 of 5                    velocity.
a) If you hold an apple over your head, how
fast is it moving relative to the road?            4. Horizontal motion straight forward.

 1. 60 m/s                                         5. Linear motion at an angle downward.

 2. 120 m/s                                         6. Not enough information to draw a con-
                                                  clusion.
 3. 180 m/s
                                                                    Part 5 of 5
 4. 240 m/s                                       When you drop the apple, what kind of mo-
                                                  tion will a pedestrian outside the bus see?
 5. 30 m/s
                                                   1. Horizontal motion straight forward.
 6. 15 m/s
                                                    2. Curved motion downward with initial ver-
 7. 0 m/s                                         tical velocity.
                           Chapter 2, section 3, Speed and Velocity                            99

 3. Vertical motion straight down.                is 0.5 m/s relative to the shore, and the skater
                                                  darts upstream 0.56 m (relative to a spot on
 4. Curved motion downward with initial           shore) in 0.8 s during the first part of its mo-
horizontal velocity.                              tion. Take upstream as the positive direction.
                                                     Determine the velocity of the skater relative
 5. Linear motion at an angle downward.           to the water during its dash upstream.

  6. Not enough information to draw a con-                        Part 2 of 3
clusion.                                          How far upstream relative to the water does
                                                  the skater move during one cycle of this mo-
                Up Escalator                      tion?
02:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                                    Part 3 of 3
                  Part 1 of 2                     What is the average velocity of the skater
  An escalator is 20 m long. If a person stands   relative to the water?
on the “up” escalator, it takes 50 s to ride to
the top.
  If a person walks up the moving escalator
with a speed of 0.5 m/s relative to the es-
calator, how long does it take to get to the
top?

                  Part 2 of 2
If a person walks down the “up” escalator
with the same relative speed as in Part 1, how
long does it take to reach the bottom?

             Velocity Direction
02:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

   Consider the instantaneous velocity of a
body. This velocity is always in the direction
of

 1. the motion at that instant.

 2. the net force at that instant.

 3. the least resistance at that instant.

                Water Spider
02:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

                  Part 1 of 3
  A skater (water spider) maintains an av-
erage position on the surface of a stream by
darting upstream (against the current), then
drifting downstream (with the current) to its
original position. The current in the stream
                              Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration                              100

                                                                     Ant Race
              Acceleration 01                       02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                      Two ants race across a table 50 cm long.
  An object that speeds up, slows down, or          One travels at 4 cm/s and the other at 2 cm/s.
changes direction is undergoing                       When the first one crosses the finish line,
                                                    how far behind is the second one?
 1. acceleration.
                                                                 Average Speed 02
 2. deceleration.                                   02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

 3. momentum.                                                        Part 1 of 2
                                                      A person travels by car from one city to
 4. potential energy.                               another. She drives for 30 min at 80 km/h,
                                                    12 min, at 100 km/h, and 45 min at 40 km/h,
               Acceleration 02                      while spending 15 min eating lunch and buy-
02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.             ing gas.
                                                      Determine the average speed for the trip.
  A car travels in a straight line for 2.5 h at a
constant speed of 51 km/h.                                            Part 2 of 2
  What is its acceleration?                         Determine the distance between the cities
                                                    along this route.
         Acceleration at the Top
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.                   Average Velocity 02
                                                    02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
  A stone is thrown straight up-
ward and at the top of its trajec-                                   Part 1 of 2
tory its velocity is momentarily zero.                You drive a car 2 h at 40 km/h, then 2 h at
                                                    60 km/h.
                                                      What is your average velocity?

                                                                      Part 2 of 2
                                                    What is your average velocity if you drive a
                                                    distance of 100 km at a speed of 40 km/h, then
                                                    the same distance at a speed of 60 km/h?

                                                                Average Velocity 03
                                                    02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
  What is its acceleration at this point?             A car travels along a straight stretch of
                                                    road. It proceeds for 14.5 mi at 55 mi/h, then
 1. Zero                                            22.5 mi at 45 mi/h, and finally 30.5 mi at
                                                    35 mi/h.
 2. 9.8 m/s2 down                                     What is the car’s average velocity during
                                                    the entire trip?
 3. 9.8 m/s2 up
                                                               Baseball Acceleration
 4. Unable to determine
                                                    02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration                                101

  A baseball goes from zero to 30 m/s in             What speed will the bolt have attained 2 s
0.11 s.                                              after leaving the crossbow?
  What is its average acceleration?
                                                                       Part 3 of 3
             Body Acceleration                       How far will the bolt have traveled during the
02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.              2 s?

                  Part 1 of 2                                   Displacement Curve
  The initial speed of a body is 5.2 m/s.            02:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
  What is its speed after 2.5 s if it accelerates
uniformly at 3 m/s2 ?                                               Part 1 of 4
                                                        Consider a moving object whose po-
                 Part 2 of 2                         sition x is plotted as a function of
What is its speed after 2.5 s if it accelerates      the time t on the following figure:
uniformly at −3 m/s2 ?                                                   x

                                                                     3
            Car Acceleration 01
02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.                              2

  A car accelerates from rest at 2 m/s2 .                            1
  How much time does it need to attain a
                                                                     O                        t
speed of 6 m/s?                                                              I 1 II 2 III 3

            Car Acceleration 02                      Clearly, the object moved in different ways
02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.              during the time intervals denoted I, II and III
                                                     on the figure.
  A vehicle moves in a straight line with an           During these three intervals, when was the
acceleration of 2 km/h2 .                            object’s speed highest? Caution: Do not
  By how much does the speed change each             confuse the speed with the velocity.
second?
                                                      1. During interval I.
            Car Acceleration 03
                                                      2. During interval II.
02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                      3. During interval III.
  A car increases its velocity from zero to
60 km/h in 8 s.
                                                      4. During intervals II and III (same speed
  What is its acceleration?
                                                     during those two intervals).
          Crossbow Experiment
                                                      5. Same speed during each of the three in-
02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                     tervals.
                  Part 1 of 3
                                                                      Part 2 of 4
  In deep space (no gravity), the bolt (arrow)
                                                     During which interval(s) did the object have
of a crossbow accelerates at 215 m/s2 and
                                                     no change in displacement?
attains a speed of 125 m/s when it leaves the
bow.
                                                      1. During interval I only.
  For how long is it accelerated?
                                                      2. During interval II only.
                  Part 2 of 3
                                Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration                               102


 3. During interval III only.                                    Falling Side By Side
                                                     02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 4. During each of the three intervals.
                                                       Two bodies are falling with negligible air
 5. During none of the three intervals.              resistance, side by side, above a horizontal
                                                     plane.
 6. During intervals II and III.                       If one of the bodies is given an additional
                                                     horizontal acceleration during its descent, it
                 Part 3 of 4
During which interval(s) did the object’s ve-         1. strikes the plane at the same time as the
locity remain constant?                              other body

 1. During interval I only.                           2. has the vertical component of its velocity
                                                     altered
 2. During interval II only.
                                                      3. has the vertical component of its acceler-
 3. During interval III only.                        ation altered

 4. During each of the three intervals.               4. follows a hyperbolic path

 5. During none of the three intervals.               5. follows a straight line path along the re-
                                                     sultant acceleration vector
                  Part 4 of 4
During which interval(s) does the object have                       Final Velocity
non-zero, positive acceleration?                     02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

 1. During interval I only.                            A car traveling initially at 7 m/s accelerates
                                                     at the rate of 0.8 m/s2 for 2 s.
 2. During interval II only.                           What is its velocity at the end of the accel-
                                                     eration?
 3. During interval III only.
                                                               Graphical Analysis 04
 4. During each of the three intervals.              02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 5. During none of the three intervals.                Identify which of the following graphs rep-
                                                     resent motion at constant speed (note the axes
          Electron Acceleration                      carefully).
02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.                a)
                                                                       x
                 Part 1 of 2
  An electron has an initial speed of                                                t
128000 m/s.
  If it undergoes an acceleration of 1.8 ×           b)
1014 m/s2 , how long will it take to reach a                           v
speed of 516000 m/s?
                                                                                     t
                  Part 2 of 2                        c)
How far has it traveled in this time?
                             Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration                                 103

                  a                               about the same time.

                              t                    5. All are wrong.
d)                                                            Hewitt CP9 03 E05
                  v                               02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

                              t                     Light travels in a straight line at a constant
e)                                                speed of 300,000 m/s.
                  a                                 What is the acceleration of light?
                                                                   m
                                                   1. 300,000
                              t                                    s2
                                                              m
                                                   2. 300,0
 1. (a) and (d)                                               s2
                                                         m
                                                   3. 30
 2. (a), (b), and (c)                                    s2
                                                       m
                                                   4. 0 2
 3. (a) and (c)                                        s
                                                   5. All are wrong.
 4. (a), (b), and (d)
                                                              Hewitt CP9 03 E07
 5. (d) only                                      02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 6. (a), (b), and (e)                               Can an object reverse its direction of travel
                                                  while maintaining a constant acceleration?
 7. (a) only
                                                   1. Yes. A ball tossed upward reverses its
 8. (c) only                                      direction of travel at its highest point while its
                                                  acceleration g, directed downward, remains
 9. (e) only                                      constant.

10. None of these                                  2. No. The direction of the speed is the same
                                                  as the direction of the acceleration.
            Hewitt CP9 02 E05
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      3. Yes. A ball bounces back from a wall.

  Was it Galileo or Newton who first came up        4. No. If the acceleration is constant, the
with the concept of inertia?                      direction of the speed will be unchanged.

 1. Newton                                         5. All are wrong.

  2. Galileo came up with the concept of iner-                Hewitt CP9 03 E11
tia before Newton was born.                       02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

  3. Galileo came up with the concept of iner-       Starting from rest, Car 1 accelerates to a
tia after Newton was born.                        speed of 50 km/h, Car 2 accelerates to a speed
                                                  of 60 km/h, Car 3 accelerates to a speed of 70
 4. They came up with the concept of inertia      km/h, and Car 4 is still.
                               Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration                               104

  Can you say which car underwent the
greater acceleration?                                 4. The balls reach the bottom at the same
                                                    time.
 1. Car 1
                                                     5. 1 and 2
 2. Car 2
                                                     6. 2 and 3
 3. Car 3
                                                     7. 1 and 3
 4. Car 4
                                                                Hewitt CP9 03 E19
 5. You can’t tell which one is the great-          02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
est.                                                mal.

            Hewitt CP9 03 E15                         Which is greater, an acceleration from
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.       25 km/h to 30 km/h or one from 96 km/h
                                                    to 100 km/h if both occur during the same
  Which one of the following is not an ex-          time.
ample wherein the acceleration of a body is
opposite in direction to its velocity?               1. First situation.

 1. A ball rising.                                   2. Second situation.

 2. A car braking to a stop.                         3. Same acceleration for both.

 3. A ball falling.                                  4. Unable to tell.

 4. A tennis ball being hit by a racket.                        Hewitt CP9 03 E23
                                                    02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 5. A piece of paper rising thrown to the
sky.                                                  Suppose that a freely falling object were
                                                    somehow equipped with a odometer. Would
            Hewitt CP9 03 E17                       the readings of distance fallen each second
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.       indicate equal or different falling distances for
                                                    successive seconds?
  Suppose that three balls are rolled simulta-
neously from the top of a hill along the slopes      1. Distance reading would indicate greater
as shown below.                                     distances fallen in successive seconds.
  1                   2           3
                                                     2. Distance reading would indicate smaller
                                                    distances fallen in successive seconds.

  Which one reaches the bottom first?                 3. Distance reading would indicate equal
                                                    distances fallen in successive seconds.
 1. 1
                                                     4. At first,distance reading would indicate
 2. 2                                               equal distances fallen in successive seconds,
                                                    then greater distances fallen in successive sec-
 3. 3                                               onds.
                              Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration                               105


 5. All are wrong.                                   5. All are wrong.

            Hewitt CP9 03 E25                                   Hewitt CP9 03 E29
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.       02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

   If air resistance can be neglected, how does       If you drop an object, its acceleration to-
the acceleration of a ball that has been tossed     ward the ground is 10 m/s2 .
straight upward compare with its acceleration         If you throw it down instead, what is its
if simply dropped?                                  acceleration?

 1. The acceleration of a ball tossed upward is      1. greater than 10 m/s2
greater than that of a ball dropped downward
which is g.                                          2. smaller than 10 m/s2

 2. The acceleration of a ball tossed upward is      3. 10 m/s2
smaller than that of a ball dropped downward,
which is g.                                          4. It depends on the force of throwing

  3. The acceleration of a ball tossed upward        5. All are wrong.
is same as that of a ball dropped downward.
Both are greater than g.                                        Hewitt CP9 03 E31
                                                    02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
  4. The acceleration of a ball tossed upward       mal.
is same as that of a ball dropped downward.
Both are smaller than g.                              While rolling balls down an inclined plane,
                                                    Galileo observed that the ball rolled 1 cubit
  5. The acceleration of a ball tossed upward       (the distance from elbow to fingertip) as he
is same as that of a ball dropped downward,         counted to ten.
which is g.                                           How far had the ball rolled from its starting
                                                    point when he had counted to twenty?
            Hewitt CP9 03 E27
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.                   Hewitt CP9 03 E35
                                                    02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
  Someone standing at the edge of a cliff
throws a ball nearly straight up at a cer-            Two balls are released simultaneously from
tain speed, and another ball nearly straight        rest at the left end of equal-length tracks as
down with the same initial speed.                   shown.
  If the air resistance is negligible, which ball
will have the greater speed when it strikes the      A
ground below?
                                                     B
 1. The ball up

 2. The ball down

 3. The speed of the two ball is same.                Which ball reaches the end of its track first?
 4. That depends on the height of the cliff.          1. A
                                Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration                              106

                                                        What is the instantaneous velocity of a
 2. B                                                freely falling object 10 s after it is released
                                                     from a position of rest?
 3. They reach the end of the track at the
same time.                                                             Part 2 of 3
                                                     What is its average velocity during this 10 s
 4. It depends on the initial speed.                 interval? g = 9.8 m/s2 .

 5. All are wrong.                                                      Part 3 of 3
                                                     How far will it fall during this time?
            Hewitt CP9 03 P02
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-                     Hewitt CP9 03 P09
mal.                                                 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
                                                     mal.
  What is the acceleration of a vehicle that
changes its velocity from 100 km/h to a dead           If there were no air drag, how fast would
stop in 10 s?                                        drops fall from a cloud 1000 m above the
                                                     Earth’s surface? g = 10 m/s2 .
            Hewitt CP9 03 P03
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-                     Hewitt CP9 05 E27
mal.                                                 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

  A ball is thrown straight up with an initial         Which of the following are scalar quantities,
speed of 30 m/s.                                     which are vector quantities?
  How high does it go, and how long is it in         a) velocity.
the air? g = 10 m/s2 .                               b) age.
                                                     c) speed.
            Hewitt CP9 03 P05                        d) acceleration.
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-         e) temperature.
mal.
                                                      1. Vectors: velocity, acceleration. Scalars:
                    Part 1 of 3                      age, temperature, speed.
   Assume: g = 10 m/s2 .
   What is the magnitude of the instantaneous         2. Vectors: velocity. Scalars: age, tempera-
velocity (speed) of a freely falling object 10 s     ture, speed,acceleration.
after it is released from a position of rest?
                                                      3. Vectors:       age, temperature,     speed.
                Part 2 of 3                          Scalars: velocity, acceleration.
What is its average speed during this 10 s
interval?                                             4. Vectors: velocity, acceleration, age, tem-
                                                     perature, speed.
                   Part 3 of 3
How far will it fall during this time?                5. All are wrong.

           Hewitt CP9 03 P05b                                     Holt SF 02B 01
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-         02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
mal.                                                 wording-variable.

                  Part 1 of 3                          When the shuttle bus comes to a sudden
                              Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration                               107

stop to avoid hitting a dog, it accelerates                      Holt SF 02C 01
uniformly at −4.1 m/s2 as it slows from 9.0         02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
m/s to 0 m/s.                                       wording-variable.
  Find the time interval of acceleration for
the bus.                                              A car accelerates uniformly from rest to a
                                                    speed of 23.7 km/h in 6.5 s.
             Holt SF 02B 02                           Find the distance the car travels during this
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,             time.
wording-variable.
                                                                 Holt SF 02C 02
  A car traveling at 7.0 m/s accelerates 2.5        02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
m/s2 to reach a speed of 12.0 m/s.                  wording-variable.
  How long does it take for this acceleration
to occur?                                              When Maggie applies the brakes of her car,
                                                    the car slows uniformly from 15.0 m/s to 0
             Holt SF 02B 03                         m/s in 2.50 s.
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                How many meters before a stop sign must
wording-variable.                                   she apply her brakes in order to stop at the
                                                    sign?
  With an average acceleration of −0.50
m/s2 , how long will it take a cyclist to bring a                Holt SF 02C 03
bicycle with an initial speed of 13.5 m/s to a      02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
complete stop?                                      wording-variable.

             Holt SF 02B 04                           Hint: To answer this question, calculate the
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,             distance the plane travels while it is coming
wording-variable.                                   to a rest.
                                                      A jet plane lands with a speed of 100 m/s
  Turner’s treadmill starts with a velocity of      and can accelerate uniformly at a maximum
−1.2 m/s and speeds up at regular intervals         rate of −5.0 m/s2 as it comes to rest.
during a half-hour workout. After 25 min, the         Can this plane land at an airport where the
treadmill has a velocity of −6.5 m/s.               runway is 0.80 km long?
  What is the average acceleration of the
treadmill during this period?                                     Holt SF 02C 04
                                                    02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
             Holt SF 02B 05                         mal.
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                     A driver in a car traveling at a speed of
                                                    78 km/h sees a cat 101 m away on the road.
                 Part 1 of 2                          How long will it take for the car to acceler-
  Suppose a treadmill has an average acceler-       ate uniformly to a stop in exactly 99 m?
ation of 0.0047 m/s2 .
  a) How much does its speed change after                        Holt SF 02C 05
5.0 min?                                            02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                    wording-variable.
                  Part 2 of 2
b) If the treadmill’s initial speed is 1.7 m/s,       A car enters the freeway with a speed of 6.4
what will its final speed be?                        m/s and accelerates uniformly for 3.2 km in
                                                    3.5 min.
                               Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration                               108

  How fast is the car moving after this time?          A driver of a car traveling at 15.0 m/s ap-
                                                    plies the brakes, causing a uniform accelera-
             Holt SF 02D 01                         tion of −2.0 m/s2 .
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                a) How long does it take the car to acceler-
wording-variable.                                   ate to a final speed of 10.0 m/s?

                  Part 1 of 2                                       Part 2 of 2
  A car with an initial speed of 23.7 km/h          b) How far has the car moved during the
accelerates at a uniform rate of 0.92 m/s2 for      braking period?
3.6 s.
  a) Find the final speed of the car.                             Holt SF 02E 01
                                                    02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                  Part 2 of 2                       wording-variable.
b) Find the displacement of the car after that
time.                                                 A baby sitter pushing a stroller starts from
                                                    rest and accelerates uniformly at a rate of
             Holt SF 02D 02                         0.500 m/s2 .
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,               What is the velocity of the stroller after it
wording-variable.                                   has traveled 6.32 m?

                 Part 1 of 2                                     Holt SF 02E 02
   An automobile with an initial speed of 4.30      02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
m/s accelerates uniformly at the rate of 3.0        wording-variable.
m/s2 .
   a) Find the final speed of the car after 5.0                        Part 1 of 3
s.                                                    A car traveling initially at +7.0 m/s accel-
                                                    erates uniformly at the rate of +0.80 m/s2 for
                 Part 2 of 2                        a distance of 245 m.
b) Find the displacement of the car after 5.0         a) What is its velocity at the end of the
s.                                                  acceleration?

             Holt SF 02D 03                                           Part 2 of 3
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,             b) What is its velocity after it accelerates for
wording-variable.                                   125 m?

                  Part 1 of 2                                         Part 3 of 3
  A car starts from rest and travels for 5.0 s      c) What is its velocity after it accelerates for
with a uniform acceleration of −1.5 m/s2 .          67 m?
  a) What is the final velocity of the car?
                                                                 Holt SF 02E 03
               Part 2 of 2                          02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
b) How far does the car travel in this time         wording-variable.
interval?
                                                                       Part 1 of 2
             Holt SF 02D 04                            A car accelerates uniformly in a straight
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,             line from rest at the rate of 2.3 m/s2 .
wording-variable.                                      a) What is the speed of the car after it has
                                                    traveled 55 m?
                 Part 1 of 2
                              Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration                             109

                                                                Holt SF 02F 02
                Part 2 of 2                        02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
b) How long does it take the car to travel 55      wording-variable.
m?
                                                                     Part 1 of 2
             Holt SF 02E 04                          A flowerpot falls from a windowsill 25.0 m
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            above the sidewalk.
wording-variable.                                    a) What is the velocity of the flowerpot
                                                   when it strikes the ground?
   A certain car is capable of accelerating at a
uniform rate of 0.85 m/s2 .                                         Part 2 of 2
   What is the magnitude of the car’s displace-    b) How much time does a passerby on the
ment as it accelerates uniformly from a speed      sidewalk below have to move out of the way
of 83 km/h to one of 94 km/h?                      before the flowerpot hits the ground?

              Holt SF 02E 05                                    Holt SF 02F 03
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-       02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
mal.                                               wording-variable.

   An aircraft has a lift off speed of 120 km/h.                       Part 1 of 2
   What minimum uniform acceleration does            A tennis ball is thrown vertically upward
this require if the aircraft is to be airborne     with an initial velocity of +8.0 m/s.
after a takeoff run of 240 m?                         a) What will the ball’s velocity be when it
                                                   returns to its starting point?
             Holt SF 02E 06
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                            Part 2 of 2
wording-variable.                                  b) How long will the ball take to reach its
                                                   starting point?
  A motorboat accelerates uniformly from a
velocity of 6.5 m/s to the west to a velocity of                Holt SF 02F 04
1.5 m/s to the west.                               02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
  If its acceleration was 2.7 m/s2 to the east,    wording-variable.
how far did it travel during the acceleration?
                                                                    Part 1 of 2
             Holt SF 02F 01                          Stephanie serves a volleyball from a height
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            of 0.80 m and gives it an initial velocity of
wording-variable.                                  +7.5 m/s straight up.
                                                     a) How high will the volleyball go?
                  Part 1 of 2
  A robot probe drops a camera off the rim of                       Part 2 of 2
a 239 m high cliff on Mars, where the free-fall     b) How long will it take the ball to reach its
acceleration is −3.7 m/s2 .                        maximum height?
  a) Find the velocity with which it hits the
ground.                                                         Holt SF 02F 05
                                                   02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                 Part 2 of 2                       wording-variable.
b) Find the time required for the camera to
reach the ground.                                                 Part 1 of 2
                                                     Maria throws an apple vertically upward
                             Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration                                110

from a height of 1.3 m with an initial velocity                       Part 1 of 2
of +2.4 m/s.                                         A snowmobile has an initial velocity of +3.0
   a) Will the apple reach a friend in a tree     m/s.
house 5.3 m above the ground?                        a) If it accelerates at the rate of +0.50 m/s2
                                                  for 7.0 s, what is the final velocity?
 1. No, the apple will reach 3.70642 m below
the tree house                                                       Part 2 of 2
                                                  b) If instead it accelerates at the rate of −0.60
 2. Yes, the apple will reach 3.70642 m above     m/s2 , how long will it take to reach a complete
the tree house                                    stop?

 3. Yes, the apple will reach 1.5055 m above                  Holt SF 02Rev 23
the tree house                                    02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                  wording-variable.
 4. Yes, the apple will reach 1.38807 m above
the tree house                                                       Part 1 of 3
                                                     A car moving westward along a straight,
 5. No, the apple will reach 1.5055 m below       level road increases its velocity uniformly from
the tree house                                    +16 m/s to +32 m/s in 10.0 s.
                                                     a) What was the car’s acceleration?
 6. No, the apple will reach 1.38807 m below
the tree house                                                      Part 2 of 3
                                                  b) How far did it move while accelerating?
                   Part 2 of 2
b) If the apple is not caught, how long will it                    Part 3 of 3
be in the air before it hits the ground?          c) What was its average velocity?

            Holt SF 02Rev 20                                  Holt SF 02Rev 24
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                 wording-variable.

  A car traveling in a straight line has a ve-      A ball initially at rest rolls down a hill with
locity of +5.0 m/s. After an acceleration of      an acceleration of 3.3 m/s2 .
0.75 m/s2 , the car’s velocity is +8.0 m/s.         If it accelerates for 7.5 s, how far will it
  In what time interval did the acceleration      move?
occur?
                                                              Holt SF 02Rev 25
            Holt SF 02Rev 21                      02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           wording-variable.
wording-variable.
                                                    A bus slows down uniformly from 75.0
  A car traveling at +7.0 m/s accelerates at      km/h to 0 km/h in 21.0 s.
the rate of 0.80 m/s2 for an interval of 2.0 s.     How far does it travel before stopping?
  Find vf .
                                                              Holt SF 02Rev 26
            Holt SF 02Rev 22                      02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           wording-variable.
wording-variable.
                                                                    Part 1 of 2
                             Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration                                                  111

  A car accelerates from rest at −3.00 m/s2 .                        3
  a) What is the velocity at the end of 5.0 s?
                                                                     2    ¢           ¢




                 Part 2 of 2                                         1




                                                   velocity (m/s)
b) What is the displacement after 5.0 s?
                                                                     0                                            ¡




            Holt SF 02Rev 27                                        −1
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                             −2
wording-variable.
                                                                    −3
  A car accelerates uniformly from rest to a                        −4
speed of 65 km/h (18 m/s) in 12 s.
                                                                    −5                               ¢            ¡¢




  Find the distance the car travels during this
time.                                                               −6
                                                                         0    1   2   3      4 5     6   7   8    9
                                                                                          time (s)
            Holt SF 02Rev 28
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,             Find the average acceleration during the
wording-variable.                                 time interval 0 s to 3 s.

                   Part 1 of 2                                        Part 2 of 6
  A car starts from rest and travels for 5.0      Find the average acceleration during the time
s with a uniform acceleration of +1.5 m/s2 .      interval 3 s to 6 s.
The driver then applies the brakes, causing a
uniform acceleration of −2.1 m/s2 .                                   Part 3 of 6
  a) If the brakes are applied for 3.0 s, how     Find the average acceleration during the time
fast is the car going at the end of the braking   interval 0 s to 9 s.
period?
                                                                   Part 4 of 6
                  Part 2 of 2                     Find the instantaneous acceleration at 2 s.
b) How far has it gone from its start?
                                                                   Part 5 of 6
            Holt SF 02Rev 29                      Find the instantaneous acceleration at 4 s.
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                                  Part 6 of 6
                                                  Find the instantaneous acceleration at 7 s.
  A boy sledding down a hill accelerates at
1.40 m/s2 .                                                   Holt SF 02Rev 31
  If he started from rest, in what distance       02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
would he reach a speed of 7.00 m/s?               wording-variable.

             Holt SF 02Rev 30                                      Part 1 of 2
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-        A plane lands with a velocity of +120 m/s
mal.                                              and accelerates at a maximum rate of −6.0
                                                  m/s2 .
                  Part 1 of 6                       a) From the instant the plane touches the
   Consider the plot below describing motion      runway, what is the minimum time needed
of an object along a straight path as shown in    before it can come to rest?
the figure below.
                              Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration                                     112

                  Part 2 of 2                      wording-variable.
The plane is landing on a naval aircraft carrier
that is 0.80 km long.                                               Part 1 of 2
  b) What distance does the plane require to         A ball is thrown vertically upward with a
land?                                              speed of 25.0 m/s from a height of 2.0 m.
                                                     a) How long does it take to reach its highest
            Holt SF 02Rev 33                       point?
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                                    Part 2 of 2
                                                   b) How long does the ball take to hit the
  An elevator is moving upward 1.20 m/s            ground after it reaches its highest point?
when it experiences an acceleration of 0.31
m/s2 downward, over a distance of 0.75 m.                       Holt SF 02Rev 42
  What will its final speed be?                     02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
                                                   mal.
            Holt SF 02Rev 38
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                              Part 1 of 4
wording-variable.                                     Suppose you are on another planet where
                                                   the acceleration of gravity is different than
   A worker drops a wrench from the top of a       that on Earth; e.g., g = 9.8 m/s2 .
tower 80.0 m tall.                                    A ball is thrown directly upward into the
   What is the velocity when the wrench            air. A continuous measurement is made of
strikes the ground?                                the vertical position of the ball with respect
                                                   to time. The result is a curve shown in the
            Holt SF 02Rev 39                       figure below.
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                                   0.20
                                                    position (m)




wording-variable.
                                                                   0.15
   A peregrine falcon dives at a pigeon. The
falcon starts downward from rest with free-fall                    0.10
acceleration.                                                      0.05
   If the pigeon is 76.0 below the initial posi-                     0
tion of the falcon, how long does the falcon                              0   0.1    0.2     0.3   0.4
take to reach the pigeon? Assume that the
pigeon remains at rest.                                                             time (s)
                                                      How much time does the ball take to reach
             Holt SF 02Rev 40                      its maximum height of 0.2 m? (The required
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-       precision of your answer is decreased because
mal.                                               of graphical resolution in the figure.)

  A ball is thrown upward from the ground                            Part 2 of 4
with an initial speed of 25 m/s; at the same       How much time does the ball take to reach
instant, a ball is dropped from rest from a        one-half of its maximum height h = 0.1 m ?
building 15 m high.
  After how long will the balls be at the same                      Part 3 of 4
height?                                            Estimate the slope of the position vs time
                                                   graph at several places; e.g., the first one-
            Holt SF 02Rev 41                       half height (h = 0.1 m), the full height (h =
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                              Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration                                 113

0.2 m), and the second one-half height (h =                          Part 2 of 3
0.1 m).                                             b) How much of this 5.00 min period does the
  Hint: Draw a velocity vs time graph. You          train spend between points B and C?
should see a straight line. The acceleration of
gravity on your planet is the slope of this line.                    Part 3 of 3
  What is the slope of the velocity vs time         c) How much of this 5.00 min period does the
graph?                                              train spend between points C and D?

                  Part 4 of 4                                   Holt SF 02Rev 45
What is the velocity of the ball when it was        02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
initially thrown upward?                            wording-variable.

            Holt SF 02Rev 43                                           Part 1 of 4
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                Two students are on a balcony 19.6 m above
wording-variable.                                   the street. One student throws a ball verti-
                                                    cally downward at 14.7 m/s. At the same
   The Earth’s radius is about 6380 km. The         instant, the other student throws a ball verti-
space shuttle is orbiting about 320.0 km above      cally upward at the same speed. The second
Earth’s surface.                                    ball just misses the balcony on the way down.
   If the average speed of the space shuttle is        a) What is the velocity of the first ball as it
27800 km/h, find the time required for it to         strikes the ground?
circle Earth.
                                                                       Part 2 of 4
            Holt SF 02Rev 44                        b) What is the velocity of the second ball as
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,             it strikes the ground?
wording-variable.
                                                                      Part 3 of 4
                   Part 1 of 3                      c) What is the difference in the time the balls
   A train travels between stations 1 and 2,        spend in the air?
as shown in the figure. The engineer of the
train is instructed to start from rest at station                    Part 4 of 4
1 and accelerate uniformly between points A         d) How far apart are the balls 0.800 s after
and B, then coast with a uniform velocity be-       they are thrown?
tween points B and D, and finally accelerate
uniformly between points C and D until the                      Holt SF 02Rev 46
train stops at station 2. The distances AB,         02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
BC, and CD are all equal, and it takes 5.00         wording-variable.
min to travel between the two stations. As-
sume that the uniform accelerations have the           A rocket moves upward, starting from rest
same magnitude, even when they are opposite         with an acceleration of 29.4 m/s2 for 3.98 s.
in direction.                                       It runs out of fuel at the end of the 3.98 s, but
  Station A                           Station B     does not stop.
                                                       How high does it rise above the ground?

    A            B           C            D                     Holt SF 02Rev 48
                                                    02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
  a) How much of this 5.00 min period does          wording-variable.
the train spend between points A and B?
                                Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration                              114

                  Part 1 of 2                        b) How far does the speeder get before being
   A small first-aid kit is dropped by a rock         overtaken by the police car?
climber who is descending steadily at 1.3 m/s.
   a) After 2.5 s, what is the velocity of the                 Holt SF 02Rev 52 53
first-aid kit?                                        02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                     wording-variable.
                 Part 2 of 2
b) How far is the kit below the climber after                          Part 1 of 5
the 2.5 s?                                             An ice sled powered by a rocket engine
                                                     starts from rest on a large frozen lake and
            Holt SF 02Rev 49                         accelerates at 13.0 m/s2 . At t1 the rocket
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,              engine is shut down and the sled moves with
wording-variable.                                    constant velocity v for another t2 s. The total
                                                     distance traveled by the sled is 5.30 × 103 m
                   Part 1 of 2                       and the total time is 90.0 s.
   A small fish is dropped by a pelican that is         a) Find t1 .
rising steadily at 0.50 m/s.
   a) After 2.5 s, what is the velocity of the                         Part 2 of 5
fish?                                                 b) Find t2 .

                Part 2 of 2                                            Part 3 of 5
b) How far below the pelican is the fish after        c) Find v.
the 2.5 s?
                                                                      Part 4 of 5
            Holt SF 02Rev 50                         At the 5800 m mark, the sled begins to accel-
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,              erate at −7.0 m/s2 .
wording-variable.                                      d) What is the final position of the sled
                                                     when it comes to rest?
  A ranger in a national park is driving at
56 km/h when a deer jumps onto the road                              Part 5 of 5
65 m ahead of the vehicle. After a reaction          e) How long does it take for the sled to come
time of t s, the ranger applies the brakes to        to rest?
produce an acceleration of −3.0 m/s2 .
  What is the maximum reaction time al-                          Holt SF 02Rev 54
lowed if the ranger is to avoid hitting the          02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
deer?                                                wording-variable.

            Holt SF 02Rev 51                           A tennis ball with a velocity of +10.0 to
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,              the right is thrown perpendicularly at a wall.
wording-variable.                                    After striking the wall, the ball rebounds in
                                                     the opposite direction with a velocity of −8.00
                  Part 1 of 2                        m/s to the left.
   A speeder passes a parked police car at 30.0        If the ball is in contact with the wall for
m/s. The police car starts from rest with a          0.012 s, what is the average acceleration of
uniform acceleration of 2.44 m/s2 .                  the ball while it is in contact with the wall?
   a) How much time pases before the speeder
is overtaken by the police car?                                  Holt SF 02Rev 55
                                                     02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                  Part 2 of 2
                             Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration                               115

wording-variable.
                                                                Part 2 of 3
                   Part 1 of 2                    b) When does the rocket reach maximum
  A parachutist descending at a speed of 10.0     height?
m/s loses a shoe at an altitude of 50.0 m.
  a) What is the velocity of the shoe just                         Part 3 of 3
before it hits the ground?                        c) How long is the rocket in the air?

                Part 2 of 2                                   Holt SF 02Rev 58
b) When does the shoe reach the ground?           02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                  wording-variable.
            Holt SF 02Rev 56
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                             Part 1 of 4
wording-variable.                                   A professional race-car driver buys a car
                                                  that can accelerate at 5.9 m/s2 . The racer
                  Part 1 of 4                     decides to race against another driver in a
   A mountain climber stands at the top of a      souped-up stock car. Both start from rest,
50.0 m cliff hanging over a calm pool of water.    but the stock-car driver leaves 1.0 s before the
The climber throws two stones vertically 1.0      driver of the sports car. The stock car moves
s apart and observes that they cause a single     with a constant acceleration of +3.6 m/s2 .
splash when they hit the water. The first            a) Find the time it takes the sports-car
stone has an initial velocity of +2.0 m/s.        driver to overtake the stock-car driver.
   a) What will the velocity of the first stone
be at the instant both stones hit the water?                        Part 2 of 4
                                                  b) Find the distance the two drivers travel
                  Part 2 of 4                     before they are side by side.
b) How long after the release of the first stone
will the two stones hit the water?                                  Part 3 of 4
                                                  c) Find the velocity of the race car when the
                  Part 3 of 4                     two drivers are side by side.
c) What is the initial velocity of the second
stone when it is thrown?                                            Part 4 of 4
                                                  d) Find the velocity of the stock car when the
                 Part 4 of 4                      two drivers are side by side.
d) What will the velocity of the second stone
be the instant both stones hit the water?                     Holt SF 02Rev 59
                                                  02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
            Holt SF 02Rev 57                      wording-variable.
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                                   Part 1 of 3
                                                     Two cars are traveling along a straight line
                  Part 1 of 3                     in the same direction, the lead car at 25 m/s
   A model rocket is launched straight upward     and the other car at 35 m/s. At the moment
with an initial speed of 50.0 m/s. It acceler-    the cars are 45 m apart, the lead driver ap-
ates with a constant upward acceleration of       plies the brakes, causing the car to have an
2.00 m/s2 until its engines stop at an altitude   acceleration of −2.0 m/s2 .
of 150 m.                                            a) How long does it take for the lead car to
   a) What is the maximum height reached by       stop?
the rocket?
                             Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration                             116

                                                  02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                   Part 2 of 3
Assume that the driver of the chasing car           Acceleration is the
applies the brakes at the same time as the
driver of the lead car.                            1. rate of change in momentum.
   b) What must the chasing car’s minimum
negative acceleration be to avoid hitting the      2. rate of change in displacement.
lead car?
                                                   3. rate of change in velocity.
               Part 3 of 3
c) How long does it take the chasing car to        4. amount of time needed for an object to
stop?                                             reach its destination.

            Holt SF 03Rev 56                                       Motion 07
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
wording-variable.
                                                    Deceleration is
                        2
   Given: g = 9.81 m/s .
   A ball is thrown straight upward and re-        1. negative velocity.
turns to the thrower’s hand after 3.00 s in the
air. A second ball is thrown at an angle of        2. negative speed.
30.0◦ with the horizontal.
   At what speed must the second ball be           3. negative acceleration.
thrown so that it reaches the same height as
the one thrown vertically?                         4. negative density.

            Holt SF 03Rev 61                                       Motion 08
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
wording-variable.
                                                    What is the acceleration of an object that
                   Part 1 of 2                    takes 20 s to change from a speed of 200 m/s
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                          to 300 m/sec?
  A car is parked on a cliff overlooking the
ocean on an incline that makes an angle of         1. 5 m/s
24.0◦ below the horizontal. The negligent
driver leaves the car in neutral, and the emer-    2. 5 m/s/s
gency brakes are defective. The car rolls from
rest down the incline with a constant acceler-     3. 100 m/s
ation of 4.00 m/s2 and travels 50.0 m to the
edge of the cliff. The cliff is 30.0 m above the     4. 100 m/s/s
ocean.
  a) How long is the car in the air?                               Motion 09
                                                  02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                 Part 2 of 2
b) What is the car’s position relative to the        An object traveling at a constant 20 m/sec
base of the cliff when the car lands in the        in a circular path is changing its
ocean?
                                                   1. speed.
                 Motion 06
                              Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration                               117

 2. momentum.                                        8. Nothing can be determined without addi-
                                                   tional information.
 3. velocity.
                                                               Object Acceleration
 4. mass.                                          02:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

                 Motion 13                            If the acceleration of an object is zero at
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      some instant in time, what can be said about
                                                   its velocity at that time?
  If the average velocity of an object is the
same for all time intervals, then the object        1. It is negative.
moves at a(n)
                                                    2. It is zero.
 1. constant velocity.
                                                    3. It is positive.
 2. instantaneous velocity.
                                                    4. It is not changing at that time.
 3. changing speed.
                                                    5. Unable to determine.
 4. relative speed.
                                                                 Outwitted Again
          No Change in Velocity                    02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                     Another scheme to catch the roadrunner
  Assume: Quantanties are instantaneous            has failed and a safe falls from rest from the
unless stated otherwise.                           top of a 25 m high cliff toward Wiley Coy-
  The change in velocity ∆v of an object is        ote, who is standing at the base. Wiley first
zero over a short time interval ∆t.                notices the safe after it has fallen 15 m.
  Which of the following must be true?               How long does he have to get out of the
                                                   way?
 1. The object must be at rest.
                                                              Particle Acceleration
  2. The object must have constant accelera-       02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
tion over the interval.
                                                    A particle accelerates from rest at 2 m/s2 .
 3. The object must have constant velocity          What is its speed 3 s after the particle starts
over the interval.                                 moving?

 4. The object must have zero average accel-                   Projectile Fired Up
eration over the interval.                         02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

  5. The object must have zero average veloc-                        Part 1 of 2
ity over the interval.                               A projectile is fired straight upward at
                                                   100 m/s.
 6. The object must be changing position.            How fast is it moving at the instant it
                                                   reaches the top of its trajectory?
 7. The object must begin and end at the
same position.                                                      Part 2 of 2
                                                   How fast is it moving at the instant it reaches
                                   Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration                                118

the top of its trajectory if the projectile is
fired upward at 12◦ from the horizontal?
                                                                          Part 3 of 3
             Projectile Motion                          Which of the following best indicates the di-
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.           rection of the net force, if any, on the ball at
                                                        point Q?
                     Part 1 of 3
                           Q                             1.
                 P                   R


  How do the speeds of the ball at the three
points compare?                                          2.

 1. vP < vQ < vR

 2. vR < vQ < vP                                         3.

 3. vQ < vR < vP

 4. vQ < vP = vR                                         4.

 5. vP = vR < vQ

                  Part 2 of 3
Which of the following diagrams best shows               5. There is no net force on the ball at point
the direction of the acceleration of the ball at        Q.
point P?
                                                                 Rebounding Tennis Ball
 1.                                                     02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

                                                          A tennis ball with a speed of 10 m/s is
                                                        thrown perpendicularly at a wall. After strik-
                                                        ing the wall, the ball rebounds in the opposite
 2.                                                     direction with a speed of 8 m/s.
                                                          If the ball is in contact with the wall for
                                                        0.012 s, what is the magnitude of the average
                                                        acceleration a of the ball while it is in contact
                                                        with the wall?
 3.
                                                                    Return to the Start
                                                        02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
 4.
                                                          A particle, traveling at 6 m/s decelerates at
                                                        1.1 m/s2 .
                                                          How long will it take to get back to the
                                                        starting point?
 5.
                                                                   Rocket Acceleration
                             Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration                               119

02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.           ball. Point A is before the ball reaches the
                                                  top. Point B is at the top, point C is af-
  A rocket initially at rest accelerates at a     ter it has passed the top and it is on its
rate of 50 m/s2 for 1 min.                        way down and having passed the level of A.
  What is its speed at the end of this time?                                B


          Rocket Powered Sleds                                          A
02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.                                         C

                  Part 1 of 2
   Rocket-powered sleds are been used to
test the responses of humans to acceleration.
Starting from rest, one sled can reach a speed
of 444 m/s in 1.8 s and can be brought to a
stop again in 2.15 s.                                The magnitudes of the acceleration are re-
   Find the acceleration of the sled while ac-    lated as
celerating.
                                                   1. aA = g
                 Part 2 of 2
Find the acceleration of the sled when brak-       2. aA < aB
ing.
                                                                 Part 2 of 3
              Sled Acceleration                   The magnitudes of the acceleration are re-
02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.           lated as

                   Part 1 of 3                     1. aB = 0
   A rocket-driven sled running on a straight,
level track has been used to study the physio-     2. aB = aA
logical effects of large accelerations on astro-
nauts. One such sled can attain a speed of         3. aB > aC
444 m/s in 1.8 s starting from rest.
   What is the acceleration of the sled, assum-                  Part 3 of 3
ing it is constant?                               The magnitudes of the acceleration are re-
                                                  lated as
                Part 2 of 3
How many g’s would you pull? (What factor          1. aC < aB and aA < aB
times g = 9.80 m/s2 is this?)
                                                   2. aC = aB = aA
                Part 3 of 3
How far does the sled travel in 1.8 s, starting              Vehicle Acceleration
from rest?                                        02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

         Trajectory Acceleration                     A car traveling in a straight line has a ve-
02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.     locity of 5 m/s at some instant. After 4 s, its
                                                  velocity is 8 m/s.
                 Part 1 of 3                         What is its average acceleration in this time
  A boy throws a ball upward. Compare             interval?
the magnitudes of the gravitational acceler-
ations at three points along the path of the                   Velocity vs Time 01
                             Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration                               120

02:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.




                                                                  velocity (m/s)
  An object was suspended in a fixed place,
then allowed to drop in a free fall.
  Taking the positive direction downwards,
which          of          the       follow-
ing graphs correctly represents its motion?                                        time (s)
                  a) v                            What is the time represented by the second
                                                  tic mark on the horizontal axis?
                               t
                 b)                                                Part 2 of 3
                      v                           What is the velocity represented by the third
                                                  tic mark on the vertical axis?
                               t
                 c) v                                              Part 3 of 3
                                                  What is the velocity when t = 4 s?
                               t
                                                              Velocity vs Time 03
                 d) v                             02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

                               t                                  Part 1 of 3
                e)                                  The scale on the horizontal axis is 2 s per
                      v
                                                  division and on the vertical axis 3 m/s per
                                                  division.
                               t
                                                                  velocity (m/s)




 1. (a)
                                                                                   time (s)
 2. (d)
                                                  What is the time represented by the third tic
 3. (c)                                           mark on the horizontal axis?

 4. (b)                                                            Part 2 of 3
                                                  What is the velocity represented by the fourth
 5. (e)                                           tic mark on the vertical axis?

            Velocity vs Time 02                                    Part 3 of 3
02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.           What is the velocity when t = 6 s?

                Part 1 of 3                                   Velocity vs Time 04
  The scale on the horizontal axis is 2 s per     02:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
division and on the vertical axis 3 m/s per
division.                                            The diagram shows a velocity-time graph
                                                  for a car moving in a straight line.
                             Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration   121

            v
                     P



                                     t
At point P the car must be

 1. moving with zero acceleration.

 2. climbing the hill.

 3. stationary.

 4. accelerating.

 5. moving at about 45◦ with respect to the
x axis.

            Wind Acceleration
02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

  A sailboat is initially moving at a speed
of 3 m/s. A strong wind blows up and ac-
celerates the boat forward with a constant
acceleration of 0.2 m/s2 for 10 s.
  What is the final speed of the sail boat?

             Zero Acceleration
02:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

  An object’s acceleration is zero at some
instant in time, t .
  Its velocity is

 1. not changing at any time.

 2. zero at t.

 3. positive at t.

 4. negative at t.

 5. not changing at t.
               Chapter 2, section 5, Acceleration in Uniform Circular Motion                  122

                                                    1. The moon moves in a straight line toward
            Hewitt CP9 03 E13                      the Earth.
02:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                    2. The moon falls in the sense that it falls
  Which one of the following is an example of      away from the straight line it would follow if
something that undergoes acceleration while        there were no forces acting on it.
moving at constant speed?
                                                    3. Some stones on the moon drop from it
 1. An object moving in a circular path at         toward the Earth.
constant speed.
                                                               Hewitt CP9 10 E15
 2. A football in the air.                         02:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 3. A car moving on the road.                        Since the moon is gravitationally attracted
                                                   to the Earth, why doesn’t it simply crash into
 4. A man in the elevator.                         the Earth?

 5. All are wrong.                                  1. When the moon moves close to the Earth,
                                                   the air on the Earth repels it.
            Hewitt CP9 08 R01
02:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.       2. The moon does not have enough speed to
                                                   crash into the Earth.
  Why is the linear speed greater for a horse
on the outside of a merry-go-round than for a       3. The moon’s tangential velocity is what
horse closer to the center?                        keeps the moon coasting around the Earth
                                                   rather than crashing into it.
  1. Because the tangential speed of the horse
is directly proportional to the distance from       4. The sun attracts the moon so that the
the center.                                        moon cannot move to the Earth.

 2. Because it is easier for the outside horse                 Hewitt CP9 10 E16
to move.                                           02:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

  3. Because the horse on the outside is             When the space shuttle coasts in a circular
stronger.                                          orbit at constant speed about the Earth, is it
                                                   accelerating? If so, in what direction?
  4. Because the horse on the outside has
longer legs.                                        1. No, the shuttle is not accelerating.

  5. Because the horse on the outside feels less    2. Yes, the shuttle is accelerating. The ac-
force from the merry-go-round.                     celeration is toward the Earth’s center.

 6. None of these                                   3. Yes, the shuttle is accelerating. The ac-
                                                   celeration is in the direction from the Earth
            Hewitt CP9 09 R03                      to the moon.
02:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                    4. Yes, the shuttle is accelerating. The ac-
  In what sense does the moon “fall”?              celeration is in the direction from the moon
                                                   to the sun.
                Chapter 2, section 5, Acceleration in Uniform Circular Motion                    123

                                                    lands. Once the launching of satellites fails,
            Hewitt CP9 10 E17                       the satellite can easily go to the sea instead of
02:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.       damaging the residential areas.

  Which planets have a greater period than 1          4. Hawaii is closer to the equator, and there-
Earth year, those closer to the sun than Earth      fore has a greater tangential speed about the
or those farther from the sun than Earth?           polar axis.

 1. those closer to the sun                                     Hewitt CP9 10 E27
                                                    02:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 2. those farther from the sun
                                                      Two planets are never seen at midnight.
 3. It cannot be determined.                          Which two?

 4. both the planets closer to the sun than          1. Jupiter and Mars
Earth and those farther from the sun than
Earth                                                2. Neptune and Pluto

            Hewitt CP9 10 E23                        3. Saturn and Jupiter
02:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                     4. Neptune and Mercury
  Would the speed of a satellite in close circuit
orbit about Jupiter be greater than, equal to,       5. Venus and Mercury
or less than 8 km/s?
                                                                Hewitt CP9 10 E32
 1. greater than                                    02:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 2. equal to                                          What is the shape of the orbit when the
                                                    velocity of the satellite is everywhere perpen-
 3. less than                                       dicular to the force of gravity?

 4. not to be determined                             1. rectangle

            Hewitt CP9 10 E26                        2. parabola
02:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                     3. hyperbola
   Of all the United states, why is Hawaii
the most efficient launching site for non-polar        4. circle
satellites?(Hint:look at the spinning Earth
from above either pole and compare it to a           5. ellipse
spinning turntable.)
                                                                Hewitt CP9 10 E33
 1. Hawaii is the warmest place in the US,          02:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
and therefore energy is saved most.
                                                      If the Space Shuttle circled the Earth at
 2. There is not any strong cold wind in            a distance equal to the Earth-moon distance,
Hawaii.                                             how long would it take for it to make a com-
                                                    plete orbit?
 3. Hawaii is composed by some small is-
               Chapter 2, section 5, Acceleration in Uniform Circular Motion               124

 1. 28 days                                          4. Because there is no power on the satel-
                                                   lites.
 2. 35 days

 3. 365 days

 4. 7 days

 5. 24 hours

            Hewitt CP9 10 E36
02:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

   A “geosynchronous”Earth satellite can re-
main directly overhead in Singapore, but not
in San Francisco. Why?

 1. The temperature in Singapore is warm
enough, but not for San Francisco.

 2. Singapore lies on the Earth’s equator
while San Francisco doesn’t.

 3. There are much more people in Singapore
than in San Francisco. So they use more pow-
erful commercial satellite which can remain
directly overhead in Singapore.

 4. The climate in Singapore is constant over
the year while it is not in San Francisco.

            Hewitt CP9 10 E42
02:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

   If you stopped an Earth satellite dead in its
tracks, it would simply crash into the Earth.
   Why, then, don’t the communications satel-
lites that hover motionless above the same
spot on Earth crash into the Earth?

 1. Because the satellites are not attracted
by the Earth.

 2. Because their orbital period coincides
with the daily rotation of the Earth.

 3. Because the moon attracts the satellites
at the same time.
                           Chapter 2, section 6, Projectile Motion                             125

                                                   circular track.
            Hewitt CP9 02 E35
02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.       5. All are wrong.

  Before the time of Galileo and Newton,                       Hewitt CP9 10 E01
some learned scholars thought that a stone         02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
dropped from the top of a tall mast of a
moving shop would fall vertically and hit the        A heavy crate accidentally falls from a high-
deck behind the mast by a distance equal to        flying airplane just as it flies directly above a
how far the ship had moved forward while the       shiny red Camaro smartly parked in a car lot.
stone was falling.                                   Relative to the Camaro, where will the
  In light of your understanding of Newton’s       crate crash?
first law, what do you think about this?
                                                    1. The crate will hit the Camaro.
 1. That’s right; if the speed is fast enough,
the stone will drop into the sea.                   2. The crate will not hit the Camaro, but
                                                   will crash a distance beyond it determined by
  2. The stone will fall vertically if released    the height and speed of the plane.
from rest.
                                                    3. The crate will continue to fly and will not
  3. The stone will have a horizontal motion;      crash.
it will hit the deck in front of the mast.
                                                    4. The crate will hit the front part of the
 4. The stone will fall in any trajectory; it      car.
depends on the speed of the shop.
                                                               Hewitt CP9 10 E03
 5. All are wrong.                                 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

            Hewitt CP9 02 E39                         How does the vertical component of a pro-
02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      jectile’s motion compare with the motion of
                                                   vertical free fall?
   The chimney of a stationary toy train con-
sists of a vertical spring gun that shoots steel     1. When air resistance is negligible, the ver-
balls a meter or so straight into the air–so       tical component of motion for a projectile is
straight that the ball always falls back into      greater than that of free fall.
the chimney.
   If the train is moving, under which condi-        2. When air resistance is negligible, the ver-
tion will the ball fall back into the chimney?     tical component of motion for a projectile is
                                                   less than that of free fall.
 1. The train moves at constant speed along
the straight track.                                  3. When air resistance is negligible, the ver-
                                                   tical component of motion for a projectile is
 2. The train suddenly increases its speed         identical to that of free fall.
when the ball is in the air.
                                                    4. It cannot be determined.
 3. The train suddenly decreases its speed
when the ball is in the air.                                   Hewitt CP9 10 E05
                                                   02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 4. The train moves at a constant speed on a
                           Chapter 2, section 6, Projectile Motion                             126

  At what point in its trajectory does a bat-      table. The mouse steps out of the way, and
ted baseball have it’s minimum speed?              the cat slides off the table and strikes the floor
                                                   2.2 m from the edge of the table.
 1. Minimum speed occurs at the bottom.              What was the cat’s speed when it slid off
                                                   the table?
 2. Minimum speed occurs at the top.
                                                              Holt SF 03D 03 04
 3. Minimum speed occurs at somewhere in           02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
the middle height.                                 wording-variable.

 4. Minimum speed occurs at the beginning                          Part 1 of 2
point.                                               Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
                                                     A pelican flying along a horizontal path
 5. Minimum speed occurs at the ending             drops a fish from a height of 5.4 m. The fish
point.                                             travels 8.0 m horizontally before it hits the
                                                   water below.
            Hewitt CP9 10 E09                        a) What was the pelican’s initial speed?
02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                                     Part 2 of 2
  When a rifle is being fired at a distant           b) If the pelican was traveling at the same
target, why isn’t the barrel lined up so that it   speed but was only 2.7 m above the water,
points exactly at the target?                      how far would the fish travel horizontally be-
                                                   fore hitting the water below?
 1. The target might be moving.
                                                                Holt SF 03E 01
 2. To compensate for the bullet’s fall, the       02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
barrel is elevated.                                wording-variable.

 3. The target is not so clear.                      Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
                                                     In a scene in an action movie, a stunt man
 4. The bullet might be blew by the air.           jumps from the top of one building to the
                                                   top of another building 4.0 m away. After a
             Holt SF 03D 01                        running start, he leaps at an angle of 15◦ with
02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            respect to the flat roof while traveling at a
wording-variable.                                  speed of 5.0 m/s.
                                                     To determine if he will make it to the other
   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                          roof, which is 2.5 m shorter than the build-
   An autographed baseball rolls off of a 0.70      ing from which he jumps, find his vertical
m high desk and strikes the floor 0.25 m away       displacement upon reaching the front edge of
from the desk.                                     the lower building with respect to the taller
   How fast was it rolling on the desk before it   building.
fell off?
                                                                Holt SF 03E 02
             Holt SF 03D 02                        02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            wording-variable.
wording-variable.
                                                     A golfer can hit a golf ball a horizontal
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                           distance of over 300 m on a good drive.
  A cat chases a mouse across a 1.0 m high           What maximum height will a 301.5 m drive
                            Chapter 2, section 6, Projectile Motion                             127

reach if it is launched at an angle of 25.0◦ to
the ground?                                            Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
                                                       The fastest recorded pitch in Major League
             Holt SF 03E 03                         Baseball was thrown by Nolan Ryan in 1974.
02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,             If this pitch were thrown horizontally, the ball
wording-variable.                                   would fall 0.809 m (2.65 ft) by the time it
                                                    reached home plate, 18.3 m (60 ft) away.
                  Part 1 of 2                          How fast was Ryan’s pitch?
   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
   A baseball is thrown at an angle of 25◦                      Holt SF 03Rev 35
relative to the ground at a speed of 23.0 m/s.      02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
The ball is caught 41.3 m from the thrower.         wording-variable.
   a) How long is it in the air?
                                                                       Part 1 of 2
                Part 2 of 2                            Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
b) How high is the tallest spot in the ball’s          A shell is fired from the ground with an
path?                                               initial speed of 1.70 × 103 m/s (approximately
                                                    five times the speed of sound) at an initial
             Holt SF 03E 04                         angle of 55.0◦ to the horizontal.
02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                a) Neglecting air resistance, find the shell’s
wording-variable.                                   horizontal range.

  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                                             Part 2 of 2
  Salmon often jump waterfalls to reach their       b) How long is the shell in motion?
breeding grounds.
  Starting 2.00 m from a waterfall 0.550 m                      Holt SF 03Rev 36
in height, at what minimum speed must a             02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
salmon jumping at an angle of 32.0◦ leave the       wording-variable.
water to continue upstream?
                                                                      Part 1 of 2
             Holt SF 03E 05                            Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                A person standing at the edge of a seaside
wording-variable.                                   cliff kicks a stone over the edge with a speed
                                                    of 18 m/s. The cliff is 52 m above the water’s
                  Part 1 of 2                       surface, as shown.
   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
   A quarterback throws the football to a sta-                        18 m/s
tionary receiver who is 31.5 m down the field.
The football is thrown at an initial angle of
40.0◦ to the ground.
   a) At what initial speed must the quarter-
back throw the ball for it to reach the receiver?
                                                                      52 m




                Part 2 of 2
b) What is the ball’s highest point during its
flight?

              Holt SF 03Rev 34                            Note: Figure not drawn to scale
02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.         a) How long does it take for the stone to fall
                            Chapter 2, section 6, Projectile Motion                            128

to the water?                                        m/s. A net is positioned at a horizontal dis-
                                                     tance of 50.0 m from the cannon from which
                Part 2 of 2                          the daredevil is shot.
b) With what speed does the stone strike the           At what height above the cannon’s mouth
water?                                               should the net be placed in order to catch the
                                                     daredevil?
            Holt SF 03Rev 37
02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                          Holt SF 03Rev 40
wording-variable.                                    02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                     wording-variable.
   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
   A spy in a speed boat is being chased down                          Part 1 of 2
a river by government officials in a faster craft.       Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
Just as the officials’ boat pulls up next to the         When a water gun is fired while being
spy’s boat, both boats reach the edge of a 5.0       held horizontally at a height of 1.00 m above
m waterfall. The spy’s speed is 15 m/s and           ground level, the water travels a horizontal
the officials’ speed is 26 m/s.                        distance of 5.00 m.
   How far apart will the two vessels be when          a) Find the initial velocity of the water.
they land below the waterfall?
                                                                       Part 2 of 2
            Holt SF 03Rev 38                         A child, who is holding the same gun in a
02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,              horizontal position, is sliding down a 45.0◦
wording-variable.                                    incline at a constant speed of 2.00 m/s. The
                                                     child fires the gun when it is 1.00 m above the
                   Part 1 of 2                       ground and the water takes 0.329 s to reach
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                             the ground.
  A place kicker must kick a football from a           b) How far will the water travel horizon-
point 36.0 m (about 39 yd) from the goal. As         tally?
a result of the kick, the ball must clear the
crossbar, which is 3.05 m high. When kicked,                     Holt SF 03Rev 41
the ball leaves the ground with a speed of 20.0      02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
m/s at an angle of 53◦ to the horizontal.            wording-variable.
  a) To determine if the ball clears the cross-
bar, what is its height with respect to the                              Part 1 of 2
crossbar when it reaches the plane of the              Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
crossbar?                                              A ship maneuvers to within 2.50 × 103 m
                                                     of an island’s 1.80 × 103 m high mountain
                    Part 2 of 2                      peak and fires a projectile at an enemy ship
b) To determine if the ball approaches the           6.10 × 102 m on the other side of the peak,
crossbar while still rising or while falling, what   as illustrated. The ship shoots the projectile
is its vertical velocity at the crossbar?            with an initial velocity of 2.50 × 102 m/s at
                                                     an angle of 75.0◦ .
            Holt SF 03Rev 39
02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                                 s
                                                               m/




wording-variable.                                                           1800 m
                                                               0
                                                            25




                                                                   75◦
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
  A daredevil is shot out of a cannon at 45.0◦                           2500 m
                                                                                     610 m
to the horizontal with an initial speed of 25.0
                           Chapter 2, section 6, Projectile Motion                           129

      Note: Figure is not drawn to scale
  a) How close to the enemy ship does the             Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
projectile land?                                      A 2.00 m tall basketball player attempts a
                                                   goal 10.00 m from the basket (3.05 m high).
                Part 2 of 2                           If he shoots the ball at a 45.0◦ angle, at
b) How close (vertically) does the projectile      what initial speed must he throw the basket-
come to the peak?                                  ball so that it goes through the hoop without
                                                   striking the backboard?
            Holt SF 03Rev 53
02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                         Holt SF 03Rev 58
wording-variable.                                  02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
                                                   mal.
                   Part 1 of 3
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                             Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
  A ball player hits a home run, and the             A 80 g autographed baseball rolls off of
baseball just clears a wall 7.00 m high located    a 1.2 m high table and strikes the floor a
130.0 m from home plate. The ball is hit at        horizontal distance of 0.8 m away from the
an angle of 35.0◦ to the horizontal, and air       table. See the figure below.
resistance is negligible. Assume the ball is hit
at a height of 1.0 m above the ground.
  a) What is the initial speed of the ball?

                Part 2 of 3
b) How much time does it take for the ball to
reach the wall?
                                                              1.2 m
                 Part 3 of 3
c) Find the speed of the ball when it reaches
the wall.

            Holt SF 03Rev 54                                             0.8 m
02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,               How fast was it rolling on the table before
wording-variable.                                  it fell off?

                  Part 1 of 2                                  Holt SF 03Rev 58A
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                           02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
  A daredevil jumps a canyon 12 m wide. To         mal.
do so, he drives a car up a 15◦ incline.
  a) What minimum speed must he achieve                             Part 1 of 2
to clear the canyon?                                 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
                                                     A 80 g autographed baseball slides off of
                  Part 2 of 2                      a 1.2 m high table and strikes the floor a
b) If the daredevil jumps at this minimum          horizontal distance of 0.9 m away from the
speed, what will his speed be when he reaches      table. See the figure below.
the other side?

            Holt SF 03Rev 55
02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.
                            Chapter 2, section 6, Projectile Motion                              130

                                                      a) How far could the person jump on the
                                                    moon, where the free-fall acceleration is g/6
                                                    and g = 9.81 m/s2 ?

                                                                    Part 2 of 2
        1.2 m                                       b) How far could the person jump on Mars,
                                                    where the acceleration due to gravity is
                                                    0.38g?

                                                                Holt SF 03Rev 68
                                                    02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                   0.9 m                            wording-variable.

                                                      Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
                                                      A science student riding on a flatcar of a
   How fast was it rolling on the table before      train moving at a constant speed of a 10.0
it fell off?                                         m/s throws a ball toward the caboose along
                                                    a path that the student judges as making
                    Part 2 of 2                     an initial angle of 60.0◦ with the horizontal.
What was the direction of the ball’s velocity       The teacher, who is standing on the ground
just before it hit the floor?                        nearby, observes the ball rising vertically.
   That is, at what angle (in the range −90◦ to       How high does the ball rise?
+90◦ relative to the horizontal directed away
from the table) did the ball hit the floor?                      Holt SF 03Rev 69
                                                    02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
            Holt SF 03Rev 63                        wording-variable.
02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                     Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
                                                      A football is thrown toward a receiver with
                  Part 1 of 2                       an initial speed of 18.0 m/s at an angle of
   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                           35.0◦ above the horizontal. At that instant,
   A golf ball with an initial angle of 34◦         the receiver is 18.0 m from the quarterback.
lands exactly 240 m down the range on a               With what constant speed should the re-
level course.                                       ceiver run to catch the football at the level at
   a) Neglecting air friction, what initial speed   which it was thrown?
would achieve this result?
                                                                Holt SF 03Rev 70
                Part 2 of 2                         02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
b) Find the maximum height reached by the           wording-variable.
ball.
                                                                         Part 1 of 3
            Holt SF 03Rev 67                           Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                A rocket is launched at an angle of 53◦
wording-variable.                                   above the horizontal with an initial speed of
                                                    75 m/s, as shown. It moves for 25 s along
                Part 1 of 2                         its initial line of motion with an overall accel-
  A person can jump a horizontal distance of        eration of 25 m/s2 . At this time its engines
3.0 m on Earth.                                     fail and the rocket proceeds to move as a free
                                                    body.
                          Chapter 2, section 6, Projectile Motion   131

  a) What is the rocket’s maximum altitude?

                 Part 2 of 3
b) What is the rocket’s total time of flight?

                 Part 3 of 3
c) What is the rocket’s horizontal range?
                                Chapter 2, section 7, Vectors                                132

                                                               Holt SF 03A 04
              Holt SF 03A 01                      02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-      wording-variable.
mal.
                                                                     Part 1 of 2
                  Part 1 of 2                        A hummingbird flies 1.2 m along a straight
  A truck driver attempting to deliver some       path at a height of 3.4 m above the ground.
furniture travels 8 km east, turns around and     Upon spotting a flower below, the humming-
travels 3 km west, and then travels 12 km east    bird drops directly downward 1.4 m to hover
to his destination.                               in front of the flower.
  a) What distance has the driver traveled?          a) What is the magnitude of the humming-
                                                  bird’s total displacement?
                Part 2 of 2
b) What is the magnitude of the driver’s total                     Part 2 of 2
displacement?                                     How many degrees below the horizontal is this
                                                  total displacement?
             Holt SF 03A 02
02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                       Holt SF 03B 01 02
wording-variable.                                 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
                                                  mal.
                   Part 1 of 2
   While following the directions on a treasure                    Part 1 of 2
map, a pirate walks 45.0 m north, then turns        A truck travels beneath an airplane that is
and walks 7.5 m east.                             moving 105 km/h at an angle of 25 ◦ to the
   a) What is the magnitude of the sin-           ground.
gle straight-line displacement that the pirate      a) How fast must the truck travel to stay
could have taken to reach the treasure?           beneath the airplane?

               Part 2 of 2                                         Part 2 of 2
b) At what angle with the north would he          b) What is the magnitude of the vertical com-
have to walk?                                     ponent of the velocity of the plane?

             Holt SF 03A 03                                     Holt SF 03B 03
02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
wording-variable.                                 mal.

                  Part 1 of 2                                       Part 1 of 2
  Emily passes a soccer ball 6.0 m directly         A truck travels up a hill with a 15◦ incline.
across the field to Kara, who then kicks the       The truck has a constant speed of 22 m/s.
ball 14.5 m directly down the field to Luisa.        a) What is the horizontal component of the
  a) What is the magnitude of the ball’s total    truck’s velocity?
displacement as it travels between Emily and
Luisa?                                                              Part 2 of 2
                                                  b) What is the vertical component of the
               Part 2 of 2                        truck’s velocity?
b) How many degrees to the side of straight
down the field is the ball’s total displace-                     Holt SF 03B 04
ment?                                             02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
                                                  mal.
                                 Chapter 2, section 7, Vectors                               133

                                                   the skier’s acceleration (perpendicular to the
                 Part 1 of 2                       direction of free fall)?
  A cat climbs 5 m directly up a tree.
  a) What is the horizontal component of the                          Part 2 of 2
cat’s displacement?                                b) What is the vertical component of the
                                                   skier’s acceleration?
                 Part 2 of 2
b) What is the vertical component of the cat’s                   Holt SF 03C 01
displacement?                                      02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
                                                   mal.
              Holt SF 03B 05
02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-                        Part 1 of 2
mal.                                                 A football player runs directly down the
                                                   field for 35 m before turning to the right at
                  Part 1 of 2                      an angle of 25 ◦ from his original direction
  A superhero flies 125 m from the top of           and running an additional 15 m before being
a tall building at an angle of 25 ◦ below the      tackled.
horizontal.                                          a) What is the magnitude of the runner’s
  a) What is the horizontal component of the       total displacement?
superhero’s displacement?
                                                                      Part 2 of 2
                  Part 2 of 2                      b) At what angle to his original displacement
b) What is the vertical component of the su-       is his total displacement (with counterclock-
perhero’s displacement?                            wise positive)?

             Holt SF 03B 06                                     Holt SF 03C 02
02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                  wording-variable.

                  Part 1 of 2                                        Part 1 of 2
  A child rides a toboggan down a hill that          A plane travels 2.5 km at an angle of 35◦ to
descends at an angle of 30.5◦ to the horizontal.   the ground, then changes direction and travels
The hill is 23.0 m long.                           5.2 km at an angle of 22◦ to the ground.
  a) What is the horizontal component of the         a) What is the magnitude of the plane’s
child’s displacement?                              total displacement?

                 Part 2 of 2                                         Part 2 of 2
b) What is the vertical component of the           b) At what angle above the horizontal is the
child’s displacement?                              plane’s total displacement?

             Holt SF 03B 07                                     Holt SF 03C 03
02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                  wording-variable.

                  Part 1 of 2                                         Part 1 of 2
  A skier squats low and races down a(n) 18◦          During the rodeo, a clown runs 8.0 m north,
ski slope. During a 5 s interval, the skier        turns 35◦ east of north, and runs 3.5 m. Then,
accelerates at 2.5 m/s2 .                          after waiting for the bull to come near, the
  a) What is the horizontal component of           clown turns due east and runs 5.0 m to exit
                                Chapter 2, section 7, Vectors                               134

the arena.                                          A golfer takes two putts to sink his ball in
  a) What is the magnitude of the clown’s         the hole once he is on the green. The first
total displacement?                               putt displaces the ball 6.00 m east, and the
                                                  second putt displaces it 5.40 m south.
                  Part 2 of 2                       a) How large a displacement would put the
b) How many degrees east of north is the          ball in the hole in one putt?
clown’s total displacement?
                                                                   Part 2 of 2
             Holt SF 03C 04                       b) What is the direction (measured from due
02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           east, with counterclockwise positive) of the
wording-variable.                                 displacement?

                 Part 1 of 2                                  Holt SF 03Rev 24
  An airplane flying parallel to the ground        02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
undergoes two consecutive displacements.          wording-variable.
The first is 75 km at 30.0◦ west of north,
and the second is 155 km at 60.0◦ east of            A quarterback takes the ball from the line
north.                                            of scrimmage, runs backward for 10.0 yards,
  a) What is the magnitude of the plane’s         then runs sideways parallel to the line of
total displacement?                               scrimmage for 15.0 yards. At this point, he
                                                  throws a 50.0 yard forward pass straight down
                 Part 2 of 2                      the field.
b) At what angle east of north is the plane’s        What is the magnitude of the football’s
total displacement?                               resultant displacement?

            Holt SF 03Rev 22                                  Holt SF 03Rev 25
02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                 wording-variable.

                Part 1 of 3                                         Part 1 of 4
  A girl delivering newspapers travels 5            Note: You are not given the direction
blocks west, 8 blocks north, then 9 blocks        moved after any of the 90◦ turns, so there
east.                                             could be more than one answer.
  a) What is the magnitude of her resultant         A shopper pushing a cart through a store
displacement?                                     moves 40.0 m south down one aisle, then
                                                  makes a 90◦ turn and moves 15.0 m. He
                Part 2 of 3                       then makes another 90◦ turn and moves 20.0
b) Find the direction (measured from due          m.
east, with counterclockwise positive) of her        a) What is the magnitude of the small-
displacement.                                     est possible displacement the shopper could
                                                  have?
                 Part 3 of 3
c) What is the total distance she travels?                         Part 2 of 4
                                                  b) At how many degrees from due south is
            Holt SF 03Rev 23                      this displacement?
02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                                  Part 3 of 4
                                                  c) What is the magnitude of the largest pos-
                 Part 1 of 2                      sible displacement the shopper could have?
                               Chapter 2, section 7, Vectors                                135


                 Part 4 of 4                                        Part 1 of 2
d) At how many degrees from due south is            A person walks the path shown. The total
this displacement?                               trip consists of four straight-line paths.
                                                                    100 m
            Holt SF 03Rev 26
02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                                                 N
wording-variable.




                                                                            300 m
                                                                                    W       E
                 Part 1 of 2
  A submarine dives 110.0 m at an angle of                                              S
10.0◦ below the horizontal.




                                                       200
  a) What is the horizontal component of the




                                                         m
submarine’s displacement?                                       30.0◦
                                                        60.0◦          m
                                                                   150
                 Part 2 of 2                          Note: Figure is not drawn to scale.
b) What is the vertical component of the sub-      a) At the end of the walk, what is the mag-
marine’s displacement?                           nitude of the person’s resultant displacement
                                                 measured from the starting point?
            Holt SF 03Rev 27
02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                            Part 2 of 2
wording-variable.                                b) What is the direction (measured from due
                                                 west, with counterclockwise positive) of the
                   Part 1 of 2                   person’s resultant displacement?
  A person walks 25.0◦ north of east for 3.10
km. Another person walks due north and due                   Holt SF 03Rev 49
east to arrive at the same location.             02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
  a) How large is the east component of this     wording-variable.
second path?
                                                                   Part 1 of 2
                 Part 2 of 2                        The pilot of an aircraft wishes to fly due
b) How large is the north component of this      west in a 50.0 km/h wind blowing toward the
second path?                                     south. The speed of the aircraft in the absence
                                                 of a wind is 205 km/h.
            Holt SF 03Rev 28                        a) How many degrees from west should the
02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,          aircraft head? Let clockwise be positive.
wording-variable.
                                                                 Part 2 of 2
                  Part 1 of 2                    b) What should the plane’s speed be relative
   A roller coaster travels 41.1 m at an angle   to the ground?
of 40.0◦ above the horizontal.
   a) How far does it move horizontally?                     Holt SF 03Rev 50
                                                 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                 Part 2 of 2                     wording-variable.
b) How far does it move vertically?
                                                   A hunter wishes to cross a river that is
            Holt SF 03Rev 29                     1.5 km wide and that flows with a speed of
02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,          5.0 km/h. The hunter uses a small powerboat
wording-variable.
                                 Chapter 2, section 7, Vectors                                 136

that moves at a maximum speed of 12 km/h           stands on the escalator, it takes 50.0 s to ride
with respect to the water.                         from the bottom to the top.
  What is the minimum time necessary for              If a person walks up the moving escalator
crossing?                                          with a speed of 0.500 m/s relative to the
                                                   escalator, how long does it take the person to
            Holt SF 03Rev 52                       get to the top?
02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                              Holt SF 03Rev 60
                                                   02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                   Part 1 of 3                     wording-variable.
  A motorboat heads due east at 12.0 m/s
across a river that flows toward the south at a       The eye of a hurricane passes over Grand
speed of 3.5 m/s.                                  Bahama Island. It is moving in a direction
  a) What is the magnitude of the resultant        60.0◦ north of west with a speed of 41.0 km/h.
velocity relative to an observer on the shore?     Exactly 3.00 hours later, the course of the
                                                   hurricane shifts due north, and its speed slows
                 Part 2 of 3                       to 25.0 km/h, as shown.
b) What is the angle from the original heading       How far from Grand Bahama is the hurri-
(with counterclockwise positive) of the boat’s     cane 4.50 h after it passes over the island?
displacement?
                                                               Holt SF 03Rev 62
                    Part 3 of 3                    02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
c) If the river is 1360 m wide, how long does      wording-variable.
it take the boat to cross?
                                                      A boat moves through a river at 7.5 m/s
            Holt SF 03Rev 57                       relative to the water, regardless of the boat’s
02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            direction.
wording-variable.                                     If the water in the river is flowing at 1.5
                                                   m/s, how long does it take the boat to make a
                   Part 1 of 2                     round trip consisting of a 250 m displacement
   An escalator is 20.0 m long. If a person        downstream followed by a 250 m displacement
stands on the escalator, it takes 50.0 s to ride   upstream?
from the bottom to the top.
   a) If a person walks up the moving escalator                Holt SF 03Rev 64
with a speed of 0.500 m/s relative to the          02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
escalator, how long does it take the person to     wording-variable.
get to the top?
                                                                     Part 1 of 4
                 Part 2 of 2                          A water spider maintains an average po-
b) If a person walks down the “up” escala-         sition on the surface of a stream by darting
tor with the same relative speed as in the         upstream (against the current), then drifting
first part, how long does it take to reach the      downstream (with the current) to its origi-
bottom?                                            nal position. The current in the stream is
                                                   0.500 m/s relative to the shore, and the water
      Holt SF 03Rev 57 shortened                   spider darts upstream 0.560 m (relative to a
02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            spot on shore) in 0.800 s during the first part
wording-variable.                                  of its motion. Use upstream as the positive
                                                   direction.
  An escalator is 20.0 m long. If a person            a) Find the velocity of the water spider
                                Chapter 2, section 7, Vectors   137

relative to the water during its dash upstream.

                   Part 2 of 4
b) What is its velocity (relative to the water)
during its drift downstream?

                 Part 3 of 4
c) How far upstream relative to the water does
the water spider move during one cycle of this
upstream and downstream motion?

                  Part 4 of 4
d) What is the average velocity of the water
spider relative to the water for one complete
cycle?

            Holt SF 03Rev 65
02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.

                   Part 1 of 2
  A car travels due east with a speed of 50.0
km/h. Rain is falling vertically with respect
to Earth. The traces of the rain on the side
windows of the car make an angle of 60.0◦
with the vertical.
  a) Find the magnitude of the velocity of the
rain with respect to the car.

                 Part 2 of 2
b) Find the magnitude of the rain’s velocity
with respect to Earth.

            Holt SF 03Rev 66
02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.

   A shopper in a department store can walk
up a stationary (stalled) escalator in 30.0 s.
   If the normally functioning escalator can
carry the standing shopper to the next floor
in 20.0 s, how long would it take the shopper
to walk up the moving escalator? Assume the
same walking effort for the shopper whether
the escalator is stalled or moving.
                           Chapter 2, section 8, Relative Velocity                            138

                                                  locity relative to the road?
             Holt SF 03F 01
02:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                           Part 2 of 2
wording-variable.                                 b) At how many degrees east of north is the
                                                  dog actually moving?
  A passenger at the rear of a train traveling
at 15 m/s relative to Earth throws a base-                    Holt SF 03Rev 47
ball with a speed of 15 m/s in the direction      02:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
opposite the motion of the train.                 wording-variable.
  What is the velocity of the baseball relative
to Earth as it leaves the thrower’s hand?            The pilot of a plane measures an air velocity
                                                  of 165 km/h south. An observer on the ground
             Holt SF 03F 02                       sees the plane pass overhead at a velocity of
02:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           145 km/h toward the north.
wording-variable.                                    What is the velocity of the wind that is
                                                  affecting the plane? Let north be positive.
   A spy runs from the front to the back of an
aircraft carrier at a velocity of 3.5 m/s. The                Holt SF 03Rev 48
aircraft carrier is moving forward at 18.0 m/s.   02:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
   How fast does the spy appear to be run-        wording-variable.
ning when viewed by an observer on a nearby
stationary submarine (forward is positive)?                         Part 1 of 3
                                                    A river flows due east at 1.50 m/s. A
             Holt SF 03F 03                       boat crosses the river from the south shore
02:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           to the north shore by maintaining a constant
wording-variable.                                 velocity of 10.0 m/s due north relative to the
                                                  water.
                  Part 1 of 2                       a) What is the magnitude of the velocity of
   A ferry is crossing a river. The ferry is      the boat as viewed by an observer on shore?
headed due north with a speed of 2.5 m/s
relative to the water and the river’s velocity                      Part 2 of 3
is 3.0 m/s to the east.                           b) How many degrees off course is the boat
   a) What is magnitude of the boat’s velocity    forced by the current?
relative to Earth?
                                                                     Part 3 of 3
                  Part 2 of 2                     c) If the river is 325 m wide, how far down-
b) Find the direction in which the ferry is       stream is the boat when it reaches the north
moving (measured from due east, with coun-        shore?
terclockwise positive).
                                                              Holt SF 03Rev 51
             Holt SF 03F 04                       02:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
02:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           wording-variable.
wording-variable.
                                                                    Part 1 of 2
                 Part 1 of 2                         A swimmer can swim in still water at a
  A pet store supply truck moves at 25.0 m/s      speed of 9.50 m/s. He intends to swim directly
north along a highway. Inside, a dog moves at     across a river that has a downstream current
1.75 m/s at an angle of 35.0◦ east of north.      of 3.75 m/s.
  a) What is the magnitude of the dog’s ve-          a) How many degrees from straight across
                         Chapter 2, section 8, Relative Velocity   139

the river should he head? Let upstream be a
positive angle.

                   Part 2 of 2
b) What is the magnitude of the swimmer’s
velocity relative to the bank?
                   Chapter 2, section 9, Angular and Linear Quantities                      140

                                                b) What is the value of b?
             Holt SF 07A 01
02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                          Part 3 of 4
wording-variable.                               c) What is the value of c?

  A girl sitting on a merry-go-round moves                       Part 4 of 4
counterclockwise through an arc length of       d) What is the value of d?
2.50 m.
  If the girl’s angular displacement is 1.67                 Holt SF 07B 01
rad, how far is she from the center of the      02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
merry-go-round?                                 wording-variable.

             Holt SF 07A 02                       A car tire rotates with an average angular
02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,         speed of 29 rad/s.
wording-variable.                                 In what time interval will the tire rotate 3.5
                                                times?
   A beetle sits at the top of a bicycle
wheel and flies away just before it would be                  Holt SF 07B 02
squashed. Assuming that the wheel turns         02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
clockwise, the beetle’s angular displacement    wording-variable.
is π rad, which corresponds to an arc length
of 1.2 m.                                          A girl ties a toy airplane to the end of a
   What is the wheel’s radius?                  string and swings it around her head. The
                                                plane’s average angular speed is 2.2 rad/s.
             Holt SF 07A 03                        In what time interval will the plane move
02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,         through an angular displacement of 3.3 rad?
wording-variable.
                                                             Holt SF 07B 03
  A car on a Ferris wheel has an angular        02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
displacement of π rad, which corresponds to
                  4                             wording-variable.
an arc length of 29.8 m.
  What is the Ferris wheel’s radius?               The average angular speed of a fly moving
                                                in a circle is 7.0 rad/s.
             Holt SF 07A 04                        How long does the fly take to move through
02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,         2.3 rad?
wording-variable.
                                                             Holt SF 07B 04
                 Part 1 of 4                    02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
  Consider the following table:                 wording-variable.

    ∆θ             ∆s                r                            Part 1 of 4
     a           +0.25 m          0.10 m           Consider the following table:
  +0.75 rad          b             8.5 m
                                                      ωavg             ∆θ              ∆t
      c           −4.2 m          0.75 m
   +135◦          +2.6 m             d                  a            +2.3 rad        10.0 s
                                                   +0.75 rev/s           b           0.050 s
                                                        c           −1.2 turns        1.2 s
  a) What is the value of a?                       +2.0π rad/s      +1.5π rad           d

                 Part 2 of 4                       a) What is the value of a?
                   Chapter 2, section 9, Angular and Linear Quantities                      141

                                                              Holt SF 07D 01
                 Part 2 of 4                     02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
b) What is the value of b?                       wording-variable.

                 Part 3 of 4                        The wheel on an upside-down bicycle moves
c) What is the value of c?                       through 18.0 rad in 5.00 s.
                                                    What is the wheel’s angular acceleration if
                 Part 4 of 4                     its initial angular speed is 2.0 rad/s?
d) What is the value of d?
                                                              Holt SF 07D 02
             Holt SF 07C 01                      02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,          wording-variable.
wording-variable.
                                                    A diver performing a double somersault
   A figure skater begins spinning counter-       spins at an angular speed of 4.0π rad/s pre-
clockwise at an angular speed of 4.0π rad/s.     cisely 0.50 s after leaving the platform.
During a 3.0 s interval, she slowly pulls her       Assuming the diver begins with zero initial
arms inward and finally spins at 8.0π rad/s.      angular speed and accelerates at a constant
   What is her average angular acceleration      rate, what is the diver’s angular acceleration
during this time interval?                       during the double somersault?

             Holt SF 07C 02                                   Holt SF 07D 03
02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,          02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                wording-variable.

  What angular acceleration is necessary to         A fish swimming behind an oil tanker gets
increase the angular speed of a fan blade from   caught in a whirlpool created by the ship’s
8.5 rad/s to 15.4 rad/s in 5.2 s?                propellers. The fish has an angular speed of
                                                 1.0 rad/s. After 4.5 s, the fish’s angular speed
             Holt SF 07C 03                      is 14.5 rad/s.
02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,             If the water in the whirlpool accelerates at
wording-variable.                                a constant rate, what is the angular accelera-
                                                 tion?
                 Part 1 of 3
  Consider the following table:                             Holt SF 07D 04 05
                                                 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
      αavg             ∆ω           ∆t
                                                 wording-variable.
        a         +121.5 rad/s      7.0 s
  +0.75 rad/s2          b         0.050 s                          Part 1 of 2
        c         −1.2 turns/s      1.2 s          A remote-controlled car’s wheel accelerates
  a) What is the value of a?                     at 22.4 rad/s2 .
                                                   a) If the wheel begins with an angular speed
                 Part 2 of 3                     of 10.8 rad/s, what is the wheel’s angular
b) What is the value of b?                       speed after exactly three full turns?

                 Part 3 of 3                                      Part 2 of 2
c) What is the value of c?                       b) How long does the wheel in part a) take to
                                                 make the three turns?
                    Chapter 2, section 9, Angular and Linear Quantities                       142

             Holt SF 07E 01
02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                            Part 4 of 4
wording-variable.                                 d) What is the value of d?

  A woman passes through a revolving door                      Holt SF 07F 01
with a tangential speed of 1.8 m/s.               02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
  If she is 0.80 m from the center of the door,   wording-variable.
what is the door’s angular speed?
                                                     A dog on a merry-go-round undergoes a 1.5
             Holt SF 07E 02                       m/s2 linear acceleration.
02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,              If the merry-go-round’s angular accelera-
wording-variable.                                 tion is 1.0 rad/s2 , how far is the dog from the
                                                  axis of rotation?
   A softball pitcher throws a ball with a tan-
gential speed of 6.93 m/s.                                     Holt SF 07F 02
   If the pitcher’s arm is 0.660 m long, what     02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
is the angular speed of the ball before the       wording-variable.
pitcher releases it?
                                                     A young boy swings a yo-yo horizontally
             Holt SF 07E 03                       above his head at an angular acceleration of
02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           0.35 rad/s2 .
wording-variable.                                    If the tangential acceleration of the yo-yo
                                                  at the end of the string is 0.18 m/s2 , how long
  An athlete spins in a circle before releasing   is the string?
a discus with a tangential speed of 9.0 m/s.
  What is the angular speed of the spinning                    Holt SF 07F 03
athlete? Assume the discus is 0.75 m from the     02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
athlete’s axis of rotation.                       wording-variable.

             Holt SF 07E 04                          What is a tire’s angular acceleration if the
02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           tangential acceleration at a radius of 0.15 m
wording-variable.                                 is 9.4 × 10−2 m/s2 ?

                 Part 1 of 4                                   Holt SF 07G 01
  Consider the following table:                   02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                  wording-variable.
      vt               ω              r
      a          121.5 rad/s       0.0300 m          A girl sits on a tire that is attached to
  0.75 m/s             b            0.050 m       an overhanging tree limb by a rope. The
      c          1.2 turns/s         3.8 m        girl’s father pushes her so that her centripetal
  2.0 π m/s       1.5 π rad/s         d           acceleration is 3.0 m/s2 .
                                                     If the length of the rope is 2.1 m, what is
  a) What is the value of a?                      the girl’s tangential speed?

                 Part 2 of 4                                   Holt SF 07G 02
b) What is the value of b?                        02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                  wording-variable.
                 Part 3 of 4
c) What is the value of c?                          A young boy swings a yo-yo horizontally
                    Chapter 2, section 9, Angular and Linear Quantities                         143

above his head so that the yo-yo has a cen-        force opposing the girl’s weight, the magni-
tripetal acceleration of 250 m/s2 .                tude of the force that maintains her circular
   If the yo-yo’s string is 0.50 m long, what is   motion is 88.0 N.
the yo-yo’s tangential speed?                         What is the girl’s mass?

             Holt SF 07G 03                                     Holt SF 07H 02
02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                  wording-variable.

                   Part 1 of 2                        A bicyclist is riding at a tangential speed of
   A dog sits 1.5 m from the center of a merry-    13.2 m/s around a circular track with a radius
go-round.                                          of 40.0 m.
   a) If the dog undergoes a 1.5 m/s2 cen-            If the magnitude of the force that maintains
tripetal acceleration, what is the dog’s linear    the bike’s circular motion is 377 N, what is the
speed?                                             combined mass of the bicycle and rider?

                 Part 2 of 2                                    Holt SF 07H 03
b) What is the angular speed of the merry-go-      02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
round?                                             wording-variable.

             Holt SF 07G 04                          A dog sits 1.50 m from the center of a
02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            merry-go-round with an angular speed of 1.20
wording-variable.                                  rad/s.
                                                     If the magnitude of the force that maintains
  A race car moves along a circular track at       the dog’s circular motion is 40.0 N, what is
an angular speed of 0.512 rad/s.                   the dog’s mass?
  If the car’s centripetal acceleration is 15.4
m/s2 , what is the distance between the car                     Holt SF 07H 04
and the center of the track?                       02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                   wording-variable.
             Holt SF 07G 05
02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,               A 905 kg test car travels around a 3.25 km
wording-variable.                                  circular track.
                                                      If the magnitude of the force that maintains
   A piece of clay sits 0.20 m from the center     the car’s circular motion is 2140 N, what is
of a potter’s wheel.                               the car’s tangential speed?
   If the potter spins the wheel at an angular
speed of 20.5 rad/s, what is the magnitude                     Holt SF 07Rev 05
of the centripetal acceleration of the piece of    02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
clay on the wheel?                                 wording-variable.

             Holt SF 07H 01                          A car on a Ferris wheel has an angular
02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            displacement of 0.34 rad.
wording-variable.                                    If the car moves through an arc length of 12
                                                   m, what is the radius of the Ferris wheel?
   A girl sits on a tire that is attached to an
overhanging tree limb by a rope 2.10 m in                      Holt SF 07Rev 06
length. The girl’s father pushes her with a        02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
tangential speed of 2.50 m/s. Besides the          wording-variable.
                    Chapter 2, section 9, Angular and Linear Quantities                        144

                                                   constant angular acceleration, the drill turns
   When a wheel is rotated through an angle        at a rate of 2628 rad/s.
of 35◦ , a point on the circumference travels        a) Find the drill’s angular acceleration.
through an arc length of 2.5 m. When the
wheel is rotated through angles of 35 rad and                         Part 2 of 2
35 rev, the same point travels through arc         b) Determine the angle through which the
lengths of 143 m and 9.0×102 m, respectively.      drill rotates during this period.
   What is the radius of the wheel?
                                                               Holt SF 07Rev 12
            Holt SF 07Rev 07                       02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            wording-variable.
wording-variable.
                                                     A tire placed on a balancing machine in
   How long does it take the second hand of a      a service station starts from rest and turns
clock to move through 4.00 rad?                    through 4.7 rev in 1.2 s before reaching its
                                                   final angular speed.
            Holt SF 07Rev 08                         Assuming that the angular acceleration of
02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            the wheel is constant, calculate the wheel’s
wording-variable.                                  angular acceleration.

  A phonograph record has an initial angular                   Holt SF 07Rev 21
speed of 33 rev/min. The record slows to 11        02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
rev/min in 2.0 s.                                  wording-variable.
  What is the record’s average angular accel-
eration during this time interval?                    A small pebble breaks loose from the treads
                                                   of a tire with a radius of 32 cm.
            Holt SF 07Rev 09                          If the pebble’s tangential speed is 49 m/s,
02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            what is the tire’s angular speed?
wording-variable.
                                                               Holt SF 07Rev 22
  If a flywheel increases its average angular       02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
speed by 2.7 rad/s in 1.9 s, what is its average   wording-variable.
angular acceleration?
                                                     The Emerald Suite is a revolving restaurant
            Holt SF 07Rev 10                       at the top of the Space Needle in Seattle,
02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            Washington.
wording-variable.                                    If a customer sitting 12 m from the
                                                   restaurant’s center has a tangential speed of
  A potter’s wheel moves from rest to an           2.18 × 10−2 m/s, what is the angular speed of
angular speed of 0.20 rev/s in 30.0 s.             the restaurant?
  Assuming constant angular acceleration,
what is its angular acceleration in rad/s2 ?                   Holt SF 07Rev 23
                                                   02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
            Holt SF 07Rev 11                       wording-variable.
02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                     A bicycle wheel has an angular acceleration
                                                   of 1.5 rad/s2 .
                 Part 1 of 2                          If a point on its rim has a tangential accel-
  A drill starts from rest. After 3.20 s of        eration of 48 cm/s2 , what is the radius of the
                   Chapter 2, section 9, Angular and Linear Quantities                     145

wheel?
                                                                                 B
            Holt SF 07Rev 24                                 10 m
02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                                                 15 m

                                                              A
  When a string is pulled in the correct di-
rection on a window shade, a lever is released
and the shaft that the shade is wound around           Note: Figure is not drawn to scale.
spins.                                             a) If at point A the track exerts a force on
  If the shaft’s angular acceleration is 3.8     the car that is 2.06 × 104 N greater than the
rad/s2 and the shade accelerates upward at       car’s weight, what is the mass of the car?
0.086 m/s2 , what is the radius of the shaft?
                                                                   Part 2 of 2
            Holt SF 07Rev 25                     b) What is the maximum speed the car can
02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,          have at point B for the gravitational force to
wording-variable.                                hold it on the track?

   A building superintendent twirls a set of                   Holt SF 07Rev 41
keys in a circle at the end of a cord.           02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
   If the keys have a centripetal acceleration
of 145 m/s2 and the cord has a length of 0.34      Earth orbits the sun once every 365.25 days.
m, what is the tangential speed of the keys?       Find the average angular speed of Earth
                                                 about the sun.
            Holt SF 07Rev 26
02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                      Holt SF 07Rev 43
wording-variable.                                02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                 wording-variable.
  A sock stuck to the side of a clothes-dryer
barrel has a centripetal acceleration of 28                       Part 1 of 2
m/s2 .                                             An airplane is flying in a horizontal circle
  If the dryer barrel has a radius of 27 cm,     at a speed of 105 m/s. The 80.0 kg pilot
what is the tangential speed of the sock?        does not want the centripetal acceleration to
                                                 exceed 7.00 times free-fall acceleration.
            Holt SF 07Rev 37                       a) Find the minimum radius of the plane’s
02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,          path.
wording-variable.
                                                                    Part 2 of 2
                 Part 1 of 2                     b) At this radius, what is the magnitude of
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                         the net force that maintains circular motion
  A roller-coaster car speeds down a hill past   exerted on the pilot by the seat belts, the
point A and then rolls up a hill past point B,   friction against the seat, and so forth?
as shown in the figure. The car has a speed of
20.0 m/s at point A.                                         Holt SF 07Rev 44
                                                 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                 wording-variable.

                                                   A car traveling at 30.0 m/s undergoes a
                                                 constant negative acceleration of magnitude
                    Chapter 2, section 9, Angular and Linear Quantities                       146

2.00 m/s2 when the brakes are applied.            ter of a steel turntable. The coefficient of
  How many revolutions does each tire make        static friction between the block and the sur-
before the car comes to a stop? Assume that       face is 0.53. The turntable starts from rest
the car does not skid and that each tire has a    and rotates with a constant angular accelera-
radius of 0.300 m.                                tion of 0.50 rad/s2 .
                                                     After what time interval will the block start
            Holt SF 07Rev 45                      to slip on the turntable?
02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                             Holt SF 07Rev 52
                                                  02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
   A coin with a diameter of 2.40 cm is           wording-variable.
dropped onto a horizontal surface. The coin
starts out with an initial angular speed of                        Part 1 of 2
18.0 rad/s and rolls in a straight line without      Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
slipping.                                            An air puck of mass 0.025 kg is tied to
   If the rotation slows with an angular ac-      a string and allowed to revolve in a circle
celeration of magnitude 1.90 rad/s2 , how far     of radius 1.0 m on a frictionless horizontal
does the coin roll before coming to rest?         surface. The other end of the string passes
                                                  through a hole in the center of the surface,
            Holt SF 07Rev 46                      and a mass of 1.0 kg is tied to it, as shown
02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           in the figure. The suspended mass remains
wording-variable.                                 in equilibrium while the puck revolves on the
                                                  surface.
   A mass attached to a 50.0 cm string starts
from rest and is rotated in a circular path                                  0.025 kg
exactly 40 times in 1.00 min before reaching a                     1m
final angular speed.
   What is the angular speed of the mass after
1.00 min?

              Holt SF 07Rev 50                                            1 kg
02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      a) What is the magnitude of the force that
                                                  maintains circular motion acting on the puck?
                 Part 1 of 2
  The radius     of the Earth       is about                        Part 2 of 2
6.37 × 106 m.                                     b) What is the linear speed of the puck?
  a) What is the centripetal acceleration of a
point on the equator?                                         Holt SF 08Rev 58
                                                  02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                 Part 2 of 2                      wording-variable.
b) What is the centripetal acceleration of a
point at the North Pole?                             A cable passes over a pulley. Because of the
                                                  friction, the force in the cable is not the same
            Holt SF 07Rev 51                      on opposite sides of the pulley. The force on
02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           one side is 120.0 N, and the force on the other
wording-variable.                                 side is 100.0 N.
                                                     Assuming that the pulley is a uniform disk
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                          with a mass of 2.1 kg and a radius of 0.81
  A copper block rests 30.0 cm from the cen-
                     Chapter 2, section 9, Angular and Linear Quantities                           147

m, determine the magnitude of the angular           off the peg?
acceleration of the pulley.
                                                                Holt SF 08Rev 68
            Holt SF 08Rev 60                        02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,             wording-variable.
wording-variable.
                                                                      Part 1 of 3
                   Part 1 of 3                         Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                              A pulley has a moment of inertia of
   A cylindrical 5.00 kg pulley with a radius of    5.0 kg · m2 and a radius of 0.50 m. A cord
0.600 m is used to lower a 3.00 kg bucket into      is wrapped over the pulley and attached to
a well. The bucket starts from rest and falls       a hanging object on either end. Assume the
for 4.00 s.                                         cord does not slip, the axle is frictionless, and
   a) What is the linear acceleration of the        the two hanging objects have masses of 2.0 kg
falling bucket?                                     and 5.0 kg.
                                                       a) Find the acceleration of each mass.
                 Part 2 of 3
b) How far does it drop?                                             Part 2 of 3
                                                    b) Find the force in the cord supporting the
                  Part 3 of 3                       smaller mass.
c) What is the angular acceleration of the
cylindrical pulley?                                                  Part 3 of 3
                                                    c) Find the force in the cord supporting the
            Holt SF 08Rev 64                        larger mass.
02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                               Holt SF 08Rev 69
                                                    02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                            wording-variable.
  A horizontal 800.0 N merry-go-round with
a radius of 1.5 m is started from rest by a                           Part 1 of 3
constant horizontal force of 50.0 N applied           Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
tangentially to the merry-go-round.                   A 4.0 kg mass is connected by a light cord to
  Find the kinetic energy of the merry-go-          a 3.0 kg mass on a smooth surface as shown.
round after 3.0 s. Assume it is a solid cylin-      The pulley rotates about a frictionless axle
der.                                                and has a moment of inertia of 0.50 kg · m2
                                                    and a radius of 0.30 m.
            Holt SF 08Rev 65
                                                                          3 kg                R
02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                                            F2    




wording-variable.
                                                                                              F1
   A top has a moment of inertia of 4.00 ×
10−4 kg · m2 and is initially at rest. It is free
to rotate about a vertical stationary axis. A                                               4 kg
string around a peg along the axis of the top
is pulled, maintaining a constant tension of
5.57 N in the string.                                     Note: Figure is not drawn to scale
   If the string does not slip while it is wound      Assume that the cord does not slip on the
around the peg, what is the angular speed of        pulley.
the top after 80.0 cm of string has been pulled       a) What is the acceleration of the two
                   Chapter 2, section 9, Angular and Linear Quantities   148

masses?

                Part 2 of 3
b) What is the magnitude of the force F1 ?

                Part 3 of 3
c) What is the magnitude of the force F2 ?
                  Chapter 2, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 02   149


            Hewitt CP9 10 E12
02:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

  When you jump upward, your hang time is
the time your feet are off the ground.
  Does hang time depend on your vertical
component of velocity when you jump, your
horizontal component of velocity, or both?

 1. Hang time depends only on the vertical
component of your lift-off velocity.

 2. Hang time depends only on the horizontal
component of your lift-off velocity.

 3. Hang time depends on both the horizontal
and the vertical component of your lift-off
velocity.

 4. Sometimes hang time depends only on
the vertical component of your lift-off velocity,
sometimes it depends on both the vertical and
horizontal.

              Vector Quantity
02:99, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

  Which of the following is a vector quantity?

 1. mass

 2. density

 3. none of these

 4. temperature

 5. speed
                                   Chapter 3, section 1, Force                                  150

                                                      4. pressure.
              Force on a Crate
03:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.                                Forces 11
                                                     03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                    Part 1 of 2
   The force of friction acting on a sliding crate          is the tendency of matter to resist any
is 100 N.                                            change in motion.
   How much force must be applied to main-
tain a constant velocity?                             1. Inertia

               Part 2 of 2                            2. Momentum
What will be the net force acting on the
crate?                                                3. Friction

           Force on a Table Top                       4. Pressure
03:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                                       Forces 12
  Atmospheric pressure is 14.7 lb/in2 .              03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
  What is the total force on a table top 27 in
wide by 43 in long?                                    The weakest of the universal forces is

                  Forces 01                           1. gravity.
03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                      2. magnetic.
  No force is necessary to
                                                      3. electric.
 1. start an object moving.
                                                      4. nuclear.
 2. stop an object from moving.
                                                                       Forces 13
  3. cause a change in the motion of an ob-          03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
ject.
                                                       Objects with different charges attract each
 4. keep an object moving the way it is al-          other because of     force.
ready moving.
                                                      1. electric
                  Forces 08
03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.         2. gravitational

   A push or pull that gives energy to an ob-         3. centripetal
ject, causing that object to start moving, stop
moving, or change its motion is                       4. nuclear

 1. a force.                                                           Forces 14
                                                     03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 2. inertia.
                                                        The universal force that acts on the protons
 3. friction.                                        and neutrons of an atom is called the
                                                     force.
                                  Chapter 3, section 1, Force                                  151

                                                     3. 2
 1. nuclear
                                                     1. 3
 2. electric
                                                     5. No. I can’t tell.
 3. gravitational
                                                               Hewitt CP9 04 E11
 4. magnetic                                       03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

                  Forces 15                           In the orbiting space shuttle you are handed
03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      four identical boxes. The first one is filled with
                                                   sand. The second one is filled with iron. The
  An example of the weak nuclear force is          third one is filled with water. The last one is
                                                   filled with feathers. Shake the boxes.
 1. nuclear decay.                                    Which one offers the greatest resistance and
                                                   which one offers the smallest resistance?
 2. lightning.
                                                     1. iron, feathers
 3. static cling.
                                                     2. sand, water
 4. ocean tides.
                                                     3. iron, water
            Hewitt CP9 04 E01
03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.        4. feathers, iron

  What is the net force on a Mercedes con-           5. All are wrong.
vertible traveling along a straight road at a
steady speed of 100 km/h?                                      Hewitt CP9 04 E23
                                                   03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 1. 0 N
                                                     A race car travels along a raceway at a
 2. 10 N                                           constant velocity of 200 km/h.
                                                     What is the net force acting on the car?
 3. 100 N
                                                     1. 0 N
 4. 200 N
                                                     2. It depends on the mass of the car.
 5. All are wrong.
                                                     3. 200 N
            Hewitt CP9 04 E03
03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.        4. 100 N

  If an object is not accelerating, can you tell     5. All are wrong.
how many forces acts on it?
                                                               Hewitt CP9 04 E27
 1. 0                                              03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 2. 1                                                What force pushes up on you when you
                                                   jump vertically off the ground?
                                Chapter 3, section 1, Force                                  152

                                                   A mass of 0.55 kg attached to a vertical
 1. The force of the ground pushing up on        spring stretches the spring 36 cm from its
you                                              original equilibrium position.
                                                   What is the spring constant?
 2. The force of your feet pushing your body
                                                              Holt SF 12A 02
 3. The force of gravitation                     03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                 wording-variable.
 4. The force of air drag
                                                    A load of 45 N attached to a spring that
 5. All are wrong.                               is hanging vertically stretches the spring 0.14
                                                 m.
            Hewitt CP9 04 E35                       What is the spring constant?
03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                            Holt SF 12A 03 04
   What is the net force on a 1-N apple when     03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
you hold it at rest above your head and what     wording-variable.
is the net force on it after you release it?
                                                                   Part 1 of 2
 1. 0 N, 1 N                                        A slingshot consists of a light leather cup
                                                 attached between two rubber bands. It takes
 2. 0 N, 0 N                                     a force of 32 N to stretch the bands 1.2 cm.
                                                    a) What is the equivalent spring constant
 3. 1 N, 0 N                                     of the rubber bands?

 4. 1 N, 1 N                                                      Part 2 of 2
                                                 b) How much force is required to pull the cup
 5. All above are wrong.                         of the slingshot 3.0 cm from its equilibrium
                                                 position?
              Holt SF 04A 04
03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-                 Holt SF 12Rev 08
mal.                                             03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                 wording-variable.
                  Part 1 of 2
  The wind exerts a force of 452 N north on        Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
a sailboat, while the water exerts a force of      Janet wants to find the spring constant of a
325 N west on the sailboat.                      given spring, so she hangs the spring vertically
  a) What is the magnitude of the net exter-     and attaches a 0.40 kg mass to the spring’s
nal force on the sailboat?                       other end.
                                                   If the spring stretches 3.0 cm from its
                  Part 2 of 2                    equilibrium position, what is the spring con-
b) How many degrees west of north is this net    stant?
external force directed?
                                                             Holt SF 12Rev 09
             Holt SF 12A 01                      03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,          wording-variable.
wording-variable.
                                                   In preparing to shoot an arrow, an archer
                       2
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s .                          pulls a bow string back 0.400 m by exerting a
                                 Chapter 3, section 1, Force                                 153

force that increases uniformly from 0 to 230        2. upward
N.
   What is the equivalent spring constant of                        Part 3 of 4
the bow?                                          What is their resultant if they both act down-
                                                  ward?
            Holt SF 12Rev 46
03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                            Part 4 of 4
wording-variable.                                 What is the direction of this resultant?

   In an arcade game, a 0.12 kg disk is shot        1. downward
across a frictionless horizontal surface by be-
ing compressed against a spring and then re-        2. upward
leased. The spring has a spring constant of
230 N/m and is compressed from its equilib-                       Net Force 03
rium position by 6.0 cm.                          03:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
   What is the magnitude of the spring force
on the disk at the moment it is released?                           Part 1 of 3
                                                     A(n) 30 N object is in free fall. What net
            Holt SF 12Rev 47                      force acts on the object?
03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                                    Part 2 of 3
                                                  What is the net force when the object encoun-
  A child’s toy consists of a piece of plastic    ters 10 N of air resistance?
attached to a spring, as shown. The spring is
compressed against the floor a distance of 2.0                       Part 3 of 3
cm and released.                                  What is the net force when it falls fast enough
                                                  to encounter an air resistance of 30 N?

                                                          Perpendicular Vectors 01
                                                  03:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

                                                     A pair of 200 N vectors are perpendicular.
  If the spring constant is 85 N/m, what is          What is the magnitude of their resultant?
the magnitude of the spring force acting on
the toy at the moment it is released?                     Perpendicular Vectors 02
                                                  03:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                Net Force 02
03:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.             Two vectors of magnitudes 10 N and 20 N
                                                  act at right angles to each other.
                   Part 1 of 4                      What is the magnitude of their resultant?
   You have two forces, 100 N and 75 N. What
is their resultant if the first acts upward and                   PS 303 7 11
the second downward?                              03:01, basic, numeric, < 1 min, wording-
                                                  variable.
                 Part 2 of 4
What is the direction of the resultant?            Suppose the gravitational force between the
                                                  moon and the earth were equal to S.
 1. downward                                       If the moon’s mass were doubled, by what
                               Chapter 3, section 1, Force                                154

factor of S would the gravitational force be-     3. (5 N, 9.4 N)
tween the earth and moon be?
                                                  4. (4 N, 8.2 N)
                PS 303 7 2
03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           5. (7 N, 4.8 N)
wording-variable.
                                                  6. (5 N, 9.3 N)
                 Part 1 of 2
  The sum of two forces, one having a magni-      7. (6 N, 6.5 N)
tude of 8 N acting due west and other having
a magnitude of 3 N acting due north is            8. (2 N, 7.5 N)

 1. (−8 N, 3 N)                                   9. (8 N, 3.1 N)

 2. (8 N, −3 N)                                 10. (6 N, 6.4 N)

 3. (8 N, 3 N)                                                 Part 2 of 2
                                                What is the sum of these two forces in polar
 4. (−8 N, −3 N)                                coordinates?

 5. (3 N, −8 N)                                   1. (6.80074 N, N 36.0274 ◦ E)

 6. (−3 N, 8 N)                                   2. (4.83322 N, N 24.444 ◦ E)

 7. (3 N, 8 N)                                    3. (8.78009 N, N 52.8691 ◦ E)

 8. (−3 N, −8 N)                                  4. (5.91692 N, N 30.4655 ◦ E)

 8. (11 N, 11 N)                                  5. (5.94643 N, N 42.2737 ◦ E)

 8. (5 N, −5 N)                                   6. (8.73155 N, N 20.0952 ◦ E)

                Part 2 of 2                       7. (8.44038 N, N 36.3268 ◦ E)
What is the magnitude of that force?
                                                  8. (8.544 N, N 69.444 ◦ E)
                PS 303 7 3
03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           9. (8.7 N, N 43.6028 ◦ E)
wording-variable.
                                                10. (11.1665 N, N 38.8201 ◦ E)
                 Part 1 of 2
  Force FA has a magnitude of 5.5 N and                   PS303 Spring Balance
points north. Force FB = (4 N, 0 N) .           03:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
  What is the sum of these two forces in
rectangular coordinates?                          From your experience with springs in lab,
                                                you learned something about the relationship
 1. (4 N, 5.5 N)                                between the extension of a spring scale and
                                                the weight hung from it.
 2. (8 N, 8.7 N)                                  Assume you observe for a certain spring
                                                that it stretched a distance 1.7 cm when you
                                 Chapter 3, section 1, Force                                155

hung a weight of 1.9 N from it. When you
hung a 2.85 N weight it stretched a total of        4. 33 N/m
2.55 cm. Using this information determine
the weight of an object which causes a 4 cm         5. 66 N/m
displacement when hung from the spring bal-
ance.                                                       Stretching a Spring 01
                                                  03:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
             Reaction Force 03
03:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.             A certain spring stretches 2 cm when it
                                                  supports a load of 0.5 kg.
                 Part 1 of 2                        If the elastic limit is not reached, how far
  A 0.75 kg physics book with dimensions of       will it stretch when it supports a load of
24 cm by 20 cm is on a table. What force does     32 cm?
the book apply to the table?
                                                            Stretching a Spring 02
                Part 2 of 2                       03:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
What pressure does the book apply?
                                                                    Part 1 of 2
            Scaling a Vector 01                      The force required to stretch a Hooke’s-law
03:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.           spring varies from 0 N to 50 N as we stretch
                                                  the spring by moving one end 12 cm from its
   A vector drawn 3 cm long represents a force    unstressed position. Find the force constant
of 10 N.                                          of the spring.
   What force does a vector that is 13 cm long,
drawn to the same scale, represent?                               Part 2 of 2
                                                  Find the work done in stretching the spring.
            Scaling a Vector 02
03:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

   A vector drawn 3 cm long represents a force
of 10 N.
   How long would you draw a vector for a
force of 110 N?

                   Springs
03:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

   An ideal spring obeys Hooke’s law, F =
−kx. A mass of 0.50 kilogram hung vertically
from this spring stretches the spring 0.075
meter.
   The value of the force constant k for the
spring is most nearly

 1. 0.33 N/m

 2. 0.66 N/m

 3. 6.6 N/m
                     Chapter 3, section 2, Newton’s First Law of Motion                        156


        Comparing Accelerations                                       Forces 05
03:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.             03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

  Suppose a cart is being moved by a certain          Newton’s third law of motion describes
net force.
  If the net force is increased by a factor of 2,    1. why forces act in pairs.
by what factor does its acceleration change?
                                                     2. all aspects of an object’s motion.
                  Forces 02
03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.        3. motion when a balanced force acts on an
                                                    object.
  When forces are balanced, the motion of
the object                                           4. motion when an unbalanced force acts on
                                                    an object.
 1. does not change.
                                                                      Forces 06
 2. is completely stopped.                          03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 3. is decreased.                                     Isaac Newton developed how many laws
                                                    that describe all states of motion?
 4. is increased.
                                                     1. three
                  Forces 03
03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.        2. one

  For every action, the reaction is                  3. two

 1. equal and opposite in direction.                 4. four

 2. equal and in the same direction.                                  Forces 07
                                                    03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 3. unequal and opposite in direction.
                                                      Force equals mass times
 4. unequal and in the same direction.
                                                     1. acceleration.
                  Forces 04
03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.        2. inertia.

  Motion when an unbalanced force acts on            3. velocity.
an object is described by Newton’s
                                                     4. friction.
 1. second law of motion.
                                                                      Forces 09
 2. first law of motion.                             03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 3. third law of motion.                              Forces that are opposite and equal are
                                                    called     forces.
 4. law of universal gravitation.
                     Chapter 3, section 2, Newton’s First Law of Motion                        157

 1. balanced                                        03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 2. unbalanced                                        Can an object be in mechanical equilibrium
                                                    when only a single force acts on it? Explain.
 3. frictional
                                                      1. Yes, it can. The object will have an equal
 4. fluid                                            and opposite force because the force acted on
                                                    it.
                  Forces 10
03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.        2. Yes, it can. The single force will keep the
                                                    object in mechanical equilibrium.
        forces always cause a change in mo-
tion.                                                 3. No, it can’t. There would be have to be
                                                    another or other forces to result in a zero net
 1. unbalanced                                      force for equilibrium.

 2. balanced                                          4. No, it can’t. To be in mechanical equilib-
                                                    rium, no forces can act on the object.
 3. frictional
                                                     5. All are wrong.
 4. fluid
                                                                Hewitt CP9 02 E21
            Hewitt CP9 02 E17                       03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                      A hockey puck slides across the ice at a
  Start a ball rolling down a bowling alley         constant speed.
and you’ll find it moves slightly slower with          Is it in equilibrium? Why or why not?
time.
  Does this violate Newton’s law of inertia?         1. Yes. It is in dynamic equilibrium.
Defend your answer.
                                                     2. Yes. The puck can be considered at rest.
  1. Yes, it violates Newton’s law because no
force acted upon it.                                 3. No. It is moving.

 2. No, it doesn’t violate Newton’s law be-          4. No.    The puck can’t be considered at
cause air drag and friction acted upon the          rest.
ball.
                                                     5. All are wrong.
 3. Yes, it violates Newton’s law because the
air drag cancels the friction; the total force on               Hewitt CP9 02 E37
the ball is zero.                                   03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 4. No, it doesn’t violate Newton’s law be-           A child learns in school that the Earth is
cause the law of inertia also can be applied        traveling faster than 100,000 kilometers per
upon moving objects.                                hour around the sun, and in a frightened tone
                                                    asks why we aren’t swept off.
 5. All are wrong.                                    What is your explanation?

            Hewitt CP9 02 E19                        1. Because we are traveling just as fast as
                     Chapter 3, section 2, Newton’s First Law of Motion                       158

the Earth.                                        x axis, with counterclockwise positive)?

 2. Because we are traveling faster than the                   Holt SF 04A 03
Earth.                                            03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                  wording-variable.
 3. Because we are traveling slower than the
Earth.                                                              Part 1 of 2
                                                    A gust of wind blows an apple from a tree.
 4. Because the Earth rotates on its own          As the apple falls, the force of gravity on the
axis.                                             apple is 9.25 N downward, and the force of
                                                  the wind on the apple is 1.05 N to the right.
 5. All are wrong.                                  a) What is the magnitude of the net exter-
                                                  nal force on the apple?
             Holt SF 04A 01
03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                             Part 2 of 2
wording-variable.                                 b) What is the direction of the net external
                                                  force on the apple (measured from the down-
                 Part 1 of 2                      ward vertical, so that the angle to the right of
  A man is pulling on his dog with a force of     downward is positive)?
70.0 N directed at an angle of +30.0◦ to the
horizontal.                                                    Holt SF 04Rev 10
  a) What is the x component of this force?       03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
                                                  mal.
                 Part 2 of 2
b) What is the y component of this force?                           Part 1 of 2
                                                     Four forces act on a hot-air balloon, shown
             Holt SF 04A 02                       from the side.
03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                                      5120 N

                  Part 1 of 4
  A crate is pulled to the right with a force
of 82.0 N, to the left with a force of 115 N,                   1520 N              950 N
upward with a force of 565 N, and downward
with a force of 236 N.
                                                                                4050 N




  a) What is the net external force in the x
direction?

               Part 2 of 4
b) What is the net external force in the y
direction?

                  Part 3 of 4
c) What is the magnitude of the net external            Note: Figure is not drawn to scale
force on the crate?                                 a) Find the magnitude of the resultant force
                                                  on the balloon.
                   Part 4 of 4
d) What is the direction of the net external                        Part 2 of 2
force on the crate (measured from the positive
                     Chapter 3, section 2, Newton’s First Law of Motion                      159

b) Find the direction of the resultant force (in                      Mass 51
relation to the 1520 N force, with up being        03:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
positive).
                                                     Area is measured as    ?   .
            Holt SF 04Rev 11
03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,             1. m2
wording-variable.
                                                    2. meter
                  Part 1 of 2
   Two lifeguards pull on ropes attached to         3. m3
a raft. If they pull in the same direction,
the raft experiences a net external force of        4. m4
334 N to the right. If they pull in opposite
directions, the raft experiences a net external                       Mass 52
force of 106 N to the left.                        03:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
   a) Draw a free body diagram for each situ-
ation and find the magnitude of the larger of         Doug English, former UT All-American
the two individual forces.                         and All-Pro lineman, had a mass of 119.8
                                                   kg in 1974.
                  Part 2 of 2                        On the moon, his mass would be ? .
b) What is the magnitude of the smaller of
the individual forces?                              1. 0.0 kg

             Holt SF 04Rev 12                       2. 119.8 kg
03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
mal.                                                3. 20.0 kg

                  Part 1 of 2                       4. 0.0 lbs
  A dog pulls on a pillow with a force of 5 N
at an angle of 37◦ above the horizontal                               Mass 53
  a) What is the x component of this force?        03:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

                 Part 2 of 2                          Suppose the mass and weight of 1 liter of
b) What is the y component of this force?          iron were measured on the earth and on the
                                                   moon.
                   Mass 50                            The mass would be ? in the two places
03:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.      and the weight would be ? in the two
                                                   places.
  A pilot with an 80 kg mass on earth would
have a mass of ? in zero gravity.                   1. the same, different

 1. 80. kg                                          2. the same, the same

 2. 13 kg                                           3. different, different

 3. 0.0 kg                                          4. different, the same

 4. .800 kg                                                         Weight 50
                                                   03:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                    Chapter 3, section 2, Newton’s First Law of Motion   160


   An astronaut weighs 120 lbs on the surface
of the Earth.
   On the moon, where the gravity is 1 that of
                                     6
Earth, she would weigh

 1. 20 lbs.

 2. 120 lbs.

 3. 114 lbs.

 4. 360 lbs.

 5. 720 lbs.
                     Chapter 3, section 3, Newton’s Second Law of Motion                     161

                                                                    Part 2 of 2
        Acceleration to the Right                  How far will it move in 2 s?
03:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                             Dragster Acceleration
                 Part 1 of 2                       03:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
  Two forces act on a 30 kg mass to give it
an acceleration of 40 m/s2 in the positive x                          Part 1 of 3
direction.                                           A dragster and driver together have mass
  If one of the forces acts in the negative y      873 kg. If the dragster, starting from rest,
direction with a magnitude of 25 N, what is        attains a speed of 26.3 m/s in 0.59 s.
the magnitude of the second force?                   Find the average acceleration of the drag-
                                                   ster during this time interval.
                 Part 2 of 2
What is the direction of the second force?                          Part 2 of 3
                                                   What is the size of the average force on the
 1. Unable to determine.                           dragster during this time interval?

 2. Up to the left                                                Part 3 of 3
                                                   Assume: The driver has a mass of 68 kg.
 3. Down to the right                                What horizontal force does the seat exert
                                                   on the driver?
 4. Down to the left
                                                               Hewitt CP9 02 E15
 5. Straight up                                    03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 6. Straight down                                     Each bone in the chain of bones forming
                                                   your spine is separated from its neighbors by
 7. To the right                                   disks of elastic tissue.
                                                      What happens, then, when you jump heav-
 8. To the left                                    ily onto your feet from an elevated position?

 9. Up to the right                                  1. The space between each disk will become
                                                   larger because of Newton’s first law.
               Crate and Dolly
03:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.             2. The discs tend to compress upon each
                                                   other because of Newton’s first law.
                   Part 1 of 2
  The                                  com-          3. The space between each disk will become
bined weight of a crate and dolly is 300 N.        larger because of Newton’s second law.
                                 T
                                                    4. The discs tend to compress upon each
                                                   other because of Newton’s second law.
If the person pulls on the rope with a con-
stant force of 20 N, what is the acceleration of    5. All are wrong.
the system (crate plus dolly)? Assume that
the system starts from rest and that there are                 Hewitt CP9 04 E29
no frictional forces opposing the motion of the    03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
system.
                                                     When you jump vertically off the ground,
                     Chapter 3, section 3, Newton’s Second Law of Motion                       162

what is your acceleration when you reach your       03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
highest point?                                      wording-variable.

 1. g                                                 A soccer ball kicked with a force of 13.5 N
    g                                               accelerates at 6.5 m/s2 to the right.
 2.                                                   What is the mass of the ball?
    2
    g
 3.                                                             Holt SF 04Rev 20
    3
                                                    03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
 4. 0 m/s2                                          wording-variable.

 5. All are wrong.                                    What acceleration will you give to a 24.3 kg
                                                    box if you push it with a force of 85.5 N?
             Holt SF 04B 01
03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                         Holt SF 04Rev 21
wording-variable.                                   03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                    wording-variable.
  The net external force on the propeller of a
3.2 kg model airplane is 7.0 N forward.               A freight train has a mass of 1.5 × 107 kg.
  What is the acceleration of the airplane?           If the locomotive can exert a constant pull
                                                    of 7.5 × 105 N, how long would it take to
              Holt SF 04B 02                        increase the speed of the train from rest to
03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-        85 km/h? (Disregard friction.)
mal.
                                                                Holt SF 04Rev 23
   The net external force on a golf cart is 390 N   03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
north.                                              wording-variable.
   If the cart has a total mass of 270 kg, what
is the cart’s acceleration?                                           Part 1 of 3
                                                       Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
             Holt SF 04B 03                            A 3.00 kg ball is dropped from the roof of
03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,             a building 176.4 m high. While the ball is
wording-variable.                                   falling to Earth, a horizontal wind exerts a
                                                    constant force of 12.0 N on the ball.
  A car has a mass of 1.50 × 103 kg.                   a) How long does it take to hit the ground?
  If the force acting on the car is 6.75 × 103 N
to the east, what is the car’s acceleration?                         Part 2 of 3
                                                    b) How far from the building does the ball hit
             Holt SF 04B 04                         the ground?
03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                                     Part 3 of 3
                                                    c) What is its speed when it hits the ground?
  A 2.0 kg otter starts from rest at the top of
a muddy incline 85 cm long and slides down                      Holt SF 04Rev 24
to the bottom in 0.50 s.                            03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
  What net external force acts on the otter         wording-variable.
along the incline?
                                                      Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
               Holt SF 04B 05                         A 40.0 kg wagon is towed up a hill inclined
                   Chapter 3, section 3, Newton’s Second Law of Motion                     163

at 18.5◦ with respect to the horizontal. The      zontal force F , as shown.
tow rope is parallel to the incline and exerts
a force of 140 N on the wagon. Assume that
the wagon starts from rest at the bottom of             25◦
the hill, and disregard friction.                             F
                                                                           g
   How fast is the wagon going after moving                             5k
30.0 m up the hill?                                                            0
                                                                          µ=       25◦
            Holt SF 04Rev 25
03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                   What is the magnitude of F ?

                  Part 1 of 2                                     Part 2 of 2
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                          What is the magnitude of the normal force?
  A shopper in a supermarket pushes a loaded
32 kg cart with a horizontal force of 12 N.                   Holt SF 04Rev 47
  a) Disregarding friction, how far will the      03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
cart move in 3.5 s, starting from rest?           wording-variable.
                 Part 2 of 2                        A 2.0 kg mass starts from rest and slides
b) How far will the cart move in the 3.5 s if     down an inclined plane 8.0×10−1 m long in
the shopper places a(n) 85 N child in the cart    0.50 s.
before pushing it?                                  What net force is acting on the mass along
                                                  the incline?
            Holt SF 04Rev 43
03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                       Holt SF 04Rev 48
wording-variable.                                 03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                  wording-variable.
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
  A 2.00 kg block is in equilibrium on an                           Part 1 of 2
incline of 36.0◦ .                                  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
  What is Fn of the incline on the block?           A 2.26 kg book is dropped from a height of
                                                  1.5 m.
            Holt SF 04Rev 45                        a) What is its acceleration?
03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                                  Part 2 of 2
                                                  b) What is its weight?
  What net external force is required to give
a 25 kg suitcase an acceleration of 2.2 m/s2 to               Holt SF 04Rev 50
the right?                                        03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                  wording-variable.
            Holt SF 04Rev 46
03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,             Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
wording-variable.                                   A 5.0 kg bucket of water is raised from a
                                                  well by a rope.
                 Part 1 of 2                        If the upward acceleration of the bucket is
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                          3.0 m/s2 , find the force exerted by the rope
  A block with a mass of 5.0 kg is held in        on the bucket of water.
equilibrium on an incline of 25.0◦ by the hori-
                   Chapter 3, section 3, Newton’s Second Law of Motion                                164

                                                  wording-variable.
            Holt SF 04Rev 51
03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                            Part 1 of 4
wording-variable.                                   The figure below shows a plot of the speed
                                                  of a person’s body during a chin-up versus
                   Part 1 of 2                    time.
   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                                 t           v
   A 3.46 kg briefcase is sitting at rest on a          0.00 s   0.000 m/s
level floor.                                             0.50 s   0.100 m/s
   a) What is its acceleration?                         1.00 s   0.200 m/s
                                                        1.50 s   0.200 m/s
                 Part 2 of 2                            2.00 s   0.000 m/s
b) What is its weight?                              All motion is vertical and the mass of the
                                                  person (excluding the arms) is 64.0 kg.
            Holt SF 04Rev 52
03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                            0.3




                                                     Speed (m/s)
wording-variable.
                                                                   0.2                     




                 Part 1 of 3
   A boat moves through the water with two
forces acting on it. One is a 2.10×103 N                           0.1           




forward push by the motor, and the other is a
1.80×103 N resistive force due to the water.
   a) What is the acceleration of the 1200 kg                       0                          




                                                                         0     0.5   1.0 1.5 2.0
boat?
                                                                                      Time (s)
                   Part 2 of 3                                       Note: The line through the
b) If it starts from rest, how far will it move                    points is only to guide the eye.
in 12 s?
                                                     a) What is the magnitude of the average
                                                  force exerted on the body by the arms during
                 Part 3 of 3
                                                  the first time interval?
c) What will its speed be at the end of this
time interval?
                                                                   Part 2 of 4
                                                  b) What is the magnitude of the average force
            Holt SF 04Rev 58
                                                  exerted on the body by the arms during the
03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                  second time interval?
wording-variable.
                                                                    Part 3 of 4
                 Part 1 of 2
                                                  c) What is the magnitude of the average force
  A 1250 kg car is pulling a 325 kg trailer.
                                                  exerted on the body by the arms during the
Together, the car and trailer have an acceler-
                                                  third time interval?
ation of 2.15 m/s2 .
  a) What is the net force on the car?
                                                                    Part 4 of 4
                                                  d) What is the magnitude of the average force
                 Part 2 of 2
                                                  exerted on the body by the arms during the
b) What is the net force on the trailer?
                                                  last time interval?
            Holt SF 04Rev 60
                                                                             Holt SF 04Rev 61
03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                   Chapter 3, section 3, Newton’s Second Law of Motion                   165

03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                                Part 2 of 2
                                                 b) What is the tension in the horizontal ca-
  A machine in an ice factory is capable of      ble?
exerting 3.00 × 102 N of force to pull large
blocks of ice up a slope. The blocks each
weigh 1.22 × 104 N.
  Assuming there is no friction, what is the
maximum angle that the slope can make with
the horizontal if the machine is to be able to
complete the task?

            Holt SF 04Rev 67
03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.

                   Part 1 of 3
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
  A hockey puck is hit on a frozen lake and
starts moving with a speed of 12.0 m/s. Ex-
actly 5.00 s later, its speed is 6.00 m/s.
  a) What is its average acceleration?

                Part 2 of 3
b) What is the coefficient of kinetic friction
between the puck and the ice?

                 Part 3 of 3
c) How far does the puck travel during this
5.00 s interval?

             Holt SF 04Rev 68
03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
mal.

                Part 1 of 2
  Consider the 700 N weight held by two
cables shown below. The left-hand cable is
horizontal.


                     ◦
                   35



                  700 N

  a) What is the tension in the cable slanted
at an angle of 35◦ ?
                     Chapter 3, section 4, Newton’s Law of Gravitation                          166

                                                   3. less than its initial speed.
              Acceleration 03
03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      4. Not enough information to answer.

  If you drop an object, it will accelerate                    Ball Tossed Up 02
downward at a rate of g = 9.8 m/s2 .              03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
  If you throw it downward instead, its accel-
eration (in the absence of air resistance) will      A ball tossed vertically upward rises,
be                                                reaches its highest point, and then falls back
                                                  to its starting point.
 1. 9.8 m/s2                                         During this time the acceleration of the ball
                                                  is           .
 2. less than 9.8 m/s2 .
                                                   1. directed upward.
 3. greater than 9.8 m/s2 .
                                                   2. in the direction of motion.
 4. Unable to determine.
                                                   3. opposite its velocity.
              Acceleration 04
03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      4. directed downward.

   A solid metal ball and a hollow plastic ball    5. directed upward initially, then directed
of the same external radius are released from     downward.
rest in a large vacuum chamber.
   When each has fallen 1 m, they both have                  Bullet Fired Down 01
the same                                          03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 1. inertia                                                           Part 1 of 2
                                                     A bullet is fired straight down from the top
 2. speed                                         of a high cliff.
                                                     Ignoring air friction, once the bullet has left
 3. momentum                                      the gun, the acceleration of the bullet will be
                                                            .
 4. kinetic energy
                                                   1. first slower than 9.8 m/s2 , then faster.
 5. change in potential energy
                                                   2. equal to 0.
             Ball Tossed Up 01
03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      3. less than 9.8 m/s2 .

   A ball is thrown upwards and caught when        4. more than 9.8 m/s2 .
it comes back down.
   Neglecting air resistance, its speed when       5. first faster than 9.8 m/s2 , then slower.
caught is           .
                                                   6. equal to 9.8 m/s2 .
 1. more than its initial speed.
                                                   7. Not enough information to answer.
 2. the same as its initial speed.
                                                                     Part 2 of 2
                     Chapter 3, section 4, Newton’s Law of Gravitation                        167

The speed of the bullet will be             .      2. Always slower than its initial speed.

 1. equal to 9.8 m/s.                              3. Equal to 9.8 m/s.

 2. always slower than its initial speed.          4. Equal to 9.8 m/s2 .

 3. always faster than its initial speed.          5. Equal to zero.

 4. equal to 9.8 m/s2 .                            6. Equal to its initial speed.

 5. equal to zero.                                 7. First faster than its initial speed, then
                                                 slower.
 6. equal to its initial speed.
                                                   8. Always faster than its initial speed.
  7. first faster than its initial speed, then
slower.                                            9. Not enough information to answer.

  8. first slower than its initial speed, then                 Coin Acceleration
faster.                                          03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 9. Not enough information to answer.                               Part 1 of 3
                                                    The following 3 questions refer to a coin
           Bullet Fired Down 02                  which is tossed straight up into the air. Af-
03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.    ter it is released it moves upward, reaches
                                                 its highest point and falls back down again.
                   Part 1 of 2                   Choose the statement which indicates the ac-
   A bullet is fired straight down from the top   celeration of the coin during each of the stages
of a high cliff.                                  of the coin’s motion described below. Take up
   What is the acceleration of the bullet?       to be the positive direction.
                                                    The coin is moving upward after it is re-
 1. Less than 9.8 m/s2 .                         leased.

 2. Equal to 9.8 m/s2 .                            1. The acceleration is zero.

 3. More than 9.8 m/s2 .                           2. The acceleration is in the negative direc-
                                                 tion and increasing.
 4. First faster than 9.8 m/s2 , then slower.
                                                   3. The acceleration is in the negative direc-
 5. First slower than 9.8 m/s2 , then faster.    tion and decreasing.

 6. Not enough information to answer.              4. The acceleration is in the negative direc-
                                                 tion and constant.
                  Part 2 of 2
What conclusion can be reached about the           5. The acceleration is in the positive direc-
speed of the bullet?                             tion and constant.

  1. First slower than its initial speed, then     6. The acceleration is in the positive direc-
faster.                                          tion and increasing.
                     Chapter 3, section 4, Newton’s Law of Gravitation                         168

  7. The acceleration is in the positive direc-                 Dripping Faucet
tion and decreasing.                              03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

                   Part 2 of 3                      Consider drops of water that fall from
The coin is at its highest point.                 a dripping faucet. As the drops fall they
                                                           .
  1. The acceleration is in the positive direc-
tion and decreasing.                               1. Unable to determine.

  2. The acceleration is in the negative direc-    2. get closer together.
tion and increasing.
                                                   3. remain at a relatively fixed distance from
  3. The acceleration is in the negative direc-   one another.
tion and decreasing.
                                                   4. get farther apart.
 4. The acceleration is zero.
                                                               Dropped Golf Ball
  5. The acceleration is in the positive direc-   03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
tion and constant.
                                                                       Part 1 of 2
  6. The acceleration is in the positive direc-      A golf ball is released from rest from the top
tion and increasing.                              of a very tall building. Choose a coordinate
                                                  system whose origin is at the starting point
  7. The acceleration is in the negative direc-   of the ball, and whose y axis points vertically
tion and constant.                                upward.
                                                     Neglecting air resistance, calculate the ve-
                 Part 3 of 3                      locity of the ball after 3 s.
The coin is moving downward.
                                                                     Part 2 of 2
 1. The acceleration is zero.                     What is the position of the ball after 3 s?
                                                  (Neglect air resistance.)
  2. The acceleration is in the negative direc-
tion and increasing.                                          Dropped Object 01
                                                  03:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
  3. The acceleration is in the negative direc-
tion and decreasing.                                In the absence of air friction, an object
                                                  dropped near the surface of the Earth ex-
  4. The acceleration is in the negative direc-   periences a constant acceleration of about
tion and constant.                                9.8 m/s2 .
                                                    This means that the
  5. The acceleration is in the positive direc-
tion and constant.                                  1. speed of the object increases 9.8 m/s dur-
                                                  ing each second.
  6. The acceleration is in the positive direc-
tion and increasing.                               2. speed of the object as it falls is 9.8 m/s.

  7. The acceleration is in the positive direc-    3. object falls 9.8 meters during each sec-
tion and decreasing.                              ond.
                     Chapter 3, section 4, Newton’s Law of Gravitation                          169

 4. object falls 9.8 meters during the first        1. is greater for the dropped bullet.
second only.
                                                   2. is greater for the fired bullet.
  5. derivative of the distance with respect to
time for the object equals 9.8 m/s2 .              3. depends on how high they started.

            Dropped Object 02                      4. is the same for each bullet.
03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                   5. Unable to determine.
  An object is dropped from rest.
  What is its instantaneous speed when it has               Dropping vs Throwing
been in motion for 3 s?                           03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

            Dropped Object 03                       If you drop an object, it will accelerate
03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.           downward at a rate of 9.8 m/s2 .
                                                    If you throw it downward instead, its accel-
  An object is dropped from rest.                 eration (in the absence of air resistance) will
  What is the acceleration after 2 s?             be           .

              Dropped Rock                         1. Unable to determine.
03:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, nor-
mal.                                               2. less than 9.8 m/s2 .

  If you drop a rock from a height of 5 m, it      3. greater than 9.8 m/s2 .
accelerates at 9.8 m/s2 and strikes the ground
1.01015 s later.                                   4. 9.8 m/s2
  If you drop the same rock from half that
height, its acceleration will be          .                 Earth Acceleration 01
                                                  03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
 1. about half.
                                                     When you drop a 0.4 kg apple, Earth ex-
 2. the same.                                     erts a force on it that accelerates it at 9.8 m/s2
                                                  toward the earth’s surface. According to New-
 3. more.                                         ton’s third law, the apple must exert an equal
                                                  but opposite force on Earth.
 4. 0.                                               If the mass of the earth 5.98 × 1024 kg, what
                                                  is the magnitude of the earth’s acceleration
 5. Unable to determine.                          toward the apple?

              Dropped vs Fired                                  Falling Object 01
03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.     03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, fixed.

   A bullet is dropped into a river from a very      An object is falling freely.
high bridge. At the same time, a second bullet       How much gain in speed each second does
is fired from a gun, straight down toward the      it acquire?
water.
   Neglecting air resistance, the acceleration                  Falling Object 02
just before striking the water           .        03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                     Chapter 3, section 4, Newton’s Law of Gravitation                         170

   An object is in free fall. At one instant, it
is traveling at 40 m/s.                               In each second of fall, the distance a freely
   Exactly 1.5 s later, what is its speed?         falling object will attain is         .

              Falling Object 03                     1. Unable to determine.
03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                    2. about 5 m.
  An object falls freely from rest on a planet
where the acceleration due to gravity is            3. about 10 m.
15 m/s2 .
  After 3 s, what will be its speed?                4. the same, but not 5 m or 10 m.

              Falling Object 04                     5. increasing.
03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                                 Gravitational 01
  Assuming no air resistance, objects fall at      03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
constant         .
                                                     The strength of the gravitational force be-
 1. velocity.                                      tween objects depends on

 2. acceleration.                                   1. the mass of each object and the distance
                                                   between them.
 3. speed.
                                                    2. neither the masses nor the distance be-
 4. distances each successive second.              tween them.

                Free Fall 01                        3. the mass of each object.
03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                    4. the distance between the objects.
  A freely falling body has a constant accel-
eration of 9.8 m/s2 .                                               Gravity 01
  This means that:                                 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 1. the body falls 9.8 m during each second.          Near the surface of the Earth, the accelera-
                                                   tion due to gravity is 9.8 m/sec/sec.
 2. the body falls 9.8 m during the first second       After falling 6 sec, an object would have a
only.                                              velocity of

 3. the acceleration of the body decreases by       1. 58.8 m/sec.
9.8 m/s2 during each second.
                                                    2. 15.8 m/sec.
 4. the acceleration of the body increases by
9.8 m/s2 during each second.                        3. 3.8 m/sec.

 5. the speed of the body increases by 9.8          4. 9.8 m/sec.
m/s during each second.
                                                                    Gravity 02
                Free Fall 02                       03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                     Chapter 3, section 4, Newton’s Law of Gravitation                         171

  The size of the force of gravity between two       What force(s) act on the the rock during its
objects depends on the        of the two objects   curved path?
and the distance between them.
                                                    1. gravitation force
 1. mass
                                                    2. friction force
 2. volume
                                                    3. air drag
 3. friction
                                                    1. air push
 4. motion
                                                    5. All are wrong.
           Gravity on Planet X
03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.                        Hewitt CP9 04 E15
                                                   03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
                  Part 1 of 2                      mal.
  On planet X, an object weighs 12 N. On
planet B where the magnitude of the free-fall                      Part 1 of 4
acceleration is 1.6 g (where g = 9.8 m/s2 is         Gravity on the surface of the moon is only
the gravitational acceleration on Earth), the      1
                                                     as strong as gravity on the Earth.
object weighs 27 N.                                6
a) What is the mass of the object on planet          What is the weight of a 10 kg object on the
X?                                                 Earth? g = 10 m/s2 .

                  Part 2 of 2                                      Part 2 of 4
b) What is the free-fall acceleration on planet    What is the weight on the moon?
X?
                                                                   Part 3 of 4
               Heavy vs Light                      What is the mass on the earth?
03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                                   Part 4 of 4
  A heavy object and a light object are            What is the mass on the moon?
dropped at the same time from rest in a vac-
uum.                                                           Hewitt CP9 10 E04
  The heavier object reaches the ground            03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
         .
                                                      In the absence of air drag, why does the hor-
 1. later than the lighter object.                 izontal component of a projectile’s motion not
                                                   change, while the vertical component does?
 2. sooner than the lighter object.
                                                    1. Gravitation acts vertically while there are
 3. at the same time as the lighter object.        no forces horizontally.

 4. Unable to determine.                            2. Gravitation acts horizontally while there
                                                   are no forces vertically.
            Hewitt CP9 04 E07
03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.       3. The force exerted by the projectile’s
                                                   power is equal to the gravitational force.
  An astronaut tosses a rock on the moon.
                    Chapter 3, section 4, Newton’s Law of Gravitation                       172

 4. The force exerted by the projectile’s           Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
power is greater than the gravitational force.      Tarzan tries to cross a river by swinging
                                                 from one bank to the other on a vine that
 5. The force exerted by the projectile’s        is 10.0 m long. His speed at the bottom of
power is less than the gravitational force.      the swing, just as he clears the surface of the
                                                 river, is 8.0 m/s. Tarzan does not know that
             Holt SF 07I 01                      the vine has a breaking strength of 1.0 × 103
03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,          N.
wording-variable.                                   What is the largest mass Tarzan can have
                                                 and make it safely across the river?
  Two balls, each with a mass of 0.800 kg,
exert a gravitational force of 8.92 × 10−11 N                Holt SF 07Rev 39
on each other.                                   03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
  How far apart are the balls?                   wording-variable.

             Holt SF 07I 02                        The gravitational force of attraction be-
03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,          tween two students sitting at their desks in
wording-variable.                                physics class is 3.20 ×10−8 N.
                                                   If one student has a mass of 50.0 kg and the
   Mars has a mass of about 6.40 × 1023 kg,      other has a mass of 60.0 kg, how far apart are
and its moon Phobos has a mass of about          the students sitting?
9.60 × 1015 kg.
   If the magnitude of the gravitational force               Holt SF 07Rev 40
between the two bodies is 4.60 ×1015 N, how      03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
far apart are Mars and Phobos?                   wording-variable.

             Holt SF 07I 03                        If the gravitational force between the elec-
03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,          tron (9.11 × 10−31 kg) and the proton (1.67 ×
wording-variable.                                10−27 kg) in a hydrogen atom is 1.0 × 10−47
                                                 N, how far apart are the two particles?
                  Part 1 of 3
   Find the magnitude of the gravitational                   Holt SF 07Rev 47
force a 67.5 kg person would experience while    03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
standing on the surface of                       wording-variable.
   a) Earth, with a mass of 5.98 ×1024 kg and
a radius of 6.37 ×106 m.                                          Part 1 of 3
                                                   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
                 Part 2 of 3                       A 13500 N car traveling at 50.0 km/h
b) Mars, with a mass of 6.34 ×1023 kg and a      rounds a curve of radius 2.00 × 102 m.
radius of 3.43 ×106 m.                             a) Find the centripetal acceleration of the
                                                 car.
                 Part 3 of 3
c) Pluto, with a mass of 1.32 ×1022 kg and a                       Part 2 of 3
radius of 1.15 ×106 m.                           b) Find the force that maintains circular mo-
                                                 tion.
            Holt SF 07Rev 38
03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                           Part 3 of 3
wording-variable.                                c) Find the minimum coefficient of static fric-
                                                 tion between the tires and the road that will
                      Chapter 3, section 4, Newton’s Law of Gravitation                        173

allow the car to round the curve safely.            riders suspended against the wall in a vertical
                                                    position.
            Holt SF 07Rev 48
03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                                        3m
wording-variable.

   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
   A 2 ×103 kg car rounds a circular turn of
radius 20.0 m.
   If the road is flat and the coefficient of static
friction between the tires and the road is 0.70,
how fast can the car go without skidding?

              Holt SF 07Rev 49                        What minimum coefficient of friction be-
03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.       tween a rider’s clothing and the wall of the
                                                    cylinder is needed to keep the rider from slip-
                 Part 1 of 3                        ping?
  During a solar eclipse, the moon, Earth,
and sun lie on the same line, with the moon                     Mass and Weight 01
between Earth and the sun.                          03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

           mEarth = 5.98 × 1024 kg                                  Part 1 of 2
                                                      A person weighs 125 lb.
           mmoon = 7.36 × 1022 kg                     Determine her weight in newtons.
            msun = 1.99 × 1030 kg
                                                                   Part 2 of 2
                                   8                Determine her mass in kilograms.
         dEarth,moon = 3.84 × 10 m

         dEarth,sun = 1.496 × 1011 m                            Mass and Weight 02
  a) How large a gravitational force is exerted     03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
on the moon by the sun?
                                                                     Part 1 of 3
                                                      An object has a mass of 10 kg.
                Part 2 of 3
                                                      What is its weight on the earth?
b) How large a gravitational force is exerted
on the moon by Earth?
                                                                       Part 2 of 3
                                                    What is its mass on the moon where the force
                 Part 3 of 3
                                                    of gravity is 1/6 that of the earth?
c) How large a gravitational force is exerted
on Earth by the sun?
                                                                   Part 3 of 3
                                                    What is the weight of that object on the
            Holt SF 07Rev 53
                                                    moon?
03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.
                                                                     Motion 18
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s .  2                          03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
  In a popular amusement-park ride, a cylin-
der of radius 3.00 m is set in rotation at an          The force that causes an object to follow a
angular speed of 5.00 rad/s, as shown in the        circular path is a(n)     force.
figure. The floor then drops away, leaving the
                    Chapter 3, section 4, Newton’s Law of Gravitation                      174

 1. centripetal
                                                               Projectiles 01
 2. gravitational                               03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 3. fluid                                           Projectile motion is caused by the

 4. inertial                                     1. downward force of gravity and horiontal
                                                motion of velocity.
              Motorcycle Mass
03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.           2. downward force of gravity.

  You new motorcycle weighs 2450 N.               3. horizontal motion of velocity.
  What is its mass?
                                                  4. vertical motion of velocity.
          Odometer Reading 01
03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.               Rock Thrown Up 01
                                                03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
  Assume a freely-falling object were some-
how equipped with an odometer to measure          A rock thrown straight up reaches its max-
the distance it travels.                        imum height.
  The distance it travels each second would       Its velocity is        .
be           .
                                                  1. zero and its acceleration is zero.
 1. Not enough information to determine.
                                                 2. zero and its acceleration is about 10
 2. constant.                                   m/s2 .

 3. less than the second before.                 3. about 10 m/s and its acceleration is about
                                                10 m/s2 .
 4. greater than the second before.
                                                 4. about 10 m/s and its acceleration is
          Odometer Reading 02                   zero.
03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                  5. Not enough information to answer.
  Assume a freely-falling object on earth is
somehow equipped with a speedometer.                        Rock Thrown Up 02
  Its speed reading would increase each sec-    03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
ond by           .
                                                 When a rock thrown straight up reaches its
 1. an amount dependent on its initial          maximum height, its
speed.
                                                 1. velocity is 10 m/s and its acceleration is
 2. about 5 m/s.                                zero.

 3. about 15 m/s.                                2. velocity is zero and its acceleration is
                                                zero.
 4. about 20 m/s.
                                                  3. velocity is about 10 m/s and its accelera-
 5. about 10 m/s.                               tion is about 10 m/s2
                     Chapter 3, section 4, Newton’s Law of Gravitation                         175


 4. velocity is zero and its acceleration is       You place a 7.5 kg television set on a spring
about 10 m/s2                                    scale.
                                                   If the scale reads 78.4 N, what is the accel-
 5. Not enough information to answer.            eration of gravity at that location?

        Speedometer Reading 01                                Thrown Vertically
03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.    03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

  Assume a freely-falling object were some-         Someone standing at the edge of a cliff
how equipped with a speedometer on a planet      throws one ball straight up and another ball
where the acceleration due to gravity is 20      straight down at the same initial speed.
meters per second per second.                       Neglecting air resistance, which ball has
  Its speed reading would increase each sec-     the greatest final velocity upon reaching the
ond by           .                               ground?

 1. 20 m/s.                                        1. The ball with initial upward velocity.

 2. 10 m/s.                                        2. They will both hit with the same veloc-
                                                 ity.
 3. 30 m/s.
                                                   3. The ball with initial downward velocity.
 4. 40 m/s.
                                                   4. Unable to determine.
 5. 5 m/s.
                                                         Velocity and Acceleration
 6. a value dependent on its initial speed.      03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

        Speedometer Reading 02                      An object falls with constant acceleration.
03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.    Its velocity must          .

  If a freely-falling object were somehow          1. continually decrease.
equipped with a speedometer on a planet
where the acceleration due to gravity is 20        2. be constant also.
meters per second per second, then its speed
reading would increase each second by             3. continually change by varying amounts
                                                 depending on its speed.
 1. 30 m/s.
                                                  4. continually change by the same amount
 2. 10 m/s.                                      each second.

 3. 20 m/s.                                        5. none of these.

 4. 40 m/s.                                                    Vertical Motion
                                                 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 5. It depends on its initial speed.
                                                    An object is shot vertically upward into the
                Spring Scale                     air with a positive initial velocity.
03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.             Which of the following correctly describes
                       Chapter 3, section 4, Newton’s Law of Gravitation                      176

the velocity and acceleration of the object at     8.35 N.
its maximum elevation?                               What is the value of gravitational field at
                                                   that location?
 1. velocity > 0         Acceleration > 0
                                                                Weight of a Boxer
 2. velocity = 0         Acceleration = 0          03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

 3. velocity < 0         Acceleration < 0                            Part 1 of 4
                                                      A 95.1 kg boxer has his first match in
 4. velocity = 0         Acceleration < 0          the Canal Zone with gravitational acceler-
                                                   ation 9.782 m/s2 and his second match at
 5. velocity > 0         Acceleration < 0          the North Pole with gravitational accelera-
                                                   tion 9.832 m/s2 .
                 Weight 01                            a) What is his mass in the Canal Zone?
03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                                    Part 2 of 4
  The weight of an object varies with the          b) What is his weight in the Canal Zone?

 1. pull of gravity.                                                Part 3 of 4
                                                   c) What is his mass at the North Pole?
 2. volume of the object.
                                                                    Part 4 of 4
 3. dimensions of the object.                      d) What is his weight at the North Pole?

 4. speed of the object.                                          Weight of Lead
                                                   03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                 Weight 02
03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.         You have 11 kg of lead.
                                                      What is the weight?
  Weight is measured in
                                                               Weight on Alderon
 1. Newtons.                                       03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
 2. kilograms.                                       You weigh 185 lb on Earth. When you
                                                   reach Alderon, you discover that its gravity is
 3. Pascals.                                       1.125 that of earth.
                                                     What is your weight on Alderon?
 4. m/sec/sec.
                                                                Weight on Jupiter
            Weight Conversion                      03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                      A man weighs 875 N on Earth.
  Billy’s weight is 120 lb.                           What would he weigh on Jupiter, where the
  What is his actual weight in Newtons?            free-fall acceleration is 25.9 m/s2 ?

              Weight in Space
03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

  A(n) 1.25 kg book in space has a weight of
                   Chapter 3, section 5, Newton’s Third Law of Motion                      177

                                                with his feet, causing both chairs to move.
                Bag of Nails
03:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

                 Part 1 of 2
   When a 100 N bag of nails hangs motionless                    Bob       Jim
from a single vertical strand of rope, how
                                                In this situation, while Bob’s feet are in con-
much tension is exerted in the strand?
                                                tact with Jim’s knees,
                  Part 2 of 2                    1. Neither student exerts a force on the
How much tension if the bag is supported by     other.
2 vertical strands? That is, how much tension
is exerted in each strand?                       2. Bob exerts a force on Jim, but Jim doesn’t
                                                exert a force on Bob.
          Earth Acceleration 02
03:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.          3. Each student exerts a force on the other,
                                                but Jim exerts a larger force.
   If the Earth’s gravitational force causes
a falling 60 kg student to accelerate down-      4. Each student exerts a force on the other,
ward at 9.8 m/s2 , determine the upward ac-     but Bob exerts a larger force.
celeration of the Earth during the student’s
fall. Take the mass of the Earth to be            5. Each student exerts the same amount of
5.98 × 1024 kg.                                 force on the other.

                  Elevator                       6. None of these answers is correct.
03:05, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                            Hewitt CP9 02 E13
  Consider a person standing in an elevator     03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
that is accelerating upward. The upward nor-
mal force N exerted by the elevator floor on       A car headrest help to guard against
the person is                                   whiplash in a rear-end collisions.
                                                  Which law applies here?
  1. larger than the weight (gravitational
force) of the person.                            1. The law of inertia
  2. identical to the weight (gravitational      2. Newton’s second law
force) of the person.
                                                 3. Newton’s third law
  3. smaller than the weight (gravitational
force) of the person.                            4. The law of gravitation

              Force and Motion                   5. All are wrong.
03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                            Hewitt CP9 02 E22
   Two students sit in identical office chairs    03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
facing each other. Bob has a mass of 95 kg,     mal.
while Jim has a mass of 77 kg. Bob places
his bare feet on Jim’s knees, as shown to the     A staging that weighs Wstaging supports a
right. Bob then suddenly pushes outward
                        Chapter 3, section 5, Newton’s Third Law of Motion                     178

painter weighing 200 N. The reading on the           from his bosun’s chair. His weight is 500 N
left scale is 400 N and the reading on the right     and the rope, unknown to him, has a breaking
scale is 300 N.                                      point of 300 N.

         400 N                     300 N

                         




                                                            £                     ¤




                200 N
                            Wstaging


  What is the weight of the staging?

            Hewitt CP9 02 E23                          Does the rope break when he is supported
03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-         as shown at the left above.
mal.
                                                      1. Harry’s weight is distributed over two
  A staging that weighs 300 N supports two           ropes.
painters, one 250 N and the other 300 N. The
reading in the left scale is F = 400 N .              2. Harry is just lucky, and the rope doesn’t
                                                     break.
         400 N                         Fr
                                                      3. Harry’s weight is too great and the rope
    ¡                                    ¢
                                                     does break.

                                                      4. Harry is just unlucky, and the rope does
                                                     break.

                                                                      Part 2 of 2
                                                     One day Harry is painting near a flagpole,
                                                     and, for a change, he ties the free end of the
        250 N                    300 N               rope to the flagpole instead of to his chair as
                 300 N
                                                     shown at the right.
                                                       Why did Harry end up taking his vacation
  What is the reading Fr in the right hand           early?
scale?
                                                      1. Harry’s weight is too great and the rope
            Hewitt CP9 02 E25                        does break.
03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
mal.                                                  2. Harry’s weight is distributed over two
                                                     ropes.
               Part 1 of 2
  Harry the painter swings year after year            3. Harry is just lucky, and the rope doesn’t
                     Chapter 3, section 5, Newton’s Third Law of Motion                       179

break.                                            03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 4. Harry is just unlucky, and the rope does        Can you say that no force acts on a body at
break.                                            rest?
                                                    Or is it correct to say that no net force acts
            Hewitt CP9 02 E27                     on it?
03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.       Defend your answer.

  The rope supports a lantern that weighs 50       1. No force acts on a body at rest; if so, the
N.                                                body will move.
  Is the tension in the rope less than, equal
to, or more than 50 N?                             2. No force acts on a body at rest; All forces
                                                  are canceled by each other when a body is at
 1. Less than, by the parallelogram rule.         rest.

  2. Equal to, so the lantern is at equilib-       3. No net force acts on a body at rest; when
rium.                                             the net force is zero, the body is in static
                                                  equilibrium.
 3. More than, because the two ropes form
some angle.                                        4. No net force acts on a body at rest; be-
                                                  cause there is no force on the body at all.
 4. It depends on the angle between the two
ropes.                                             5. All are wrong.

 5. All are wrong.                                            Hewitt CP9 04 P02
                                                  03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
            Hewitt CP9 02 E29                     mal.
03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                     What is the acceleration of a 10 kg block of
   As you stand on a floor, does the floor exert    cement when pulled sideways with a net force
an upward force against your force?               of 200 N?
   How much force does it exert?
   Why are you not moved upward by this                       Hewitt CP9 04 P03
force?                                            03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
                                                  mal.
 1. Yes. More than my weight, because the
the two forces cancel each other.                   What is the acceleration of a 20 kg pail of
                                                  cement that is pulled upward (not sideways!)
 2. Yes. Less than my weight, because the         with a force of 300 N? (g = 10 m/s2 ).
the two forces cancel each other.
                                                              Hewitt CP9 04 P04
 3. Yes. Equal to my weight, because the the      03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
two forces cancel each other.                     mal.

 4. No. The force is zero.                           If a mass of 1 kg is accelerated 1 m/s2 by a
                                                  force of 1 N, what would be the acceleration
 5. All are wrong.                                of a 2 kg mass acted on by a force of 2 N?

           Hewitt CP9 02 E31                                  Hewitt CP9 04 P05
                   Chapter 3, section 5, Newton’s Third Law of Motion                     180

03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
mal.                                             1. Action: Earth pulls down on ball. Re-
                                                action: Ball pulls up on Earth. Action: Air
   How much acceleration does a 747 jumbo       pushes ball. Reaction: Ball pushes air.
jet of mass 30000 kg experience in takeoff
when the thrust for each of four engines is      2. Action: Ball pulls down on Earth. Re-
30000 N?                                        action: Earth pulls up on ball. Action: Air
                                                pushes ball. Reaction: Ball pushes air.
           Hewitt CP9 04 P06
03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           3. Action: Bat pushes ball forward. Reac-
wording-variable.                               tion: Ball pulls up on Earth. Action: Ball
                                                pushes air. Reaction: Air pushes ball.
  Two boxes are seen to accelerate at the
same rate when a force F is applied to the        4. Action: Bat pushes ball backward. Reac-
first and 4F is applied the second.              tion: Earth pulls down on ball. Action: Ball
  What is the mass ratio of the first box to     pushes air. Reaction: Air pushes ball.
the second?
                                                 5. All are wrong.
            Hewitt CP9 04 P09
03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-                Hewitt CP9 05 E05
mal.                                            03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

   Sprinting near the end of a race, a runner     Consider a baseball player batting a ball.
with a mass 60 kg accelerates from a speed        Identify the action-reaction pairs when the
of 6 m/s to a speed of 7 m/s in 2 s. To gain    ball is being hit.
speed the runner produces a backward force
on the ground, so that the ground pushes the     1. Action: bat hits ball. Reaction: ball hits
runner forward, providing the force necessary   bat.
for the acceleration.
   Calculate this average force.                 2. Action: bat hits ball. Reaction: bat hits
                                                ball.
            Hewitt CP9 04 P10
03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-     3. Action: ball hits bat. Reaction: ball hits
mal.                                            bat

  Before going into orbit, an astronaut has a    4. Action: ball hits bat.     Reaction: bat
mass of 55 kg. When in orbit, a measurement     pushes air
determines that a force of 66 N causes her to
move with an acceleration of 1.1 m/s2 .          5. All are wrong.
  To regain her original weight, should she
go on a diet or start eating more candy? To                 Hewitt CP9 05 E09
answer this, find her mass in orbit.             03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

            Hewitt CP9 05 E03                     When the athlete holds the barbell on his
03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.   hand, the reaction force is the weight of the
                                                barbell on his hand.
  Consider a baseball player batting a ball.      How does this force vary for the case where
  Identify the action-reaction pairs when the   the barbell is accelerated upward? Down-
ball is in flight.                               ward?
                     Chapter 3, section 5, Newton’s Third Law of Motion                       181


 1. Upward: the reaction force is greater                     Hewitt CP9 05 E28
than the weight of the barbell. Downward:         03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
the reaction force is less than the weight of
the barbell.                                        When two vectors sum to zero, how must
                                                  they be related?
 2. Upward: the reaction force is greater
than the weight of the barbell. Downward:           1. The magnitudes are the same; the direc-
the reaction force is greater than the weight     tions are opposite.
of the barbell.
                                                    2. The magnitudes are the same; the direc-
 3. Upward: the reaction force is less than       tions are the same.
the weight of the barbell. Downward: the
reaction force is greater than the weight of        3. The magnitudes are different; the direc-
the barbell.                                      tions are opposite.

 4. Upward: the reaction force is less than         4. The magnitudes are different; the direc-
the weight of the barbell. Downward: the          tions are the same.
reaction force is less than the weight of the
barbell.                                           5. All are wrong.

 5. All are wrong.                                            Hewitt CP9 05 E31
                                                  03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
            Hewitt CP9 05 E11
03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.        Why does vertically falling rain make
                                                  slanted streaks on the side windows of a mov-
  Which one of the following is correct?          ing automobiles?
                                                     If the streaks make an angle of 45◦ , what
 1. You can exert greater force on the pedals     does this tell you about the relative speed of
of a bicycle if you pull up on the handlebars.    the car and the falling rain?
You can exert smaller force on the pedals of a
bicycle if you push down on the handlebars.        1. The speed of the car is the same as that
                                                  of the falling rain.
 2. You can exert greater force on the pedals
of a bicycle if you pull up on the handlebars.      2. The speed of the car is half of that of the
You can exert greater force on the pedals of a    falling rain.
bicycle if you push down on the handlebars.
                                                   3. The speed of the car is two times greater
 3. You can exert smaller force on the pedals     than that of the falling rain.
of a bicycle if you pull up on the handlebars.
You can exert greater force on the pedals of a     4. The speed of the car is three times greater
bicycle if you push down on the handlebars.       than that of the falling rain.

 4. You can exert smaller force on the pedals      5. All are wrong.
of a bicycle if you pull up on the handlebars.
You can exert smaller force on the pedals of a                Hewitt CP9 05 E33
bicycle if you push down on the handlebars.       03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 5. All are wrong.                                  Consider a stone at rest on the ground.
                     Chapter 3, section 5, Newton’s Third Law of Motion                      182

There are two interactions that involve the
stone. One is between the stone and the                            Part 5 of 5
Earth; Earth pulls down on the stone and the      e) What is the magnitude of the force between
stone pulls up on the Earth.                      the block with mass 2 kg and 4 kg?
  What is the other interaction?
                                                                Horse and Buggy
 1. The other interaction is between the stone    03:05, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
and the ground.
                                                   Consider a buggy being pulled by a horse.
 2. The other interaction is between the          Which is correct?
ground and the Earth.
                                                    1. The horse can pull the buggy forward only
 3. The other interaction is between the          if the horse weighs more than the buggy.
ground and air.
                                                   2. The horse pulls forward slightly harder
 4. The other interaction is between the          than the buggy pulls backward on the horse,
Earth and air.                                    so they move forward.

 5. All above are wrong.                           3. The horse pulls before the buggy has time
                                                  to react so they move forward.
             Holt SF 04Rev 63
03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-        4. The force on the buggy is as strong as the
mal.                                              force on the horse. The horse is joined to the
                                                  Earth by flat hoofs, while the buggy is free to
                  Part 1 of 5                     roll on its round wheels.
  Given: g = 9.8 m/s2 .
  Three blocks are in contact with each other                     Net Force 01
on a frictionless horizontal surface. A 360 N     03:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
horizontal force is applied to the block with
mass of 2 kg as shown in the figure below.                         Part 1 of 2
                                                    A book weighing 10 N is placed on a table.
      F
              2 kg       4 kg      6 kg             How much support force does a table exert
                                                  on the book?
                         µ=0
                                                                 Part 2 of 2
 a) What is the net force on the block with       What is the net force on the book in this
mass 2 kg?                                        case?

                Part 2 of 5                                        Pulleys 03
b) What is the resultant force on the block       03:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
with mass 4 kg?
                                                                Part 1 of 3
                Part 3 of 5                         The systems are in equilibrium. The
c) What is the resultant force on the block       suspended weight is W1 = 10 N.
with mass 6 kg?

                 Part 4 of 5
d) What is the magnitude of the force between
the block with mass 4 kg and 6 kg?
                      Chapter 3, section 5, Newton’s Third Law of Motion                            183

                                        T3
                                                                                T1
                 T1                                                                            T2

                            T2
                                         W3
           W1         W2                                               m
                                                                                     W
  Find the tension T1 .
                                                      Find the tension T1 .
                 Part 2 of 3
                                                                       Part 2 of 2
The suspended weight is W2 = 10 N.
                                                      The suspended weight is W = 15 N.
  Find the tension T2 .
                                                        Find the tension T2 .
                 Part 3 of 3
                                                                       Pulleys 06
The suspended weight is W3 = 10 N.
                                                      03:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
  What is the tension T3 ?
                                                                        Part 1 of 2
                 Pulleys 04                             The systems are in equilibrium. In the sys-
03:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.               tem on the left, m = 1.5 slug and W1 = 10 lb.
              Part 1 of 2                                                                T2
  The systems are in equilibrium. The
suspended weight is W1 = 10 lb.
                                                                           W1            W3
                                                                            T1
                      T1                                           m

                                   W3                                                     W2

            W1                W2    T2
                                                      Find the tension T1 .
Find the tension T1 .
                                                                       Part 2 of 2
                  Part 2 of 2                         In the system on the right, W2 = 8 N and
The suspended weight is W2 = 20 N and the             W3 = 10 N.
weight in the string is W3 = 6 N.                       Find the tension T2 .
Find the tension T2 .
                                                                       Pulleys 07
                 Pulleys 05                           03:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
03:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                        The system is in equilibrium. The sus-
              Part 1 of 2                             pended mass m = 2.73 slug. Use g = 32 ft/s2 .
  The systems are in equilibrium.              The                     ft
suspended mass is m = 0.5                     slug.   Note: lb ≡ slug 2 . The pulleys and string
                                                                      s
                                                      are massless and the string is unstretchable.
                         Chapter 3, section 5, Newton’s Third Law of Motion                     184

                                                      20 kg, m2 = 7 kg, and m3 = 9 kg.


                  T

                                                                                   m2

                          m                                                m3

                                                                        T
Find the tension T .
                                                                                    m1
                 Pulleys 08
03:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.               Find the tension T .

              Part 1 of 2                                              Pulleys 11
  The systems are in equilibrium. The                 03:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
suspended weight is W1 = 20 N.
                                                         The   system    is    in   equilib-
                    T1                  T2            rium. The suspended mass m = 2.73 kg.
                                     W2
                                                                           T




               W1                   m

Find the tension T1 .                                                          m



                 Part 2 of 2
The suspended mass is m = 2000 g, and the
suspended weight in the string is W2 = 1.5 N.         Find the tension T .
Find the tension T2 .
                                                                   Reaction Force 01
                 Pulleys 09                           03:05, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
03:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                        A book rests on the shelf of a bookcase.
  The system is in equilibrium. The sus-                The reaction force to the force of gravity
pended     mass      is      2.5   slug.              acting on the book is

                                                       1. The force exerted by the book on the
              T                                       earth.

                                                       2. None of these.
                            m
                                                       3. The weight of the book.
Find the tension T .
                                                       4. The frictional force between book and
                 Pulleys 10                           shelf.
03:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                       5. The force of the shelf holding the book
  The system is in equilibrium.              m1 =
                    Chapter 3, section 5, Newton’s Third Law of Motion   185

up.

             Reaction Force 02
03:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

  You hit someone with a force of 200 N.
  How much force is exerted on you?

                Three Forces
03:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

                  Part 1 of 2
  An object in equilibrium has three forces
exerted on it. A(n) 33 N force acts at 80◦ , and
a(n) 44 N force acts at 60◦ .
  What is the magnitude of the third force?

                 Part 2 of 2
What is the direction of the third force?

                Tug of War
03:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

   A 60 kg boy and a 40 kg girl use an elas-
tic rope while engaged in a tug-of-war on a
frictionless icy surface.
   If the acceleration of the girl toward the
boy is 3 m/s2 , determine the magnitude of
the acceleration of the boy toward the girl.
                                Chapter 3, section 6, Friction                                 186

                                                    1. friction.
                 Friction 01
03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.       2. inertia.

  The amount of sliding friction depends on         3. falling.
the
                                                    4. unbalanced.
 1. weight of the moving object and the type
of surface that the object slides across.                           Friction 05
                                                   03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 2. density and volume of the object.
                                                     The opposing force that resists motion
 3. acceleration and mass of the object.           when two surfaces come into contact is called

 4. density and mass of the object.                 1. friction.

                 Friction 02                        2. inertia.
03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                    3. falling.
   Which of the following is not used to reduce
friction?                                           4. unbalanced.

 1. rough surfaces                                                  Friction 06
                                                   03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 2. oil
                                                      What kind of friction occurs when an object
 3. wheels                                         falls through the air?

 4. ball bearings                                   1. fluid

                 Friction 03                        2. sliding
03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                    3. falling
  The friction produced by wheels or ball
bearings is called                                  4. rolling

 1. rolling friction.                                               Friction 07
                                                   03:06, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
 2. sliding friction.
                                                                      Part 1 of 2
 3. starting friction.                                A dockworker loading crates on a ship finds
                                                   that a 20 kg crate, initially at rest on a hori-
 4. fluid friction.                                 zontal surface, requires a 75 N horizontal force
                                                   to set it in motion. However, after the crate
                 Friction 04                       is set in motion, a horizontal force of 60 N
03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      is required to keep it moving with a constant
                                                   speed.
  The force that opposes motion is                    Find the coefficient µs of static friction be-
                                                   tween crate and floor.
                                  Chapter 3, section 6, Friction                                187


                Part 2 of 2                            4. Air resistance is as effective in slowing a
Find the coefficient µk of kinetic friction.           feather as a coin.

            Hewitt CP9 02 E11                         5. All are wrong.
03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                                 Hewitt CP9 04 E05
  Consider a ball at rest in the middle of a         03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
toy wagon.
  When the wagon is pulled forward, what is            If it takes 1 N to push horizontally on your
the motion of the ball?                              book to make it slide at constant velocity, how
                                                     much force of friction acts on the book?
 1. The ball will stay at rest on the wagon.
                                                      1. 0 N
 2. The ball will stay where it was; the surface
would slide beneath the ball.                         2. 1 N

 3. From a point of view outside the wagon,           3. 2 N
the ball stays in place as the back of the wagon
moves toward it. Because of friction, the ball        1. 4 N
may roll along the cart surface.
                                                      5. All are wrong.
 4. The ball will move faster than the
wagon.                                                           Hewitt CP9 04 E09
                                                     03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
 5. All are wrong.                                   mal.

            Hewitt CP9 02 E33                           A(n) 400 kg bear grasping a vertical tree
03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-         slides down at constant velocity.
mal.                                                    What is the friction force that acts on the
                                                     bear? (g = 10 m/s2 )
  Pull horizontally on a crate with a force of
200 N and it slides across the floor in dynamic                   Hewitt CP9 04 P01
equilibrium.                                         03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
  How much friction is acting on the crate?          mal.

            Hewitt CP9 03 E21                          What is the greatest acceleration a runner
03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.        can muster if the friction between her shoes
                                                     and the pavement is 90% her weight? (g =
  Which of the following is correct?                 10 m/s2 ).

  1. In free fall, air resistance is more effective               Hewitt CP9 04 P07
in slowing a feather than a coin.                    03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
                                                     mal.
 2. Air resistance is more effective in slowing
a feather than a coin.                                 A firefighter of mass 80 kg slides down a
                                                     vertical pole with an acceleration of 4 m/s2 .
  3. Air resistance is less effective in slowing a      What is the friction force that acts on him?
feather than a coin.                                 (g = 10 m/s2 ).
                                  Chapter 3, section 6, Friction                                   188


             Holt SF 04C 01
03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                            Materials          µs      µk
wording-variable.                                              steel on steel         0.74    0.57
                                                            aluminum on steel         0.61    0.47
   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
   Once a 24 kg crate is in motion on a hori-             rubber on dry concrete       1.0     0.8
zontal floor, a horizontal force of 53 N keeps             rubber on wet concrete        –      0.5
the crate moving with a constant velocity.                    wood on wood             0.4     0.2
   What is µk , the coefficient of kinetic fric-                 glass on glass          0.9     0.4
tion, between the crate and the floor?
                                                         waxed wood on wet snow       0.14     0.1
             Holt SF 04C 02                              waxed wood on dry snow         –     0.04
03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                 metal on metal (lubricated)   0.15    0.06
wording-variable.                                                ice on ice            0.1    0.03
                                                             Teflon on Teflon           0.04    0.04
                   Part 1 of 2
   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                                synovial joints in humans    0.01   0.003
   A 25 kg chair initially at rest on a horizontal
floor requires a 365 N horizontal force to set          a) What is Fs,max for moving a 145 kg
it in motion. Once the chair is in motion, a         aluminum sculpture across a horizontal steel
327 N horizontal force keeps it moving at a          platform?
constant velocity.
   a) What is the coefficient of static friction                      Part 2 of 8
between the chair and the floor?                      b) What is Fk for moving the 145 kg alu-
                                                     minum sculpture across the horizontal steel
                 Part 2 of 2                         platform?
b) What is the coefficient of kinetic friction
between the chair and the floor?                                       Part 3 of 8
                                                     c) What is Fs,max for pulling a 15 kg steel
             Holt SF 04C 03                          sword across a horizontal steel shield?
03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                                      Part 4 of 8
                                                     d) What is Fk for pulling the 15 kg steel sword
                  Part 1 of 8                        across the horizontal steel shield?
   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
   A museum curator moves artifacts into                              Part 5 of 8
place on many different display surfaces. Con-        e) What is Fs,max for pushing a 250 kg wood
sider the following table giving approximate         bed on a wood floor?
values for coefficients of friction:
                                                                     Part 6 of 8
                                                     f) What is Fk for pushing the 250 kg wood
                                                     bed on a wood floor?

                                                                      Part 7 of 8
                                                     g) What is Fs,max for sliding a 0.55 kg glass
                                                     amulet on a glass display case?

                                                                        Part 8 of 8
                                 Chapter 3, section 6, Friction                                 189

h) What is Fk for sliding the 0.55 kg glass
amulet on a glass display case?                                  Holt SF 04D 04
                                                    03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
           Holt SF 04D 01 02                        wording-variable.
03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                     A box of books weighing 325 N moves with
                                                    a constant velocity across the floor when it is
                  Part 1 of 2                       pushed with a force of 425 N exerted down-
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                            ward at an angle of 35.2◦ below the horizontal.
  A student moves a box of books down the             Find µk between the box and the floor.
hall by pulling on a rope attached to the box.
The student pulls with a force of 185 N at an                   Holt SF 04Rev 22
angle of 25.0◦ above the horizontal. The box        03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
has a mass of 35.0 kg, and µk between the box       wording-variable.
and the floor is 0.27.
  Find the acceleration of the box.                                   Part 1 of 3
                                                        Two forces, 450 N at 15◦ and 300 N at 26◦
                   Part 2 of 2                      are applied to a car in an effort to accelerate
Now the student moves the box up a ramp             it.
(with the same coefficient of friction) inclined
at 12◦ with the horizontal.                                                    450 N          15
                                                                                                ◦

   b) If the box starts from rest at the bottom            3000 kg
of the ramp and is pulled at an angle of 25 ◦                            300           26 ◦
with respect to the incline and with the same                                  N
185 N force, what is the acceleration up the
                                                      a) Find the resultant of these two forces.
ramp?
                                                                       Part 2 of 3
             Holt SF 04D 03
03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,             b) Find the direction of the resultant force
                                                    (in relation to forward, with counterclockwise
wording-variable.
                                                    considered positive).
                 Part 1 of 2
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                                              Part 3 of 3
  A 75.0 kg box slides down a 25.0◦ ramp            Assume: There is no friction.
with an acceleration of 3.60 m/s2 .                   c) If the car has a mass of 3000 kg, what
                        2                           acceleration does it have?
                       /s
                 3.6 m
                                                                 Holt SF 04Rev 37
                            kg                      03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
                      75                            mal.
                            µk    25◦
                                                                       Part 1 of 2
                                                       Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
                                                       A(n) 95 kg clock initially at rest on a hor-
  a) Find µk between the box and the ramp.          izontal floor requires a(n) 650 N horizontal
                                                    force to set it in motion. After the clock is in
                 Part 2 of 2                        motion, a horizontal force of 560 N keeps it
b) What acceleration would a 175 kg mass            moving with a constant velocity.
have down this ramp?                                   a) Find µs between the clock and the floor.
                                  Chapter 3, section 6, Friction                                190

                                                       Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
                Part 2 of 2                            A 5.4 kg bag of groceries is in equilibrium
b) Find µk between the clock and the floor.           on an incline of 25◦ .

            Holt SF 04Rev 38
03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                                           kg
                                                                            5.4
wording-variable.
                                                                                  µ    25◦
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
  A 30 kg box slides down a 30.0◦ ramp with
an acceleration of 1.20 m/s2 .
                                                       What is the magnitude of the normal force
                                                     on the bag?

                             kg                                  Holt SF 04Rev 41
                        30
                                                     03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                              µ   30◦                wording-variable.

                                                        Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
                                                        A clerk moves a box of cans down an aisle
                                                     by pulling on a strap attached to the box. The
  Find the coefficient of kinetic friction be-
                                                     clerk pulls with a force of 185.0 N at an angle
tween the box and the ramp.
                                                     of 25.0◦ with the horizontal. The box has a
                                                     mass of 35.0 kg, and the coefficient of kinetic
            Holt SF 04Rev 39
                                                     friction between the box and floor is 0.450.
03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                        What is the acceleration of the box?
wording-variable.
                                                                 Holt SF 04Rev 42
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
                                                     03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
  A 4.00 kg block is pushed along the ceiling
                                                     wording-variable.
with a constant applied force of 85.0 N that
acts at an angle of 70.0◦ with the horizontal.
                                                        Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
The block accelerates to the right at 6.00
                                                        A(n) 925 N crate is being pushed across a
m/s2 .
                                                     level floor by a force of 325 N at an angle
                                                     of 25 ◦ above the horizontal. The coefficient
                         µ                           of kinetic friction between the crate and the
                                                     floor is 0.25.
                        4 kg
                                                                                  N
                                                                              325       25◦
             ◦
           70            6 m/s2
                 85 N




                                                                    925 N
  What is the coefficient of kinetic friction                        µk = 0.25
between the block and the ceiling?
                                                       What is the acceleration of the box?
            Holt SF 04Rev 40
03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                          Holt SF 04Rev 44
wording-variable.                                    03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                     wording-variable.
                                Chapter 3, section 6, Friction                                  191

                                                   between the block and the incline?
                        2
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s .
  A 35 kg box rests on the back of a truck.                          Part 3 of 4
The coefficient of static friction between the       c) What is the magnitude of the frictional
box and the truck bed is 0.300.                    force acting on the block?
  What maximum acceleration can the truck
have before the box slides backward?                                 Part 4 of 4
                                                   d) What is the speed of the block after it slides
            Holt SF 04Rev 53                       the distance of 2.00?
03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                               Holt SF 04Rev 56
                                                   03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                          mal.
   A girl coasts down a hill on a sled, reaching
level ground at the bottom with a speed of            Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
7.0 m/s. The coefficient of kinetic friction            A 75 kg person escapes from a burning
between the sled’s runners and the hard, icy       building by jumping from a window 25 m
snow is 0.050, and the girl and sled together      above a catching net.
weigh 645 N.                                          Assuming that air resistance is simply a
   How far does the sled travel on the level       constant 95 N force on the person during the
ground before coming to a rest?                    fall, determine the person’s velocity just be-
                                                   fore hitting the net.
            Holt SF 04Rev 54
03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                         Holt SF 04Rev 57
wording-variable.                                  03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
                                                   mal.
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
  A box of books weighing 319 N is shoved             Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
across the floor by a force of 485 N exerted           The parachute on a race car that weighs
downward at an angle of 35◦ below the hori-        8820 N opens at the end of a quarter-mile run
zontal.                                            when the car is traveling 35 m/s.
  If µk between the box and the floor is 0.57,         What net retarding force must be supplied
how long does it take to move the box 4.00 m,      by the parachute to stop the car in a distance
starting from rest?                                of 1100 m?

            Holt SF 04Rev 55                                    Holt SF 04Rev 59
03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
wording-variable.                                  mal.

                  Part 1 of 4                        Given: g = 9.8 m/s2 .
   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                            The coefficient of static friction between the
   A 3.00 kg block starts from rest at the top     3 kg crate and the 20◦ incline is 0.3.
of a 30.0◦ incline and accelerates uniformly
down the incline, moving 2.00 m in 1.50 s.
   a) What is the magnitude of the accelera-
tion of the block?

                Part 2 of 4
b) What is the coefficient of kinetic friction
                               Chapter 3, section 6, Friction                                192

                                                  friction is 0.600?




                      F
                                                              Holt SF 04Rev 65
                                                  03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                      3 kg                        wording-variable.
                          µk    20◦                                 Part 1 of 3
                                                     Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
                                                     Two blocks with masses of 45.0 kg and 23.5
  What minimum force F must be applied to         kg are stacked on a table with the heavier
the crate perpendicular to the incline to pre-    block on top. The coefficient of static friction
vent the crate from sliding down the incline?     is 0.600 between the two blocks and 0.300
                                                  between the bottom block and the table. A
            Holt SF 04Rev 62                      horizontal force is slowly applied to the top
03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           block until one of the blocks moves.
wording-variable.                                    a) What is the friction force between the
                                                  blocks?
  The board sandwiched between two other
boards in the figure weighs 95.5 N.                                  Part 2 of 3
                                                  b) What is the friction force between the lower
                                                  block and the table?

                  95.5 N                                             Part 3 of 3
                                                  c) What minimum value for the coefficient
                                                  of static friction between the masses and the
                                                  table would cause the slippage to first happen
                                                  between the blocks?
   If the coefficient of friction between the
boards is 0.663, what must be the magnitude
of the horizontal forces acting on both sides                   Holt SF 04Rev 66
of the center board to keep it from slipping      03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
downward?
                                                                    Part 1 of 2
                                                    A truck driver slams on the brakes and
            Holt SF 04Rev 64
                                                  skids to a stop through a displacement of ∆x.
03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                    a) If the truck has twice the mass, by what
wording-variable.
                                                  factor does the stopping distance change?
                   Part 1 of 2
                                                   1. 1
   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
   A car is traveling at 50.0 km/h on a flat
                                                   2. 2
highway.
   a) If the coefficient of kinetic friction be-
                                                   3. 4
tween the road and the tires on a rainy day is
0.100, what is the minimum distance needed
                                                   4. 0.5
for the car to stop?
                                                   5. 0.25
                 Part 2 of 2
b) What is the stopping distance when the
                                                   6. None of these
surface is dry and the coefficient of kinetic
                               Chapter 3, section 6, Friction   193

                  Part 2 of 2
b) If the initial velocity of the truck were
halved, by what factor would the stopping
distance change?

 1. 0.25

 2. 1

 3. 2

 4. 4

 5. 0.5

 6. None of these

            Holt SF 04Rev 69
03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.

                Part 1 of 2
  A 150 N block rests on a table. The sus-
pended mass has a weight of 75 N.

                    150 N

                     µs


                                     75 N


   a) What is the magnitude of the minimum
force of static friction required to hold both
blocks at rest?

                  Part 2 of 2
b) What minimum coefficient of static friction
is required to ensure that both blocks remain
at rest?

                 PS 303 7 7
03:06, basic, numeric, < 1 min, normal.

   If it requires 5 N to push a box weighing
20 N across the floor, what is the coefficient
of friction between the box and the floor?
                               Chapter 3, section 7, Momentum                                  194

                                                    which has twice the inertial mass of cart A, is
              Bullet in a Block                     entirely passive. When the piston is released,
03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.             it pushes against cart B, and the carts move
                                                    apart. How do the magnitudes of the final
   A(n) 15 g bullet is shot into a(n) 5085 g        momenta p and kinetic energies K compare?
wooden block standing on a frictionless sur-
face. The block, with the bullet in it, acquires     1. pA > pB , KA = KB
a velocity of 1 m/s.
   Calculate the velocity of the bullet before       2. pA > pB , KA > KB
striking the block.
                                                     3. pA = pB , KA > KB
               Car Collision 01
03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.              4. pA > pB , KA < KB

   A car with mass 1245 kg, moving at 29 m/s,        5. pA = pB , KA = KB
strikes a(n) 2175 kg car at rest. If the two
cars stick together, with what speed do they         6. pA = pB , KA < KB
move?
                                                     7. pA < pB , KA > KB
               Car Collision 02
03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.              8. pA < pB , KA = KB

                 Part 1 of 2                         9. pA < pB , KA < KB
  A 1000 kg car traveling initially with a
speed of 55 m/s in an easterly direction                       Chunk the Textbook
crashes into the rear end of a 3500 kg truck        03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
moving in the same direction at 18 m/s.
                                                       A(n) 730 N man stands in the middle of a
                                                    frozen pond of radius 5 m. He is unable to get
                    Before                          to the other side because of a lack of friction
                                                    between his shoes and the ice. To overcome
                              V                     this difficulty, he throws his 1.2 kg physics
                                                    textbook horizontally toward the north shore,
                                                    at a speed of 5 m/s.
                    After
                                                       How long does it take him to reach the
                                                    south shore?
The velocity of the car right after the collision
is 10 m/s to the east. What is the speed of                         Collision 01
the truck right after the collision?                03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
             Part 2 of 2                                             Part 1 of 2
How much mechanical energy is lost in the             A(n) 25 g object moving to the right at
collision?                                          20 cm/s overtakes and collides elastically with
                                                    a 10 g object moving in the same direction at
                Cart Recoil                         15 cm/s.
03:07, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.         Find the velocity of faster object after the
                                                    collision.
  Two carts are put back-to-back on a track.
Cart A has a spring-loaded piston; cart B,                            Part 2 of 2
                               Chapter 3, section 7, Momentum                                 195

Find the velocity of slower object after the
collision.                                           3. Newton’s third law

                Collision 02                         4. Gravitation law
03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                     5. All are wrong.
  A(n) 2575 kg van runs into the back of a(n)
825 kg compact car at rest. They move off                        Hewitt CP9 05 E17
together at 8.5 m/s. Assuming no friction           03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
with the ground, find the initial speed of the
van.                                                  Suppose two carts, one twice as massive
                                                    as the other, fly apart when the compressed
               Collision Effect                      spring that joins them is released.
03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.               How fast does the heavier cart roll com-
                                                    pared with the lighter cart?
                  Part 1 of 2
                                                          1
  An impulse of 150 N s is required to stop a        1.     vlight
person’s head in a car collision.                         2
  If the face is in contact with the steering        2. 2 vlight
wheel for 0.02 s, what is the force on the
cheekbone?                                           3. vlight

                  Part 2 of 2                             1
                                                     4.     vlight
If a force of 900 N fractures the cheekbone,              3
how long must it be in contact with the steer-       5. All are wrong.
ing wheel in order to fracture?
                                                                Hewitt CP9 05 E19
              Golf Club Speed                       03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                      If a Mack truck and Honda Civic have a
   High-speed stroboscopic photographs show         head-on collision, upon which vehicle is the
that the head of a 200 g golf club is traveling     impact force greater?
at 55 m/s just before it strikes a 46 g golf ball     Which vehicle experiences the greater ac-
at rest on a tee. After the collision, the club     celeration?
head follows through at 40 m/s.
   Find the speed of the golf ball immediately       1. The forces are the same; the Civic experi-
after impact.                                       ences the greater acceleration.

            Hewitt CP9 04 E31                        2. The force on the truck is greater; the
03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.       acceleration are the same.

   A common saying goes, “It’s not the fall          3. The forces are the same; the accelerations
that hurts you; it’s the sudden stop.”              are same.
   Translate this into Newton’s laws of mo-
tion.                                                 4. The forces are the same; the truck expe-
                                                    riences the greater acceleration.
 1. Newton’s first law
                                                     5. All are wrong.
 2. Newton’s second law
                              Chapter 3, section 7, Momentum                                  196


            Hewitt CP9 06 R02                        Which one of the following undergoes the
03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      greatest change in momentum if the baseballs
                                                   have the same speed just before being caught
  How does impulse differ from force?               and just before being thrown.

 1. Force produces acceleration. Impulse pro-       1. A baseball that is caught.
duces change in momentum.
                                                    2. A baseball that is thrown.
 2. Force produces acceleration.Impulse pro-
duces momentum.                                     3. A baseball that is caught and then thrown
                                                   back.
 3. Force produces momentum.Impulse pro-
duces acceleration.                                            Hewitt CP9 06 R22
                                                   03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 4. Force is usually bigger than momentum.
                                                      Railroad car A rolls at a certain speed and
 5. Momentum is bigger than force.                 makes a perfectly elastic collision with car B
                                                   of the same mass. After the collision, car A is
 6. None of these.                                 observed to be at rest.
                                                      How does the speed of car B compare with
            Hewitt CP9 06 R09                      the initial speed of car A?
03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                    1. The speed of car B is more than the initial
   Why might a wine glass survive a fall onto      speed of car A.
a carpeted floor but not onto a concrete floor?
                                                    2. The speed of car B is less than the initial
 1. Since the carpet is softer than the concrete   speed of car A.
and the force of impact is reduced by the
extended time of impact.                             3. The speed of car B is the same as the
                                                   initial speed of car A.
 2. The decrease of momentum of the wine
glass in the carpet is less than that in the        4. Cannot compare since the number of the
concrete.                                          energy is not conserved.

 3. The decrease of momentum of the wine                         Holt SF 06A 01
glass in the carpet is more than that in the       03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
concrete.                                          mal.

  4. The decrease of velocity of the wine glass      An ostrich with a mass of 146 kg is running
in the carpet is less than that in the concrete.   to the right with a velocity of 17 m/s.
                                                     Find the momentum of the ostrich.
 5. The decrease of velocity of the wine in the
carpet is more than that in the concrete.                       Holt SF 06A 02
                                                   03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
 6. None of these                                  wording-variable.

            Hewitt CP9 06 R14                                       Part 1 of 3
03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.        A 21 kg child is riding a 5.9 kg bike with a
                              Chapter 3, section 7, Momentum                                  197

velocity of 4.5 m/s to the northwest.             the player?
  a) What is the total momentum of the child
and the bike together?                                         Holt SF 06B 04
                                                  03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                Part 2 of 3                       wording-variable.
b) What is the momentum of the child?
                                                                      Part 1 of 2
                Part 3 of 3                          A 0.50 kg object is at rest. A 3.00 N force
c) What is the momentum of the bike?              to the right acts on the object during a time
                                                  interval of 1.50 s.
              Holt SF 06A 03                         a) What is the velocity of the object at the
03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-      end of this time interval?
mal.
                                                                     Part 2 of 2
  What velocity must a car with a mass of         At the end of this interval, a constant force of
1210 kg have in order to have the same mo-        4.00 N to the left is applied for 3.00 s.
mentum as a 2250 kg pickup truck traveling          b) What is the velocity at the end of the
at 25 m/s to the east?                            3.00 s?

             Holt SF 06B 01                                    Holt SF 06C 01
03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                 wording-variable.

   A 0.50 kg football is thrown with a velocity                      Part 1 of 2
of 15 m/s to the right. A stationary receiver       A 2250 kg car traveling to the west at 20.0
catches the ball and brings it to rest in 0.020   m/s slows down uniformly.
s.                                                  a) How long would it take the car to come
   What is the force exerted on the receiver?     to a stop if the force on the car is 8450 N to
                                                  the east?
             Holt SF 06B 02
03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                              Part 2 of 2
wording-variable.                                 b) What is the car’s displacement during the
                                                  time it takes to stop?
  An 82 kg man drops from rest on a diving
board 3.0 m above the surface of the water                     Holt SF 06C 02
and comes to rest 0.55 s after reaching the       03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
water.                                            wording-variable.
  What force does the water exert on him?
                                                                    Part 1 of 3
             Holt SF 06B 03                          A 2500 kg car traveling to the north is
03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           slowed down uniformly from an initial velocity
wording-variable.                                 of 20.0 m/s by a 6250 N braking force acting
                                                  opposite the car’s motion.
   A 0.40 kg soccer ball approaches a player         a) What is the car’s velocity after 2.50 s?
horizontally with a velocity of 18 m/s to the
north. The player strikes the ball and causes                      Part 2 of 3
it to move in the opposite direction with a       b) How far does the car move during the 2.5 s
velocity of 22 m/s.                               s?
   What impulse was delivered to the ball by
                              Chapter 3, section 7, Momentum                                  198


                Part 3 of 3                                         Part 1 of 3
c) How long does it take the car to come to a        Each croquet ball in a set has a mass of
complete stop?                                    0.50 kg. The green ball, traveling at 12.0 m/s,
                                                  strikes the blue ball, which is at rest.
             Holt SF 06C 03                          Assuming that the balls slide on a friction-
03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           less surface and all collisions are head-on, find
wording-variable.                                 the final speed of the blue ball in each of the
                                                  following situations:
                 Part 1 of 2                         a) The green ball stops moving after it
  A 2250 kg car traveling to the west at 20.0     strikes the blue ball.
m/s slows down uniformly under a force of
8450 N to the east.                                                 Part 2 of 3
  a) How much force would be required to          b) The green ball continues moving after the
cause the same acceleration on a car of mass      collision at 2.4 m/s in the same direction.
3250 kg?
                                                                    Part 3 of 3
               Part 2 of 2                        c) The green ball continues moving after the
b) How far would the car move before stop-        collision at 0.3 m/s in the same direction.
ping?
                                                               Holt SF 06D 04
             Holt SF 06D 01                       03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           wording-variable.
wording-variable.
                                                     A boy on a 2.0 kg skateboard initially at
  A 63.0 kg astronaut is on a space walk when     rest tosses a(n) 8.0 kg jug of water in the
the tether line to the shuttle breaks. The        forward direction.
astronaut is able to throw a 10.0 kg oxygen          If the jug has a speed of 3.0 m/s relative to
tank in a direction away from the shuttle with    the ground and the boy and skateboard move
a speed of 12.0 m/s, propelling the astronaut     in the opposite direction at 0.60 m/s, find the
back to the shuttle.                              boy’s mass.
  Assuming that the astronaut starts from
rest, find the final speed of the astronaut after                Holt SF 06Rev 12
throwing the tank.                                03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
                                                  mal.
             Holt SF 06D 02
03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                             Part 1 of 4
wording-variable.                                   Calculate the magnitude of the linear mo-
                                                  mentum for each of the following cases
   A(n) 85.0 kg fisherman jumps from a dock          a) a proton with mass 1.67 × 10−27 kg mov-
into a 135.0 kg rowboat at rest on the west       ing with a velocity of 5 × 106 m/s.
side of the dock.
   If the velocity of the fisherman is 4.30 m/s                     Part 2 of 4
to the west as he leaves the dock, what is the    b) a 1.5 g bullet moving with a speed of
final velocity of the fisherman and the boat?       300 m/s to the right.

             Holt SF 06D 03                                         Part 3 of 4
03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           c) a 7.5 kg sprinter running with a velocity of
wording-variable.                                 10 m/s.
                              Chapter 3, section 7, Momentum                                  199

                                                               Holt SF 06Rev 24
                  Part 4 of 4                      03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
d) Earth (m = 5.98 × 1024 kg) moving with          wording-variable.
an orbital speed equal to 29800 m/s.
                                                                     Part 1 of 2
            Holt SF 06Rev 13                          A 65.0 kg ice skater moving to the right
03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            with a velocity of 2.50 m/s throws a 0.150 kg
wording-variable.                                  snowball to the right with a velocity of 32.0
                                                   m/s relative to the ground.
  What is the momentum of a 0.148 kg base-            a) What is the velocity of the ice skater
ball thrown with a velocity of 35 m/s toward       after throwing the snowball? Disregard the
home plate?                                        friction between the skates and the ice.

            Holt SF 06Rev 14                                          Part 2 of 2
03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            A second skater initially at rest with a mass
wording-variable.                                  of 60.0 kg catches the snowball.
                                                      b) What is the velocity of the second skater
  A 2.5 kg ball strikes a wall with a velocity     after catching the snowball in a perfectly in-
of 8.5 m/s to the left. The ball bounces off        elastic collision?
with a velocity of 7.5 m/s to the right.
  If the ball is in contact with the wall for                  Holt SF 06Rev 25
0.25 s, what is the constant force exerted on      03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
the ball by the wall?                              wording-variable.

            Holt SF 06Rev 15                          A tennis player places a 55 kg ball machine
03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            on a frictionless surface. The machine fires a
wording-variable.                                  0.057 kg tennis ball horizontally with a veloc-
                                                   ity of 36 m/s toward the north.
   A football punter accelerates a 0.55 kg foot-      What is the final velocity of the machine?
ball from rest to a speed of 8.0 m/s in 0.25
s.                                                             Holt SF 06Rev 26
   What constant force does the punter exert       03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
on the ball?                                       wording-variable.

            Holt SF 06Rev 16                                           Part 1 of 2
03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,              After being struck by a bowling ball, a 1.5
wording-variable.                                  kg bowling pin sliding to the right at 3.0 m/s
                                                   collides head-on with another 1.5 kg bowling
                  Part 1 of 2                      pin initially at rest.
   A 0.15 kg baseball moving at +26 m/s is           Find the final velocity of the second pin in
slowed to a stop by a catcher who exerts a         the following situations:
constant force of −390 N.                            a) The first pin moves to the right after the
   a) How long does it take this force to stop     collision at 0.5 m/s.
the ball?
                                                                     Part 2 of 2
                Part 2 of 2                        b) The first pin stops moving when it hits the
b) How far does the ball travel before stop-       second pin.
ping?
                                                                Holt SF 06Rev 41
                              Chapter 3, section 7, Momentum                                  200

03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                    Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
                                                     A(n) 8.0 g bullet is fired into a 2.5 kg pen-
  If a 0.147 kg baseball has a momentum of         dulum bob initially at rest and becomes em-
6.17 kg·m/s as it is thrown from home to           bedded in it. The pendulum rises a vertical
second base, what is its velocity?                 distance of 6.0 cm.
                                                     What was the initial speed of the bullet?
            Holt SF 06Rev 42
03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                        Holt SF 06Rev 52
wording-variable.                                  03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                   wording-variable.
                 Part 1 of 2
  A moving object has a kinetic energy of 150        Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
J and a momentum of 30.0 kg·m/s.                     A bird perched on a swing like the one
  a) Find the speed of the object.                 below has a mass of 52.0 g, and the base of
                                                   the swing has a mass of 153 g.
                 Part 2 of 2
b) Find the mass of the object.

            Holt SF 06Rev 43
03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.
                                                          8 cm
                  Part 1 of 2
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
  A 0.10 kg ball of dough is thrown straight
up into the air with an initial speed of 15 m/s.
  a) What is its momentum at its maximum
height?
                                                     The swing and bird are originally at rest,
                 Part 2 of 2                       then the bird takes off horizontally at 2.00
b) What is its momentum halfway to its max-        m/s.
imum height on the way up?                           How high will the base of the swing rise
                                                   above its original level? Disregard friction.
            Holt SF 06Rev 47
03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                        Holt SF 06Rev 53
wording-variable.                                  03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                   wording-variable.
  A 0.025 kg golf ball moving at 18.0 m/s
crashes through the window of a house in 5.0×         A 85.0 kg astronaut is working on the en-
10−4 s. After the crash, the ball continues in     gines of a spaceship that is drifting through
the same direction with a speed of 10.0 m/s.       space with a constant velocity. The astronaut
  Assuming the force exerted on the ball by        turns away to look at Earth and several sec-
the window was constant, what was the mag-         onds later is 30.0 m behind the ship, at rest
nitude of this force?                              relative to the spaceship. The only way to re-
                                                   turn to the ship without a thruster is to throw
            Holt SF 06Rev 51                       a wrench directly away from the ship. The
03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            wrench has a mass of 0.500 kg, and the astro-
wording-variable.
                               Chapter 3, section 7, Momentum                                  201

naut throws the wrench with a speed of 20.0         wording-variable.
m/s.
  How long does it take the astronaut to reach        A merry-go-round rotates at the rate of
the ship?                                           0.30 rad/s with a(n) 80.0 kg man standing at
                                                    a point 2.0 m from the axis of rotation.
            Holt SF 06Rev 55                          What is the new angular speed when the
03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,             man walks to a point 1.0 m from the center?
wording-variable.                                   Assume that the merry-go-round is a solid
                                                    6.50 × 102 kg cylinder with a radius of 2.00
                   Part 1 of 2                      m.
   A constant force of 2.5 N to the right acts
on a 1.5 kg mass for 0.50 s.                                     Holt SF 08D 02
   a) Find the final velocity of the mass if it is   03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
initially at rest.                                  wording-variable.

                  Part 2 of 2                         A 2.0 kg bicycle wheel with a radius of
b) Find the final velocity of the mass if it         0.30 m turns at a constant angular speed of
is initially moving along the x-axis with a         25 rad/s when a(n) 0.30 kg reflector is at a
velocity of 2.0 m/s to the left.                    distance of 0.19 m from the axle.
                                                      What is the angular speed of the wheel
            Holt SF 06Rev 56                        when the reflector slides to a distance of 0.25
03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,             m from the axle?
wording-variable.
                                                                 Holt SF 08D 03
                  Part 1 of 2                       03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
   A 55 kg pole vaulter falls from rest from a      wording-variable.
height of 5.0 m onto a foam rubber pad. The
pole vaulter comes to rest 0.30 s after landing       A solid, vertical cylinder with a mass of
on the pad.                                         10.0 kg and a radius of 2.00 m rotates with
   a) Calculate the athlete’s velocity just be-     an angular speed of 7.00 rad/s about a fixed
fore reaching the pad.                              vertical axis through its center. A 0.250 kg
                                                    piece of putty is dropped vertically at a point
                  Part 2 of 2                       1.00 m from the cylinder’s center of rotation
b) Calculate the constant force exerted on the      and sticks to the cylinder.
pole vaulter due to the collision.                    What is the final angular speed of the sys-
                                                    tem?
            Holt SF 06Rev 57
03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                          Holt SF 08D 04
wording-variable.                                   03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                    wording-variable.
  Assume: g = −9.81 m/s2 . Use the value
5.98 × 1024 kg as the mass of Earth.                  As Halley’s comet orbits the sun, its dis-
  A 7.50 kg laundry bag is dropped from rest        tance from the sun changes dramatically.
at an initial height of 3.00 m.                       If the comet’s speed at a distance of 8.8 ×
  What is the speed of Earth toward the bag         1010 m from the sun is 5.4 × 104 m/s and
just before the bag hits the ground?                angular momentum is conserved, what is its
                                                    speed when it is 5.2 × 1012 m from the sun?
             Holt SF 08D 01
03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                           Holt SF 08D 05
                              Chapter 3, section 7, Momentum                                202

03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            3. only its height from the ground.
wording-variable.
                                                   4. only its speed.
   The entrance of a science museum features
a funnel into which marbles are rolled one at      5. only its mass.
a time. The marbles circle around the wall of
the funnel, eventually spiraling down into the                   Momentum 02
neck of the funnel. The internal radius of the    03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
funnel at the top is 0.54 m. At the bottom,
the funnel’s neck narrows to an internal radius     The formula for momentum is
of 0.040 m. A 2.5 × 10−2 kg marble begins
rolling in a large circular orbit around the       1. p = mv
funnel’s rim at 0.35 rev/s.
   If it continues moving in a roughly circular           ∆v
                                                   2. p =
path, what will the marble’s angular speed be             ∆t
as it passes through the neck of the funnel?              ∆d
                                                   3. p =
(Consider only the effects of the conservation             ∆t
of angular momentum.)
                                                   4. p = mgh
              Impulse on a Nail                          1
03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.            5. p = mv 2
                                                         2

  A(n) 3.2 lb hammer head, traveling at                          Momentum 03
5.8 ft/s strikes a nail and is brought to a       03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
stop in 0.00083 s.
  What force did the nail receive?                  When two objects collide,            is con-
                                                  served.
          Misguided Consolation
03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.            1. momentum

  A(n) 130 lb student, contemplating the           2. acceleration
poor score just received on a test, sits on
the edge of a 71 ft high cliff, pondering his       3. velocity
bleak future. Just then his 6 slug buddy, un-
aware of the hazard, rushes from behind at         4. speed
13 ft/s and grabs him consoling.
  How far from the bottom of the cliff will         5. energy
they land?
                                                           Momentum and Energy
               Momentum 01                        03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                                    Part 1 of 4
  The amount of momentum an object has              A 30 kg gun is standing on a frictionless
depends on its                                    surface. The gun fires a 50 g bullet with a
                                                  muzzle velocity of 310 m/s.
 1. mass and speed.                                 Calculate the momentum of the bullet im-
                                                  mediately after the gun was fired.
 2. mass and height from the ground.
                                                                     Part 2 of 4
                              Chapter 3, section 7, Momentum                                 203

Calculate the momentum of the gun immedi-         throwing the camera at a speed of 12 m/s in
ately after the gun was fired.                     the direction away from the shuttle.
                                                    How long will it take for her to reach the
                  Part 3 of 4                     shuttle?
Calculate the kinetic energy of the bullet im-
mediately after the gun was fired.                                 Rifle Recoil
                                                  03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                   Part 4 of 4
Calculate the kinetic energy of the gun imme-       A(n) 2.5 kg rifle fires a(n) 20 g bullet at
diately after the gun was fired.                   400 m/s. The magnitude of the recoil mo-
                                                  mentum of the rifle is:
         Momentum Comparison
03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.                       Speed Comparison
                                                  03:07, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, nor-
  A 7 kg bowling ball moves in a straight line    mal.
at 3 m/s. How fast must a 2.45 g Ping-Pong
ball move in a straight line so that the two        An open train car moves with speed 15 m/s
balls have the same momentum?                     on a flat frictionless railroad track, with no
                                                  engine pulling the car. It begins to rain. The
         Pitching Machine Recoil                  rain falls straight down and begins to fill the
03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.           train car.
                                                    The speed of the car
   A baseball player uses a pitching machine
to help him improve his batting average. He        1. decreases
places the 50 kg machine on a frozen pond.
The machine fires a 0.15 kg baseball horizon-       2. increases
tally at a speed of 36 m/s.
   What is the magnitude of the recoil velocity    3. stays the same
of the machine?
                                                               Stop a Freight Car
               Pitching Speed                     03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                    A(n) 10000 kg freight car is rolling along a
   A pitcher claims he can throw a baseball       track at 3 m/s.
with as much momentum as a 3 g bullet mov-          Calculate the time needed for a force of
ing with a speed of 1500 m/s. A baseball has      1000 N to stop the car.
a mass of 0.145 kg.
   What must be its speed if the pitcher’s                    Stopped by a Block
claim is valid?                                   03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

           Return to the Shuttle                    A 10 g bullet is stopped in a block of wood (
03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.           m = 5 kg ). The speed of the bullet-plus-wood
                                                  combination immediately after the collision is
   A(n) 65 kg astronaut becomes separated         0.6 m/s.
from the shuttle, while on a spacewalk. She         What was the original speed of the bullet?
finds herself 50 m away from the shuttle and
moving with zero speed relative to the shuttle.               Students on Skates
She has a(n) 0.65 kg camera in her hand           03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
and decides to get back to the shuttle by
                             Chapter 3, section 7, Momentum   204

  Two students on roller skates stand face-to-
face, then push each other away.
  Which student will always have the fastest
speed?

 1. The student with the larger mass.

 2. The student with the smaller mass.

 3. Unable to determined.

              Velocity Change
03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

  Small rockets are used to make small ad-
justments in the speed of satellites. One such
rocket has a thrust of 35 N.
  If it is fired to change the velocity of a(n)
72000 kg space craft by 63 cm/s, how long
should it be fired?
                       Chapter 3, section 8, Fluid Forces and Pressure                         205

                                                     1. they again have equal weights
              Aerodynamics 01
03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.        2. the ax is heavier than the piston

   An airplane wing is designed to make the          3. both weigh less in air than in water
air move
                                                     4. the piston is heavier than the ax
 1. faster over the top than under the bot-
tom.                                                 5. whichever of the two is longer weighs more
                                                    than the other
 2. slower over the top than under the bot-
tom.                                                 6. whichever of the two is wider weighs more
                                                    than the other
 3. the same speed on both sides of the
wing.                                                         Bubble From the Deep
                                                    03:08, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
               Brine Strength
03:08, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.          At 25 m below the surface of the sea (den-
                                                    sity of 1025 kg/m3 ), where the temperature
                 Part 1 of 2                        is 5 ◦ C, a diver exhales an air bubble having
   When pickling cucumbers or other vegeta-         a volume of 1 cm3 . If the surface tempera-
bles, it’s very important to use the right          ture of the sea is 20◦ C, what is the volume of
amount of salt. An old recipe recommends            the bubble immediately before it breaks the
putting an egg into the pickling solution and       surface?
making sure it neither sinks nor floats: A
sinking egg indicates too little salt while an                     Buoyancy 01
egg that floats on the surface indicates too         03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
much salt. What is the assumption behind
this recipe?                                          Consider the completion of the statement:
                                                    ”The buoyant force exerted by a fluid can be
 1. all eggs have the same density.                     .”
                                                      A. greater than the weight of the object.
 2. all eggs have the same weight.                    B. less than the weight of the object.
                                                      C. the same as the weight of the object.
 3. all eggs have the same volume.
                                                     1. A, B, and C are true.
 4. all eggs have the same shape.
                                                     2. Only A is true.
  5. the salt tends to neutralize the cholesterol
in the egg.                                          3. Only B is true.

                 Part 2 of 2                         4. Only C is true.
Consider a steel ax and an aluminum piston.
(Note that steel is denser than aluminum.)           5. Only A and B are true.
When weighed in water, the ax and the piston
have the same apparent weight. But when the          5. Only A and C are true.
same ax and the same piston are weighed in
air:                                                 5. Only B and C are true.
                       Chapter 3, section 8, Fluid Forces and Pressure                        206

               Buoyancy 02
03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.       2. only the wood

  An object floats because it displaces a            3. only the steel
weight of fluid
                                                    4. only the water
 1. equal to or greater than its own weight.
                                                    5. only the wood and the steel
 2. equal to its volume.
                                                    6. only the water and the steel
 3. less than its own weight.
                                                    7. only the wood and the water
 4. with a density greater than 1 g/cm3 .
                                                    8. None will float.
               Buoyancy 03
03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.                      Part 3 of 3
                                                  c) If all four substances are placed in one
                 Part 1 of 3                      container, how will they be arranged from top
  Consider the table of densities.                to bottom?
       Substance      Density g/cm3                 1. wood, water, steel, mercury
       Water                1.0
       Wood                 0.8                     2. mercury, steel, water, wood
       Steel                7.8
       Mercury             13.5                     3. wood, water, mercury, steel
  a) Which substance(s) will float when
placed in water?                                    4. steel, mercury, water, wood

 1. only the wood                                   5. water, mercury, steel, wood

 2. only the steel                                  6. wood, steel, mercury, water

 3. only the mercury                                7. None of these

 4. only the wood and the steel                                  Buoyancy 04
                                                  03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 5. only the mercury and the steel
                                                     According to         principle, the buoyant
 6. only the wood and the mercury                 force on an object is equal to the weight of the
                                                  fluid displaced by that object.
 7. All three will float.
                                                    1. Archimede’s
 8. None will float.
                                                    2. Newton’s
                Part 2 of 3
                                                    3. Boyle’s
b) Which substance(s) will float when placed
in mercury?
                                                    4. Charles’
 1. All three will float.
                       Chapter 3, section 8, Fluid Forces and Pressure                         207


 5. Bernouli’s                                       Where is the fluid pressure the greatest?

               Buoyancy 05                          1. 2 meters below the surface of a swimming
03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      pool.

  Why does a hot air balloon float?                  2. 1 meter below the surface of a swimming
                                                   pool.
 1. Its overall density is less than the density
of the surrounding air.                             3. 30 centimeters below the surface of a
                                                   swimming pool.
 2. The shape of the balloon provides lift.
                                                    4. The pressure is the same in all parts of a
  3. The weight of air displaced by the balloon    swimming pool.
is less than the volume of the balloon.
                                                                  Buoyancy 09
  4. The volume of the air dispaced by the bal-    03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
loon is less than the volume of the balloon.
                                                     Which of the following will float in corn
               Buoyancy 06                         syrup density 1.38 g/cm3 ?
03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                    1. rubber 1.23 g/cm3
  Which of the following will sink in water
 density 1 g/cm3 ?                                  2. magnesium 1.75 g/cm3

 1. steel 7.18 g/cm3                                3. mercury 13.6 g/cm3

 2. balsa wood 0.12 g/cm3                           4. aluminum 2.7 g/cm3

 3. cooking oil 0.82 g/cm3                                        Buoyancy 10
                                                   03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 4. ethyl alcohol 0.798 g/cm3
                                                      Consider the following statements.
               Buoyancy 07                            A. An object is said to be neutrally buoyant
03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      when the weight of the object is less than the
                                                   buoyant force.
  The strength of the buoyant force acting on         B. Bernoulli’s principle states that increas-
an object in a fluid depends on the object’s        ing the speed of a fluid increases the pressure
                                                   of the fluid.
 1. volume.                                           C. If the same force is spread out over a
                                                   larger area, the pressure will increase.
 2. mass.                                             Which one(s) is/are true?

 3. surface area.                                   1. None is true.

 4. weight.                                         2. A and B only.

               Buoyancy 08                          3. A and C only.
03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                      Chapter 3, section 8, Fluid Forces and Pressure                      208


 4. B and C only.                                               Conversion 142
                                                 03:08, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
 5. A only.
                                                   A guy who makes neon signs needs to make
 6. B only.                                      sure that the neon pressure in the tube is
                                                 about 4000 pascals.
 7. C only.                                        What would this pressure be in atmo-
                                                 spheres? ( 101300 pascals = 1 atm )
 8. All three are true.
                                                                Conversion 143
             Car Tire Pressure                   03:08, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
03:08, basic, numeric, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                   The radio reported this morning that the
  A car tire gauge is used to fill a tire to a    pressure outside was 25 torr which is equal to
gauge pressure of 42.5 lb/in 2 on a cold morn-     ? .
ing when the temperature is -16◦ C. What
would the tire gauge read (in lb/in2 ) when                       Density 03
the tire has been heated up to 44.2◦ C? Ignore   03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
the expansion of the rubber. Atmospheric
pressure is 14.7 lb/in2 , 0◦ C = 273.15K.                is the mass of a substance divided by
                                                 its volume.
 1. 55.8908 lb/in 2
                                                   1. Density
 2. 45.6546 lb/in 2
                                                   2. Pressure
 3. 48.2543 lb/in 2
                                                   3. Inertia
 4. 53.9873 lb/in 2
                                                   4. Weight
 5. 60.2384 lb/in 2
                                                                   Fluids 02
 6. 51.4355 lb/in 2                              03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 7. 65.0087 lb/in 2                                 Fluids are

 8. 70.2523 lb/in 2                                1. either liquids or gases.

 9. 73.3468 lb/in 2                                2. liquids.

10. 75.2718 lb/in 2                                3. either solids or gases.

               Conversion 141                      4. liquids, gases, and solids.
03:08, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                             Hewitt CP9 04 E37
  On a hot sunny day in August, the weath-       03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
erman reports that the barometric pressure is
40 atmospheres.                                    A parachutist, after opening the chute,
  How many pascals is this?                      finds herself gently floating downward, no
                      Chapter 3, section 8, Fluid Forces and Pressure                        209

longer gaining speed. She feels the upward         3. They hit the ground at the same time.
pull of the harness, while gravity pulls her
down.                                              4. The ball of wood.
  How much is the pull of the harness?
                                                   5. All are wrong.
 1. Equal to the gravity
                                                              Hewitt CP9 04 P08
 2. Smaller than the gravity                      03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
                                                  mal.
 3. Greater than the gravity
                                                    What will be the acceleration of a skydiver
 4. Half of the gravity                           when air resistance builds up to be 50% of her
                                                  weight? (g = 10 m/s2 ).
 5. All above are wrong.
                                                              Hewitt CP9 12 E05
            Hewitt CP9 04 E39                     03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                    In a deep dive, a whale is appreciably com-
   Upon which will air resistance be the great-   pressed by the pressure of the surrounding
est: a sheet of paper, the same paper wadded      water.
into a ball, or the same paper folded? They         What happens to the whale’s density?
fall at different terminal speeds.
                                                   1. It cannot be determined.
 1. The first one
                                                   2. Its density remains the same as before.
 2. The second one
                                                   3. Its density decreases.
 3. The third one
                                                   4. Its density increases.
 4. All forces are the same.
                                                               Holt SF 09B 01
 5. All are wrong.                                03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                  wording-variable.
            Hewitt CP9 04 E47
03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.                         Part 1 of 2
                                                     In a car lift, compressed air exerts a force
  When Galileo dropped two balls from the         on a piston with a radius of 5.00 cm. This
top of the Leaning Tower of Pisa, air resis-      pressure is transmitted to a second piston
tance was not really negligible.                  with a radius of 15.0 cm.
  Assuming both balls were the same size,            a) How large a force must the compressed
one made of wood and one of metal, which          air exert to lift a 1.33 × 104 N car?
ball struck the ground first?
                                                                    Part 2 of 2
  1. The ball of metal, but only by a short       b) What pressure produces this force? Ne-
time upon.                                        glect the weight of the pistons.

 2. The ball of metal, by half the time as the                 Holt SF 09B 02
ball of wood.                                     03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                  wording-variable.
                       Chapter 3, section 8, Fluid Forces and Pressure                        210

                                                     a) What is the pressure at the surface of the
  A 1.5 m wide by 2.5 m long water bed             water?
weighs 1025 N.
  Find the pressure that the water bed exerts                       Part 2 of 2
on the floor. Assume that the entire lower          b) What is the absolute pressure at the bot-
surface of the bed makes contact with the          tom of the container?
floor.
                                                                Holt SF 09C 03
             Holt SF 09B 03                        03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            wording-variable.
wording-variable.
                                                      Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
                   Part 1 of 2                        A beaker containing mercury is placed in-
  A person rides up a lift to a mountain top,      side a vacuum chamber in a laboratory. The
but the person’s ears fail to ”pop”; that is,      pressure at the bottom of the beaker is
the pressure of the inner ear does not equalize    2.7 × 104 Pa.
with the outside atmosphere. The radius of            What is the height of the mercury in the
each eardrum is 0.40 cm. The pressure of the       beaker?
atmosphere drops from 1.010 × 105 Pa at the
bottom of the lift to 0.998 × 105 Pa at the top.                  Holt SF 09C 04
  a) What is the net pressure on the inner ear     03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
at the top of the mountain?
                                                     Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
                Part 2 of 2                          Calculate the depth in the ocean at which
b) What is the magnitude of the net force on       the pressure is three times atmospheric pres-
each eardrum?                                      sure.

               Holt SF 09C 01                                  Holt SF 09Rev 16
03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                   wording-variable.
   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
   The Mariana Trench, in the Pacific Ocean,          The four tires of an automobile are inflated
is about 11.0 km deep.                             to an absolute pressure of 2.000 × 105 Pa.
   If atmospheric pressure at sea level is         Each tire has an area of 0.02400 m2 in contact
1.01 × 105 Pa and the density of sea water is      with the ground.
1.025 × 103 kg/m3 , how much pressure would          Determine the weight of the automobile.
a submarine need to be able to withstand to
reach this depth?                                              Holt SF 09Rev 17
                                                   03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
             Holt SF 09C 02                        wording-variable.
03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                     A pipe contains water at 5.00×105 Pa above
                                                   atmospheric pressure.
                 Part 1 of 2                          If you patch a 4.00 mm diameter hole in the
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                           pipe with a piece of bubble gum, how much
  A container is filled with water to a depth       force must the gum be able to withstand?
of 20.0 cm. On top of the water floats a
30.0 cm thick layer of oil with a density of                   Holt SF 09Rev 18
0.70 × 103 kg/m3 .                                 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                      Chapter 3, section 8, Fluid Forces and Pressure                          211

wording-variable.                                atmosphere, what is the speed of the water as
                                                 it leaves the hole?
  A piston A has a diameter of 0.64 cm, as
shown. A second piston B has a diameter of                   Holt SF 09Rev 24
3.8 cm.                                          03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                 wording-variable.
                500 N
                             F                     The hypodermic syringe shown in the figure
         B                                       contains a medicine with the same density as
                                                 water. The barrel of the syringe has a cross-
                                 A               sectional area of 2.50 × 10−5 m2 . The cross-
                                                 sectional area of the needle is 1.00 × 10−8 m2 .
                                                 In the absence of a force on the plunger, the
                                                 pressure everywhere is atmospheric pressure.
                                                 A 2.00 N force is exerted on the plunger,
   In the absence of friction, determine the     making medicine squirt from the needle.
force F necessary to support the 500.0 N
                                                                         A1
weight.
                                                                                     P2
                                                       F                                  v2
            Holt SF 09Rev 19                                        P1
03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                                            A2
wording-variable.

                 Part 1 of 2                        Determine the speed of the emerging fluid.
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                         Assume that the pressure in the needle re-
  A submarine is at an ocean depth of 250 m.     mains at atmospheric pressure, that the sy-
Assume that the density of sea water is 1.025×   ringe is horizontal, and that the speed of the
103 kg/m3 and the atmospheric pressure is        emerging fluid is the same as the speed of the
1.01 × 105 Pa.                                   fluid in the needle.
  a) Calculate the absolute pressure at this
depth.                                                       Holt SF 09Rev 31
                                                 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                 Part 2 of 2                     wording-variable.
b) Calculate the magnitude of the force ex-
erted by the water at this depth on a cir-         Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
cular submarine window with a diameter of          An engineer weighs a sample of mercury
30.0 cm.                                         (ρ = 13.6 × 103 kg/m3 ) and finds that the
                                                 weight of the sample is 4.5 N.
            Holt SF 09Rev 23                       What is the sample’s volume?
03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                            Holt SF 09Rev 32
                                                 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                         wording-variable.
  A dairy farmer notices that a circular water
trough near the barn has become rusty and          How much force does the atmosphere exert
now has a hole near the base. The hole is        on 1.00 km2 of land at sea level?
0.30 m below the level of the water that is in
the tank.                                                    Holt SF 09Rev 33
  If the top of the trough is open to the        03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                       Chapter 3, section 8, Fluid Forces and Pressure                         212

wording-variable.                                  ing a 1.00 min interval.
                                                     If the bearings each have a mass of 8.0 g
   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                          and the area of the tested material is 0.75 m2 ,
   A 70.0 kg man sits in a 5.0 kg chair so         what pressure is exerted on the material?
that his weight is evenly distributed on the
legs of the chair. Assume that each leg makes                      Pressure 01
contact with the floor over a circular area with    03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
a radius of 1.0 cm.
   What is the pressure exerted on the floor          To find pressure, you must know
by each leg?
                                                    1. force and area.
            Holt SF 09Rev 37
03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,             2. mass and area.
wording-variable.
                                                    3. force and mass.
                 Part 1 of 2
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                            4. weight and volume.
  A circular swimming pool at sea level has a
flat bottom and a 6.00 m diameter. It is filled                      Pressure 02
with water to a depth of 1.50 m.                   03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
  a) What is the absolute pressure at the
bottom?                                               One reason air pressure increases at lower
                                                   altitudes is because
                  Part 2 of 2
Two people with a combined mass of 150 kg           1. there are more air particles in a given
float in the pool.                                  area.
  b) What is the resulting increase in the
average absolute pressure at the bottom?            2. the air particles have more mass.

            Holt SF 09Rev 55                        3. the air particles have less mass.
03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                   4. there are fewer air particles in a given
                                                   area.
   In a time interval of 1.0 s, 5.0 × 1023
nitrogen molecules strike a wall area of                           Pressure 03
8.0 cm2 . The mass of one nitrogen molecule        03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
is 4.68 × 10−26 kg.
   If the molecules move at 300.0 m/s and            What is the pressure if a force of 200 N is
strike the wall head-on in an elastic collision,   applied over an area of 50 cm2 ?
what is the pressure exerted on the wall?
                                                    1. 4 N/cm2
            Holt SF 09Rev 67
03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,             2. 0.24 N/cm2
wording-variable.
                                                    3. 10000 N/cm2
  In testing a new material for shielding
spacecraft, 150 small ball bearings, each mov-      4. 150 N/cm2
ing at a supersonic speed of 400.0 m/s, collide
head-on and elastically with the material dur-                      Pressure 04
                      Chapter 3, section 8, Fluid Forces and Pressure                       213

03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                   2. velocity
  When you increase the area over which
pressure is applied,                               3. mass

 1. the force on that area increases.              4. energy

 2. the pressure increases.                                       Pressure 08
                                                  03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 3. the pressure first increases and then de-
creases.                                             Consider the following statements:
                                                     A. A siphon is a simple tube or hose that
 4. the pressure decreases.                       operates by creating a difference in pressure.
                                                     B. The pressure in a moving stream of fluid
                Pressure 05                       is more that the pressure in the surrounding
03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.     fluid.
                                                     C. Fluids exert pressure in all directions.
  The pressure in a moving stream of fluid            Which of the statements is/are true?

  1. is less than the pressure in the surround-    1. A and C only
ing fluid.
                                                   2. B and C only
 2. depends on the nature of the fluid.
                                                   3. A and B only
 3. depends on the volume of the fluid.
                                                   4. A only
 4. is greater than the pressure in the sur-
rounding fluid.                                     5. B only

                Pressure 06                        6. C only
03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                   7. All three are true.
  Pressure is force divided by
                                                   8. None are true.
 1. area.
                                                                  Pressure 09
 2. volume.                                       03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 3. velocity.                                       Consider the following statements:
                                                    A. When the air moving over the top of
 4. energy.                                       an airplane wing is going faster than the air
                                                  moving under the wing, the airplane will rise.
                Pressure 07                         B. The density of water is 1 g/cm3 .
03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.       C. Atmospheric pressure is measured with
                                                  a device called a barometer.
  Due to the force of gravity, the        of a      Which of the statements is/are true?
fluid increases as depth increases.
                                                   1. All three are true.
 1. pressure
                        Chapter 3, section 8, Fluid Forces and Pressure                         214

 2. A and B only                                     03:08, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

 3. B and C only                                       The pressure exerted by the atmosphere is
                                                     about 100000 Pa. Convert this to kPa.
 4. A and C only
                                                                 Running Out of Gas
 5. A only                                           03:08, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

 6. B only                                              One morning Don’s car ran out of gasoline
                                                     in a deserted area. He hiked to the nearest gas
 7. C only                                           station, reaching it during the hottest part of
                                                     the day. Upon reaching the station, he filled
 8. None are true.                                   up a 1 gallon container with gasoline and
                                                     started his walk back. By the time he reached
                Pressure 10                          his car in the evening, the temperature had
03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.        dropped 25 ◦ F.
                                                        Note: The volume expansion of gasoline
  The equivalent unit for N/m2 is                    is β = 0.00096 ◦ C−1 . Neglect the change in
                                                     volume of the container.
 1. Pascal.                                             How many gallons of gasoline did Don have
                                                     when he reached his car?
 2. Newton.
                                                                 Specific Gravity 50
 3. Joule.                                           03:08, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

 4. None of these.                                     Assume that you have the same volume
                                                     of each of the following substances (specific
                Pressure 11                          gravities in parentheses): magnesium (1.74),
03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.        table salt (2.16), ethyl alcohol (0.789) and
                                                     water (1.00).
  Atmospheric pressure is caused by                    Which substance has the LEAST weight?

  1. the weight of air above a particular loca-       1. magnesium
tion.
                                                      2. table salt
 2. clouds.
                                                      3. ehtyl alcohol
 3. the altitude above sea level.
                                                      4. water
 4. air currents.
                                                                 Specific Gravity 51
              Pressure Change                        03:08, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
03:08, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                        Assume that you have the same mass of
   A container of air at 25◦ C is sealed off. If it   each of the following substances (specific grav-
is heated to 100◦ C, what is the final pressure       ities in parentheses): iron (7.86), copper
in the container?                                    (8.92), aluminum (2.70) and table salt (2.16).
                                                        Which one has the LEAST volume?
             Pressure Conversion
                     Chapter 3, section 8, Fluid Forces and Pressure   215

 1. iron

 2. copper

 3. aluminum

 4. table salt

                Spiked Heels
03:08, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

  A 50 kg woman balances on one heel of a
pair of high-heeled shoes.
  If the heel is circular with radius 0.5 cm,
what pressure does she exert on the floor?

                Tilted Chair
03:08, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

  A 70 kg man in a 5 kg chair tilts back so
that all the weight is balanced on two legs
of the chair. Assume that each leg makes
contact with the floor over a circular area
with a radius of 1 cm. Find the pressure
exerted on the floor by each leg.
                           Chapter 3, section 9, Hydraulic Devices                            216


               Engine on a Lift                                     Part 2 of 2
03:09, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.            b) Calculate the pressure in the smaller sec-
                                                   tion.
                   Part 1 of 2
  In a machine shop, a hydraulic lift is used to                Holt SF 09D 03
raise heavy equipment for repairs. The system      03:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
has a small piston with a cross-sectional area     wording-variable.
of 0.07 m2 and a large piston with a cross-
sectional area of 0.21 m2 . An engine weighing       When a person inhales, air moves down the
2700 N rests on the large piston.                  windpipe at 15 cm/s. The average flow speed
  What force must be applied to the small          of the air doubles when passing through a
piston in order to lift the engine?                constriction in the bronchus.
                                                     Assuming incompressible flow, determine
                  Part 2 of 2                      the pressure drop in the constriction.
If the engine rises 0.2 m, how far does the
smaller piston move?                                           Holt SF 09Rev 38
                                                   03:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
             Holt SF 09D 01                        wording-variable.
03:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                                    Part 1 of 2
                                                     The wind blows with a speed of 30.0 m/s
                  Part 1 of 2                      over the roof of your house.
   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                            a) Assuming the air inside the house is rel-
   A large storage tank, open to the atmo-         atively stagnant, what is the pressure differ-
sphere at the top and filled with water, devel-     ence at the roof between the inside air and the
ops a small hole in its side at a point 16 m       outside air?
below the water level. The rate of flow of
water from the leak is 2.5 × 10−3 m3 /min.                          Part 2 of 2
   a) Determine the speed at which the water       b) What net force does this pressure difference
leaves the hole.                                   produce on a roof having an area of 175 m2 ?

                Part 2 of 2                                    Holt SF 09Rev 39
b) Determine the diameter of the hole.             03:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                   wording-variable.
             Holt SF 09D 02
03:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,               Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
wording-variable.                                     A bag of blood with a density of 1050 kg/m3
                                                   is raised 1.00 m higher than the level of a
                  Part 1 of 2                      patient’s arm.
   A liquid with a density of 1.65 × 103 kg/m3        How much greater is the blood pressure
flows through two horizontal sections of tub-       at the patient’s arm than it would be if the
ing joined end to end. In the first section, the    bag were at the same height as the arm?
cross-sectional area is 10.0 cm2 , the flow speed   Assume there is no change in drip speed at
is 275 cm/s, and the pressure is 1.20 × 105 Pa.    the different heights.
In the second section, the cross-sectional area
is 2.50 cm2 .                                                  Holt SF 09Rev 50
   a) Calculate the flow speed in the smaller       03:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
section.                                           wording-variable.
                           Chapter 3, section 9, Hydraulic Devices                             217

                                                   imum height attained by the water stream
  A hydraulic brake system is shown. The           coming out of the right side of the tank? As-
area of the piston in the master cylinder is       sume that the cross-sectional area at A is very
6.40 cm2 , and the area of the piston in the       large compared with that at B.
brake cylinder is 1.75 cm2 . The coefficient of
kinetic friction between the brake shoe and                    Holt SF 09Rev 58
the wheel drum is 0.500.                           03:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                   wording-variable.
                         Wheel drum
                                                     Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
         Pedal             Brake shoe                Water flows through a 0.300 m radius pipe
                                                   at the rate of 0.200 m3 /s. The pressure in the
                                                   pipe is atmospheric. The pipe slants downhill
                                                   and feeds into a second pipe with a radius of
                     Brake cylinder                0.150 m, positioned 0.600 m lower.
         Master cylinder        µk = 0.5             What is the gauge pressure in the lower
                                                   pipe?
   How large is the frictional force between the
brake shoe and the wheel drum when a force                     Holt SF 09Rev 60
of 44 N is exerted on the pedal?                   03:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                   wording-variable.
            Holt SF 09Rev 51
03:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                               Part 1 of 2
wording-variable.                                     The aorta in an average adult has a cross-
                                                   sectional area of 2.0 cm2 .
  A natural-gas pipeline with a diameter of           a) Calculate the flow rate (in grams per
0.250 m delivers 1.55 m3 of gas per second.        second) of blood (ρ = 1.0 g/cm3 ) in the aorta
  What is the the flow speed of the gas?            if the flow speed is 42 cm/s.

            Holt SF 09Rev 56                                         Part 2 of 2
03:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            Assume that the aorta branches to form a
wording-variable.                                  large number of capillaries with a combined
                                                   cross-sectional area of 3.0 × 103 cm2 .
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                              b) What is the flow speed in the capillar-
  A water tank with a valve at the bottom is       ies?
shown.
                                                               Holt SF 09Rev 61
                                                   03:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
   A                                               wording-variable.

                                                      The approximate inside diameter of the
                    10 m                           aorta is 1.6 cm, and that of a capillary is
 Valve                            B                1.0 × 10−6 m. The average flow speed is about
                            2m
                                   30◦             1.0 m/s in the aorta and 1.0 cm/s in the cap-
                                                   illaries.
                                                      If all the blood in the aorta eventually flows
                                                   through the capillaries, estimate the number
                                                   of capillaries in the circulatory system.
  If this valve is opened, what is the max-
                          Chapter 3, section 9, Hydraulic Devices   218

            Holt SF 09Rev 62
03:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.

  A cowboy at a ranch fills a water trough
that is 1.5 m long, 65 cm wide, and 45 cm
deep. He uses a hose having a diameter of
2.0 cm, and the water emerges from the hose
at 1.5 m/s.
  How long does it take the cowboy to fill the
trough?

               Hydraulic Lift
03:09, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

  The small piston of a hydraulic lift has
a cross-sectional area of A1 = 3 cm2
and the large piston has an area of
A2 = 200 cm2 , as in the figure below.



         F1

              A1        A2

                                F2




What force must be applied to the small pis-
ton to raise a load of 15 kN? (In service sta-
tions this is usually accomplished with com-
pressed air.)

               Hydraulics 01
03:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

  The brake system on a car is an example of
a(n)

 1. hydraulic device.

 2. simple machine.

 3. lever.

 4. inclined plane.
                              Chapter 3, section 10, Collisions                               219


             Holt SF 06E 01                                         Part 1 of 2
03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,               A 47.4 kg student runs down the sidewalk
wording-variable.                                  and jumps with a horizontal speed of 4.20 m/s
                                                   onto a stationary skateboard. The student
   A 1500 kg car traveling at 15.0 m/s to the      and skateboard move down the sidewalk with
south collides with a 4500 kg truck that is        a speed of 3.95 m/s.
initially at rest at a stoplight. The car and         a) Find the mass of the skateboard.
truck stick together and move together after
the collision.                                                      Part 2 of 2
   What is the final velocity of the two-vehicle    b) How fast would the student have to jump
mass?                                              to have a final speed of 5.00 m/s?

             Holt SF 06E 02                                     Holt SF 06F 01
03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                  wording-variable.

   A grocery shopper tosses a(n) 9.0 kg bag                          Part 1 of 2
of rice into a stationary 18.0 kg grocery cart.      A 0.25 kg arrow with a velocity of 12 m/s
The bag hits the cart with a horizontal speed      to the west strikes and pierces the center of a
of 5.5 m/s toward the front of the cart.           6.8 kg target.
   What is the final speed of the cart and            a) What is the final velocity of the combined
bag?                                               mass?

             Holt SF 06E 03                                           Part 2 of 2
03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            b) What is the decrease in kinetic energy
wording-variable.                                  during the collision?

  A 1.50 × 104 kg railroad car moving at 7.00                   Holt SF 06F 02
m/s to the north collides with and sticks to       03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
another railroad car of the same mass that is      wording-variable.
moving in the same direction at 1.50 m/s.
  What is the velocity of the joined cars after                      Part 1 of 2
the collision?                                       During practice, a student kicks a 0.40 kg
                                                   soccer ball with a velocity of 8.5 m/s to the
             Holt SF 06E 04                        south into a 0.15 kg bucket lying on its side.
03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            The bucket travels with the ball after the
wording-variable.                                  collision.
                                                     a) What is the final velocity of the combined
   A dry cleaner throws a 22 kg bag of laundry     mass?
onto a stationary 9.0 kg cart. The cart and
laundry bag begin moving at 3.0 m/s to the                            Part 2 of 2
right.                                             b) What is the decrease in kinetic energy
   Find the velocity of the laundry bag before     during the collision?
the collision.
                                                                Holt SF 06F 03
             Holt SF 06E 05                        03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            wording-variable.
wording-variable.
                               Chapter 3, section 10, Collisions                               220

                  Part 1 of 2                                        Part 2 of 3
   A 56 kg ice skater traveling at 4.0 m/s to       b) What is the total kinetic energy before the
the north suddenly grabs the hand of a 65 kg        collision?
skater traveling at 12.0 m/s in the opposite
direction as they pass. Without rotating, the                        Part 3 of 3
two skaters continue skating together with          c) What is the total kinetic energy after the
joined hands.                                       collision?
   a) What is the final velocity of the two
skaters?                                                         Holt SF 06G 03
                                                    03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                   Part 2 of 2                      wording-variable.
b) What is the decrease in kinetic energy
during the collision?                                                 Part 1 of 3
                                                      A 4.0 kg bowling ball sliding to the right at
             Holt SF 06G 01                         8.00 m/s has an elastic head-on collision with
03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,             another 4.0 kg bowling ball initially at rest.
wording-variable.                                   The first ball stops after the collision.
                                                      a) Find the velocity of the second ball after
                   Part 1 of 3                      the collision.
   A 0.015 kg marble sliding to the right at
22.5 cm/s on a frictionless surface makes an                         Part 2 of 3
elastic head-on collision with a 0.015 kg mar-      b) What is the total kinetic energy before the
ble moving to the left at 18.0 cm/s. After the      collision?
collision, the first marble moves to the left at
18.0 cm/s.                                                           Part 3 of 3
   a) Find the velocity of the second marble        c) What is the total kinetic energy after the
after the collision.                                collision?

                 Part 2 of 3                                     Holt SF 06G 04
b) What is the total kinetic energy before the      03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
collision?                                          wording-variable.

                 Part 3 of 3                                          Part 1 of 3
c) What is the total kinetic energy after the          A 25.0 kg bumper car moving to the right
collision?                                          at 5.00 m/s overtakes and collides elastically
                                                    with a 35.0 kg bumper car moving to the
             Holt SF 06G 02                         right. After the collision, the 25.0 kg bumper
03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,             car slows to 1.50 m/s to the right, and the
wording-variable.                                   35.0 kg car moves at 4.50 m/s to the right.
                                                       a) Find the velocity of the 35.0 kg bumper
                   Part 1 of 3                      car before the collision.
  A 16.0 kg canoe moving to the left at 12 m/s
makes an elastic head-on collision with a 4.0                        Part 2 of 3
kg raft moving to the right at 6.0 m/s. After       b) What is the total kinetic energy before the
the collision, the raft moves to the left at 22.7   collision?
m/s. Disregard any effects of the water.
  a) Find the velocity of the canoe after the                        Part 3 of 3
collision.                                          c) What is the total kinetic energy after the
                               Chapter 3, section 10, Collisions                                  221

collision?                                                             Part 2 of 2
                                                    b) What is the decrease in kinetic energy
            Holt SF 06Rev 31                        during the collision?
03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                               Holt SF 06Rev 35
                                                    03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
  Two carts with masses of 4.0 kg and 3.0           wording-variable.
kg move toward each other on a frictionless
track with speeds of 5.0 m/s and 4.0 m/s,                              Part 1 of 2
respectively. The carts stick together after          An 88 kg fullback moving east with a speed
colliding head-on.                                  of 5.0 m/s is tackled by a 97 kg opponent
  Find their final speed.                            running west at 3.0 m/s, and the collision is
                                                    perfectly inelastic.
            Holt SF 06Rev 32                          a) What is the velocity of the players im-
03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,             mediately after the tackle?
wording-variable.
                                                                       Part 2 of 2
  A 1.20 kg skateboard is coasting along the        b) What is the decrease in kinetic energy
pavement at a speed of 5.00 m/s when a 0.800        during the collision?
kg cat drops from a tree vertically downward
onto the skateboard.                                            Holt SF 06Rev 36
  What is the speed of the skateboard-cat           03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
combination?                                        wording-variable.

            Holt SF 06Rev 33                                           Part 1 of 2
03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,               A 5.0 g coin sliding to the right at 25.0
wording-variable.                                   cm/s makes an elastic head-on collision with
                                                    a 15.0 g coin that is initially at rest. After the
   Two carts with masses of 10.0 kg and 2.5 kg      collision, the 5.0 g coin moves to the left at
move in opposite directions on a frictionless       12.5 cm/s.
horizontal track with speeds of 6.0 m/s and           a) Find the final velocity of the other coin.
3.0 m/s, respectively. The carts stick together
after colliding head-on.                                             Part 2 of 2
   Find their final speed.                           b) How much kinetic energy is transferred to
                                                    the 15.0 g coin?
            Holt SF 06Rev 34
03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                         Holt SF 06Rev 37
wording-variable.                                   03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                    wording-variable.
                   Part 1 of 2
   A railroad car with a mass of 2.00 × 104            A billiard ball traveling at 4.0 m/s has an
kg moving at 3.00 m/s collides and joins with       elastic head-on collision with a billiard ball of
two railroad cars already joined together, each     equal mass that is initially at rest. The first
with the same mass as the single car and            ball is at rest after the collision.
initially moving in the same direction at 1.20         What is the speed of the second ball after
m/s.                                                the collision?
   a) What is the final speed of the three joined
cars after the collision?                                       Holt SF 06Rev 38
                                                    03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                Chapter 3, section 10, Collisions                               222

wording-variable.                                    wording-variable.

  A 25.0 g marble sliding to the right at 20.0         A 5.5 g experimental dart is fired into a
cm/s overtakes and collides elastically with a       block of wood with a mass of 22.6 g. The
10.0 g marble moving in the same direction           wood block is initially at rest on a 1.5 m tall
at 15.0 cm/s. After the collision, the 10.0 g        post. After the collision, the wood block and
marble moves to the right at 22.1 cm/s.              dart land 2.5 m from the base of the post.
  Find the velocity of the 25.0 g marble after         Find the initial speed of the dart.
the collision.
                                                                 Holt SF 06Rev 46
             Holt SF 06Rev 39                        03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-         wording-variable.
mal.
                                                        Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
   A 15 g toy car moving to the right at                A 730 N student stands in the middle of a
20 cm/s has a head-on nearly elastic collision       frozen pond having a radius of 5.0 m. He is
with a 20 g toy car moving in the opposite di-       unable to get to the other side because of a
rection at 30 cm/s. After colliding, the 15 g        lack of friction between his shoes and the ice.
car moves with a velocity of 37 cm/s to the          To overcome this difficulty, he throws his 2.6
left.                                                kg physics textbook horizontally toward the
   Find the speed of the second car after the        north shore at a speed of 5.0 m/s.
collision.                                              How long does it take him to reach the
                                                     south shore?
            Holt SF 06Rev 40
03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                          Holt SF 06Rev 48
wording-variable.                                    03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                     wording-variable.
   Two shuffleboard disks of equal mass, one
orange and the other yellow, are involved in           A 1550 kg car moving south at 10.0 m/s
an elastic collision. The yellow disk is initially   collides with a 2550 kg car moving north. The
at rest and is struck by the orange disk moving      cars stick together and move as a unit after
initially to the right at 5.00 m/s. After the        the collision at a velocity of 5.22 m/s to the
collision, the orange disk is at rest.               north.
   What is the velocity of the yellow disk after       Find the velocity of the 2550 kg car before
the collision?                                       the collision.

            Holt SF 06Rev 44                                     Holt SF 06Rev 49
03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,              03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                    wording-variable.

   A 3.00 kg mud ball has a perfectly inelastic                         Part 1 of 2
collision with a second mud ball that is ini-           A 2150 kg car moving east at 10.0 m/s
tially at rest. The composite system moves           collides with a 3250 kg car moving east. The
with a speed equal to one-third the original         cars stick together and move east as a unit
speed of the 3.00 kg mud ball.                       after the collision at a velocity of 5.22 m/s.
   What is the mass of the second mud ball?             a) What is the velocity of the 3250 kg car
                                                     before the collision?
            Holt SF 06Rev 45
03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                                  Part 2 of 2
                               Chapter 3, section 10, Collisions                               223

b) What is the decrease in kinetic energy                             Part 2 of 2
during the collision?                               b) Find the velocity of the billiard ball ini-
                                                    tially moving to the left immediately after the
            Holt SF 06Rev 50                        collision.
03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                               Holt SF 06Rev 59
                                                    03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
   A 0.400 kg bead slides on a straight fric-       wording-variable.
tionless wire with a velocity of 3.50 cm/s to
the right, as shown. The bead collides elas-                          Part 1 of 2
tically with a larger 0.600 kg bead initially         An unstable nucleus with a mass of 17.0 ×
at rest. After the collision, the smaller bead      10−27 kg initially at rest disintegrates into
moves to the left with a velocity of 0.70 cm/s.     three particles. One of the particles, of mass
            3.5 cm/s                                5.0 × 10−27 kg, moves along the positive y-
                            0.6 kg
                                                    axis with a speed of 6.0 × 106 m/s. Another
                                                    particle, of mass 8.4 × 10−27 kg, moves along
            0.4 kg
                                                    the positive x-axis with a speed of 4.0 × 106
  Find the distance the larger bead moves
                                                    m/s.
along the wire in the first 5.0 s following the
                                                      a) Find the speed of the third particle.
collision.
                                                                     Part 2 of 2
            Holt SF 06Rev 54
                                                    b) At what angle does the third particle move?
03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.
                                                     1. 41.7603◦ below the negative x-axis
   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
                                                     2. 41.7603◦ above the negative x-axis
   A 2250 kg car traveling at 10.0 m/s collides
with a 2750 kg car that is initially at rest
                                                     3. 41.7603◦ below the positive x-axis
at a stoplight. The cars stick together and
move 2.50 m before friction causes them to
                                                     4. 41.7603◦ above the positive x-axis
stop. Assume that the negative acceleration
is constant and that all wheels on both cars
                                                     5. 20.8801◦ below the negative x-axis
lock at the time of impact.
   Determine the coefficient of kinetic friction
                                                     6. 20.8801◦ above the negative x-axis
between the cars and the road.
                                                     7. 20.8801◦ below the positive x-axis
             Holt SF 06Rev 58
03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-         8. 20.8801◦ above the positive x-axis
mal.
                                                     9. None of these
                  Part 1 of 2
   Two billiard balls with identical masses and
sliding in opposite directions have an elastic
head-on collision. Before the collision, each
ball had a speed of 22 cm/s.
   a) Find the velocity of the billiard ball ini-
tially moving to the right immediately after
the collision.
                      Chapter 3, section 11, Buoyancy and Fluid Flow                         224

                                                  acting on the balloon?
             Holt SF 09A 01
03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                       Holt SF 09Rev 08
wording-variable.                                 03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                  wording-variable.
                 Part 1 of 2
  A piece of metal weighs 50.0 N in air, 36.0                       Part 1 of 2
N in water, and 41.0 N in an unknown liquid.        An object weighs 315 N in air. When tied
  a) Find the density of the metal.               to a string, connected to a balance, and im-
                                                  mersed in water, it weighs 265 N. When it is
                 Part 2 of 2                      immersed in oil, it weighs 269 N.
b) Find the density of the unknown liquid.          a) Find the density of the object.

             Holt SF 09A 02                                        Part 2 of 2
03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           b) Find the density of the oil.
wording-variable.
                                                              Holt SF 09Rev 09
   A 2.8 kg rectangular air mattress is 2.00 m    03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
long, 0.500 m wide, and 0.100 m thick.            wording-variable.
   What mass can it support in water before
sinking?                                             A sample of an unknown material weighs
                                                  300.0 N in air and 200.0 N when submerged
             Holt SF 09A 03                       in an alcohol solution with a density of 0.700×
03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           103 kg/m3 .
wording-variable.                                    What is the density of the material?

  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                                       Holt SF 09Rev 36
  A ferry boat is 4.0 m wide and 6.0 m long.      03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
When a truck pulls onto it, the boat sinks 4.00   mal.
cm in the water.
  What is the combined weight of the truck          A frog in a hemispherical bowl, as shown,
and the ferry?                                    just floats in a fluid with a density of
                                                  1350 kg/m3 .
             Holt SF 09A 04
03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                                     ¡




                                                                           




                  Part 1 of 2
   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
   An empty rubber balloon has a mass of
0.0120 kg. The balloon is filled with helium         If the bowl has a radius of 6 cm and negli-
at 0◦ C, 1 atm pressure, and a density of 0.179   gible mass, what is the mass of the frog?
kg/m3 . The filled balloon has a radius of
0.500 m.                                                      Holt SF 09Rev 41
   a) What is the magnitude of the buoyant        03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
force acting on the balloon?                      wording-variable.

               Part 2 of 2                          Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
b) What is the magnitude of the net force           When a load of 1.0 × 106 N is placed on a
                      Chapter 3, section 11, Buoyancy and Fluid Flow                        225

battleship, the ship sinks only 2.5 cm in sea     bottom of the raft is 5.7 m2 , and the volume
water.                                            of the raft is 0.600 m3 .
  Estimate the cross-sectional area of the ship      When the raft is placed in fresh water hav-
at water level.                                   ing a density of 1.0 × 103 kg/m3 , how deep is
                                                  the bottom of the raft below water level?
            Holt SF 09Rev 43
03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                       Holt SF 09Rev 47
wording-variable.                                 03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                  wording-variable.
                  Part 1 of 2
   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                                            Part 1 of 3
   A 1.0 kg beaker containing 2.0 kg of oil           Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
with a density of 916 kg/m3 rests on a scale.         A physics book has a height of 26 cm, a
A 2.00 kg block of iron is suspended from a       width of 21 cm, and a thickness of 3.5 cm.
spring scale and completely submerged in the          a) What is the density of the physics book
oil, as shown.                                    if it weighs 19 N?

                                                                   Part 2 of 3
                                                  b) Find the pressure that the physics book
                                                  exerts on a desktop when the book lies face
                                                  up.

                                                                   Part 3 of 3
                                                  c) Find the pressure that the physics book
                                                  exerts on the surface of a desktop when the
                                                  book is balanced on its spine.
                    2.0 kg
                                                              Holt SF 09Rev 48
                                                  03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                  wording-variable.

                                                    A jet of water squirts horizontally from a
                                                  hole near the bottom of the tank as shown.



  a) Find the equilibrium reading of the
spring scale.

                 Part 2 of 2
b) Find the equilibrium reading of the lower
scale.

            Holt SF 09Rev 44
03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.

   A raft is constructed of wood having a den-
sity of 600.0 kg/m3 . The surface area of the
                      Chapter 3, section 11, Buoyancy and Fluid Flow                         226

                                                  wording-variable.

                                                     Oil having a density of 930 kg/m3 floats on
                                                  water. A rectangular block of wood 4.00 cm
                                                  high and with a density of 960 kg/m3 floats
                                                  partly in the oil and partly in the water. The
                                                  oil completely covers the block.
                 h                                   How far below the interface between the
                                                  two liquids is the bottom of the block?

                         1m                                   Holt SF 09Rev 54
                                                  03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                  wording-variable.

                               0.6 m                 A block of wood weighs 50.0 N in air. A
                                                  sinker is hanging from the block, and the
                                                  weight of the wood-sinker combination is
                                                  200.0 N when the sinker alone is immersed
   If the hole has a diameter of 3.50 mm and      in water. When the wood-sinker combination
the top of the tank is open, what is the height   is completely immersed, the weight is 140.0 N.
of the water in the tank?                            Find the density of the block.

            Holt SF 09Rev 49                                  Holt SF 09Rev 59
03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                 wording-variable.

   A water tank open to the atmosphere at            Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
the top has two holes punched in its side, one       A light spring with a spring constant of
above the other. The holes are 5.00 cm and        90.0 N/m rests vertically on a table, as shown.
12.0 cm above the ground.                         A 2.00 g balloon is filled with helium (0 ◦C and
   What is the height of the water in the tank    1 atm pressure) to a volume of 5.00 m3 and
if the two streams of water hit the ground at     connected to the spring, causing the spring to
the same place?                                   stretch. The magnitude of the force within
                                                  the spring that pulls it back toward its un-
                                                  stretched position is equal to k∆x.
            Holt SF 09Rev 52
03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.

  A 2.0 cm thick bar of soap is floating in
water, with 1.900 cm of the bar underwater.
Bath oil with a density of 899.0 kg/m3 is                             ∆x
added and floats on top of the water.
  What is the depth of the oil layer when the
top of the soap is just level with the upper
surface of the oil?
                                                               (a)            (b)
            Holt SF 09Rev 53
                                                    How much does the spring stretch when the
03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                  system is in equilibrium?
                      Chapter 3, section 11, Buoyancy and Fluid Flow                            227

                                                                     Part 2 of 2
              Holt SF 09Rev 63                     b) How long will it take for the top of the shell
03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      to reach the surface? Disregard frictional
                                                   effects.
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
  A light balloon is filled with helium at                      Holt SF 09Rev 69
0.0 ◦ C and 1.0 atm and then released from         03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
the ground.                                        wording-variable.
  Determine its initial acceleration. Disre-
gard the air resistance on the balloon.               Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
                                                      A light spring with a spring constant of
            Holt SF 09Rev 64                       16.0 N/m rests vertically on the bottom of a
03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            large beaker of water, as shown in (a).
wording-variable.                                     A 5.00 × 10−3 kg block of wood with a
                                                   density of 650.0 kg/m3 is connected to the
   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                          spring, and the mass-spring system is allowed
   A 1.0 kg hollow ball with a radius of 0.10 m    to come to static equilibrium, as shown in (b).
is filled with air and is released from rest at     The magnitude of the force pulling the spring
the bottom of a 2.0 m deep pool of water.          back to its unstretched position equals k∆x.
   How high above the water does the ball
rise? Disregard friction and the ball’s motion
when it is only partially submerged.                                              m

            Holt SF 09Rev 65                                           ∆x
03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                                              k
wording-variable.
                                                            k
   A small ball 0.6 times as dense as water is
dropped from a height of 10 m m above the                       (a)               (b)
surface of a smooth lake.
   Determine the maximum depth to which              How much does the spring stretch?
the ball will sink. Disregard any energy trans-
ferred to the water during impact and sink-
ing.

            Holt SF 09Rev 68
03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.

                   Part 1 of 2
   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
   A thin, rigid, spherical shell with a mass of
4.00 kg and diameter of 0.200 m is filled with
helium at 0 ◦ C and 1 atm pressure. It is then
released from rest on the bottom of a pool of
water that is 4.00 m deep.
   a) Determine the upward acceleration of
the shell.
                 Chapter 3, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 03                    228

                                                    B. The force exerted by a fluid on a surface
                  Fluids 01                      is called pressure.
03:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.       C. The force that keeps a plane in the air is
                                                 called lift.
  Which of the following is not a fluid?             Which one(s) are true?

 1. sugar                                         1. All three are true.

 2. air                                           2. A and B only.

 3. water                                         3. A and C only.

 4. oil                                           4. B and C only.

                  Forces 16                       5. A only.
03:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                  6. B only.
   Consider the following statements.
   A. When you push an object, you transfer       7. C only.
energy to the object.
   B. The force needed to overcome sliding        8. None is true.
friction is greater than the force needed to
overcome rolling friction.                                   Hewitt CP9 12 E06
   C. When the forces on an object are bal-      03:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
anced, motion occurs.
   Which one(s) are true?                           The uranium atom is the heaviest and most
                                                 massive atom among the naturally occurring
 1. A and B only.                                elements.
                                                    Why then, isn’t a solid bar of uranium the
 2. A and C only.                                densest metal?

 3. B and C only.                                 1. There are a lot oxygen in a uranium solid
                                                 bar.
 4. A only.
                                                  2. The uranium atoms lose most of their
 5. B only.                                      neutrons when combined into a solid bar.

 6. C only.                                       3. Density has not only to do with the mass
                                                 of the atoms that make up a material, but
 7. All three are true.                          with the spacing between the atoms as well.

 8. None is true.                                 4. There are a lot of dangling bonds inside a
                                                 solid bar of uranium.
                  Forces 17
03:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.                Hewitt CP9 12 E07
                                                 03:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
   Consider the following statements.
   A. Propellers and jet engines produce a         Which has more volume–a kilogram of gold
force that is called thrust.                     or a kilogram of aluminum?
                  Chapter 3, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 03                   229

                                                   2. in the middle
 1. A kilogram of gold
                                                   3. in the bottom
 2. A kilogram of aluminum
                                                   4. It cannot be determined.
 3. They have same volumes.
                                                              Hewitt CP9 12 E18
 4. It cannot be determined.                      03:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

            Hewitt CP9 12 E08                        Consider two bridges that are exact repli-
03:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.     cas of each other except that every dimen-
                                                  sion in the larger is exactly twice that of the
   Which has more weight–a liter of ice or a      other; that is, twice as long, structural ele-
liter of water?                                   ments twice as thick, etc.
                                                     Which bridge is more likely to collapse un-
 1. A liter of ice.                               der its own weight?

 2. A liter of water.                              1. the smaller one

 3. They have same weights.                        2. the larger one

 4. It cannot be determined.                       3. They have the same strength.

            Hewitt CP9 12 E11                      4. It cannot be determined.
03:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                              Holt SF 01Rev 45
  A thick rope is stronger than a thin rope of    03:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
the same material.                                wording-variable.
  Is a long rope stronger than a short rope?
                                                                    Part 1 of 2
 1. Yes.                                             The radius of the planet Saturn is 5.85×107
                                                  m, and its mass is 5.68 × 1026 kg.
 2. No.                                              a) Find the average density of Saturn (its
                                                  mass divided by its volume) if the volume of
 3. They are the same.                                                  4
                                                  a sphere is given by πr3 .
                                                                        3
 4. It cannot be determined.
                                                                    Part 2 of 2
                                                  b) Find the surface area of Saturn if the sur-
            Hewitt CP9 12 E13                     face area of a sphere is given by 4πr 2 .
03:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                                   Motion 16
   Suppose you’re making a balcony that ex-
                                                  03:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
tends beyond the main frame of your house.
   In a concrete overhanging slab, should steel
                                                    Consider the following statements:
reinforcing rods be embedded in the top, mid-
                                                    A. The motion of an object looks different
dle, or bottom of the slab?
                                                  to observers in the same frame of reference.
                                                    B. Two cars moving at the same velocity
 1. in the top
                                                  have different amounts of kinetic energy if
                    Chapter 3, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 03                   230

one car has more mass than the other car.
  C. The energy stored in food is one kind of                       PS 303 7 10
potential energy.                                   03:99, basic, numeric, < 1 min, normal.
  Which of the statements are true?
                                                      A mother and daughter are on a seesaw in
 1. A only.                                         the park.
                                                      How far from the center must the 120 lb
 2. B only.                                         mother sit in order to balance the 50 lb daugh-
                                                    ter sitting 7 ft from the center?
 3. C only.
                                                                     PS 303 7 9
 4. A and B only.                                   03:99, basic, numeric, < 1 min, normal.

 5. A and C only.                                     It is specified that a certain nut be tight-
                                                    ened to a torque of 40 N · m.
 6. B and C only.                                     If the mechanic is using a 40 cm long
                                                    wrench, how much force must he apply to
 7. None are true.                                  the end of the wrench to meet specs?

 8. All are true.

                 Motion 17
03:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

   Consider the following statements:
   A. A moving object is accelerating if its
speed or direction varies.
   B. The difference between speed and veloc-
ity is that speed indicates an object’s direction
of motion.
   C. A moving object does not accelerate if
its velocity remains constant.
   Which of the statements are true?

 1. A only.

 2. B only.

 3. C only.

 4. A and B only.

 5. A and C only.

 6. B and C only.

 7. None are true.

 8. All are true.
                                  Chapter 4, section 1, Work                                     231


              Bucket in a Well                       3. motion.
04:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                     4. chemical reactions.
  A man lifts a(n) 20 kg bucket from a well
and does 6 kJ of work.                                               Energy 03
  How deep is the well? Assume the man lifts        04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
the bucket at constant speed.
                                                      Heat energy is associated with
              Cheerleader Lift
04:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.              1. the internal motion of particles of mat-
                                                    ter.
   A cheerleader lifts his 50 kg partner straight
up off the ground a distance of 0.6 m before          2. motion.
releasing her.
   If he does this 20 times, how much work has       3. position or shape.
he done?
                                                     4. holding together the nuclei of atoms.
               Conversion 144
04:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.                              Energy 04
                                                    04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
  Convert 54.5 calories to joules.
                                                      Chemical energy is
               Conversion 145
04:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.              1. energy that bonds atoms or ions to-
                                                    gether.
  Convert 1305 joules to calories.
                                                     2. contained in the nuclei of atoms.
                 Energy 01
04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.        3. a result of the motion of electric charges.

  Mechanical energy is associated with               4. a result of the internal motion of particles
                                                    of matter.
 1. motion.
                                                                     Energy 05
 2. chemical reactions.                             04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 3. the nuclei of atoms.                              Nuclear energy is

 4. the motion of electric charges.                  1. contained in the nuclei of atoms.

                 Energy 02                           2. a result of the motion of electric charges.
04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                     3. a result of the internal motion of particles
  Electromagnetic energy is associated with         of matter.

 1. the motion of electric charges.                  4. energy that bonds atoms or ions to-
                                                    gether.
 2. the nuclei of atoms.
                                    Chapter 4, section 1, Work                                  232

                 Energy 06                                         Holt SF 05A 03
04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.         04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                      wording-variable.
  An example of stored chemical energy is
                                                         A shopper in a supermarket pushes a cart
 1. gasoline in an automobile.                        with a force of 35 N directed at an angle of
                                                      25◦ downward from the horizontal.
 2. an electric motor.                                   Find the work done by the shopper on the
                                                      cart as the shopper moves along a 50.0 m
 3. the sun’s energy.                                 length of aisle.

 4. light.                                                         Holt SF 05A 04
                                                      04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                 Energy 07                            wording-variable.
04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                        If 2.0 J of work is done in raising a 180 g
   Potential energy and kinetic energy are            apple, how far is it lifted?
forms of      energy.
                                                                  Holt SF 05Rev 07
 1. mechanical                                        04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                      wording-variable.
 2. chemical
                                                                         Part 1 of 2
 3. heat                                                 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
                                                         A person lifts a 4.5 kg cement block a ver-
 4. electromagnetic                                   tical distance of 1.2 m and then carries the
                                                      block horizontally a distance of 7.3 m.
 5. nuclear                                              a) Determine the work done by the person
                                                      in the process.
             Holt SF 05A 01
04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                                 Part 2 of 2
wording-variable.                                     b) Determine the work done by the force of
                                                      gravity in the process.
  A tugboat pulls a ship with a constant net
horizontal force of 5.00 × 103 N and causes the                   Holt SF 05Rev 08
ship to move through a harbor.                        04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
  How much work does the tugboat do on the            wording-variable.
ship if each moves a distance of 3.00 km ?
                                                         A plane designed for vertical takeoff has a
             Holt SF 05A 02                           mass of 8.0 × 103 kg.
04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                  Find the net work done on the plane as
wording-variable.                                     it accelerates upward at 1.0 m/s2 through a
                                                      distance of 30.0 m after starting from rest.
  A weight lifter lifts a set of weights a vertical
distance of 2.00 m.                                               Holt SF 05Rev 09
  If a constant net force of 350 N is exerted         04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
on the weights, how much net work is done on          wording-variable.
the weights?
                                                        A catcher “gives” with a baseball when
                                 Chapter 4, section 1, Work                                    233

catching it.                                        The amount of work done by two boys who
  If the baseball exerts a force of 475 N on      apply 200 N of force in an unsuccessful at-
the glove such that the glove is displaced 10.0   tempt to move a stalled car is
cm, how much work is done by the ball?
                                                   1. 0.
            Holt SF 05Rev 10
04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            2. 400 N-m.
wording-variable.
                                                   3. 400 N.
                  Part 1 of 3
  A flight attendant pulls her 70.0 N flight         4. 200 N-m.
bag a distance of 253 m along a level airport
floor at a constant velocity. The force she         5. 200 N.
exerts is 40.0 N at an angle of 52.0◦ above the
horizontal.                                                         Work 04
  a) Find the work she does on the flight bag.     04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

                  Part 2 of 3                       If you exert a force of 10 N to lift a box
b) Find the work done by the force of friction    a distance of 0.75 m, how much work do you
on the flight bag.                                 do?

                 Part 3 of 3                       1. 7.5 J
c) Find the coefficient of kinetic friction be-
tween the flight bag and the floor.                  2. 75 J

               Lifting Yourself                    3. 9.75 J
04:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                   4. 10.75 J
  Stan does 176 J of work lifting himself
0.3 m.                                                              Work 05
  What is Stan’s mass?                            04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

                  Work 01                           A force acting on an object does no work if
04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                   1. the force is not in the direction of the
  A force exerted over a distance to move an      object’s motion.
object is
                                                    2. the force is greater than the force of fric-
 1. work.                                         tion.

 2. momentum.                                      3. the object accelerates.

 3. velocity.                                      4. a machine is used to move the object.

 4. measured in Newtons.                                            Work 50
                                                  04:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                  Work 02
04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.       Which of the following does not involve
                                                  work?
                                  Chapter 4, section 1, Work   234


 1. A golf ball is struck.

 2. A child is pushed on a swing.

 3. A runner stretches by pushing against a
wall.

  4. A weight lifter does military presses (lift-
ing weights over head.)

 5. A professor picks up a piece of chalk from
the floor.

              Work on a Block
04:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

  Lee pushes horizontally with a force of 80 N
on a 20 kg mass for 10 m across a floor.
  Calculate the amount of work Lee did.

           Work on a Raindrop
04:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

                  Part 1 of 2
              −5
  A 3.35 × 10 kg raindrop falls vertically at
constant speed under the influence of gravity
and air resistance.
  After the drop has fallen 100 m, what is the
work done by gravity?

                Part 2 of 2
What is the work done by air resistance?
                                 Chapter 4, section 2, Power                                   235


            Climbing a Rope 01                      2. 87.5 W
04:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                    3. 560 W
   A 700 N marine in basic training climbs a
10 m vertical rope in 10 s at a constant speed.     4. 875 W
How much power does he exert during the
climb?                                              5. 5,600 W

              Electric Power 50                                Holt SF 05F 01
04:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.     04:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                  wording-variable.
  How long would a 100 watt light bulb have
to be on to use the amount of energy in a 160        Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
Calorie Tootsie Roll?                                A 1.0 × 103 kg elevator carries a maximum
                                                  load of 800.0 kg. A constant frictional force
 1. about 6,700 seconds                           of 4.0 × 103 N retards the elevator’s motion
                                                  upward.
 2. about 670,000 seconds                            What minimum power must the motor de-
                                                  liver to lift the fully loaded elevator at a con-
 3. about 670 seconds                             stant speed 3.00 m/s?

 4. about 67 seconds                                           Holt SF 05F 02
                                                  04:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
 5. about 6.7 seconds                             wording-variable.

                 Energy 50                           A car with a mass of 1.50 × 103 kg starts
04:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.     from rest and accelerates to a speed of 18.0
                                                  m/s in 12.0 s. Assume that the force of
  How much energy will a stock tank heater        resistance remains constant at 400.0 N during
rated at 1500 watts use in a 24 hour period?      this time.
                                                     What is the average power developed by
 1. 1500 Joules                                   the car’s engine?

 2. 1500 × 24 × 60 Joules                                      Holt SF 05F 03
                                                  04:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
 3. 1500 × 3600 Joules                            wording-variable.

 4. 1500 × 24 × 3600 Joules                          Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
                                                     A rain cloud contains 2.66 × 107 kg of water
                Free Fall 03                      vapor.
04:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.        How long would it take for a 2.00 kW pump
                                                  to raise the same amount of water to the
  A student weighing 700 N climbs at con-         cloud’s altitude of 2.00 km?
stant speed to the top of an 8 m vertical rope
in 10 s. The average power expended by the                     Holt SF 05F 04
student to overcome gravity is most nearly        04:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                  wording-variable.
 1. 1.1 W
                                 Chapter 4, section 2, Power                                 236

  How long does it take a 19 kW steam engine        4. force
to do 6.8 × 107 J of work?
                                                    5. none of the others
             Holt SF 05F 05
04:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                             Power 01
wording-variable.                                 04:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

                  Part 1 of 2                        Power equals work
   A 1.50 × 103 kg car accelerates uniformly
from rest to 10.0 m/s in 3.00 s.                    1. divided by time.
   a) What is the work done on the car in this
time interval?                                      2. divided by weight.

                   Part 2 of 2                      3. divided by distance.
b) What is the power delivered by the engine
in this time interval?                              4. times distance.

            Holt SF 05Rev 35                                        Power 02
04:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           04:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
wording-variable.
                                                     The unit of power is the
  Note: One horsepower is equal to 746 watts.
  An automobile engine delivers 50.0 hp.            1. Watt.
  How much time will it take for the engine
to do 6.40 × 105 J of work?                         2. Joule.

            Holt SF 05Rev 36                        3. Coulomb.
04:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                   4. Newton.

  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                                            Power 03
  Water flows over a section of Niagara Falls      04:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
at the rate of 1.2 × 106 kg/s and falls 50.0 m.
  How much power is generated by the falling         The rate at which work is done is called
water?
                                                    1. power.
             Physical Quantity
04:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.       2. force.

  A commonly used unit is the kilowatt hour.        3. resistance.
The physical quantity measured in kilowatt
hours is                                            4. energy.

 1. current                                                         Power 04
                                                  04:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 2. power
                                                    If you exert a force of 50 N to walk 4 m up a
 3. work                                          flight of stairs in 4 seconds, how much power
                                                  do you use?
                                Chapter 4, section 2, Power                                  237

                                                 mass 30 m horizontally in 3 s.
 1. 50 W                                          Calculate the work done on the mass.

 2. 800 W                                                         Part 2 of 2
                                                 Calculate the power.
 3. 3.13 W
                                                          Pushing a Wheelbarrow
 4. 58 W                                         04:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

                  Power 05                                         Part 1 of 2
04:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      Robin pushes a wheelbarrow by exerting a
                                                 145 N force horizontally. Robin moves it 60 m
  A student weighing 700 N climbs at con-        at a constant speed for 25 s.
stant speed to the top of an 8 m vertical rope     What power does Robin develop?
in 10 s. The average power expended by the
student to overcome gravity is most nearly                       Part 2 of 2
                                                 If Robin moves the wheelbarrow 2 times as
 1. 1.1 W                                        fast, how much power is developed?

 2. 87.5 W                                                    Running Up Stairs
                                                 04:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
 3. 560 W
                                                    A student, late for class, ran up some stairs
 4. 875 W                                        between landings. The landings are 8 m apart.
                                                 The student has a mass of 50 kg and it took
 5. 5,600 W                                      4 s to do the run.
                                                    What is the minimum power that the stu-
              Power of Nature                    dent was generating during the run?
04:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                                   Units 02
   A rain cloud contains 2.6 × 107 kg of water   04:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
vapor.
   How long would it take for a 2 kW pump to        12 kilowatts is equal to
lift the same amount of water to an altitude
of 20000 m?                                        1. 12000 watts.

           Power of Niagra Falls                   2. 1200 watts.
04:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                   3. 12 watts.
  Water flows over a section of Niagara Falls
at a rate of 1.2 × 106 kg/s and falls 50 m.        4. 1200 Joules.
  How many 50 W bulbs can be lit with this
power?                                                             Units 73
                                                 04:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
               Pushing a Mass
04:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.             A watt is

                 Part 1 of 2                       1. 1 s/joule
  A force of 300 N is used to push a 145 kg
                                Chapter 4, section 2, Power   238

 2. 1 cal/s

 3. 1 joule/s

 4. 1 s/cal

                  Work 03
04:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

  A Newton-meter is a measure of work also
known as the

 1. Joule.

 2. Watt.

 3. Coulomb.

 4. None of these
                 Chapter 4, section 3, Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy                       239


                Bobsled Run                          A car is lifted a vertical distance in a service
04:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.            station and therefore has potential energy rel-
                                                   ative to the floor. If it were lifted twice as
   A bobsled slides down an ice track start-       high, how much potential energy would it
ing (at zero initial speed) from the top of a(n)   have?
90 m high hill. Neglect friction and air re-
sistance and determine the bobsled’s speed at       1. Same
the bottom of the hill.
                                                    2. Twice
            Climbing a Rope 02
04:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.             3. One half

  Tim, with mass 60 kg, climbs a gymnasium          4. Cannot decide
rope a distance of 3.5 m. How much potential
energy does Tim gain?                                          Hewitt CP9 07 R10
                                                   04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                 Energy 08
04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.         Two cars are lifted to the same elevation in
                                                   a service station. If one car is twice as massive
  The total amount of mass and            in the   as the other, how do their potential energies
universe is constant.                              compare?

 1. energy                                          1. They have the same potential energy since
                                                   they are lifted to the same elevation.
 2. momentum
                                                    2. The car which is twice as massive as the
 3. power                                          other will have twice potential energy than
                                                   the other car.
 4. work
                                                    3. The car which is twice as massive as the
                 Energy 51                         other will have one half potential energy than
04:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.      the other car.

  A truck at the top of a hill has higher           4. Cannot decide since we don’t know how
gravitational potential energy than when it is     the cars were lifted.
at the bottom of the hill.
  Why does it roll downhill?                                   Hewitt CP9 07 R14
                                                   04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 1. To lower its potential energy.
                                                      A moving car has kinetic energy. If it speeds
 2. To increase the entropy of the universe.       up until it is going four times faster than
                                                   before, how much kinetic energy does it have
 3. To decrease the entropy of the universe.       in comparison?

 4. To increase its kinetic energy.                 1. Four times bigger than before

            Hewitt CP9 07 R09                       2. Four times smaller than before
04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                Chapter 4, section 3, Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy                   240

 3. Sixteen times bigger than before              6. Cannot decide.

 4. Sixteen times smaller than before                         Holt SF 05B 01
                                                 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
 5. Same                                         wording-variable.

 6. Cannot decide since the mass of the car is      Calculate the speed of an 8.0 × 104 kg air-
unknown.                                         liner with a kinetic energy of 1.1 × 109 J.

            Hewitt CP9 07 R32                                 Holt SF 05B 02
04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.    04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                 wording-variable.
  Can momenta cancel? Can kinetic energies
cancel?                                             What is the speed of a 0.145 kg baseball if
                                                 its kinetic energy is 109 J ?
 1. They both can cancel.
                                                              Holt SF 05B 03
 2. Momenta can cancel since they are vec-       04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
tors. Kinetic energies cannot cancel since       wording-variable.
they are positive scalars.
                                                                  Part 1 of 3
 3. They both cannot cancel since they are         Two bullets have masses of 3.0 g and 6.0 g,
always positive.                                 respectively. Each is fired with a speed of 40.0
                                                 m/s.
 4. Momenta cannot cancel but kinetic ener-        a) What is the kinetic energy of the first
gies can cancel.                                 bullet?

            Hewitt CP9 07 R33                                    Part 2 of 3
04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.    b) What is the kinetic energy of the second
                                                 bullet?
 If a moving object doubles its speed, how
much more momentum does it have? How                            Part 3 of 3
much more kinetic energy?                                             KE2
                                                 c) What is the ratio       of their kinetic
                                                                      KE1
 1. Momentum doubles. Kinetic energy dou-        energies?
bles.
                                                              Holt SF 05B 04
 2. Momentum won’t change. Kinetic energy        04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
doubles.                                         wording-variable.

  3. Momentum doubles. Kinetic energy will                        Part 1 of 3
increase by four times.                            Two 3.0 g bullets are fired with speeds of
                                                 40.0 m/s and 80.4 m/s, respectively.
 4. Momentum doubles.         Kinetic energy       a) What is the kinetic energy of the first
won’t change.                                    bullet?

 5. Both momentum and kinetic energy will                        Part 2 of 3
remain the same.                                 b) What is the kinetic energy of the second
                                                 bullet?
                 Chapter 4, section 3, Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy                       241

                                                      What is the length of the driveway?
               Part 3 of 3
                     KE2                                         Holt SF 05C 04
c) What is the ratio       of their kinetic
                     KE1                            04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
energies?
                                                    wording-variable.
             Holt SF 05B 05                            A 75 kg bobsled is pushed along a horizon-
04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,             tal surface by two athletes. After the bobsled
wording-variable.                                   is pushed a distance of 4.5 starting from rest,
                                                    its speed is 6.0 m/s.
  A car has a kinetic energy of 4.32 × 105 J           Find the magnitude of the net force on the
when traveling at a speed of 23 m/s.                bobsled.
  What is its mass?
                                                                 Holt SF 05C 05
              Holt SF 05C 01                        04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-        wording-variable.
mal.
                                                                       Part 1 of 5
   A student wearing frictionless in-line skates       Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
on a horizontal surface is pushed by a friend          A 10.0 kg crate is pulled up a rough incline
with a constant force of 45 N.                      with an initial speed of 1.5 m/s. The pulling
   How far must the student be pushed, start-       force is 100.0 N parallel to the incline, which
ing from rest, so that her final kinetic energy      makes an angle of 15.0◦ with the horizontal.
is 352 J ?                                          The coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.40 and
                                                    the crate is pulled a distance of 7.5 m.
             Holt SF 05C 02                            a) Find the work done by Earth’s gravity
04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,             on the crate.
wording-variable.
                                                                     Part 2 of 5
   A 2.0 × 103 kg car accelerates from rest         b) Find the work done by the force of friction
under the action of two forces. One is a            on the crate.
forward force of 1140 N provided by traction
between the wheels and the road. The other is
                                                                    Part 3 of 5
a 950 N resistive force due to various frictional
                                                    c) Find the work done by the puller on the
forces.
                                                    crate.
   How far must the car travel for its speed to
reach 2.0 m/s?
                                                                    Part 4 of 5
                                                    d) Find the change in kinetic energy of the
             Holt SF 05C 03
                                                    crate.
04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.
                                                                     Part 5 of 5
                                                    e) Find the speed of the crate after it is pulled
   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
                                                    7.5 m.
   A 2.1 × 103 kg car accelerates from rest
at the top of a driveway that is sloped at an
angle of 20.0◦ with the horizontal. An average                   Holt SF 05D 01
frictional force of 4.0×103 N impedes the car’s     04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
motion so that the car’s speed at the bottom        wording-variable.
of the driveway is 3.8 m/s.
                                                      A spring with a force constant of 5.2 N/m
                 Chapter 4, section 3, Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy                     242

has a relaxed length of 2.45 m. When a              0.550 g need in order to have the same kinetic
mass is attached to the end of the spring and       energy as the automobile?
allowed to come to rest, the vertical length of
the spring is 3.57 m.                                            Holt SF 05Rev 21
   Calculate the elastic potential energy           04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
stored in the spring.                               mal.

             Holt SF 05D 02                           Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,               A 50 kg diver steps off a diving board and
wording-variable.                                   drops straight down into the water. The water
                                                    provides an average net force of resistance of
  The staples inside a stapler are kept in place    1500 N to the diver’s fall.
by a spring with a relaxed length of 0.115 m.         If the diver comes to rest 5 m below the
  If the spring constant is 51.0 N/m, how           water’s surface, what is the total distance be-
much elastic potential energy is stored in the      tween the diving board and the diver’s stop-
spring when its length is 0.150 m?                  ping point underwater?

             Holt SF 05D 03                                     Holt SF 05Rev 22
04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,             04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                   wording-variable.

                   Part 1 of 3                         Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                              In a circus performance, a monkey on a sled
   A 40.0 kg child is in a swing that is attached   is given an initial speed of 4.0 m/s up a 25◦
to ropes 2.00 m long.                               incline. The combined mass of the monkey
   Find the gravitational potential energy as-      and the sled is 20.0 kg, and the coefficient
sociated with the child relative to the child’s     of kinetic friction between the sled and the
lowest position under the following condi-          incline is 0.20.
tions:                                                 How far up the incline does the sled move?
   a) when the ropes are horizontal.
                                                                Holt SF 05Rev 23
               Part 2 of 3                          04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
b) when the ropes make a 30.0◦ angle with           wording-variable.
the vertical.
                                                                      Part 1 of 3
                 Part 3 of 3                          Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
c) at the bottom of the circular arc.                 A 55 kg skier is at the top of a slope, as in
                                                    the figure. At the initial point A, the skier is
          Holt SF 05Rev 19 20                       10.0 m vertically above the final point B.
04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.

                 Part 1 of 2                                                    10 m
  a) What is the kinetic energy of an auto-
mobile with a mass of 1250 kg traveling at a
speed of 11 m/s?
                                                      a) Find the difference in gravitational po-
              Part 2 of 2                           tential energy associated with the skier at the
b) What speed would a fly with a mass of             points A and B if the zero level for gravita-
                  Chapter 4, section 3, Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy                    243

tional potential energy is at point B.            wording-variable.

                   Part 2 of 3                                       Part 1 of 2
b) Find the difference in potential energy if         Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
the zero level is at point A.                        Tarzan swings on a 30.0 m long vine ini-
                                                  tially inclined at an angle of 37.0 ◦ with the
                   Part 3 of 3                    vertical.
c) Find the difference in potential energy if         What is his speed at the bottom of the
the zero level is midway down the slope, at a     swing if he
height of 5.00 m.                                    a) starts from rest?

            Holt SF 05Rev 24                                       Part 2 of 2
04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           b) pushes off with a speed of 4.00 m/s?
wording-variable.
                                                              Holt SF 05Rev 38
                  Part 1 of 3                     04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                          wording-variable.
  A 2.00 kg ball is attached to a ceiling by a
1.00 m long string. The height of the room is       Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
3.00 m.                                             A person doing a chin-up weighs 700.0 N,
  What is the gravitational potential energy      disregarding the weight of the arms. During
associated with the ball relative to              the first 25.0 cm of the lift, each arm exerts
  a) the ceiling?                                 an upward force of 355 N on the torso.
                                                    If the upward movement starts from rest,
                   Part 2 of 3                    what is the person’s speed at this point?
b) the floor?
                                                              Holt SF 05Rev 40
                   Part 3 of 3                    04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
c) a point at the same elevation as the ball?     wording-variable.

            Holt SF 05Rev 25                         Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,              An 80.0 N box of clothes is pulled 20.0 m up
wording-variable.                                 a 30.0◦ ramp by a force of 115 N that points
                                                  along the ramp.
                  Part 1 of 3                        If the coefficient of kinetic friction between
  A spring has a force constant of 500.0 N/m.     the box and ramp is 0.22, calculate the change
  Find the potential energy stored in the         in the box’s kinetic energy.
spring when the spring is
  a) stretched 4.00 cm from equilibrium.                      Holt SF 05Rev 41
                                                  04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                 Part 2 of 3                      wording-variable.
b) compressed 3.00 cm from equilibrium.
                                                    Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
                   Part 3 of 3                      A 98.0 N grocery cart is pushed 12.0 m
c) unstretched.                                   along an aisle by a shopper who exerts a
                                                  constant horizontal force of 40.0 N.
            Holt SF 05Rev 34                        If all frictional forces are neglected and the
04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           cart starts from rest, what is the grocery cart’s
                                                  final speed?
                  Chapter 4, section 3, Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy                                    244


            Holt SF 05Rev 45                                   Holt SF 05Rev 53
04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                  wording-variable.

                   Part 1 of 3                                       Part 1 of 3
  A 0.60 kg rubber ball has a speed of 2.0 m/s       Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
at point A and kinetic energy 7.5 J at point         The figure is a graph of the gravitational
B. Find                                            potential energy and kinetic energy of a 75 g
  a) the ball’s kinetic energy at A.               yo-yo as it moves up and down on its string.
                                                                                          Potential energy
                  Part 2 of 3
b) the ball’s speed at B.                                                                 Kinetic energy
                                                                                          Mechanical energy




                                                  Energy (mJ)
                                                                600
                  Part 3 of 3
c) the total work done on the ball as it moves                  400
from A to B.
                                                                200
            Holt SF 05Rev 49                                      0
04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                               0   1   2   3   4      5     6       7   8
wording-variable.                                                                 Time (s)
                                                     a) By what amount does the mechanical
                  Part 1 of 2
                                                   energy of the yo-yo change after 6.0 s?
  A 5.00 g bullet moving at 600.0 m/s pene-
trates a tree trunk to a depth of 4.00 cm.
  a) Use work and energy considerations to                          Part 2 of 3
find the magnitude of the force that stops the      b) What is the speed of the yo-yo after 1.5 s?
bullet.
                                                                  Part 3 of 3
                 Part 2 of 2                       c) What is the maximum height of the yo-
b) Assuming that the frictional force is con-      yo?
stant, determine how much time elapses be-
tween the moment the bullet enters the tree                    Holt SF 05Rev 54
and the moment the bullets stops moving.           04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                   wording-variable.
            Holt SF 05Rev 51
04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,               Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
wording-variable.                                     A skier starts from rest at the top of a hill
                                                   that is inclined at 10.5◦ with the horizontal.
                  Part 1 of 2                      The hillside is 200.0 m long, and the coef-
              3
  A 2.50 × 10 kg car requires 5.0 kJ of work       ficient of friction between the snow and the
to move from rest to some final speed. During       skis is 0.075. At the bottom of the hill, the
this time, the car moves 25.0 m.                   snow is level and the coefficient of friction is
  Neglecting friction, find                         unchanged.
  a) the final speed.                                  How far does the skier move along the hor-
                                                   izontal portion of the snow before coming to
                                                   rest?
                Part 2 of 2
b) the net horizontal force exerted on the
car.                                                                      Holt SF 05Rev 56
                 Chapter 4, section 3, Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy                                                  245

04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                             Part 4 of 4
wording-variable.                                  d) If the speed of the child at the lowest
                                                   position is 2.00 m/s, what is the change in
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                           mechanical energy due to friction?
  An egg is dropped from a third-floor win-
dow and lands on a foam-rubber pad without                      Holt SF 05Rev 62
breaking.                                          04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
  If a 56.0 g egg falls 12.0 m from rest and the   mal.
5.00 cm thick foam pad stops it in 6.25 ms,
by how much is the pad compressed? Assume                              Part 1 of 3
constant upward acceleration as the egg com-          Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
presses the foam-rubber pad. (Assume that             A block starts at rest and slides down a
the potential energy that the egg gains while      frictionless track.
the pad is being compressed is negligible.)           It leaves the track horizontally, striking the
                                                   ground (as shown in the figure above).
            Holt SF 05Rev 59
04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                           522 g
wording-variable.




                                                                                                                        9.81 m/s2
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
                                                                            


                                                                                




                                                                                    




                                                                                        




                                                                                            




                                                          h
                                                                                                 




                                                                                                     




  A light horizontal spring has a spring con-




                                                                2.5 m
                                                                                                         




                                                                                                             




stant of 105 N/m. A 2.00 kg block is pressed                                                                     




                                                                                                                     




against one end of the spring, compressing the                                                                           




spring 0.100 m. After the block is released,                                                   4.6 m
the block moves 0.250 m to the right before
                                                     a) At what height h above the ground is the
coming to rest.
                                                   block released?
  What is the coefficient of kinetic friction be-
tween the horizontal surface and the block?
                                                                     Part 2 of 3
                                                   b) What is the speed of the block when it
            Holt SF 05Rev 61
                                                   leaves the track?
04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.
                                                                    Part 3 of 3
                                                   c) What is the speed of the block when it hits
                 Part 1 of 4
                                                   the ground?
   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
   A 25 kg child on a 2.0 m long swing is
released from rest when the swing supports                     Holt SF 12Rev 53
make an angle of 30.0◦ with the vertical.          04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
   a) What is the maximum potential energy         wording-variable.
associated with the child?
                                                                     Part 1 of 2
                                                      A mass-spring system oscillates with an
                  Part 2 of 4
                                                   amplitude of 3.5 cm. The spring constant
b) Disregarding friction, find the child’s speed
                                                   is 250 N/m and the mass is 0.500 kg.
at the lowest position.
                                                      a) Calculate the mechanical energy of the
                                                   mass-spring system.
                Part 3 of 4
c) What is the child’s total mechanical en-
                                                                    Part 2 of 2
ergy?
                                                   b) Calculate the maximum acceleration of the
                Chapter 4, section 3, Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy                   246

mass-spring system.                                             ∆d
                                                   5. KE =
                                                                ∆t
            Holt SF 12Rev 56
                                                               Kinetic Energy 03
04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                  04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
wording-variable.
                                                    The factor that has the greatest effect on
                   Part 1 of 2
                                                  kinetic energy is
   A 0.40 kg mass is attached to a spring with
a spring constant of 160 N/m so that the mass
                                                   1. velocity.
is allowed to move on a horizontal frictionless
surface. The mass is released from rest when
                                                   2. mass.
the spring is compressed 0.15 m.
   a) Find the force on the mass at the instant
                                                   3. height.
the spring is released.
                                                   4. gravity.
                  Part 2 of 2
b) Find the acceleration of the mass at the
                                                               Kinetic Energy 04
instant the spring is released.
                                                  04:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
             Kinetic Energy 01                      Consider a compact car that is being driven
04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.     at 100 km/h. From what height would the car
                                                  have to be dropped to have the same kinetic
  The amount of kinetic energy an object has      energy?
depends on its
                                                               Kinetic Energy 05
 1. mass and speed.
                                                  04:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
 2. mass and height from the ground.
                                                    A 7 kg bowling ball moves at 3 m/s .
                                                    How fast must a(n)46 g golf ball move so
 3. only its height from the ground.
                                                  that the two balls have the same kinetic en-
                                                  ergy?
 4. only its speed.
                                                               Kinetic Energy 06
 5. only its mass.
                                                  04:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
             Kinetic Energy 02
                                                                   Part 1 of 3
04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                    A(n) 0.6 kg particle has a speed of 2 m/s at
                                                  point A and kinetic energy of 7.5 J at B.
  The formula for kinetic energy is
                                                    What is its kinetic energy at A?
        1
 1. KE = mv 2                                                      Part 2 of 3
        2
                                                  What is the particle’s speed at B?
 2. KE = mgh
                                                                    Part 3 of 3
 3. KE = mv                                       What is the total work done on the particle as
           ∆v                                     it moves from point A to B?
 4. KE =
           ∆t
                                                                 Kinetic Energy 07
                Chapter 4, section 3, Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy                   247

04:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                               Playground Swing
                   Part 1 of 2                    04:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
   Suppose an automobile has a kinetic energy
of 2000 J.                                                          Part 1 of 2
   When it moves with twice the speed, what         Betty weighs 420 N and she is sitting on
will be its kinetic energy?                       a playground swing seat that hangs 0.4 m
                                                  above the ground. Tom pulls the swing back
                 Part 2 of 2                      and releases it when the seat is 1 m above the
Three times the speed?                            ground.
                                                    How fast is Betty moving when the swing
             Kinetic Energy 08                    passes through its lowest position?
04:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                                  Part 2 of 2
                  Part 1 of 3                     If Betty moves through the lowest point at
  Sally has a mass of 45 kg and is moving         1 m/s, what is the magnitude of the work
with a speed of 10 m/s.                           done on the swing by friction?
  Find Sally’s kinetic energy.
                                                              Potential Energy 01
                  Part 2 of 3                     04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
Sally’s speed changes to 5 m/s. Now what is
her kinetic energy?                                 The amount of potential energy an object
                                                  has depends on its
                 Part 3 of 3
What is the ratio of the first kinetic energy to    1. mass and height from the ground.
the second one?
                                                   2. mass and speed.
       2
      v1
 1.    2
      v2                                           3. only its height from the ground.
      v1
 2.
    v2                                             4. only its speed.
    v2
 3. 22                                             5. only its mass.
    v1
    v2
 4.                                                           Potential Energy 02
    v1
                                                  04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
             Kinetic Energy 09
04:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.             The formula for potential energy is

  A(n) 1600 kg car travels at a speed of           1. P E = mgh
12.5 m/s.
  What is its kinetic energy?                      2. P E = mv

          Lifting a Bowling Ball                            ∆v
                                                   3. P E =
04:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.                     ∆t
                                                            ∆d
                                                   4. P E =
  A 6.4 kg bowling ball is lifted 2.1 m into                ∆t
a storage rack. Calculate the increase in the               1 2
ball’s potential energy.                           5. P E = mv
                                                            2
                 Chapter 4, section 3, Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy                  248


            Potential Energy 03                    1. potential energy.
04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                   2. kinetic energy.
  Which of the following is not an example of
an object with potential energy?                   3. chemical energy.

 1. a ball rolling on the floor.                    4. electrical energy.

 2. a car battery.                                           Potential Energy 07
                                                 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 3. a diver prepared to jump off a diving
board.                                              A stretched spring has

 4. a wrecking ball.                               1. potential energy.

            Potential Energy 04                    2. kinetic energy.
04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                   3. chemical energy.
   Which of the following has the least amount
of potential energy?                               4. electrical energy.

 1. A car traveling at 80 km/h.                              Potential Energy 08
                                                 04:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
 2. A bird landing on a branch.
                                                   A carpenter places a board weighing 10 lb
 3. A rock at the top of a mountain.             on the edge of the roof 10 ft above the ground.
                                                 How much potential energy does the board
 4. A leaf about to fall.                        have in relationship to the ground?

            Potential Energy 05                          Potential Energy Change
04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.    04:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

  Which of the following has the greatest          Mary weighs 500 N and she walks down
amount of potential energy?                      a flight of stairs to a level 5.5 m below her
                                                 starting point.
 1. A 0.5 kg book at the top of a 100 m hill.      What is the change in Mary’s potential en-
                                                 ergy?
 2. A 5 kg rock raised 5 m off the floor.
                                                               Rock on the Edge
 3. A 2 kg boulder at the top of a 10 m hill.    04:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

 4. A 2 g penny in an airplane at 1000 m                           Part 1 of 3
above the earth.                                   A(n) 20 kg rock is on the edge of a(n)
                                                 100 m cliff. What potential energy does the
            Potential Energy 06                  rock possess relative to the base of the cliff?
04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                                   Part 2 of 3
  Energy of position is called                   The rock falls from the cliff. What is its ki-
                Chapter 4, section 3, Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy   249

netic energy just before it strikes the ground?

               Part 3 of 3
What speed does the rock have as it strikes
the ground?

                Sack of Grain
04:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

                  Part 1 of 3
   A 98 N sack of grain is hoisted to a storage
room 50 m above the ground floor of a grain
elevator.
   How much work was required?

                  Part 2 of 3
What is the potential energy of the sack of
grain at this height?

                   Part 3 of 3
The rope being used to lift the sack of grain
breaks just as the sack reaches the storage
room.
  What kinetic energy does the sack have just
before it strikes the ground floor?

                  Units 01
04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

  A joule is a measure of

 1. energy.

 2. distance.

 3. density.

 4. volume.

 5. momentum.

                Vertical Leap
04:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

  A 70 kg high jumper leaves the ground with
a vertical velocity of 6 m/s.
  How high can he jump?
                        Chapter 4, section 4, Conservation of Energy                            250

                                                   tial height such that the speed of the bob at
             Holt SF 05E 01                        the bottom of the swing is 1.9 m/s.
04:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,               What is the initial height of the bob?
wording-variable.
                                                               Holt SF 05Rev 33
                        2
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s .                            04:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
  A bird is flying with a speed of 18.0 m/s         wording-variable.
over water when it accidentally drops a 2.00
kg fish.                                              Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
  If the altitude of the bird is 5.40 m and air      A child and sled with a combined mass of
resistance is disregarded, what is the speed of    50.0 kg slide down a frictionless hill that is
the fish when it hits the water?                    7.34 m high.
                                                     If the sled starts from rest, what is its speed
            Holt SF 05E 02 03                      at the bottom of the hill?
04:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                              Holt SF 05Rev 37
                                                   04:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                 Part 1 of 3                       wording-variable.
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
  A 755 N diver drops from a board 10.0 m                            Part 1 of 5
above the water’s surface.                            Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
  a) Find the diver’s speed 5.00 m above the          A 215 g particle is released from rest at
water’s surface.                                   point A inside a smooth hemispherical bowl
                                                   of radius 30.0 cm, as shown in the figure
                 Part 2 of 3
b) Find the diver’s speed just before striking
the water.

                   Part 3 of 3                             A                            C
c) If the diver leaves the board with an initial
upward speed of 2.00 m/s, find the diver’s                              R                 2
speed when striking the water.                                                             R
                                                                                         3
                                                                           B
             Holt SF 05E 04
04:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,               Calculate
wording-variable.                                     a) the gravitational potential energy at A
                                                   relative to B.
 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
 An Olympic runner leaps over a hurdle.                               Part 2 of 5
 If the runner’s initial vertical speed is 2.2     b) the particle’s kinetic energy at B.
m/s, how much will the runner’s center of
mass be raised during the jump?                                       Part 3 of 5
                                                   c) the particle’s speed at B.
             Holt SF 05E 05
04:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                              Part 4 of 5
wording-variable.                                  d) the potential energy at C.

  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                                             Part 5 of 5
  A pendulum bob is released from some ini-
                         Chapter 4, section 4, Conservation of Energy                          251

e) the kinetic energy at C.                         60.0 m up a 35◦ slope (assumed to be friction-
                                                    less) at a constant speed of 2.0 m/s?
            Holt SF 05Rev 39
04:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                         Holt SF 05Rev 52
wording-variable.                                   04:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                    wording-variable.
   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
   A 50.0 kg pole vaulter running at 10.0 m/s                         Part 1 of 2
vaults over the bar.                                  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
   If the vaulter’s horizontal component of ve-       An acrobat on skis starts from rest 50.0
locity over the bar is 1.0 m/s and air resistance   m above the ground on a frictionless track
is disregarded, how high is the jump?               and flies off the track at a 45.0◦ angle above
                                                    the horizontal and at a height of 10.0 m.
            Holt SF 05Rev 42                        Disregard air resistance.
04:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,               a) What is the skier’s speed when leaving
wording-variable.                                   the track?

  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                                            Part 2 of 2
  Tarzan and Jane, whose total mass is 130.0        b) What is the maximum height attained?
kg, start their swing on a 5.0 m long vine
when the vine is at an angle 30.0◦ with the                     Holt SF 05Rev 57
horizontal. At the bottom of the arc, Jane,         04:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
whose mass is 50.0 kg, releases the vine.           wording-variable.
  What is the maximum height at which
Tarzan can land on a branch after his swing                           Part 1 of 2
continues? (Hint: Treat Tarzan’s and Jane’s            Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
energies as separate quantities.)                      A 75 kg man jumps from a window 1.0 m
                                                    above a sidewalk.
            Holt SF 05Rev 43                           a) What is his speed just before his feet
04:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,             strike the pavement?
wording-variable.
                                                                     Part 2 of 2
                         2
   Given: g = 9.81 m/s .                            b) If the man jumps with his knees and an-
   A 0.250 kg block on a vertical spring with a     kles locked, the only cushion for his fall is
spring constant of 5.00 × 103 N/m is pushed         approximately 0.50 cm in the pads of his feet.
downward, compressing the spring 0.100 m.              Calculate the magnitude of the average
When released, the block leaves the spring          force exerted on him by the ground in this
and travels upward vertically.                      situation.
   How high does it rise above the point of
release?                                                        Holt SF 05Rev 58
                                                    04:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
            Holt SF 05Rev 50                        wording-variable.
04:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                                     Part 1 of 3
                                                      Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                              A projectile of mass 5.0 kg is shot horizon-
  A skier of mass 70.0 kg is pulled up a slope      tally with an initial speed of 17 m/s from a
by a motor-driven cable.                            height of 25.0 m above a flat desert surface.
  How much work is required to pull the skier         a) For the instant before the projectile hits
                        Chapter 4, section 4, Conservation of Energy   252

the surface, find the work done on the projec-
tile by gravity.

                  Part 2 of 3
b) Find the change in kinetic energy since the
projectile was fired.

                 Part 3 of 3
c) Find the final kinetic energy of the projec-
tile.

            Semicircular Track
04:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

  The figure below shows a rough semicir-
cular track whose ends are at a vertical
height h. A block placed at point P at
one end of the track is released from rest
and slides past the bottom of the track.
               P

             h


  Which of the following is true of the height
to which the block rises on the other side of
the track?
                    h
 1. It is equal to
                   2π
                   h
 2. It is equal to
                   4
                   h
 3. It is equal to
                   2
 4. It is equal to h

  5. It is between zero and h; the exact height
depends on how much energy is lost to fric-
tion.
                     Chapter 4, section 5, Forms and Sources of Energy   253


                 Energy 52                         6. None of these.
04:05, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

   The energy that an object has because of
its motion is

 1. Kinetic energy

 2. Potential energy

 3. Electrical energy

 4. Stored energy

            Hewitt CP9 07 R21
04:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

  A friend says the energy of oil and coal is
actually a form of solar energy. Is your friend
correct,or mistaken?

 1. He is correct. Since these materials are
the result of photosynthesis, a biological pro-
cess that incorporates the sun’s radiant en-
ergy into plant tissue.

  2. He is mistaken since the energy is actually
from nuclear energy.

  3. He is mistaken since the energy is actually
from geothermal power.

            Hewitt CP9 07 R35
04:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

   What is the ultimate source of energies
for the burning of fossil fuels,dams,and wind-
mills?

 1. The Sun

 2. Nuclear energy

 3. Geothermal power

 4. Water

 5. Rain
                   Chapter 4, section 6, Simple and Compound Machines                      254

                                                  1. first
                  Levers 01
04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.     2. second

  A fulcrum is                                    3. third

 1. the place where a lever is supported.         4. None of these

 2. measured in Newton-meters.                                   Machines 01
                                                 04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 3. measured in Joules.
                                                   An example of a compound machine is a
 4. a support for an inclined plane.
                                                  1. typewriter.
                  Levers 02
04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.     2. pair of scissors.

   Which of the following is not a third-class    3. pair of pliers.
lever?
                                                  4. hammer.
 1. scissors
                                                                 Machines 02
 2. broom                                        04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 3. baseball bat                                   A simple machine that is a straight slanted
                                                 surface is a(n)
 4. shovel
                                                  1. inclined plane.
                  Levers 03
04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.     2. lever.

   The advantage of using a third-class lever     3. pulley.
is that it
                                                  4. wedge.
 1. multiplies distance.
                                                  5. screw.
 2. decreases distance.
                                                  6. wheel and axle.
 3. multiplies effort force.
                                                                 Machines 03
 4. makes the resistance force smaller.          04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

                  Levers 04                        A doorknob is a simple machine called a(n)
04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                  1. wheel and axle.
  The fulcrum of a(n)     -class lever is al-
ways between the effort force and the resis-       2. lever.
tance force.
                                                  3. pulley.
                   Chapter 4, section 6, Simple and Compound Machines                         255

                                                     1. Only A is true.
 4. wedge.
                                                     2. A, B, and C are true.
 5. screw.
                                                     3. Only B is true.
 6. inclined plane.
                                                     4. Only C is true.
                Machines 04
04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.        5. Only A and B are true.

  The       of a machine compares its work           5. Only A and C are true.
output with its work input.
                                                     5. Only B and C are true.
 1. mechanical efficiency
                                                                    Machines 07
 2. mechanical advantage                            04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 3. ideal mechanical advantage                        Consider the following statements.
                                                      A. Windmills can be used to change me-
 4. energy                                          chanical energy into electric energy.
                                                      B. Work relates force and simple machines.
                Machines 05                           C. Power is the rate at which work is done.
04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.         Which statement(s) is/are true?

  A machine with a(n)         of two doubles         1. Only A and C are true.
the force applied to the machine.
                                                     2. Only A is true.
 1. mechanical advantage
                                                     3. A, B, and C are true.
 2. mechanical efficiency
                                                     4. Only B is true.
 3. ideal mechanical advantage
                                                     5. Only C is true.
 4. energy
                                                     6. Only A and B are true.
                Machines 06
04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.        7. Only B and C are true.

   Consider the following statements.                               Machines 08
   A. A third-class lever requires a larger effort   04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
force for a given resistance force.
   B. If the effort force is less than the resis-       Consider the following statements.
tance force, the mechanical advantage is less          A. The mechanical efficiency of a machine
than 1.                                             is always less than 100 percent.
   C. The mechanical efficiency of a machine             B. A machine that works with one move-
is decreased by reducing friction within the        ment is a simple machine.
machine.                                               C. A combination of complex machines is a
   Which statement(s) is/are true?                  compound machine.
                                                       Which statement(s) is/are true?
                     Chapter 4, section 6, Simple and Compound Machines                       256

                                                                   Machines 11
 1. Only A and B are true.                         04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 2. Only A is true.                                  An inclined plane reduces the effort force
                                                   by
 3. A, B, and C are true.
                                                    1. applying the force over a greater dis-
 4. Only B is true.                                tance.

 5. Only C is true.                                 2. reducing the work.

 6. Only A and C are true.                          3. increasing the work.

 7. Only B and C are true.                          4. reducing the effort distance.

                Machines 09                                        Machines 12
04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

   A screwdriver being used to pry open a can        How does an inclined plane differ from other
of paint is an example of which type of simple     simple machines?
machine?
                                                    1. It has no moving parts.
 1. lever
                                                    2. It is not a lever.
 2. wheel and axle
                                                    3. It uses gears.
 3. pulley
                                                    4. It is free of friction.
 4. inclined plane
                                                           Mechanical Advantage 01
 5. wedge                                          04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 6. screw                                            The mechanical advantage of a machine is
                                                   the number of times it
                Machines 10
04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.       1. multiplies the effort force.

   If you have to apply 30 N of force on a crow-    2. changes the direction of the effort force.
bar to lift an object that weighs 330 N, what
is the mechanical advantage of the crowbar?          3. changes the direction of the resistance
                                                   force.
 1. 11
                                                    4. multiplies the resistance force.
 2. 0.09
                                                                    Pulleys 01
 3. 9900                                           04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 4. 0.36                                             The mechanical advantage of a pulley sys-
                                                   tem is equal to the
                  Chapter 4, section 6, Simple and Compound Machines   257


 1. number of rope segments pulling up on
the load.

 2. distance the load has to be moved.

 3. weight of the object being lifted.

 4. length of the rope.

                 Pulleys 02
04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

  A moveable pulley can

 1. multiply force.

 2. multiply distance.

 3. have a mechanical advantage of less than
one.

 4. change the direction of the force.
                       Chapter 4, section 7, Non-conservative Energy                          258


            Holt SF 05Rev 46                                       Part 2 of 3
04:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           b) Find the coefficient of kinetic friction be-
wording-variable.                                 tween the suitcase and the floor.

                 Part 1 of 3                                      Part 3 of 3
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                          c) Find the change in mechanical energy due
  Starting from rest, a 5.0 kg block slides 2.5   to friction.
m down a rough 30.0◦ incline in 2.0 s.
  Find                                                        Holt SF 05Rev 60
  a) the work done by the force of gravity.       04:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                  wording-variable.
                Part 2 of 3
b) the change in mechanical energy due to                           Part 1 of 3
friction.                                            Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
                                                     A 5.0 kg block is pushed 3.0 m at a con-
                 Part 3 of 3                      stant velocity up a vertical wall by a constant
c) the work done by the normal force between      force applied at an angle of 30.0◦ with the
the block and the incline.                        horizontal, as shown in the figure.

            Holt SF 05Rev 48                                               F
04:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                                        30◦
wording-variable.

                 Part 1 of 2
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                                                 3m
  A horizontal force of 150 N is used to push            5 kg
a 40.0 kg packing crate a distance of 6.00 m
on a rough horizontal surface.                              Drawing not to scale.
  If the crate moves with constant velocity,        If the coefficient of kinetic friction between
calculate                                         the block and the wall is 0.30, find
  a) the work done by the force.                    a) the work done by the force on the block.

                 Part 2 of 2                                       Part 2 of 3
b) the coefficient of kinetic friction.             b) the work done by gravity on the block.

            Holt SF 05Rev 55                                       Part 3 of 3
04:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           c) the magnitude of the normal force between
wording-variable.                                 the block and the wall.

                  Part 1 of 3
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
  Starting from rest, a 10.0 kg suitcase slides
3.00 m down a frictionless ramp inclined at
30.0◦ from the floor. The suitcase then slides
an additional 5.00 m along the floor before
coming to a stop.
  a) Find the speed of the suitcase at the
bottom of the ramp.
                                 Chapter 4, section 9, Torque                                   259

                                                           R                               FT
             Holt SF 08A 01
04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                                              53◦
wording-variable.                                               1.5 m
                                                                 545 N       315 N
  Find the magnitude of the torque produced
by a 3.0 N force applied to a door at a perpen-                          5m
dicular distance of 0.25 m from the hinge.              Note: Figure is not drawn to scale.
                                                      a) Assuming that the axis of rotation passes
             Holt SF 08A 02                        through the beam’s center of mass, find the
04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            force FT in the cable.
wording-variable.
                                                                   Part 2 of 2
                   Part 1 of 2
                                                   b) Find the magnitude of the force R exerted
   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
                                                   on the beam by the wall if the beam is in
   A simple pendulum consists of a 3.0 kg
                                                   equilibrium.
point mass hanging at the end of a 2.0 m long
light string that is connected to a pivot point.
                                                                Holt SF 08B 02
   a) Calculate the magnitude of the torque
                                                   04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
(due to the force of gravity) around this pivot
                                                   wording-variable.
point when the string makes a 5.0◦ angle with
the vertical.
                                                                    Part 1 of 2
                                                     A uniform bridge 20.0 m long and weighing
               Part 2 of 2
                                                   4.00×105 N is supported by two pillars located
b) Repeat this calculation for an angle of
                                                   3.00 m from each end. A 1.96 × 104 N car is
15.0◦ .
                                                   parked 8.00 m from one end of the bridge.
                                                     a) How much force does the pillar closer to
             Holt SF 08A 03                        the car exert?
04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.
                                                                   Part 2 of 2
                                                   b) How much force does the pillar farther from
  If the torque required to loosen a nut on the
                                                   the car exert?
wheel of a car has a magnitude of 40.0 N · m,
what minimum force must be exerted by a
                                                                Holt SF 08B 03
mechanic at the end of a 30.0 cm wrench to
                                                   04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
loosen the nut?
                                                   wording-variable.
             Holt SF 08B 01
                                                                     Part 1 of 2
04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                      A 700.0 N window washer is standing on a
wording-variable.
                                                   uniform scaffold supported by a vertical rope
                                                   at each end. The scaffold weighs 200.0 N and
                  Part 1 of 2
                                                   is 3.00 m long. Assume the window washer
   A uniform 5.00 m long horizontal beam that
                                                   stands 1.00 m from one end.
weighs 315 N is attached to a wall by a pin
                                                      a) What is the force on the farther rope?
connection that allows the beam to rotate. Its
far end is supported by a cable that makes an
                                                                    Part 2 of 2
angle of 53◦ with the horizontal, and a 545 N
                                                   b) What is the force on the closer rope?
person is standing 1.50 m from the pin.
                               Chapter 4, section 9, Torque                                  260

             Holt SF 08B 04                      around a solid cylindrical spool with a ra-
04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,          dius of 0.0750 m and a mass of 0.500 kg. A
wording-variable.                                5.00 kg mass is then attached to the free end
                                                 of the string, causing the string to unwind
                   Part 1 of 2                   from the spool.
   A 400.0 N child and a 300.0 N child sit on       a) What is the angular acceleration of the
either end of a 2.0 m long seesaw.               spool?
   a) How far from the 400.0 N child should
the pivot be placed to ensure rotational equi-                     Part 2 of 2
librium? Disregard the mass of the seesaw.       b) How fast will the spool be rotating after all
                                                 of the string has unwound?
                  Part 2 of 2
b) Suppose a 225 N child sits 0.200 m from                   Holt SF 08Rev 09
the 400.0 N child.                               04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
   How far from the pivot must a 325 N child     wording-variable.
sit to maintain rotational equilibrium?
                                                   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
             Holt SF 08C 01                        A bucket filled with water has a mass of 54
04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,          kg and is hanging from a rope that is wound
wording-variable.                                around a 0.050 m radius stationary cylinder.
                                                   If the cylinder does not rotate and the
                  Part 1 of 2                    bucket hangs straight down, what is the mag-
  A potter’s wheel of radius 0.50 m and mass     nitude of the torque the bucket produces
100.0 kg is freely rotating at 50.0 rev/min.     around the center of the cylinder?
The potter can stop the wheel in 6.0 s by
pressing a wet rag against the rim.                          Holt SF 08Rev 10
  a) What is the angular acceleration of the     04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wheel?                                           wording-variable.

               Part 2 of 2                          Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
b) How much torque does the potter apply to         A mechanic jacks up a car to an angle of
the wheel?                                       8.0◦ with the horizontal in order to change the
                                                 front tires. The car is 3.05 m long and has a
             Holt SF 08C 02                      mass of 1130 kg. Its center of mass is located
04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,          1.12 m from the front end. The rear wheels
wording-variable.                                are 0.400 m from the back end.
                                                    Calculate the torque exerted by the car
  A bicycle tire of radius 0.33 m and mass 1.5   around the back wheels.
kg is rotating at 98.7 rad/s.
  What torque is necessary to stop the tire in               Holt SF 08Rev 11
2.0 s?                                           04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                 wording-variable.
             Holt SF 08C 03
04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                          Part 1 of 2
wording-variable.                                  The arm of a crane at a construction site is
                                                 15.0 m long, and it makes an angle of 20.0◦
                Part 1 of 2                      with the horizontal. Assume that the max-
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                         imum load the crane can handle is limited
  A light string 4.00 m long is wrapped          by the amount of torque the load produces
                                 Chapter 4, section 9, Torque                                 261

around the base of the arm.                               Note: Figure is not drawn to scale
  a) What is the magnitude of the maximum             a) Find the force FT provided by the cable.
torque the crane can withstand if the maxi-
mum load the crane can handle is 450 N?                             Part 2 of 3
                                                    b) Find the horizontal force exerted on the
                  Part 2 of 2                       beam by the pole.
b) What is the maximum load for this crane
at an angle of 40.0◦ with the horizontal?                             Part 3 of 3
                                                    c) Find the vertical force exerted on the beam
            Holt SF 08Rev 20                        by the pole.
04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                               Holt SF 08Rev 22
                                                    04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                  Part 1 of 2                       wording-variable.
   A window washer is standing on a scaffold
supported by a vertical rope at each end. The                        Part 1 of 3
scaffold weighs 205 N and is 3.00 m long.              A 1200.0 N uniform boom of length is
Assume the 675 N worker stands 1.00 m from          supported by a cable, as shown. The boom is
one end of the scaffold.                             pivoted at the bottom, the cable is attached
   a) What is the force on the rope farther                    3
                                                    a distance    from the pivot, and a 2000.0 N
from the worker?                                               4
                                                    weight hangs from the boom’s top.
                 Part 2 of 2
b) What is the force on the closer rope?

            Holt SF 08Rev 21
04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                                25◦
wording-variable.

                  Part 1 of 3                                                      2000 N
   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                                                          65◦
   A floodlight with a mass of 20.0 kg is used to
illuminate the parking lot in front of a library.         Note: Figure is not drawn to scale
The floodlight is supported at the end of a            a) Find the force FT applied by the sup-
horizontal beam that is hinged to a vertical        porting cable.
pole, as shown. A cable that makes an angle of
30.0◦ with the beam is attached to the pole to                        Part 2 of 3
help support the floodlight. Assume the mass         b) Find the horizontal component of the reac-
of the beam is negligible when compared with        tion force on the bottom of the boom.
the mass of the floodlight.
                                                                      Part 3 of 3
                                                    c) Find the vertical component of the reaction
                                                    force on the bottom of the boom.

                                                                Holt SF 08Rev 23
                         30◦                        04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                    wording-variable.

                                20 kg                                Part 1 of 3
                                  Chapter 4, section 9, Torque                                  262

  A uniform 10.0 N picture frame is sup-            04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
ported as shown.                                    wording-variable.

                              FT,1                     Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
              FT,2
                                                       A wooden bucket filled with water has a
                     30 cm         50◦              mass of 75 kg and is attached to a rope that
                                                    is wound around a cylinder with a radius of
    15 cm                                           0.075 m. A crank with a turning radius of
                                     F
                                                    0.25 m is attached to the end of the cylinder.
                              P
                                                       What minimum force directed perpendicu-
                                                    larly to the crank handle is required to raise
                   10 N                             the bucket?
      Note: Figure is not drawn to scale
  a) Find the force FT,1 in the cord that is
required to hold the frame in this position.                    Holt SF 08Rev 46
                                                    04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                  Part 2 of 3                       wording-variable.
b) Find the force FT,2 in the cord that is
required to hold the frame in this position.          If the torque required to loosen a nut that
                                                    holds a wheel on a car has a magnitude of
                  Part 3 of 3                       58 N · m, what force must be exerted at the
c) Find the magnitude of the horizontal force       end of a 0.35 m lug wrench to loosen the nut
at P that is required to hold the frame in this     when the angle is 56◦ ?
position.
                                                                Holt SF 08Rev 48
            Holt SF 08Rev 27                        04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,             wording-variable.
wording-variable.
                                                       A 23.0 cm screwdriver is used to pry open
  A 30.0 kg uniform solid cylinder has a ra-        a can of paint.
dius of 0.180 m.                                       If the axis of rotation is 2.00 cm from the
  If the cylinder accelerates at 2.30 ×             end of the screwdriver blade and a force of 84.3
10−2 rad/s2 as it rotates about an axis             N is exerted at the end of the screwdriver’s
through its center, how large is the torque         handle, what force is applied to the lid?
acting on the cylinder?
                                                                Holt SF 08Rev 50
            Holt SF 08Rev 28                        04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,             wording-variable.
wording-variable.
                                                                      Part 1 of 2
  A 350 kg merry-go-round in the shape of a           Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
horizontal disk with a radius of 1.5 m is set in      A 0.100 kg meterstick is supported at its
motion by wrapping a rope about the rim of          40.0 cm mark by a string attached to the ceil-
the disk and pulling on the rope.                   ing. A 0.700 kg mass hangs vertically from the
  How large a torque would have to be ex-           5.00 cm mark. A mass is attached somewhere
erted to bring the merry-go-round from rest         on the meterstick to keep it horizontal and in
to an angular speed of 3.14 rad/s in 2.00 s?        both rotational and translational equilibrium.
                                                    The force applied by the string attaching the
                                                    meterstick to the ceiling is 19.6 N.
             Holt SF 08Rev 45
                                                      a) Find the value of the unknown mass.
                                Chapter 4, section 9, Torque                                   263

                                                  kg and a radius of 4.0 cm. A friction clutch in
                 Part 2 of 2                      the reel exerts a restraining torque of 1.3 N · m
b) Find the point where the mass attaches to      if a fish pulls on the line. The fisherman gets
the stick.                                        a bite, and the reel begins to spin with an
                                                  angular acceleration of 66 rad/s2 .
            Holt SF 08Rev 51                         a) Find the force of the fish on the line.
04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                                     Part 2 of 2
                                                  b) Find the amount of line that unwinds from
   A uniform ladder 8.00 m long and weighing      the reel in 0.50 s.
200.0 N rests against a smooth wall. The
coefficient of static friction between the ladder               Holt SF 08Rev 57
and the ground is 0.600, and the ladder makes     04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
a 50.0◦ angle with the ground.                    wording-variable.
   How far up the ladder can an 800.0 N person
climb before the ladder begins to slip?                              Part 1 of 3
                                                     The combination of an applied force and a
            Holt SF 08Rev 55                      frictional force produces a constant torque of
04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           36 N · m on a wheel rotating about a fixed
wording-variable.                                 axis. The applied force acts for 6.0 s, during
                                                  which time the angular speed of the wheel
                  Part 1 of 2                     increases from 0 to 12 rad/s.
   A person is standing on tiptoe, and the per-      a) What is the moment of inertia of the
son’s total weight is supported by the force on   wheel?
the toe. A mechanical model for the situation
is shown, where T is the force in the Achilles                     Part 2 of 3
tendon and R is the force on the foot due to      The applied force is then removed, and the
the tibia. Assume the total weight is 700.0 N.    wheel comes to rest in 65 s.
                                     ◦
                                21.2                b) What is the frictional torque?
                          ◦
                       15
                             R T                                    Part 3 of 3
                                                  c) How many revolutions does the wheel make
                                                  during the entire 71 s interval?

                  18 cm                                       Holt SF 08Rev 61
          Fn         25 cm
                                                  04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                  wording-variable.
      Note: Figure is not drawn to scale
  a) Find the value of T .                                           Part 1 of 2
                                                     Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
                 Part 2 of 2                         Hint: At 3:00 o’clock, the hour hand is not
b) Find the value of R.                           precisely at 90◦ from vertical.
                                                     Assume: The clock hands can be modeled
            Holt SF 08Rev 56                      as thin rods.
04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,              The hands of the clock in the famous Par-
wording-variable.                                 liament Clock Tower in London are 2.7 m and
                                                  4.5 m long and have masses of 60.0 kg and
                 Part 1 of 2                      100.0 kg, respectively.
  A cylindrical fishing reel has a mass of 0.85       Calculate the magnitude of the torque
                                 Chapter 4, section 9, Torque         264

around the center of the clock due to the           and the ground?
weight of these hands at 5 : 20 o’clock.

                  Part 2 of 2
The torque is

 1. clockwise.

 2. counter-clockwise.

 3. Can not be determined from given infor-
mation.

            Holt SF 08Rev 76
04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.

   A uniform 6.0 m tall aluminum ladder is
leaning against a frictionless vertical wall.
The ladder has a weight of 250 N. The lad-
der slips when it makes a 60.0◦ angle with the
horizontal floor.
   Determine the coefficient of static friction
between the ladder and the floor.

            Holt SF 08Rev 77
04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.

                 Part 1 of 3
  A ladder with a length of 15.0 m and a
weight of 520.0 N rests against a frictionless
wall, making an angle of 60.0◦ with the hori-
zontal.
  a) Find the horizontal force exerted on the
base of the ladder by Earth when an 800.0 N
firefighter is 4.00 m from the bottom of the
ladder.

                  Part 2 of 3
b) Find the vertical force exerted on the base
of the ladder by Earth when an 800.0 N fire-
fighter is 4.00 m from the bottom of the lad-
der.

                   Part 3 of 3
c) If the ladder is just on the verge of slipping
when the firefighter is 9.00 m up, what is the
coefficient of static friction between the ladder
                            Chapter 4, section 10, Rolling Motion                               265

                                                    m rolls 6.0 m down a ramp that is inclined at
            Holt SF 08Rev 35                        37◦ with the horizontal.
04:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,               If the ball starts from rest at the top of the
wording-variable.                                   ramp, what is the angular speed of the ball at
                                                    the bottom of the ramp?
   A 15.0 kg turntable with a radius of 25
cm is covered with a uniform layer of dry                         Holt SF 08Rev 44
ice that has a mass of 9.00 kg. The angular         04:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
speed of the turntable and dry ice is initially
0.75 rad/s, but it increases as the dry ice           Two spheres look identical and have the
evaporates.                                         same mass. One is hollow and the other is
   What is the angular speed of the turntable       solid.
once all the dry ice has evaporated?                  Which method would determine which is
                                                    which?
            Holt SF 08Rev 36
04:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,              1. Roll them down an incline.
wording-variable.
                                                     2. Drop them from the same height.
   A 65 kg woman stands at the rim of a
horizontal turntable with a moment of inertia        3. Weigh them on a scale.
of 1.5 × 103 kg · m2 and a radius of 2.0 m. The
system is initially at rest, and the turntable is    4. None of these
free to rotate about a frictionless vertical axle
through its center. The woman then starts                       Holt SF 08Rev 47
walking clockwise (when viewed from above)          04:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
around the rim at a constant speed of 0.75          wording-variable.
rad/s relative to Earth.
   With what angular speed does the                    In a canyon between two mountains, a
turntable rotate?                                   spherical boulder with a radius of 1.4 m is
                                                    just set in motion by a force of 1600 N. The
            Holt SF 08Rev 37                        force is applied at an angle of 53.5◦ measured
04:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,             with respect to the radius of the boulder.
wording-variable.                                      What is the magnitude of the torque on the
                                                    boulder?
   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
   A 35 kg bowling ball with a radius of 13 cm                    Holt SF 08Rev 66
starts from rest at the top of an incline 3.5 m     04:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
in height.
   Find the translational speed of the bowling                       Part 1 of 2
ball after it has rolled to the bottom of the         a) Calculate the angular momentum of
incline. (Assume that the ball is a uniform         Earth that arises from its spinning motion
solid sphere.)                                                                   2
                                                    on its axis IE = 0.331ME RE .

            Holt SF 08Rev 38                                         Part 2 of 2
04:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,             b) Calculate the average angular momentum
wording-variable.                                   of Earth that arises from its orbital motion
                                                    about the sun.
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
  A solid 240 N ball with a radius of 0.200                      Holt SF 08Rev 70
                             Chapter 4, section 10, Rolling Motion   266

04:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.

                 Part 1 of 2
  A car is designed to get its energy from
a rotating flywheel with a radius of 2.00 m
and a mass of 500.0 kg. Before a trip, the
disk-shaped flywheel is attached to an electric
motor, which brings the flywheel’s rotational
speed up to 1000.0 rev/min.
  a) Find the kinetic energy stored in the
flywheel.

                 Part 2 of 2
b) If the flywheel is to supply as much energy
to the car as a 7457 W motor would, find
the length of time the car can run before the
flywheel has to be brought back up to speed
again.

            Holt SF 08Rev 71
04:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.

  The figure shows a system of point masses
that rotates at an angular speed of 2.0 rev/s.
The masses are connected by light, flexible
spokes that can be lengthened or shortened.
                      y

                   m

                        1.0 m
                                 m
                                      x
            m
                         1.0 m

                         m

      Note: Figure is not drawn to scale
   What is the new angular speed if the spokes
are shortened to 0.50 m? (An effect similar
to this ocurred in the early stages of the for-
mation of our galaxy. As the massive cloud
of gas and dust contracted, an initially small
rotation increased with time.)
                      Chapter 4, section 11, Simple Harmonic Motion                           267

                                                  system is set in motion.
             Holt SF 12C 01                         a) What is its period for a mass of 2.3 kg?
04:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                                   Part 2 of 6
                                                  b) What is its frequency?
   A mass of 0.30 kg is attached to a spring
and is set into vibration with a period of 0.24                    Part 3 of 6
s.                                                c) What is the period for a mass of 15 g?
   What is the spring constant of the spring?
                                                                    Part 4 of 6
             Holt SF 12C 02                       d) What is its frequency?
04:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                                  Part 5 of 6
                                                  e) What is the period for a mass of 1.9 kg?
   When a mass of 25 g is attached to a certain
spring, it makes 20 complete vibrations in 4.0                       Part 6 of 6
s.                                                f) What is its frequency?
   What is the spring constant of the spring?
                                                              Holt SF 12Rev 22
             Holt SF 12C 03                       04:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
04:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           wording-variable.
wording-variable.
                                                                    Part 1 of 2
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                             A spring with a spring constant of 1.8 × 102
  A 125 N object vibrates with a period of        N/m is attached to a 1.5 kg mass and then set
3.56 s when hanging from a spring.                in motion.
  What is the spring constant of the spring?         a) What is the period of the mass-spring
                                                  system?
             Holt SF 12C 04
04:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                             Part 2 of 2
wording-variable.                                 a) What is the frequency of the vibration?
  The body of a 1275 kg car is supported
on a frame by four springs. The spring con-
stant of a single spring is 2.00 × 104 N/m.
Four people riding in the car have a combined
mass of 255 kg. When driven over a pothole
in the road, the frame vibrates and for the
first few seconds the vibration approximates
simple harmonic motion.
  What is the period of vibration of the car?

             Holt SF 12C 05
04:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.

                Part 1 of 6
  A spring with a spring constant of 30.0
N/m is attached to different masses, and the
                                Chapter 4, section 12, Pendulum                              268

                                                                   Part 5 of 6
             Holt SF 12B 01                        e) What is its period in Jakarta, Indonesia,
04:12, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            where g = 9.782 m/s2 ?
wording-variable.
                                                                      Part 6 of 6
                        2
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s .                            f) What is its frequency?
  You need to know the height of a tower, but
darkness obscures the ceiling. You note that                   Holt SF 12Rev 19
a pendulum extending from the ceiling almost       04:12, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
touches the floor and that its period is 24 s.      wording-variable.
  How tall is the tower?
                                                      Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
               Holt SF 12B 02                         Find the length of a pendulum that oscil-
04:12, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      lates with a frequency of 0.16 Hz.

  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                                       Holt SF 12Rev 20
  You are designing a pendulum clock to have       04:12, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
a period of 1.0 s.                                 wording-variable.
  How long should the pendulum be?
                                                     Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
             Holt SF 12B 03                          A visitor to a lighthouse wishes to deter-
04:12, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            mine the height of the tower. The visitor ties
wording-variable.                                  a spool of thread to a small rock to make a
                                                   simple pendulum, then hangs the pendulum
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                           down a spiral staircase in the center of the
  A trapeze artist swings in simple harmonic       tower. The period of oscillation is 9.49 s.
motion with a period of 3.8 s.                       What is the height of the tower?
  Calculate the length of the cables support-
ing the trapeze.                                               Holt SF 12Rev 21
                                                   04:12, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
             Holt SF 12B 04                        wording-variable.
04:12, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                                    Part 1 of 3
                                                      A pendulum that moves through its equilib-
                Part 1 of 6                        rium position once every 1.000 s is sometimes
  Consider a pendulum of length 3.500 m.           called a “seconds pendulum.”
  a) What is its period at the North Pole,            a) What is the period of any seconds pen-
where g = 9.832 m/s2 ?                             dulum?

                  Part 2 of 6                       1. 2.000 s
b) What is its frequency?
                                                    2. 1.000 s
                 Part 3 of 6
c) What is its period in Chicago, where g =         3. 4.000 s
9.803 m/s2 ?
                                                    4. 0.500 s
                  Part 4 of 6
d) What is its frequency?                           5. 0.250 s
                              Chapter 4, section 12, Pendulum                                 269

 6. None of these
                                                      Given: g = 9.8 m/s2 .
                   Part 2 of 3                        A simple 2.00 m long pendulum oscillates
In Cambridge, England, a seconds pendulum          in a location where g = 9.80 m/s2 .
is 0.9942 m long.                                     How many complete oscilations does this
   b) What is the free-fall acceleration in Cam-   pendulum make in 5.00 min?
bridge?
                                                               Holt SF 12Rev 58
 1. 9.81236 m/s2                                   04:12, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                   wording-variable.
 2. 9.79756 m/s2
                                                                     Part 1 of 3
 3. 9.81341 m/s2                                      Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
                                                      A certain pendulum clock that works per-
 4. 9.79651 m/s2                                   fectly on Earth is taken to the moon, where
                                                   g = 1.63 m/s2 .
 5. 9.81 m/s2                                         The clock is started at 12:00:00 A.M. and
                                                   runs for 24 h.
 6. None of these                                     a) What will be the reading for the hours?

               Part 3 of 3                                          Part 2 of 3
In Tokyo, Japan, a seconds pendulum is             b) What will be the reading for the minutes?
0.9927 m long.
  c) What is the free-fall acceleration in                          Part 3 of 3
Tokyo?                                             c) What will be the reading for the seconds?

 1. 9.79756 m/s2                                                  Pendulum 01
                                                   04:12, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 2. 9.81236 m/s2
                                                     If you increase the length      of a pendulum
 3. 9.81341 m/s2                                   by a factor of 9 the period T

 4. 9.79651 m/s2                                    1. increases by a factor of 3.
                                                                                √
 5. 9.81 m/s2                                       2. increases by a factor of 3.

 6. None of these                                   3. increases by a factor of 9.

            Holt SF 12Rev 52                        4. increases by a factor of 6.
04:12, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                   5. remains the same.

  What is the free-fall acceleration in a lo-                      Pendulum
cation where the period of a 0.850 m long          04:12, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
pendulum is 1.86 s?                                wording-variable.

            Holt SF 12Rev 54                         The period T of the pendulum depends on
04:12, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,              I) the length of the pendulum;
wording-variable.                                   II) the mass m of the pendulum;
                            Chapter 4, section 12, Pendulum   270

III) the amplitude A or the angle θ.

1. I only

2. II only

3. III only

4. I and II only

5. I and III only

6. II and III only

7. I, II and III

8. None of these
                 Chapter 4, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 04                    271

                                                 12.0 s.
                 Energy 09                         Through how many revolutions does the
04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.    tub turn? Assume constant angular acceler-
                                                 ation while the machine is starting and stop-
  Consider the following statements.             ping.
  A. Chemical energy is released when the
nucleus of an atom breaks apart.                              Holt SF 08E 01
  B. Energy can be converted from one form       04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
to another.                                      wording-variable.
  C. When an object warms up, it gains
chemical energy.                                   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
  Which statement(s) is/are true?                  A solid cylinder with a mass of 4.10 kg
                                                 and a radius of 0.050 m starts from rest at a
 1. Only B is true.                              height of 2.00 m and rolls down a 30.0◦ slope,
                                                 as shown.
 2. Only A and B are true.                         What is the translational speed of the cylin-
                                                 der when it leaves the incline?
 3. Only A is true.
                                                            Holt SF 08E 01ball
 4. A, B, and C are true.                        04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                 wording-variable.
 5. Only C is true.
                                                   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
 6. Only A and C are true.                         A solid ball with a mass of 4.10 kg and a
                                                 radius of 0.050 m starts from rest at a height
 7. Only B and C are true.                       of 2.00 m and rolls down a 30.0◦ slope, as
                                                 shown.
                 Energy 53                         What is the translational speed of the ball
04:99, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.    when it leaves the incline?

  The capacity to do work is called                           Holt SF 08E 02
                                                 04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
 1. Energy                                       wording-variable.

 2. Potential energy                                Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
                                                    A 1.5 kg bicycle tire of radius 0.33 m starts
 3. Kinetic energy                               from rest and rolls down from the top of a hill
                                                 that is 14.8 m high.
 4. Mechanical energy                               What is the translational speed of the tire
                                                 when it reaches the bottom of the hill? (As-
            Holt SF 07Rev 42                     sume that the tire is a hoop with I = mr 2 .)
04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                             Holt SF 08E 03
                                                 04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
  The tub within a washer goes into its spin     wording-variable.
cycle, starting from rest and reaching an an-
gular speed of 11 π rad/s in 8.0 s. At this        Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
point, the lid is opened, and a safety switch      A regulation basketball has a 25 cm di-
turns off the washer. The tub slows to rest in    ameter and may be approximated as a thin
                 Chapter 4, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 04                     272

spherical shell.                                  cm, as shown. The acceleration of the mass
   How long will it take a basketball starting    down the frictionless incline is measured to be
from rest to roll without slipping 4.0 m down     2.0 m/s2 . Assume the axle of the wheel to be
an incline that makes an angle of 30.0◦ with      frictionless.
the horizontal?                                                                        10 cm
                                                                    2
                                                                   /s
            Holt SF 08Rev 49                                    2m
04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                               kg
                                                                  12
wording-variable.
                                                                    37 ◦
  The net work done in accelerating a pro-              Note: Figure is not drawn to scale
peller from rest to an angular speed of 220         a) Find the force in the rope.
rad/s is 3000.0 J.
  What is the moment of inertia of the pro-                      Part 2 of 3
peller?                                           b) Find the moment of inertia of the wheel.

            Holt SF 08Rev 52                                         Part 3 of 3
04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           c) Find the angular speed of the wheel 2.0 s
wording-variable.                                 after it begins rotating, starting from rest.

   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                                     Holt SF 08Rev 59
   A 0.0200 m diameter coin rolls up a 15.0◦      04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
inclined plane. The coin starts with an initial   wording-variable.
angular speed of 45.0 rad/s and rolls in a
straight line without slipping.                     Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
   How much vertical distance does it gain          As part of a kinetic sculpture, a 5.0 kg hoop
before it stops rolling?                          with a radius of 3.0 m rolls without slipping.
                                                    If the hoop is given an angular speed of
            Holt SF 08Rev 53                      3.0 rad/s while rolling on the horizontal and
04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           then rolls up a ramp inclined at 20.0◦ with the
wording-variable.                                 horizontal, how far does the hoop roll along
                                                  the incline?
   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
   In a circus performance, a large 4.0 kg hoop               Holt SF 08Rev 62
with a radius of 2.0 m rolls without slipping.    04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
   If the hoop is given an angular speed of       wording-variable.
6.0 rad/s while rolling on the horizontal and
is allowed to roll up a ramp inclined at 15◦         Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
with the horizontal, how far (measured along         A coin with a diameter of 4.37 cm rolls up a
the incline) does the hoop roll?                  30.0◦ inclined plane. The coin starts with an
                                                  initial angular speed of 60.0 rad/s and rolls in
            Holt SF 08Rev 54                      a straight line without slipping.
04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,              How far does it roll up the inclined plane?
wording-variable.
                                                                Holt SF 08Rev 63
                Part 1 of 3                       04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
  A 12 kg mass is attached to a cord that is        A solid sphere rolls along a horizontal,
wrapped around a wheel with a radius of 10.0      smooth surface at a constant linear speed
                Chapter 4, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 04                    273

without slipping.                                           Holt SF 08Rev 73
  What is the ratio between the rotational      04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
kinetic energy about the center of the sphere   wording-variable.
and the sphere’s total kinetic energy?
                                                   A crate is pulled 2.0 m at constant velocity
      2                                         along a 15◦ incline. The coefficient of kinetic
 1.
      5                                         friction between the crate and the plane is
      3                                         0.160.
 2.
      5                                            Calculate the efficiency of this procedure.
      2
 3.
      7                                                     Holt SF 08Rev 74
      3                                         04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
 4.                                             wording-variable.
      7
      5
 5.                                                Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
      3
                                                   A pulley system has an efficiency of 87.5
      7
 6.                                             percent.
      2                                            How much of the rope must be pulled in if
 7. None of these                               a force of 648 N is needed to lift a 150 kg desk
                                                2.46 m?
            Holt SF 08Rev 67
04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                     Holt SF 08Rev 75
wording-variable.                               04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                wording-variable.
                  Part 1 of 2
  A skater spins with an angular speed of          Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
12.0 rad/s with his arms outstretched. He          A pulley system is used to lift a piano 3.0
lowers his arms, decreasing his moment of       m.
inertia from 41 kg · m2 to 36 kg · m2 .            If a force of 2200 N is applied to the rope
  a) Calculate his initial rotational kinetic   as the rope is pulled in 14 m, what is the
energy.                                         efficiency of the machine? Assume the mass
                                                of the piano is 750 kg.
                 Part 2 of 2
b) Calculate his final rotational kinetic en-
ergy.

            Holt SF 08Rev 72
04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.

  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
  The efficiency of a pulley system is 64 per-
cent. The pulleys are used to raise a mass of
78 kg to a height of 4.0 m.
  What force is exerted on the rope of the
pulley system if the rope is pulled for 24 m
in order to raise the mass to the required
height?
                             Chapter 5, section 1, Temperature                                274

                                                                Conversion 148
           Boil Liquid Nitrogen                  05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                   20◦ C is approximately equal to:
                 Part 1 of 2
  Liquid nitrogen has a boiling point of           1. 60◦ F
−195.81 ◦ C at atmospheric pressure.
  Express this temperature in degrees              2. 70◦ F
Fahrenheit.
                                                   3. 80◦ F
                Part 2 of 2
Express this temperature in Kelvin.                4. 90◦ F

                 Boil Water                        5. 100◦ F
05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                                Conversion 149
                                    ◦            05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
  The boiling point of water is 212 F.
  Express this in Kelvin.
                                                   On the Kelvin scale, a temperature of 43◦ C
               Conversion 146                    is ? .
05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                   1. 43 K
               ◦
  What is −40 C in K?
                                                   2. 230 K
 1. 44K
                                                   3. 273 K
 2. 233K
                                                   4. 316 K
 3. 25K
                                                                Conversion 150
 4. 298K                                         05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

 5. 789K                                           Convert a temperature of 270 ◦ C into de-
                                                 grees Kelvin.
               Conversion 147
05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.                   Conversion 151
                                                 05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
  25◦ C is approximately equal to
                                                   Convert 5.1 gallons into the equivalent
 1. 60◦ F                                        number of milliliters.

 2. 80◦ F                                                       Conversion 152
                                                 05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
 3. 100◦ F
                                                   How many       milligrams   are    there    in
 4. 32◦ F                                        5.1 slugs?

 5. 0◦ F                                                        Conversion 153
                                                 05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                              Chapter 5, section 1, Temperature                                  275

                                                     2. 3.0 liters
   A stone is an old english unit of weight and
it is equal to 14 slug.                              3. 12 liters
   How many kilograms are there in
5 stones?                                            4. 9 liters

                Gas Laws 50                                         Gas Laws 53
05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.       05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

   A gas has a volume of 2 liters at a pressure        A gas has a volume of 9.0 liters at a pressure
of 3 atm.                                           of 1520 torr.
   What will be the volume of the gas if the           If the pressure is decreased to 380 torr, what
pressure is increased to 6 atm?                     will be its new volume? (Assume temperature
                                                    remains constant)
 1. 4 liters
                                                     1. 36 liters
 2. 3 liters
                                                     2. 0.28 liters
 3. 2 liters
                                                     3. 2.3 liters
 4. 1 liter
                                                     4. 4.6 liters
                Gas Laws 51
05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.                       Gas Laws 54
                                                    05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
  A gas has a volume of 2.00 liters at a tem-
perature of 127◦ C.                                   A gas occupies 1.62 L at 810 torr and 15◦ C.
  What will be the volume of the gas if the           What volume, in liters, will it fill if the
temperature is increased to 327◦ C. (Assume         pressure is changed to 750 torr and the tem-
the pressure remains constant)                      perature is raised to 42◦ C?

 1. 4.00 liters                                      1. 1.91 L

 2. 6.00 liters                                      2. 4.90 L

 3. 2.00 liters                                      3. 1.37 L

 4. 3.00 liters                                      4. 1.60 L

                Gas Laws 52                                         Gas Laws 55
05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.       05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

   A gas has a volume of 6.0 liters at a pressure     A gas occupies 21.0 L at 1.00 atm pressure
of 380 torr.                                        and 298 K.
   If the pressure is increased to 760 torr, what     What temperature is necessary to increase
will be its new volume?                             the volume to 56.1 L if the pressure remains
                                                    constant?
 1. 6.0 liters
                                                     1. 796 K
                             Chapter 5, section 1, Temperature                              276


 2. 400◦ C                                         3. goes to 1/2 the original volume

 3. 896 K                                          4. increases by a factor of 100

 4. 697 K                                          5. none of these

 5. 359 K                                                         Gas Laws 59
                                                  05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                Gas Laws 56
05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.       A sample of nitrogen occupies 11.2 liters
                                                  under a pressure of 580 torr at 32◦ C.
   If the temperature of a fixed amount of gas       What volume would it occupy at 32◦ C if
is decreased at constant pressure its volume      the pressure were increased to 800 torr?
will
                                                                  Gas Laws 61
 1. increase                                      05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

 2. decrease                                        A 30 liter tank contains a gas under a pres-
                                                  sure of 450 atmospheres.
 3. remain the same                                 What volume would the gas occupy at the
                                                  same temperature at 700 torr of pressure?
 4. insufficient data to answer this question
                                                                  Gas Laws 62
                Gas Laws 57                       05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                     Suppose that a sample of gas occupies
   If the temperature of a fixed amount of gas     125 mL of volume at 25◦ C and a pressure
is increased at constant pressure, its volume     of 250 torr.
will                                                 What would be the volume of this sample
                                                  if the pressure were changed to 550 torr at
 1. increase                                      25◦ C?

 2. decrease                                                      Gas Laws 63
                                                  05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
 3. remain the same
                                                    At 50 ◦ C and 250 torr, a sample of gas
 4. insufficient data to answer the question        occupies 450 mL.
                                                    If the pressure remains constant, what vol-
                Gas Laws 58                       ume will the gas occupy when heated to
05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.     150 ◦ C?

   If the temperature of an ideal gas is raised                   Gas Laws 64
from 100◦ C to 200◦ C, while the pressure re-     05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
mains constant, the volume
                                                     A 200 mL sample of a gas at 30 ◦ C and
 1. doubles                                       900 torr is heated to 70 ◦ C and the pressure
                                                  allowed to drop to 500 torr.
 2. remains the same                                 What volume will the gas occupy at these
                              Chapter 5, section 1, Temperature                               277

new conditions?                                                       Heat 12
                                                   05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                Gas Laws 65
05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.               How would the average body temperature
                                                   of a healthy human, which is 37◦ C, be repre-
   Suppose that a sample of gas occupies           sented in Kelvin?
125 mL of volume at 298 K and a pressure
of 250 torr.                                        1. 310 K
   What would be the volume (expressed of
this sample if the pressure were changed to         2. 37 K
550 torr at 298 K?
                                                    3. 0 K
                Gas Laws 66
05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.             4. 236 K

  A 4.20 L sample of gas has its pressure                      Hewitt CP9 15 E01
decreased from 3.5 atm to 1.5 atm.                 05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
  What does the volume of the gas become?
                                                     In your room there are things such as tables,
                Gas Laws 67                        chairs, other people, and so forth.
05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.              Which of these things has a temperature
                                                   greater than the temperature of the air?
   An aerosol can contains 450 mL of com-
pressed gas at 5.20 atm pressure. When the          1. People
gas is sprayed into a large plastic bag, the bag
inflates to a volume of 2.14 L.                      2. Tables
   What is the pressure of gas inside the plas-
tic bag?                                            3. Chairs

                Gas Laws 68                         4. Tables, chairs and other people
05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                    5. All above are wrong
  To what temperature must 450 mL of gas at
22 ◦ C be cooled, at constant pressure, so that                Hewitt CP9 15 E07
the volume of the gas is reduced to 1.5 mL?        05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

                   Heat 11                           How much is the temperature of a ther-
05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      mometer outdoors on a sunny days compared
                                                   with the temperature of the air?
  Temperature is a measure of average
                                                    1. A little higher than the temperature of
 1. kinetic energy.                                the air.

 2. amount of calories.                             2. A little lower than the temperature of the
                                                   air.
 3. amount of work.
                                                    3. The same as the temperature of the air.
 4. heat of fusion.
                                                    4. Much lower than the temperature of the
                              Chapter 5, section 1, Temperature                                278

air.
                                                    3. A piece of solid iron sink in a container of
 5. All above are wrong.                           molten iron.

            Hewitt CP9 15 E09                       4. A piece of solid aluminum sink in a con-
05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      tainer of molten aluminum.

  Which of the following is wrong?                  5. In the solid state the structure of wa-
                                                   ter is open-spaced, and ice is less dense than
 1. There is no minimum temperature.               water.

 2. There is no maximum temperature.                           Hewitt CP9 15 E45
                                                   05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
  3. When no more energy can be extracted
from a material, it is at absolute zero.                Which of the following is correct?

 4. There is no limit to how much energy can         1. The density of the water is the highest at
be added to a material.                            4 ◦ C.

 5. The kinetic energy has a minimum, zero,         2. The density of the water is the highest at
but no maximum.                                    100◦ C.

            Hewitt CP9 15 E41                       3. The density of the water is the highest at
                                                    ◦
05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      0 C.

  What is the precise temperature at the bot-       4. The density of the water is the highest at
tom of Lake Superior at 12 AM on October           5◦ C.
31, 1894?
                                                    5. The density of the water is the highest at
 1. 4 C◦                                           22◦ C.

 2. 0 ◦ C                                                      Hewitt CP9 15 E47
                                                   05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 3. 100 ◦ C
                                                        Which of the following is wrong?
       ◦
 4. 6 C
                                                    1. When the temperature below freezing,
 5. All above are wrong.                           the water contract.

            Hewitt CP9 15 E43                       2. It is important to protect water pipes so
05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      they don’t freeze.

  Which of the following is wrong?                  3. When the temperature below freezing,
                                                   the water expands.
 1. A piece of ice sink in a container of molten
water.                                              4. When the temperature below freezing,
                                                   the pipe contract.
 2. A piece of ice not sink in a container of
molten water.                                       5. The pipe (if metal) will fracture if water
                               Chapter 5, section 1, Temperature                              279

in them freezes.
                                                                   Part 2 of 2
            Hewitt CP9 16 E01                      b) What is this temperature on the Kelvin
05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      scale?

  Wrap a fur coat around a thermometer.                          Holt SF 10A 02
  How will the temperature change?                 05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
                                                   mal.
 1. Doesn’t change.
                                                                    Part 1 of 4
 2. Rise.                                            The temperatures of one northeastern state
                                                   range from 105◦ F in the summer to −25◦ F in
 3. Decrease.                                      winter.
                                                     a) What is the lower temperature on the
 4. Rise at first, then drop.                       Celsius scale?

 5. It depends on the material of the ther-                       Part 2 of 4
mometer.                                           b) What is the lower temperature on the
                                                   Kelvin scale?
            Hewitt CP9 16 E03
05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.                     Part 3 of 4
                                                   c) What is the higher temperature on the
   At what common temperature will a block         Celsius scale?
of wood and a block of metal both feel neither
hot nor cold to the touch?                                        Part 4 of 4
                                                   d) What is the higher temperature on the
 1. When the temperature of the blocks are         Kelvin scale?
the same as the temperature of your hand.
                                                                 Holt SF 10A 03
 2. At room temperature.                           05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
                                                   mal.
 3. At freezing point.
                                                                   Part 1 of 2
 4. When the temperature of the blocks               The normal human body temperature is
are higher than as the temperature of your         98.6◦ F. A person with a fever may record
hand.                                              102◦ F.
                                                     a) What is the lower temperature on the
  5. When the temperature of the blocks are        Celsius scale?
lower than as the temperature of your hand.
                                                                  Part 2 of 2
               Holt SF 10A 01                      b) What is the higher temperature on the
05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      Celsius scale?

                 Part 1 of 2                                     Holt SF 10A 04
  The lowest outdoor temperature ever              05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
recorded on Earth is −128.6◦ F, recorded at        mal.
Vostok Station, Antarctica, in 1983.
  a) What is this temperature on the Celsius                        Part 1 of 2
scale?                                               A pan of water is heated from 23◦ C to 78◦ C.
                             Chapter 5, section 1, Temperature                              280

  a) What is the change in temperature on        05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
the Kelvin scale?
                                                                   Part 1 of 2
                  Part 2 of 2                      Absolute zero on the Rankine temperature
b) What is the change in temperature on the      scale is TR = 0◦ R, and the scale’s unit is the
Fahrenheit scale?                                same size as the Fahrenheit degree.
                                                   a) Write a formula that relates the Rankine
               Holt SF 10A 05                    scale to the Fahrenheit scale.
05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                   1. TF = TR − 459.67
                 Part 1 of 2
  Liquid nitrogen is used to cool substances       2. TF = TF − 459.67
to very low temperatures. The boiling point
of liquid nitrogen (at 1 atm of pressure) is       3. TF = TR + 459.67
77.34 K.
  a) What is this temperature on the Celsius       4. TF = TR + 20
scale?
                                                   5. None of these
                  Part 2 of 2
b) What is this temperature on the Fahrenheit                      Part 2 of 2
scale?                                           b) Write a formula that relates the Rankine
                                                 scale to the Kelvin scale.
              Holt SF 10Rev 09                            9
05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      1. TR = T
                                                          5
                  Part 1 of 2                             9
                                                   2. TR = TF
  The highest recorded temperature on Earth               5
was 136◦ F, at Azizia, Libya, in 1922.             3. None of these
  a) What is this temperature on the Celsius
scale?                                                    5
                                                   4. TR = TF
                                                          9
                Part 2 of 2                               5
                                                   5. TR = T
b) What is this temperature on the Kelvin                 9
scale?
                                                             Holt SF 10Rev 43
                                                 05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
            Holt SF 10Rev 10
                                                 wording-variable.
05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.
                                                                Part 1 of 4
                                                   The boiling point of liquid hydrogen is
                 Part 1 of 2
                                                 −252.87◦ C.
  The melting point of gold is 1947◦ F.
                                                   a) What is this temperature in degrees
  a) What is this temperature on the Celsius
                                                 Fahrenheit?
scale?
                                                                   Part 2 of 4
                Part 2 of 2
                                                 b) What is this temperature in kelvins?
b) What is this temperature on the Kelvin
scale?
                                                                Part 3 of 4
                                                 Consider the temperature of a room at
            Holt SF 10Rev 41
                              Chapter 5, section 1, Temperature                                      281

20.5◦ C.                                           cally equal?
  c) What is this temperature in degrees
Fahrenheit?                                                      Temperature 50
                                                   05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                  Part 4 of 4
d) What is this temperature in kelvins?                 A temperature of 113◦ C is equal to          ?
                                                   ◦
                                                       F?
            Holt SF 10Rev 44
05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                1. 71.6
wording-variable.
                                                       2. 66.2
                   Part 1 of 2
  The freezing and boiling points of water on          3. 134.6
the imaginary “Too Hot” temperature scale
                              f reezing
are selected to be exactly TT H         = 51◦ TH       4. 235.4
       boiling
and TT H       = 197◦ TH.
  a) Derive an equation relating the Too Hot           5. 163.4
scale to the Celsius scale.
                                                                 Temperature 51
           50                                      05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 1. TC =        (TT H − 51)
           73
           50                                           A temperature of 34◦ F is equal to   ?       ◦
                                                                                                         C?
 2. TC =        TT H + 51
           73
           73                                          1. 1.1
 3. TC =        (TT H − 51)
           50
           73                                          2. 2
 4. TC =        TT H + 51
           50
                                                       3. 66
 5. TC = TT H + 51
                                                       4. 76
 6. TC = TT H − 51
                                                                 Temperature 52
 7. None of these                                  05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

                 Part 2 of 2                            A temperature of 57◦ F is equal to   ?       ◦
                                                                                                         C?
b) Calculate absolute zero in degrees TH.
                                                       1. 13.9
              Holt SF 10Rev 45
05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.          2. 65.4

  At what Fahrenheit temperature are the               3. 2
Celsius and Fahrenheit temperatures numeri-
cally equal?                                           4. 25

              Holt SF 10Rev 48                                   Temperature 53
05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

  At what Fahrenheit temperature are the                A temperature of 73◦ C is equal to       ?       ◦
                                                                                                             F
Kelvin and Fahrenheit temperatures numeri-         ?
                               Chapter 5, section 1, Temperature                                   282


 1. 71.6                                                1. 2

 2. 66.2                                                2. 275

 3. 134.6                                               3. 463

 4. 235.4                                               4. 12.1

 5. 163.4                                                            Temperature 57
                                                       05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
              Temperature 54
05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.            Copper melts at 1083◦ C.
                                                         What is its melting temperature in ◦ F?
     A temperature of 97◦ F is equal to   ?   ◦
                                                  C?
                                                        1. 1949◦ F
 1. 36.1
                                                        2. 583◦ F
 2. 129.0
                                                        3. 602◦ F
 3. 65.0
                                                        4. 634◦ F
 4. 68.1
                                                        5. 1981◦ F
              Temperature 55
05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.                        Temperature 58
                                                       05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
  At room temperature a beaker of liquid
measures 26◦ C.                                          How cold does it have to get to be twice as
  What is its temperature measured in                  cold as 0 ◦ C?
Kelvin?
                                                        1. −136.5◦ C
         ◦
 1. 26 C since they are both the same scale.
                                                        2. 0◦ C
 2. 299 K since they are the same scale, but
offset by 273◦ .                                         3. Cannot be determined

 3. −247 K                                              4. −2◦ C

 4. It is not possible to convert from ◦ C to                        Temperature 59
K.                                                     05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

 5. None of these                                        The boiling point of liquid oxygen (LOX) is
                                                       54.4 K.
              Temperature 56                             What is its boiling point on the Fahrenheit
05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.          scale?

  Convert 275 K to degree Celsius. (273 K =             1. −361.5◦ F
 ◦
0 C)
                               Chapter 5, section 1, Temperature                              283

 2. −336.2◦ F                                        3. specific heat

 3. −451.4◦ F                                        4. Joule

 4. −425.8◦ F                                                    Temperature 63
                                                   05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 5. −139.3◦ F
                                                     How does the size of one degree Celsius
              Temperature 60                       compare with that of one degree Fahrenheit
05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.      and one degree Kelvin?

  The freezing point of Hg is 0.35◦ C.               1. Celsius and Kelvin degrees are the same
  What is the temperature in ◦ F below which       size and Fahrenheit degrees are smaller.
a mercury thermometer would not be usable
because the mercury would freeze?                    2. Celsius and Kelvin degrees are the same
                                                   size and Fahrenheit degrees are larger.
 1. 32
                                                    3. Kelvin degrees are larger than Celsius
 2. −63                                            degrees, which are larger than Fahrenheit de-
                                                   grees.
 3. −31
                                                    4. Kelvin degrees are smaller than Celsius
 4. 63                                             degrees, which are smaller than Fahrenheit
                                                   degrees.
              Temperature 61
05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.       5. Temperature intervals are the same on all
                                                   three scales.
  A temperature of 50◦ C is what temperature
on the absolute scale?                                      Temperature Change 01
                                                   05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
 1. 323 K
                                                                    Part 1 of 2
 2. 223 K                                            A pan of water is heated from 25◦ C to 80◦ C.
                                                     a) What is the change in its temperature
 3. 273 K                                          on the Kelvin scale?

 4. 373 K                                                           Part 2 of 2
                                                   b) What is the change in its temperature on
 5. 419 K                                          the Fahrenheit scale?

              Temperature 62                                Temperature Change 02
05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.      05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

  A unit of temperature is a     ?                   The melting point of gold is 1064 ◦ C, and
                                                   the boiling point is 2660◦ C.
 1. calorie                                          Compute the difference between these tem-
                                                   peratures in Kelvin.
 2. degree Kelvin
                                                            Temperature Change 03
                             Chapter 5, section 1, Temperature   284

05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.      2. Calorie.

  A temperature difference of 5 K is equal to       3. C.

 1. a difference of 2.8 on the Celsius scale.       4. joule.

 2. a difference of 9 on the Celsius scale.         5. F.

 3. a difference of 2.8 on the Rankin scale.

 4. a difference of 0.5 on the Fahrenheit
scale.

 5. a difference of 9 on the Fahrenheit
scale.

        Temperature Conversion
05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

                 Part 1 of 2
  a) On a day when the temperature reaches
50 ◦ F, what is the temperature in degrees
Celsius?

                 Part 2 of 2
b) What is the temperature in Kelvin?

         Temperature Extremes
05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

                 Part 1 of 2
  The highest recorded temperature on Earth
was 136 ◦ F, at Azizia, Libya, in 1992. The
lowest recorded temperature was −127◦ F, at
Vostok Station, Antarctica, in 1960.
  a) Express the low temperature extreme in
degrees Celsius.

                 Part 2 of 2
b) Express the high temperature extreme in
degrees Celsius.

                  Units 74
05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

  The SI unit for temperature is

 1. Kelvin.
                                 Chapter 5, section 2, Heat                                   285

                                                   3. temperature.
               Conversion 155
05:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.      4. work.

  How many calories of energy correspond to                     Heat Energy 50
251 J?                                            05:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

 1. 60.0 cal                                         Find the specific heat capacity of iron if 6.1
                                                  J of energy are needed to warm 1.50 g of iron
 2. .0600 cal                                     from 20.00◦ C to 29.00◦ C

 3. 60 cal                                         1. 0.45 J/g◦ C

 4. 59.990 cal                                     2. 2.2 J/g◦ C

               Conversion 156                      3. 37 J/g◦ C
05:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                   4. 1.0 J/g◦ C
  If 1.000 cal = 4.184 joule, how many joules
are in 41.841 cal?                                              Heat Energy 51
                                                  05:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 1. 10
                                                     The specific heat of ice is about 2 J/g◦ C
 2. 100                                           while for liquid water the specific heat is about
                                                  4 J/g◦ C.
 3. 175.1                                            The energy required to raise the tempera-
                                                  ture of 10 g of ice from −5 to −4◦ C is ?
 4. 0.1                                           the energy required to raise the temperature
                                                  of 10 g of liquid water from +4 to +5◦ C.
               Conversion 157
05:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.            1. the same as

  Convert 800000 cal to kilojoules.                2. greater than

               Conversion 158                      3. less than
05:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                                 Heat Energy 52
  Convert 3.5 × 106 J to calories.                05:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

                   Heat 09                          Calculate the amount of energy required to
05:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.     heat 175 g of water from 22.3◦ C to 75.0◦ C.

  James Joule investigated the relationship                      Heat Energy 53
between heat and                                  05:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

 1. motion.                                         The specific heat capacity of silver is
                                                  0.54 J/g◦ C.
 2. radiation.                                      Express this in terms of calories per gram
                                                  per Celsius degree.
                                 Chapter 5, section 2, Heat                                 286

                                                  05:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
               Heat Energy 54
05:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.             You have 50 g of aluminum (with specific
                                                  heat 903 J/kg ◦ C) at 25 ◦ C.
  A 23 g sample of metal X requires 530 J of        How much heat must be added to raise its
energy to heat it from 10.0◦ C to 92.0◦ C.        temperature to 125 ◦ C?
  Calculate the specific heat capacity of X.
                                                                Heating a Metal
               Heat Energy 55                     05:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
05:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                    A 500 g block of metal absorbs 5016 J of
  The specific heat capacity of Hg( ) = 0.139      heat when its temperature changes from 20 ◦ C
J/g◦ C.                                           to 30 ◦ C.
  Calculate the energy to heat 12 g of mer-         Calculate the specific heat of the metal.
cury from 37.0◦ C to 42.0◦ C.
                                                                Heating Copper
               Heat Energy 56                     05:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
05:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                    A 50 g sample of copper (with specific heat
   4000 joules of heat are added to 42.5 grams    387 J/kg◦ C) is at 25◦ C.
of water originally at 24.5◦ C.                     If 1200 J of heat energy is added to the
   What is the final temperature of the wa-        copper, what is its final temperature?
ter?
                                                                 Heating Water
               Heat Energy 57                     05:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
05:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                     You need to raise the temperature of 50 g
  A 50 gram sample of an unknown metal            of water from 4.5 ◦ C to 83 ◦ C.
requires 750 joules of energy to heat it from        How much heat is needed to accomplish
30.5◦ C to 95◦ C.                                 this?
  What is the specific heat capacity of this
metal?                                                           Mixing Water
                                                  05:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
               Heat Energy 58
05:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.              A 600 g sample of water at 90 ◦ C is mixed
                                                  with 400 g of water at 22◦ C. Assume no heat
   The specific heat of iron is 0.444 J/g-◦ C.     loss to the surroundings.
   Calculate the amount of heat required to          What is the final temperature of the mix-
raise the temperature of 105 grams of iron        ture?
from 40◦ C to 135◦ C.
                                                                Specific Heat 50
               Heat Energy 59                     05:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
05:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                    Consider the following specific heats:
                                           ◦
  When 20 grams of a sample cools from 50 C         copper, 0.384 J/g·◦ C;
to 27.5◦ C it loses 27.5 joules of heat.            lead, 0.159 J/g·◦ C;
  What is the specific heat of the sample?           water, 4.18 J/g·◦ C;
                                                    glass, 0.502 J/g·◦ C.
           Heating Aluminum                         Assuming that they all have the same ini-
                                Chapter 5, section 2, Heat   287

tial temperature and that same amount of
heat is added to identical masses of each of
these substances, which substance attains the
highest temperature?

 1. copper

 2. lead

 3. water

 4. glass
                       Chapter 5, section 3, Specific Heat and Latent Heat                      288


                 Climate 50                                            Heat 13
05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.       05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

  The climate modifying property of lakes             Which of the following would require the
and oceans is because of the water’s                greatest number of calories?

 1. high heat of vaporization.                       1. heating 100 g of water from 10◦ C to 50◦ C

 2. density.                                         2. heating 1000 g of water from 10◦ C to
                                                    12◦ C
 3. surface tension.
                                                     3. heating 1 g of water from 10◦ C to 80◦ C
 4. boiling point.
                                                     4. heating 10 g of water from 10◦ C to 40◦ C
             Condensing Steam
05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.                                Heat 14
                                                    05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
  You have 60 g of steam at 100 ◦ C. How
much heat must be removed to change it to             If a 10.0 g piece of metal required 100 cal
60 g of water at 20 ◦ C?                            to raise its temperature by 20◦ C, what would
                                                    you report as its specific heat?
                 Heat 100
05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.              1. 0.5 cal/g·◦ C

   Consider an insulated system of 0.50 liters       2. 2 cal/g·◦ C
of water at 25◦ C.
   Adding 1280 grams of ice at −10◦ C will re-       3. 10 cal/g·◦ C
sult in equilibrium conditions with how many
grams of ice at 0.0◦ C?                              4. 200 cal/g·◦ C

                 Heat 101                                              Heat 50
05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.             05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

   Consider an insulated system with                  How many calories are required to heat 15.0
545 milliliters of water at 25◦ C.                  g of ice at −10◦ C to 15.0 g of liquid water at
   Determine the amount of ice at −10◦ C that       25◦ C?
must be added to the system to result in the
equilibrium conditions T = 0.0◦ C, with no           1. 1275
liquid remaining.
                                                     2. 375
                 Heat 102
05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.              3. 75

  How much heat is required to heat 28 g             4. 1650
of solid silver from 120 ◦ C to liquid silver
at 961◦ C? The specific heat of solid silver is       5. 8550
0.237 J/g ·◦ C, and the heat of fusion of silver
at its melting point of 961◦ C is 11 J/g.                               Heat 51
                     Chapter 5, section 3, Specific Heat and Latent Heat                         289

05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                       The energy needed to change an amount of
   If 8000 calories of heat are added to 200 g of   a substance from a solid to a liquid is the
water at 20◦ C, what is the final temperature
of the water?                                        1. temperature.

 1. 60◦ C                                            2. Kelvin.

 2. 40◦ C                                            3. heat of fusion.

 3. 20◦ C                                            4. melting point.

 4. 80◦ C                                                              Heat 55
                                                    05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                   Heat 52
05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.          The energy needed to change an amount of
                                                    a substance from a liquid to a gas is called the
  If the heat of vaporization for liquid zinc is
1.76 kJ/g, how much heat is needed to boil           1. temperature
11.2 g of liquid zinc already at its boiling
point?                                               2. Kelvin

 1. 19.7 kJ                                          3. heat of vaporization

 2. 19,700 J                                         4. boiling point

 3. 4.71 kcal                                                          Heat 56
                                                    05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 4. all answers are correct
                                                       The heat of vaporization of gold is over 4
                   Heat 53                          times greater than that of the heat of fusion
05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.       of gold.
                                                       This means that it is easier to
  The amount of energy required to convert
one gram of a liquid to a gas at its boiling         1. boil gold than to melt it.
point is
                                                     2. melt gold than to boil it.
 1. ∆Hf usion
                                                     3. heat gold than to cool it down.
 2. ∆Hf ormation
                                                     4. purify gold by physical methods.
 3. ∆Hvaporization
                                                                       Heat 57
 4. Heat of combustion                              05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

 5. Specific heat of the liquid                        The number of calories needed to raise the
                                                    temperature of 200 g of water from 20◦ C to
                   Heat 54                          50◦ C is ? .
05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                    Chapter 5, section 3, Specific Heat and Latent Heat                       290

 1. 6000                                          3. 239 J

 2. 4000                                          4. 2.39 × 103 J

 3. 10000                                         5. none of these

 4. 14000                                                           Heat 61
                                                 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                   Heat 58
05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.      The specific heat capacity of silver is 0.24
                                                 J/g◦ C.
  The number of calories needed to raise the       How many joules of energy are needed to
temperature of 50 g of water from 20◦ C to       warm 0.500 g of silver from 25.0◦ C to 27.5◦ C?
40◦ C is ? .
                                                  1. .30 J
 1. 100
                                                  2. .3 J
 2. 200
                                                  3. 5.21 J
 3. 500
                                                  4. .48 J
 4. 1000
                                                                    Heat 62
                   Heat 59                       05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                   The specific heat of liquid water is 4.184
   The heat needed to raise the temperature      J/g◦ C; the specific heat of steam is 2.0 J/g◦ C.
of 500 g of water from 20◦ C to 60◦ C is ? .     The heat of vaporization of water is 2.26 kJ/g
                                                 and the boiling point of water is 100◦ C.
 1. 5 kcal                                         What is the total heat flow if 18 grams of
                                                 water( ), at 12◦ C, are heated to become steam
 2. 10 kcal                                      at 109◦ C?

 3. 20 kcal                                       1. 48 kJ

 4. 40 kcal                                       2. 41 kJ

                   Heat 60                        3. 170 kJ
05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                  4. 7.0 kJ
  The specific heat capacity of liquid water is
4.184 J/g ◦ C.                                                      Heat 63
  Calculate the energy required to heat 10.0     05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
g of water from 26.5◦ C to 83.7◦ C.
                                                    The specific heat capacity of gold is 0.131
 1. 837 J                                        J/g◦ C.
                                                    How much energy is required to heat 1.3 g
 2. 572 J                                        of gold from 25◦ C to 46◦ C?
                    Chapter 5, section 3, Specific Heat and Latent Heat                       291

 1. .85 cal                                       had a great fall... All the king’s horses and
                                                  all the king’s men, couldn’t put Humpty back
 2. 3.6 cal                                       together again.
                                                     Poor Humpty Dumpty has fallen prey to a
 3. 15 cal                                        particular law of nature know as ? .

 4. −3.6 cal                                       1. the 1st Law of Thermodynamics

                   Heat 64                         2. the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics
05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                   3. conservation of momentum
  When a pan containing liquid and solid
water (ice water) is put on a stove and stirred    4. catch-22
vigorously ? .
                                                   5. Murphy’s Law
 1. the temperature starts to rise immedi-
ately                                                                Heat 67
                                                  05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 2. the temperature rises slowly at first then
more and more rapidly                               Which of the following are the two factors
                                                  that affect the amount of heat in a sample?
  3. the temperature rises but only after the
ice melts                                          1. Calories and temperature of the sample.

                   Heat 65                         2. Bond energies and activation energy of
05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.     the sample.

  A friend is into heavy metal.                    3. Temperature and size of the sample.
  On that note, if he supplied 3900 joules of
heat to a 100 gram chunk of LEAD (a rather         4. Efficiency and mechanical energy of the
heavy metal with a density of 11.34 g/cm 3 )      sample.
at 25◦ C, and the temperature rose to 325◦ C,
what is the specific heat of lead?                  5. Biomass and exothermic potential of the
                                                  sample.
 1. 0.130 J/g ◦ C
                                                                     Heat 68
 2. 0.120 J/g ◦ C                                 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

 3. 1.47 J/g ◦ C                                    The specific heat of water is 1.00 cal/g-◦ C,
                                                  the heat of vaporization of water is 540 cal/g,
 4. 0.444 J/g ◦ C                                 and the heat of fusion of water is 80 cal/g.
                                                    How much heat would be required to con-
 5. 0.068 J/g ◦ C                                 vert 10 grams of ice at 0◦ C to 10 grams of
                                                  water at 75◦ C?
                   Heat 66
05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.      1. 1.55 Kcal

 Consider the following classic: Humpty            2. 155 cal
Dumpty sat on a wall... Humpty Dumpty
                      Chapter 5, section 3, Specific Heat and Latent Heat                     292

 3. 15.5 cal                                                          Heat 72
                                                   05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 4. 61.5 Kcal
                                                     The specific heats and densities of several
 5. 6150 cal                                       materials are given below:
                                                     Brick: 0.220 cal/g◦ C, 2.0 g/cm3
                   Heat 69                           Concrete: 0.270 cal/g◦ C, 2.7 g/cm3
05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.        Steel: 0.118 cal/g◦ C, 7. g/cm3 9
                                                     Water: 1.00 cal/g◦ C, 1.00 g/cm3
  Calculate the heat released when a 40 g            Calculate the temperature change pro-
sample of water is frozen at 0◦ C.                 duced in 100 g of steel by the addition of
                                                   1 kcal of heat.
 1. 20 calories
                                                    1. 84.75 ◦ C
 2. 400 calories
                                                    2. 169.50 ◦ C
 3. 3200 calories
                                                    3. 42.37 ◦ C
 4. 1600 calories
                                                    4. 30.0 ◦ C
                   Heat 70
05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.                         Heat 73
                                                   05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
  Calculate the heat when a 250 g sample of
water is heated from 15◦ C to 100◦ C.                The specific heats and densities of several
                                                   materials are given below:
 1. 44455 Joules                                     Brick: 0.220 cal/g◦ C, 2.0 g/cm3
                                                     Concrete: 0.270 cal/g◦ C, 2.7 g/cm3
 2. 250 Joules                                       Steel: 0.118 cal/g◦ C, 7. g/cm3 9
                                                     Water: 1.00 cal/g◦ C, 1.00 g/cm3
 3. 88910 Joules                                     Which substance would store energy most
                                                   efficiently based on mass?
 4. 1100 Joules
                                                    1. water
                   Heat 71
05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.       2. brick

  Calculate the quantity of heat lost by the        3. concrete
body through the evaporation of 10 lbs of
water as perspiration.                              4. steel

 1. 12436 kiloJoules                                                  Heat 74
                                                   05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 2. 10257.5 kiloJoules
                                                    The specific heats and densities of several
 3. 6218 kiloJoules                                materials are given below:
                                                    Brick: 0.220 cal/g◦ C, 2.0 g/cm3
 4. 20515.0 kiloJoules                              Concrete: 0.270 cal/g◦ C, 2.7 g/cm3
                                                    Steel: 0.118 cal/g◦ C, 7. g/cm3 9
                       Chapter 5, section 3, Specific Heat and Latent Heat                        293

  Water: 1.00 cal/g◦ C, 1.00 g/cm3                  3 g of iodine at 144◦ C?
  Which substance would store energy most
efficiently based on volume?                                            Heat 78
                                                    05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
 1. steel
                                                      The molar heat of vaporization of carbon
 2. water                                           disulfide, CS2 , is 28.4 kJ/mol at its normal
                                                    boiling point of 46◦ C.
 3. brick                                             How much energy (heat) is required to va-
                                                    porize 5 g of CS2 at 46◦ C?
 4. concrete
                                                                      Heat 79
                   Heat 75                          05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                      The heat of fusion of a metal is
  Heat of vaporization is the amount of heat        7.35 joules/gram at its freezing point of 450◦ F.
required to                                           How much of this metal can be melted if
                                                    5500 joules of energy are available?
 1. evaporate a liquid.
                                                                      Heat 80
 2. to condense a vapor.                            05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

 3. to melt a solid.                                  The heat of fusion of a metal is
                                                    7.35 joules/gram at its freezing point of 450◦ F.
 4. to evaporate a solid.                             How much energy is required to melt
                                                    530 grams of this metal?
                   Heat 76
05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.                         Heat 81
                                                    05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
   The amount of heat that must be removed
from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point        The heat of vaporization of a substance is
to freeze it with no change in temperature is       4900 joules/gram at its boiling point of 220◦ C.
called the                                             How much of this substance can be vapor-
                                                    ized if 51000 joules of energy are available?
 1. None of these
                                                                      Heat 82
 2. heat of fusion.                                 05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

 3. heat of vaporization.                             The heat of vaporization of a substance is
                                                    4900 joules/gram at its boiling point of 220◦ C.
 4. heat of solution.                                 How many joules of energy would be re-
                                                    quired to evaporate 51000 grams of this sub-
                  Heat 77                           stance?
05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                                      Heat 83
   The molar heat of fusion of elemental iodine     05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, fixed.
is 16.7 kJ/mol at its normal melting point of
144◦ C.                                               How much heat is required to take 4 kg of
   What quantity of heat is required to melt        water from 20◦ C to near boiling at 99◦ C?
                     Chapter 5, section 3, Specific Heat and Latent Heat                        294

                                                        Given: The specific heat of water is 4.18
                  Heat 84                            J/g-◦ C.
05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, fixed.                   Calculate the amount of heat required to
                                                     raise the temperature of 105 grams of water
  How much heat in Joules is required to heat        from 25 degrees C to 70 ◦ C.
the water in a hot water heater (200 L) from
18◦ C to 60◦ C?                                                        Heat 91
                                                     05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                  Heat 85
05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.                Given: Specific heat of H2 O is 4.184 J /
                                                     g-◦ C, specific heat of Fe is .444 J / g-◦ C.
   How much energe is required to heat 25 g            87.5 g of H2 O at 95◦ C is poured over 500 g
of ice at −15◦ C to water at 25◦ C?                  Fe at 5◦ C in an insulated vessel.
                                                       What is the final temperature?
                  Heat 86
05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.                                Heat 92
                                                     05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, fixed.
  The heat capacity of ice is 0.50 cal/g-◦ C.
  How much energy is required to heat                  Benzene is a hydrocarbon that is commonly
105 grams of ice at −15.5 ◦ C to water at            used as a commercial solvent. However, it is
50◦ C?                                               carcinogenic, i.e., accumulations in the body
                                                     can cause cancer. The normal boiling point
                  Heat 87                            of benzene is 80.0◦ C and its molar heat of
05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.              vaporization is 30.8 kJ/mol.
                                                       What is the vapor pressure of benzene at
  How much heat would be required to con-            25.0◦ C (about room temperature)?
vert 105 grams of ice at 0◦ C to steam at
100◦ C?                                                                Heat 93
                                                     05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                  Heat 88
05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.                Calculate the amount of heat required to
                                                     convert 90 g of water at 52.5 ◦ C to steam at
   Liquid Freon, CCl2 F2 , has a heat of vapor-      127.5 ◦ C.
ization of 38.6 cal/g. Used as a refrigerant, it
is circulated in the cooling coils of a refrigera-                     Heat 94
tor and absorbs heat as it vaporizes.                05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
   How much heat could be removed if 1500 g
of Freon vaporizes inside the coils?                   If 140 grams of liquid water at 80 ◦ C and
                                                     140 grams of water at 30 ◦ C are mixed in
                  Heat 89                            an insulated container, what will the final
05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.              temperature of the mixture be?

   If the specific heat of liquid water is 1 cal/g-                     Heat 95
◦
 C, calculate the amount of heat to heat 45 g        05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
of water from 5◦ C to 17.5◦ C.
                                                        What would be the final temperature of the
                  Heat 90                            system if 20 g of lead at 120 ◦ C are dropped
05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.              into 20 g of water at 17.5 ◦ C in an insulated
                                                     container?
                    Chapter 5, section 3, Specific Heat and Latent Heat                        295

                                                   10.0◦ C.
                  Heat 96                            If the specific heat capacity of tin is
05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.            230 J/kg ·◦ C, what is the final equilibrium
                                                   temperature of the tin-water mixture?
  Calculate the amount of heat required to
convert 55 grams of ice at −25◦ C to steam at                   Holt SF 10C 03
127.5◦ C.                                          05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                   wording-variable.
                  Heat 97
05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.              Milk with a mass of 0.032 kg and a temper-
                                                   ature of 11◦ C is added to 0.16 kg of coffee at
  The molar heat of fusion of H2 O at its          91◦ C.
standard melting point of 273.15 K is 6.012          What is the final temperature? Assume the
kJ/mole.                                           specific heat capacities of the two liquids are
  How much heat is needed to melt                  the same as water, and disregard any energy
2.55 grams of ice at this temperature?             transfer to the liquids’ surroundings.

                  Heat 98                                       Holt SF 10C 04
05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.            05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                   wording-variable.
  Given: 1 kcal = 4.184 kJ.
  How much heat will it take to convert               A cup is made of an experimental material
545 grams of ice at −10◦ C into steam at           that can hold hot liquids without significantly
+110◦ C?                                           increasing its own temperature. The 0.75 kg
                                                   cup has an initial temperature of 36.5◦ C when
                  Heat 99                          it is submerged in 1.25 kg of water with an
05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.            initial temperature of 20.0◦ C.
                                                      What is the cup’s specific heat capacity if
   Consider an insulated system containing         the final temperature is 24.4◦ C?
500 grams of water at 25.0◦ C.
   What will be the equilibrium temperature                     Holt SF 10C 05
of the system after adding 75 grams of ice at      05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
−10.0◦ C?                                          wording-variable.

             Holt SF 10C 01                           Brass is an alloy made from copper and
05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            zinc. A 0.59 kg brass sample at 98.0◦ C is
wording-variable.                                  dropped into 2.80 kg of water at 5.0◦ C.
                                                      If the equilibrium temperature is 6.8◦ C,
  A 3.0 kg gold bar at 99 ◦ C is dropped into      what is the specific heat capacity of brass?
0.22 kg of water at 25◦ C.
  What is the final temperature? Assume the                      Holt SF 10C 06
specific heat of gold is 129 J/kg ·◦ C.             05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                   wording-variable.
             Holt SF 10C 02
05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,               The air temperature above coastal areas
wording-variable.                                  is profoundly influenced by the large specific
                                                   heat capacity of water.
   A 0.225 kg sample of tin initially at 97.5◦ C      How large of a volume of air can be cooled
is dropped into 0.115 kg of water initially at     by 1.0◦ C if energy is transferred as heat from
                    Chapter 5, section 3, Specific Heat and Latent Heat                         296

the air to the water, thus increasing the tem-     latent heat and the melting point of lead are
perature of 1.0 kg of water by 1.0◦ C? The         128 J/kg ·◦ C, 2.45 × 104 J/kg and 327.3 ◦ C
specific heat capacity of air is approximately      respectively.
1000.0 J/kg·◦ C, and the density of air is ap-
proximately 1.29 kg/m3 .                                        Holt SF 10D 04
                                                   05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
             Holt SF 10C 07                        wording-variable.
05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                    You have collected exactly 1000 aluminum
                                                   cans for recycling, each with a mass of 14.0 g.
  A hot, just-minted copper coin is placed in        How much energy is needed to melt them if
101 g of water to cool. The water temperature      their initial temperature is 26.4◦ C? Assume
changes by 8.39◦ C and the temperature of the      the specific heat, the latent heat and the
coin changes by 83.8◦ C.                           melting point of aluminum are 899 J/kg ·◦ C,
  What is the mass of the coin? Disregard          3.97 × 105 J/kg and 660.4 ◦ C respectively.
any energy transfer to the water’s surround-
ings and assume the specific heat of copper is                   Holt SF 10D 05
387 J/kg ·◦ C.                                     05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                   wording-variable.
              Holt SF 10D 01
05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-          A 0.011 kg cube of ice at 0.0◦ C is added to
mal.                                               0.450 kg of soup at 80.0◦ C.
                                                      Assuming that the soup has the same spe-
  How much energy is required to change a          cific heat capacity as water, find the final tem-
42 g ice cube from ice at −11 ◦ C to steam at      perature of the soup after the ice has melted.
111◦ C?
                                                                 Holt SF 10D 06
             Holt SF 10D 02                        05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            mal.
wording-variable.
                                                     At a foundry, 25 kg of molten aluminum
   Liquid nitrogen, which has a boiling point      with a temperature of 660.4◦ C is poured into
of 77 K, is commonly used to cool substances       a mold.
to low temperatures.                                 If this is carried out in a room containing
   How much energy must be removed from            130 kg of air at 25◦ C, what is the temperature
1.0 kg of gaseous nitrogen at 77 K for it to       of the air after the aluminum is completely
completely liquefy? Assume the latent heat         solidified? Assume that the specific heat ca-
of liquid nitrogen is 2.01 × 105 J/kg              pacity of air is 1.0 × 103 J/kg ·◦ C.

             Holt SF 10D 03                                    Holt SF 10Rev 30
05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                  wording-variable.

   A sample of lead used to make a lead sinker       A 25.5 g silver ring (cp = 2.34 × 102 J/kg·◦
for fishing has an initial temperature of 27.3◦ C   C) is heated to a temperature of 84.0 ◦ C and
and is poured into a mold immediately after        then placed in a calorimeter containing 5.00 ×
it has melted.                                     10−2 kg of water at 24.0 ◦ C. The calorimeter is
   How much energy is needed to melt 0.225         not perfectly insulated, however, and 0.140 kJ
kg of lead? Assume the specific heat, the           of energy is transferred to the surroundings
                     Chapter 5, section 3, Specific Heat and Latent Heat                        297

before a final temperature is reached.               is 550 W/m2 , how long will it take to increase
  What is the final temperature?                     the temperature of 1.0 m3 of water from 21◦ C
                                                    to 61◦ C?
            Holt SF 10Rev 31
05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                          Holt SF 10Rev 47
wording-variable.                                   05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
                                                    mal.
   When a driver brakes an automobile, fric-
tion between the brake disks and the brake             A student drops two metallic objects into a
pads converts part of the car’s translational       120 g steel container holding 150 g of water
kinetic energy to internal energy.                  at 25◦ C. One object is a 253 g cube of copper
   If a 1500 kg automobile traveling at 32 m/s      that is initially at 85 ◦ C, and the other is a
comes to a halt after its brakes are applied,       chunk of aluminum that is initially at 5 ◦ C.
how much can the temperature rise in each           To the students’s surprise, the water reaches
of the four 3.5 kg steel brake disks? Assume        a final temperature of 25 ◦ C, precisely where
the disks are made of iron (cp = 448 J/kg ·◦ C)     it started.
and that all of the kinetic energy is distributed      What is the mass of the aluminum chunk?
in equal parts to the internal energy of the        Assume the specific heat of copper and alu-
brakes.                                             minum are 387 J/kg ·◦ C and 899 J/kg ·◦ C.

             Holt SF 10Rev 32                                    Holt SF 10Rev 49
05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-        05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
mal.                                                mal.

  A plastic-foam container used as a picnic           A 250 g aluminum cup holds and is in ther-
cooler contains a block of ice at 0.0◦ C.           mal equilibrium with 850 g of water at 83◦ C.
  If 225 g of ice melts, how much heat              The combination of cup and water is cooled
passes through the walls of the container?          uniformly so that the temperature decreases
Assume the latent heat of plastic-foam is           by 1.5◦ C/min.
333000 J/kg.                                          At what rate is energy being removed?
                                                    Assume the specific heat of aluminum is
            Holt SF 10Rev 33                        899 J/kg ·◦ C.
05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                                Holt SF 10Rev 50
                                                    05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
   The largest of the Great Lakes, Lake Supe-       mal.
rior, contains about 1.20 × 1016 kg of water.
   If the lake had a temperature of 12.0◦ C,           A jar of tea is placed in sunlight until it
how much energy would have to be removed            reaches an equilibrium temperature of 32 ◦ C.
to freeze the whole lake at 0◦ C?                   In an attempt to cool the liquid, which has a
                                                    mass of 180 g, 112 g of ice at 0.0◦ C is added.
            Holt SF 10Rev 46                           At the time at which the temperature of the
05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,             tea is 15◦ C, find the mass of the remaining ice
wording-variable.                                   in the jar. Assume the specific heat capacity
                                                    of the tea to be that of pure liquid water.
  A hot-water heater is operated by solar
power.                                                           Holt SF 11Rev 40
  If the solar collector has an area of             05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
6.0 m2 and the power delivered by sunlight          mal.
                    Chapter 5, section 3, Specific Heat and Latent Heat                     298

                                                 solid in a capillary tube. You heat this tube
   The lid of a pressure cooker forms a nearly   and note the temperature at which the solid
airtight seal. Steam builds up pressure and      becomes a liquid.
increases temperature within the pressure          What does the experiment illustrate?
cooker so that food cooks faster than it does
in an ordinary pot. The system is defined as       1. boiling point
the pressure cooker and the water and steam
within it.                                        2. chemical change
   If 2.0 g of water is sealed in a pressure
cooker and then vaporized by heating, and         3. density
5175 J must be added as heat to completely
vaporize the water, what is the change in the     4. melting point
system’s internal energy?
                                                  5. relative weight
                 Matter 50
05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.                      States 50
                                                 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
  Which of the following cannot be used to
identify a type of matter?                          The temperature at which a solid becomes
                                                 a liquid is called the
 1. density
                                                  1. melting point.
 2. color
                                                  2. boiling point.
 3. temperature
                                                  3. condensation point.
 4. melting point
                                                  4. decomposition point.
                 Matter 51
05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.                      States 51
                                                 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
  A solid carbon dioxide sample transforms
to the gaseous state at room temperature.          The temperature at which a liquid becomes
  As a result the sample would undergo ? .       a gas is called the

 1. a change in density                           1. boiling point.

 2. a change in mass                              2. melting point.

 3. a change in chemical properties               3. condensation point.

 4. no change in physical properties              4. decomposition point.

 5. no change in energy content                                    States 52
                                                 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                 Matter 52
05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.      The process by which a liquid is converted
                                                 to a gas is called
  You do an experiment in which you place a
                    Chapter 5, section 3, Specific Heat and Latent Heat                     299

 1. vaporization.                                             Vaporizing Water
                                                 05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
 2. condensation.
                                                   1 kg of ice at 0◦ C is converted to steam of
 3. ionization.                                  100◦ C. How much heat is needed?

 4. liquefaction.

                  States 53
05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

   The process by which a gas is converted to
a liquid is called

 1. condensation.

 2. ionization.

 3. sublimation.

 4. vaporization.

                  States 54
05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

  The process by which a liquid is converted
to a solid is called

 1. freezing.

 2. condensation.

 3. liquefaction.

 4. vaporization.

              Temperature 64
05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

  The freezing point of water is

 1. 273 K.

 2. −273 K.

 3. −32 K.

 4. 32 K.
                           Chapter 5, section 4, Thermodynamics                                  300

                                                  to the vessel’s interior.)
               Heat Pump 50
05:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.                  Holt SF 10B 02
                                                  05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
  The fact that a heat pump requires energy       wording-variable.
to move heat from a colder object (the outside
of a house) to a hotter object (the inside of        A worker drives a 0.500 kg spike into a
the house) is a real life observation of which    rail tie with a 2.50 kg sledgehammer. The
thermodynamic law?                                hammer hits the spike with a speed of 65.0
                                                  m/s.
 1. the first law                                     If one third of the hammer’s kinetic en-
                                                  ergy is converted to the internal energy of the
 2. the second law                                hammer and spike, how much does the total
                                                  internal energy increase?
 3. the third law
                                                               Holt SF 10B 03
 4. the fourth law                                05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                                                  wording-variable.
            Hewitt CP9 11 E02
05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.       Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
                                                    A 3.0 × 10−3 kg copper penny drops a dis-
  When a container of gas is heated, what         tance of 50.0 m to the ground.
happens to the average speed of its molecules?      If 65 percent of the initial potential energy
                                                  goes into increasing the internal energy of the
 1. increases                                     penny, find the magnitude of that increase.

 2. decreases                                                  Holt SF 10B 04
                                                  05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
 3. not to change                                 wording-variable.

 4. not to be determined                             A 2.5 kg block of ice at a temperature of
                                                  0.0◦ C and an initial speed of 5.7 m/s slides
             Holt SF 10B 01                       across a level floor.
05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,              If 3.3 × 105 J are required to melt 1.0 kg
wording-variable.                                 of ice, how much ice melts, assuming that the
                                                  initial kinetic energy of the ice block is entirely
   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                         converted to the ice’s internal energy?
   A vessel contains water. Paddles that are
propelled by falling masses turn in the wa-                    Holt SF 10B 05
ter, causing the water’s internal energy to in-   05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
crease. The temperature of the water is then      wording-variable.
measured, giving an indication of the water’s
internal energy increase.                            The amount of internal energy needed to
   If a total mass of 11.5 kg falls 6.69 m and    raise the temperature of 0.25 kg of water by
all of the mechanical energy is converted to      0.2◦ C is 209.3 J.
internal energy, by how much will the internal       How fast must a 0.25 kg baseball travel
energy of the water increase? (Assume no          in order for its kinetic energy to equal this
energy is transferred as heat out of the vessel   internal energy?
to the surroundings or from the surroundings
                           Chapter 5, section 4, Thermodynamics                               301

            Holt SF 10Rev 19                       10−4 m3 to 2.523 × 10−4 m3 .
05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,              How much work is done?
wording-variable.
                                                                Holt SF 11A 03
   A force of 315 N is applied horizontally to     05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
a wooden crate in order to displace it 35.0 m      wording-variable.
across a level floor at a constant velocity. As a
result of this work the crate’s internal energy       A toy balloon is inflated with helium at a
is increased by an amount equal to 14 percent      constant pressure that is 4.3×105 Pa in excess
of the crate’s initial internal energy.            of atmospheric pressure.
   Calculate the initial internal energy of the       If the balloon inflates from a volume of
crate.                                             1.8×10−4 m3 to 9.5×10−4 m3 , how much work
                                                   is done by the balloon on the surrounding
            Holt SF 10Rev 20                       air?
05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                               Holt SF 11A 04
                                                   05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
   A 0.75 kg spike is hammered into a railroad     wording-variable.
tie. The initial speed of the spike is equal to
3.0 m/s.                                              Steam moves into the cylinder of a steam
   If the tie and spike together absorb 85 per-    engine at a constant pressure and does 0.84
cent of the spike’s initial kinetic energy as      J of work on a piston. The diameter of the
internal energy, calculate the increase in in-     piston is 1.6 cm, and the piston travels 2.1 cm
ternal energy of the tie and spike.                in one stroke.
                                                      What is the pressure of the steam?
             Holt SF 11A 01
05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,                          Holt SF 11B 01
wording-variable.                                  05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
                                                   mal.
                  Part 1 of 2
   Gas in a container is at a pressure of 1.6 ×      A system’s initial internal energy is 27 J.
105 Pa and a volume of 4.0 m3 .                    Then heat is added to the system.
   a) What is the work done by the gas if            If the final internal energy is 34 J and the
it expands at constant pressure to twice its       system does 26 J of work, how much heat is
initial volume?                                    added to the system?

                   Part 2 of 2                                  Holt SF 11B 02
b) What is the work done by the gas if it          05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
is compressed at constant pressure to one-         wording-variable.
quarter of its initial volume?
                                                     The internal energy of the gas in a gasoline
             Holt SF 11A 02                        engine’s cylinder decreases by 195 J.
05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,              If 52.0 J of work is done by the gas, how
wording-variable.                                  much energy is transferred as heat?

  A gas is enclosed in a container fitted with a                 Holt SF 11B 03
piston. The applied pressure is maintained at      05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
599.5 kPa as the piston moves inward, which        wording-variable.
changes the volume of the gas from 5.317 ×
                          Chapter 5, section 4, Thermodynamics                              302

  A 2.0 kg quantity of water is held at con-
stant volume in a pressure cooker and heated        Helium in a toy balloon does work on its
by a range element. The system’s internal en-    surroundings as it expands with a constant
ergy increases by 8.0 × 103 J. However, the      pressure of 2.52 × 105 Pa in excess of atmo-
pressure cooker is not well insulated, and       spheric pressure. The balloon’s initial vol-
2.0 × 103 J of energy is transferred to the      ume is 1.1 × 10−4 m3 , and its final volume is
surrounding air.                                 1.50 × 10−3 m3 .
  How much energy is transferred from the           Find the amount of work done by the gas
range element to the pressure cooker as          in the balloon.
heat?
                                                              Holt SF 11Rev 39
              Holt SF 11B 04                     05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-     mal.
mal.
                                                                  Part 1 of 2
                  Part 1 of 2                      A gas expands when 606 J of energy is
  The internal energy of a gas decreases by      added to it by heat. The expanding gas does
344 J.                                           418 J of work on its surroundings.
  a) If the process is adiabatic, how much         a) What is the overall change in the internal
energy is transferred as heat?                   energy of the gas?

               Part 2 of 2                                          Part 2 of 2
b) How much work is done on or by the gas?       b) If the work done by the gas equals 1212 J,
                                                 how much energy must have been added as
             Holt SF 11B 05                      heat in order for the change in internal energy
05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,          at the end of the process to equal the initial
wording-variable.                                change in internal energy?

   A steam engine’s boiler completely converts               Work Off a Meal 01
155 kg of water to steam. This process in-       05:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
volves the transfer of 3.50 × 108 J as heat.
   If steam escaping through a safety valve        A student eats a dinner rated at
does 1.76 × 108 of work expanding against the    2000 (food) Calories. He wishes to do an
outside atmosphere, what is the net change       equivalent amount of work in the gymnasium
in the internal energy of the water-steam sys-   by lifting a 50 kg mass.
tem?                                               How many times must he raise the mass to
                                                 expend this amount of energy? Assume that
             Holt SF 11Rev 10                    he raises it a distance of 2 m each time and
05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-     that he regains no energy when it is dropped
mal.                                             to the floor.

  How much work is done when a tire’s vol-                   Work Off a Meal 02
ume increases from 0.03525 m3 to 0.03947 m3      05:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
at a pressure of 255000 Pa in excess of atmo-
spheric pressure?                                   An 80 kg weight watcher wishes to climb a
                                                 mountain to work off the equivalent of a large
            Holt SF 11Rev 11                     piece of chocolate cake rated at 700 kcal (1
05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,          kcal = 1000 cal). How high must the person
wording-variable.                                climb?
                         Chapter 5, section 4, Thermodynamics   303


            Work Off a Meal 03
05:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

   A 100 kg student eats a 200 Calorie dough-
nut. To ”burn it off”, he decides to climb the
steps of a tall building. How high would he
have to climb to expend an equivalent amount
of work? (1 food Calorie = 10 3 Calories.)
                             Chapter 5, section 5, Heat Transfer                              304

                                                   heat does the cup absorb? Assume the mass
              Brass and Water                      of the dishwater is large enough so its temper-
05:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.            ature doesn’t change appreciably.

  A 200 g sample of brass at 100 ◦ C is placed                        Heat 10
in a calorimeter cup that contains 261 g of        05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
water at 20 ◦ C. If you disregard the absorption
of heat by the cup, what will be the final            Which of the following is most likely to be
temperature?                                       an insulator?

           Coffee Temperatures                       1. plastic
05:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                    2. gold
   Assume the heat capacities of milk and cof-
fee are the same as that of water, and neglect      3. silver
the heat capacity of the container. What is
the final equilibrium temperature when 10 g          4. copper
of milk at 10 ◦ C is added to 160 g of coffee at
90 ◦ C?                                                               Heat 17
                                                   05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
           Cooling a Car Engine
05:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.              A device used to measure energy changes is
                                                   called a
  A 250 kg cast-iron car engine contains wa-
ter as a coolant. Suppose the engine’s tem-         1. calorimeter.
perature is 35◦ C when it is shut off. The air
temperature is 10 ◦ C. The heat given off by         2. Kelvin scale.
the engine and water in it as they cool to air
temperature is 4.4 × 106 J. What mass of            3. bimetallic strip.
water is used to cool the engine?
                                                    4. thermostat.
            Cooling a Hot Ingot
05:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.                              Heat 34
                                                   05:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
   A 0.05 kg ingot of metal is heated to
200 ◦ C and then is dropped into a beaker                           Part 1 of 4
containing 0.4 kg of water initially at 20 ◦ C.      You have 100 g of water in a(n) 40 g
If the final equilibrium state of the mixed         calorimeter cup at a temperature of 20 ◦ C.
system is 22.4 ◦ C, find the specific heat of        The specific heat of the water is 1 cal/g ·◦ C
the metal. The specific heat of water is            and that of the calorimeter is 0.2 cal/g ·◦ C.
4186 J/(kg · ◦ C).                                 You drop a(n) 300 g piece of metal at a tem-
                                                   perature of 100 ◦ C into the calorimeter cup
           Cup and Dishwasher                      and the temperature stabilizes at 50 ◦ C.
05:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.              a) How much heat did the calorimeter cup
                                                   absorb?
  A 400 g glass coffee cup is at room tem-
perature, 20 ◦ C. It is then plunged into hot                     Part 2 of 4
dishwater, 80 ◦ C. If the temperature of the       b) How much heat did the water absorb?
cup reaches that of the dishwater, how much
                                  Chapter 5, section 5, Heat Transfer                           305

               Part 3 of 4                                          A                    B
c) How much heat did the metal lose?                                        Room
                                                                   40 g   Temperature   20 g
                                                                   50°C      25°C       75°C
                Part 4 of 4
d) What was the specific heat of the metal?
                                                          Which cup had more heat energy trans-
        Heat and Temperature 01                        ferred to it?
05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                        1. Not enough information is given to deter-
                  Part 1 of 4                          mine the answer.
   The following 4 questions refer to two
cups, A and B, each of which contains wa-                2. Cup B had more heat energy trans-
ter which was initially at room temperature            ferred.
(25◦ C). Each question describes the quanti-
ties of water and the manner in which they               3. Both cups had the same heat energy
are heated. Cup A above contains 40 grams              transferred.
of water and cup B contains 20 grams of
water. The water in both cups was ini-                   4. Cup A had more heat energy trans-
tially at room temperature (25◦ C). Both cups          ferred.
were heated to a final temperature of 50◦ C.
                                                                       Part 3 of 4
            A                           B
                      Room
                                                       Cup A above contains 40 grams of water and
           40 g     Temperature        20 g            cup B contains 20 grams of water. The water
           50°C        25°C            50°C
                                                       in both cups was initially at room temper-
                                                       ature (25◦ C), and then cup A was heated
   Which cup had more heat energy trans-               to 45◦ C and cup B was heated to 90◦ C.
ferred to it?                                                       A                    B
                                                                            Room
                                                                   40 g   Temperature   20 g
  1. Cup B had more heat energy trans-                             45°C      25°C       90°C
ferred.

  2. Cup A had more heat energy trans-                    Which cup had more heat energy trans-
ferred.                                                ferred to it?

  3. Both cups had the same heat energy                  1. Cup B had more heat energy trans-
transferred.                                           ferred.

 4. Not enough information is given to deter-            2. Cup A had more heat energy trans-
mine the answer.                                       ferred.

                Part 2 of 4                              3. Both cups had the same heat energy
Cup A above contains 40 grams of water and             transferred.
cup B contains 20 grams of water. The water
in both cups was initially at room temper-              4. Not enough information is given to deter-
ature (25◦ C), and then cup A was heated               mine the answer.
to 50◦ C and cup B was heated to 75◦ C.
                                                                       Part 4 of 4
                                                       Cup A above contains 25 grams of water and
                                                       cup B contains 20 grams of water. The water
                                  Chapter 5, section 5, Heat Transfer                             306

in both cups was initially at room temper-             C and cup B contains 200 grams of water at
ature (25◦ C), and then cup A was heated               50◦ C. The contents of the two cups are mixed
to 45◦ C and cup B was heated to 50◦ C.                together in an insulated container (no heat
              A                         B              can leak in or out). The final temperature of
                      Room                             the water in the container is
             25 g   Temperature        20 g
             45°C      25°C            50°C
                                                         1. Lower than 0◦ C.

   Which cup had more heat energy trans-                 2. Between 0◦ C and 25◦ C.
ferred to it?
                                                         3. Between 25◦ C and 50◦ C.
 1. Not enough information is given to deter-
mine the answer.                                         4. 25◦ C.

  2. Cup B had more heat energy trans-                   5. 50◦ C.
ferred.
                                                         6. Higher than 50◦ C.
  3. Both cups had the same heat energy
transferred.                                                   Heat and Temperature 04
                                                       05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
  4. Cup A had more heat energy trans-
ferred.                                                                   Part 1 of 4
                                                          Three objects are kept outside for a long
        Heat and Temperature 02                        time on a cold day: a piece of cotton, a piece
05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.          of wood, and a piece of metal. Which object
                                                       feels the coldest when you touch it?
  Cup A contains 100 grams of water at 0◦
C and cup B contains 100 grams of water at               1. The cotton piece.
50◦ C. The contents of the two cups are mixed
together in an insulated container (no heat              2. They all feel the same.
can leak in or out). The final temperature of
the water in the container is                            3. The wood piece.

 1. Lower than 0◦ C.                                     4. The metal piece.

 2. Between 0◦ C and 25◦ C.                                            Part 2 of 4
                                                       Which object has the lowest temperature?
 3. 25◦ C.
                                                         1. The cotton piece.
 4. Between 25◦ C and 50◦ C.
                                                         2. They all have the same temperature.
 5. 50◦ C.
                                                         3. The wood piece.
 6. Higher than 50◦ C.
                                                         4. The metal piece.
        Heat and Temperature 03
05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.                            Part 3 of 4
                                                       The objects are all placed in an oven heated to
  Cup A contains 100 grams of water at 0◦              90◦ C and left for a long time. Which object
                              Chapter 5, section 5, Heat Transfer                                                        307

will feel the warmest?                                           A                                             B
                                                                                   Room
                                                                100 g            Temperature                  100 g
 1. The cotton piece.                                           55°C                25°C                      55°C


 2. They all feel the same.                                    Covered                                  Covered Shiny
                                                            Styrofoam Cup                                Metal Cup
 3. The wood piece.                                Which of the cups above will cool down at a
                                                   faster rate?
 4. The metal piece.
                                                     1. Cup A will cool faster than cup B.
                  Part 4 of 4
After they are heated for a long time, which         2. Both cups will cool at the same rate.
object has the highest temperature?
                                                     3. Cup B will cool faster than cup A.
 1. The cotton piece.
                                                    4. Not enough information is given to deter-
 2. They all have the same temperature.            mine the answer.

 3. The wood piece.                                                          Part 2 of 2
                                                                 A                                             B
 4. The metal piece.                                                               Room
                                                               100 g             Temperature                  100 g
                                                               55°C                 25°C                      55°C
        Heat and Temperature 05
05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.               Covered Shiny                                 Covered Dull
                                                             Metal Cup                                     Black Cup
  You have three pots of boiling water on the      Which of the cups above will cool down at a
stove. Which one has the lowest temperature?       faster rate?

 1. The one that is boiling water vigorously.        1. Cup B will cool faster than cup A.

 2. They all have the same temperature.              2. Cup A will cool faster than cup B.

 3. The one which is just barely boiling.            3. Both cups will cool at the same rate.

  4. The one that has been boiling the longest      4. Not enough information is given to deter-
time.                                              mine the answer.

        Heat and Temperature 06                            Heat and Temperature 07
05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

                 Part 1 of 2                         Two cups are initially at the same temper-
   The following 2 questions each re-              ature. Identical floodlights shine on them.
fer to two different covered cups con-                                  A                            B

taining the same amount of hot wa-                                   100 g
                                                                                   Room
                                                                                 Temperature      100 g
                                                                     55°C           25°C          55°C
ter, initially at the same temperature.
                                                                 Covered Shiny                 Covered Dull
                                                                  Metal Cup                     Black Cup


                                                   Which cup will heat up at a faster rate?
                                Chapter 5, section 5, Heat Transfer                             308

 1. Cup A will heat faster than cup B.                 5. With the same expansions a bimetallic
                                                     strop would not bend when heated.
 2. Cup B will heat faster than cup A.
                                                                 Hewitt CP9 15 E25
 3. Both cups will heat at the same rate.            05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 4. Neither will heat up.                              A method for breaking boulders used to be
                                                     putting them in a hot fire, then dousing them
 5. Not enough information is given to deter-        with cold water.
mine the answer.                                       Which of the following is correct?

            Hewitt CP9 12 E04                         1. When doused, the outer part of the boul-
05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.        ders cooled while the insides were still hot.

   When water freezes, it expands.                     2. This method will not work.
   What does this say about the density of ice
relative to the density of water?                     3. When douse, the inner part of the boul-
                                                     ders cooled while The outsides were still hot.
 1. Ice is less dense than water.
                                                      4. The contraction of the inner parts and
 2. Ice is denser than water.                        the outer parts are the same.

 3. Ice is as dense as water.                         5. It’s not the contraction that fractured the
                                                     boulder.
 4. Ice is harder than water.
                                                                 Hewitt CP9 15 E27
 5. Ice is bigger than water.                        05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 6. Ice is lighter than water.                          Which of the following is correct?
                                                        1. A grandfather pendulum colock run
            Hewitt CP9 15 E23                        faster on a hot day.
05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.           2. A grandfather pendulum colock run
                                                     slower on a hot day.
  For a bimetallic strip,                               3. On a hot day the pendulum lengthens
  which of the following is wrong?                   slightly, which increases its period.
                                                        4. On a hot day the pendulum shortens
 1. The two metal have the same rate of              slightly, which increases its period.
expansion.                                              5. On a hot day the pendulum lengthens
                                                     slightly, which decreases its period.
 2. The two metal have different rate of ex-
pansion.                                               1. 1,3

 3. The different expansions are what bends             2. 2,3
the strip or coil.
                                                       3. 1,4
 4. Without the different expansions a
bimetallic strip would not bend when                   4. 1,5
heated.
                                                       5. 2,4
                             Chapter 5, section 5, Heat Transfer                              309

                                                    1. When the ball is heated, it will not pass
            Hewitt CP9 15 E29                      through the ring.
05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                    2. When the ball is heated, it will still pass
  An old remedy for a pair of nested drinking      through the ring.
glasses that stick together is to run water into
the inner glass and over the surface of the         3. When the ring is heated, the size of the
outer glass.                                       hole does not change.
  Which of the following is best?
                                                    4. When the ring is heated, the size of the
 1. Cool the inner glass and heat the outer        hole decrease.
glass.
                                                    5. When the ring is cooled, the size of the
 2. Cool the inner and the outer glass.            hole increase.

 3. Heat the inner and the outer glass.                        Hewitt CP9 15 E35
                                                   05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 4. Heat the inner glass and cool the outer
glass.                                               Suppose you cut a small gap in a metal ring.
                                                     Which of the follow is correct?
 5. Heat only the outer glass.
                                                    1. The gap in the ring will become wider
            Hewitt CP9 15 E31                      when the ring is heated.
05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                    2. The gap in the ring will become narrower
  Which of the following is correct?               when the ring is heated.

 1. The rocker will be slightly tipped toward       3. The gap in the ring will not change when
the end in summer.                                 the ring is heated.

 2. The rocker will be slightly tipped toward       4. The gap in the ring will become wider
the middle in summer.                              when the ring is cooled.

 3. The rocker will be slightly tipped toward       5. The gap in the ring will not change when
the end in winter.                                 the ring is cooled.

 4. The rocker does not change its position in                 Hewitt CP9 15 E37
winter.                                            05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 5. The rocker does not change its position in       Which of the following is wrong?
summer.
                                                    1. When the air inside a house is heated, the
            Hewitt CP9 15 E33                      volume of the air does not change.
05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                    2. When a gas is heated, it expands.
 A metal ball is just able to pass through a
metal ring.                                         3. One can heat the air without increasing
 Which of the following is correct?                the volume of the house.
                             Chapter 5, section 5, Heat Transfer                             310

 4. When air is heated inside a house, some
of the air leaks to the outside.                   4. Your finger is more sensitive when it is
                                                  wet.
  5. When you cool the house, air is drawn in
fron outside.                                                 Hewitt CP9 17 E02
                                                  05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
            Hewitt CP9 15 E39
05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.       When you step out of a swimming pool on
                                                  a hot, dry day in the southwest, you feel quite
   One of the reasons the first light bulbs were   chilly. Why?
expensive was that the electrical lead wires
into the bulb were made of platumum.               1. The temperature outside the swimming
   Which of the following is wrong?               pool is much lower.

  1. It is important that the metal leads and      2. The temperature drop dramatically when
the glass have the same coefficient of expan-       you finish swimming.
sion.
                                                    3. The water evaporates rapidly in the dry
 2. The platumum expands at about the same        air, gaining its energy from your skin, which
rate as glass when heated.                        is cooled.

 3. It is important that the metal leads and        4. The temperature doesn’t change at all. It
the glass have the same coefficient of resis-       is only because of you mind.
tance.
                                                              Hewitt CP9 17 E07
 4. If the metal leads expand more than glass,    05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
the glass may crack.
                                                    If all the molecules in a liquid had the
 5. If the metal expands less than glass upon     same speed, and some were able to evapo-
being heated, air will leak in through the        rate, would the remaining liquid be cooled?
resulting gaps.
                                                    1. Evaporation would not cool the remaining
            Hewitt CP9 17 E01                     liquid because the energy of exiting molecules
05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.     would be no different than the energy of
                                                  molecules left behind.
   You can determine wind direction by wet-
ting your finger and holding it up in the air.      2. Yes, the remaining liquid will be cooled
Explain.                                          because there is lower energy left.

  1. Your wet finger will stop wind from blow-      3. Yes, the remaining liquid will be cooled
ing.                                              because evaporation can reduce the speed of
                                                  the remaining molecules.
 2. When a wet finger is held to the wind,
evaporation is greater on the windy side,           4. Evaporation would not cool the remaining
which feels cool. The cool side of your fin-       liquid because of energy conservation of the
ger is windward.                                  whole system.

 3. Your wet finger will produce gas to change                 Hewitt CP9 17 E13
the direction of wind.                            05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                             Chapter 5, section 5, Heat Transfer   311


  Double-pane windows have nitrogen gas or
very dry air between the panes.
  Why is ordinary air a poor idea?

 1. There are a great number of oxygen
molecules that would have chemical reaction
with the window.

 2. Ordinary air contains a lot of harmful
particles.

 3. Ordinary air is not physically stable.

 4. Visibility of the windows is impaired if
there is any condensation of water between
the panes of glass.

            Holt SF 10Rev 42
05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.

   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
   A 3.0 kg rock is initially at rest at the top
of a cliff. Assume that the rock falls into the
sea at the foot of the cliff and that its kinetic
energy is transferred entirely to the water.
   How high is the cliff if the temperature of
1.0 kg of water is raised 0.10 ◦ C?

            Water Temperature
05:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

  A 300 g glass thermometer initially at
25 ◦ C is put into 200 cm3 of hot water at
95 ◦ C. Find the final temperature of the
thermometer, assuming no heat flows to the
surroundings. (The specific heat of glass is
0.2 cal/(g ·◦ C).)

               Zinc and Water
05:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

  A 10 kg piece of zinc at 71 ◦ C is placed
in a container of water. The water has a
mass of 20 kg and has a temperature of 10 ◦ C
before the zinc is added. What is the final
temperature of water and zinc?
                          Chapter 5, section 6, Phases of Matter                             312


               Creating Snow                      1. A gas can be compressed into a very small
05:06, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.    volume.

  The freezing of atmospheric moisture into       2. The particles of a gas are held together
snow has a tendency to         the temper-       by strong attractive forces.
ature of the surrounding air.
                                                   3. A gas exerts pressure continuously and in
 1. increase                                     all directions on the walls of a vessel in which
                                                 it is contained.
 2. decrease
                                                  4. The particles of a gas tend to perme-
 3. not change                                   ate the entire volume into which they are
                                                 released.
               Freezing Water
05:06, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.                       Heat 15
                                                 05:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
  When water freezes:
                                                   Which of the following does not happen
 1. The temperature of the water decreases.      during the phase change from solid to liquid?

 2. Heat is absorbed from the surroundings.       1. The temperature rises.

 3. There is no heat exchange with the sur-       2. Melting occurs.
roundings.
                                                  3. Molecules move faster.
 4. The temperature of the water increases.
                                                  4. Heat is absorbed.
 5. Heat is given off to the surroundings.
                                                                    Heat 16
                  Gases 50                       05:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
05:06, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                    The following constants can be used for
 Which of the following is NOT a true state-     water:
ment about gases?                                   Cw = 1 cal/g◦ C
                                                    Lv = 540 cal/g
 1. They have no definite shape.                     Lf = 80 cal/g
                                                    How much heat is needed to vaporize 100 g
 2. They have no definite volume.                 of water at 100◦ C?

 3. They are not compressible.                    1. 54000 cal

 4. Their volume decreases with increasing        2. 100 cal
pressure.
                                                  3. 80 cal
                  Gases 51
05:06, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.     4. 800 cal

  Which of the following is not true of a gas?    5. 10000 cal
                           Chapter 5, section 6, Phases of Matter                           313

                                                  ter.
 6. 5400000 cal
                                                   3. Enormous thermal energy is released as
 7. None of these                                 molecular potential energy is transformed to
                                                  molecular kinetic energy in condensation.
                   Heat 18
05:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      4. Thermal energy is released because some
                                                  of the water molecules lose their energies.
  Which of the following does not happen as
the temperature of a gas increases?                           Hewitt CP9 17 E20
                                                  05:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 1. Kinetic energy decreases.
                                                    Why does the temperature of boiling water
 2. Molecules move faster.                        remain the same as long as the heating and
                                                  boiling continue?
 3. Molecules have more collisions.
                                                   1. The water and the stove have the same
 4. Kinetic energy increases.                     temperature.

                   Heat 21                         2. When water is boiling, it is being cooled
05:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.     by the boiling process as fast as it is being
                                                  heated by the stove.
  When steam condenses
                                                    3. The stove stops working when the water
 1. All of these occur.                           is boiling.

 2. it changes from the gas phase to the liquid    4. The cold air around the water takes away
phase.                                            the heat given by the stove.

 3. it gives off heat.                                              Matter 53
                                                  05:06, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 4. molecules move closer together.
                                                    Which state of matter is characterized by
 5. None of these occur.                          having molecules close together, but moving
                                                  randomly?
            Hewitt CP9 17 E19
05:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      1. liquid

   A great amount of water vapor changes           2. gas
phase to become water in the clouds that
form a thunderstorm.                               3. solid
   Does this release thermal energy or absorb
it?                                                4. All of these

 1. This will absorb thermal energy because                        Matter 54
water is heavier than water vapor.                05:06, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

  2. This will absorb thermal energy because        Which state of matter is characterized by
it gets cooler when water vapor becomes wa-       having molecules far apart and moving ran-
                          Chapter 5, section 6, Phases of Matter                           314

domly?
                                                  3. Solids have no definite volume.
 1. gas
                                                  4. Solids are easily compressible.
 2. solid
                                                                   States 55
 3. liquid                                       05:06, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

 4. All of these                                   Which physical state is most highly or-
                                                 dered?
                 Matter 55
05:06, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.     1. solid

   Which state of matter is characterized by      2. gas
having molecules close together and confined
in their movement?                                3. liquid

 1. solid                                         4. all are the same

 2. gas                                                            States 56
                                                 05:06, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 3. liquid
                                                   Matter is more likely to exist in the ?
 4. All of these                                 state as the temperature is raised and/or the
                                                 pressure is reduced.
             Phase Changes 50
05:06, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.     1. gas

  Sublimation describes which of the follow-      2. solid
ing instances/
                                                  3. liquid
 1. gas → solid
                                                  4. elemental
 2. solid → gas
                                                                   States 57
 3. liquid → gas                                 05:06, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

 4. solid → liquid                                 Which of the following ranks the three
                                                 states of matter from MOST to LEAST or-
                  Solids 50                      dered?
05:06, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                  1. solid > liquid > gas
  Which of the following is a true statement
about solids?                                     2. gas > liquid > solid

 1. The melting point of a solid is affected by    3. gas > solid > liquid
atmospheric pressure.
                                                  4. solid > gas > liquid
 2. Solids have definite shape.
                                 Chapter 5, section 6, Phases of Matter                             315

                  States 58
05:06, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.




                                                                          Temp
                                                                                            D   E
                                                                   80°
  Which physical state is most highly disor-
dered?                                                                                C
                                                                                 B
                                                                   15°
                                                                          A
 1. gas
                                                                                     Heat
 2. liquid
                                                        Identify the following:
                                                          a) Freezing point.
 3. solid
                                                         1. A
 4. All are the same.
                                                         2. B
                  States 59
05:06, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                         3. C
  If a substance is a liquid
                                                         4. D
 1. it has a definite volume but no definite
                                                         5. E
shape.
                                                         6. 15◦
 2. it has a definite volume and a definite
shape.
                                                         7. 80◦
 3. it has a definite shape but no definite
                                                         8. A, C, and E
volume.
                                                         9. B and D
 4. it is readily compressible.
                                                        10. None of these
                  States 60
05:06, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                                              Part 2 of 6
                                                        b) Condensation.
  Ice is     ?   liquid water.
                                                         1. D
 1. less dense than
                                                         2. B
 2. more dense than
                                                         3. C
 3. as dense as
                                                         4. A
         Temperature vs Heat 01
05:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.            5. E
                    Part 1 of 6                          6. 15◦
  Consider                the                figure.
                                                         7. 80◦
                         Chapter 5, section 6, Phases of Matter                 316

 8. A, C, and E
                                                10. None of these
 9. B and D
                                                                  Part 5 of 6
10. None of these                               e) Liquid.

                Part 3 of 6                      1. C
c) Phase change(s).
                                                 2. B
 1. B and D
                                                 3. A
 2. A
                                                 4. D
 3. B
                                                 5. E
 4. C
                                                 6. 15◦
 5. D
                                                 7. 80◦
 6. E
                                                 8. B and D
         ◦
 7. 15
                                                 9. A, C, and E
         ◦
 8. 80
                                                10. None of these
 9. A, C, and E
                                                                  Part 6 of 6
10. None of these                               f) Solid.

                Part 4 of 6                      1. A
d) Temperature change(s).
                                                 2. B
 1. A, C, and E
                                                 3. C
 2. A
                                                 4. D
 3. B
                                                 5. E
 4. C
                                                 6. 15◦
 5. D
                                                 7. 80◦
 6. E
                                                 8. B and D
 7. 15◦
                                                 9. A, C, and E
 8. 80◦
                                                10. None of these
 9. B and D
                           Chapter 5, section 6, Phases of Matter   317

                  Water 50
05:06, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.

   Unlike most other liquids, water   ?   when
it freezes.

 1. becomes more dense

 2. becomes colder

 3. becomes hotter

 4. becomes less dense
                  Chapter 5, section 7, The Gas Laws and Kinetic Theory                     318


                Gas Laws 69                        4. .042 mm Hg
05:07, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                                  Gas Laws 72
  For a given amount of gas at a constant tem-    05:07, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
perature, the volume of gas varies inversely
with its pressure is a statement of ? Law.          The statement that the volume of a fixed
                                                  amount of a gas at a constant pressure is
 1. Boyle’s                                       directly proportional to its absolute tempera-
                                                  ture is known as ? Law.
 2. Charles’
                                                   1. Charles’
 3. Avogadro’s
                                                   2. Boyle’s
 4. Curie’s
                                                   3. Gay-Lussac’s
                Gas Laws 70
05:07, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.      4. Avogadro’s

   A gas is enclosed in a cylinder fitted with                     Gas Laws 73
a piston. The volume of the gas is 2.00 L at      05:07, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
1.00 atm. pressure. The piston is moved to
increase the volume to 6.00 L.                      A balloon is inflated outdoors on a cold day
   Which of the following is a reasonable value   in North Dakota at a temperature of −40 C
for the pressure of the gas at the greater vol-   to a volume of 2.00 L. The pressure remains
ume?                                              constant.
                                                    What is the volume of the balloon indoors
 1. 0.333 atm                                     at a temperature of 25 C?

 2. 3.00 atm                                       1. 2.6 L

 3. 6.00 atm                                       2. 1.6 L

 4. 12.0 atm                                       3. 2.0 L

                Gas Laws 71                        4. −3.2 L
05:07, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                                  Gas Laws 74
   A gas is enclosed in a 10.0 L tank at 1200     05:07, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
mm Hg pressure.
   Which of the following is a reasonable value     A sample of a gas occupies 460 mL at
for the pressure when the gas is pumped into      70.0◦ C and 1.00 atmosphere.
a 5.00 L vessel?                                    At what temperature would the gas occupy
                                                  650 mL at the same pressure?
 1. 2400 mm Hg
                                                   1. 154◦ C
 2. 600 mm Hg
                                                   2. −30.0◦ C
 3. 24 mm Hg
                     Chapter 5, section 7, The Gas Laws and Kinetic Theory                    319

 3. 212◦ C
                                                     1. 0.972 L
 4. 101◦ C
                                                     2. 0.811 L
 5. 188◦ C
                                                     3. 1.23 L
                Gas Laws 75
05:07, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.        4. 1.02 L

  If at constant temperature the pressure on         5. 1.28 L
a sample of ideal gas is doubled the volume
will ? .                                                           Gas Laws 78
                                                   05:07, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
 1. double
                                                     A sample of ideal gas occupies 10.0 L at
 2. be cut in half                                 25◦ C.
                                                     If the temperature is increased to 125◦ C
 3. remain the same                                while maintaining the same pressure, the vol-
                                                   ume will be ? .
 4. be decreased by a factor of 4
                                                     1. 1201 L
                Gas Laws 76
05:07, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.        2. 13.4 L

   At 25◦ C a 4.0 L sample of H2 exerts a            3. 50 L
pressure of 5.0 atm.
   What pressure would the same sample exert         4. 7.5 L
in a 2.0 L container at 25◦ C?
                                                                   Gas Laws 80
 1. 2.5 atm                                        05:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

 2. 5.0 atm                                          A sample of a gas occupies 1400 milliliters
                                                   at 250◦ C and 740 torr.
 3. 10. atm                                          What volume would it occupy at the same
                                                   pressure and 250◦ C?
 4. 15. atm
                                                                   Gas Laws 81
 5. 20. atm                                        05:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.

                Gas Laws 77                          A sample of a gas occupies 1400 milliliters
05:07, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.      at 250 ◦ C and 740 torr.
                                                     At what temperature would it occupy
  Suppose you inhaled 1.00 liter of air at         1251.5 milliliters if the pressure is kept con-
−30.0◦ C (−22◦ F), and held this air long          stant?
enough to heat it to body temperature,
37.0◦ C.                                                           Gas Laws 82
  What would be the new volume of the air          05:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
in the lungs assuming the pressure remained
constant?                                            A sample of nitrogen occupies 11.2 liters
                  Chapter 5, section 7, The Gas Laws and Kinetic Theory                        320

under a pressure of 580 torr at 32◦ C.                         Holt SF 09Rev 30
  What volume would it occupy at 32◦ C if          05:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
the pressure were increased to 800 torr?           wording-variable.

             Holt SF 09E 01                           The pressure in a constant-volume gas ther-
05:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            mometer is 7.09 × 104 Pa at 100.0 ◦C and
wording-variable.                                  5.19 × 104 Pa at 0.0 ◦C.
                                                      What is the temperature when the pressure
   A cylinder with a movable piston contains       is 4.05 × 103 Pa?
gas at a temperature of 27 ◦C, with a volume
of 15 m3 and a pressure of 0.200 × 105 Pa.                     Holt SF 09Rev 34
   What will be the final temperature of the        05:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
gas if it is compressed to 0.700 m3 and its        wording-variable.
pressure is increased to 0.800 × 105 Pa?
                                                      Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
             Holt SF 09E 02                           A swimmer has 8.20 × 10−4 m3 of air in his
05:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            lungs when he dives into a lake.
wording-variable.                                     Assuming the pressure of the air is 95 per-
                                                   cent of the external pressure at all times, what
  Gas is confined in a tank at a pressure of        is the volume of the air at a depth of 10.0 m?
1.00 × 108 Pa and a temperature of 15.0◦ C.        Assume that the atmospheric pressure at the
Half of the gas is withdrawn and the temper-       surface is 1.013 × 105 Pa, the density of the
ature is raised to 65.0◦ C.                        lake water is 1.00 × 103 kg/m3 , and the tem-
  Find the new pressure in the tank.               perature is constant.

             Holt SF 09E 03                                    Holt SF 09Rev 35
05:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            05:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                  wording-variable.

   Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .                            Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
   A gas bubble with a volume of 0.10 cm3            An air bubble has a volume of 1.50 cm3
is formed at the bottom of a 10.0 cm deep          when it is released by a submarine 100.0 m
container of mercury. The temperature is           below the surface of the sea.
27 ◦C at the bottom of the container and 37 ◦C       What is the volume of the bubble when it
at the top of the container.                       reaches the surface? Assume that the temper-
   What is the volume of the bubble just be-       ature of the air in the bubble remains constant
neath the surface of the mercury? Assume           during ascent.
that the surface is at atmospheric pressure.
                                                               Holt SF 09Rev 40
            Holt SF 09Rev 29                       05:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
05:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,            wording-variable.
wording-variable.
                                                     The density of helium gas at 0.0 ◦C is
  An ideal gas is contained in a vessel of         0.179 kg/m3 . The temperature is then raised
fixed volume at a temperature of 325 K and a        to 100.0 ◦C, but the pressure is kept constant.
pressure of 1.22 × 105 Pa.                           Assuming that helium is an ideal gas, cal-
  If the pressure is increased to 1.78 × 105 Pa,   culate the new density of the gas.
what is the final temperature of the gas?
                                                                Holt SF 09Rev 42
                   Chapter 5, section 7, The Gas Laws and Kinetic Theory                          321

05:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                                Holt SF 09Rev 57
                                                     05:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
   A weather balloon is designed to expand           wording-variable.
to a maximum radius of 20.0 m when the air
pressure is 3.0 × 103 Pa and the temperature                           Part 1 of 2
of the air surrounding it is 200.0 K.                  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
   If the balloon is filled at a pressure of 1.01 ×     An air bubble originating from a deep-sea
105 Pa and 300.0 K, what is the radius of the        diver has a radius of 2.0 mm at the depth
balloon at the time of liftoff?                       of the diver. When the bubble reaches the
                                                     surface of the water, it has a radius of 3.0 mm.
            Holt SF 09Rev 45                         Assume that the temperature of the air in the
05:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,              bubble remains constant.
wording-variable.                                      a) Determine the depth of the diver.

                  Part 1 of 2                                       Part 2 of 2
  Before beginning a long trip on a hot day,         b) Determine the absolute pressure at this
a driver inflates an automobile tire to a gauge       depth.
pressure of 1.8 atm at 293 K. At the end of
the trip, the gauge pressure in the tire has                     Holt SF 09Rev 66
increased to 2.1 atm.                                05:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
  a) Assuming the volume of the air inside           wording-variable.
the tire has remained constant, what is its
temperature at the end of the trip?                     A sealed glass bottle at 27◦ C contains air at
                                                     a pressure of 1.01 × 105 Pa and has a volume
                   Part 2 of 2                       of 30.0 cm3 . The bottle is tossed into an open
Air is released from the tire during a short         fire.
time interval, so that the temperature remains          When the temperature of the air in the
at the value found in part a). Assume that           bottle reaches 225◦ C, what is the pressure
the amount of air released is small enough for       inside the bottle? Assume the volume of the
the tire’s volume to be treated as constant.         bottle is constant.
   b) What quantity of air (as a fraction of
the initial number of particles, Ni ) must be
released from the tire so that the pressure
returns to its initial value?

            Holt SF 09Rev 46
05:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.

  Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
  A cylindrical diving bell 3.0 m in diame-
ter and 4.0 m tall with an open bottom is
submerged to a depth of 220 m in the ocean.
The temperature of the air at the surface is
25◦ C, and the air’s temperature 220 m down is
5.0◦ C. The density of sea water is 1025 kg/m3 .
  How high does the sea water rise in the bell
when the bell is submerged?
                      Chapter 5, section 8, Heating and Cooling Systems                          322


                  Freon 50                          4. solar collector.
05:08, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                                     Heat 24
  Freon is actually a trademark of what com-      05:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
pany?
                                                    In a radiant electric system, heat is pro-
 1. Dow                                           duced from

 2. DuPont                                          1. electric resistance in cables or wires.

 3. Phillips                                        2. thermostats.

 4. Exxon                                           3. heat pumps.

 5. Goodyear                                        4. packed fiberglass.

                  Freon 51                                           Heat 25
05:08, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.     05:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

   Which of the following processes describes        Weatherstripping prevents heat loss by
the way in which freons are used to cool things
(or, what is going on in your refrigerator and      1. reducing convection and conduction.
freezer compartment)?
                                                    2. preventing condensation.
 1. Freon is undergoing evaporation.
                                                    3. increasing radiation.
 2. Freon is undergoing condensation.
                                                    4. lessening evaporation.
 3. Freon is undergoing freezing.
                                                                     Heat 26
 4. Cold freon is being circulated with no        05:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
evaporation or condensation.
                                                    Which of the following is not part of a
 5. Freon is removing heat by changing its        cooling system?
chemical structure.
                                                    1. cooling tower
                   Heat 23
05:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.       2. storage tank

   In a solar heating system, heat is trans-        3. refrigerant
ferred to water in a storage tank by means of
a                                                   4. compressor

 1. heat exchanger.                                                  Heat 27
                                                  05:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 2. radiator.
                                                     In which stroke of a four-stroke engine does
 3. cooling tower.                                a spark plug ignite the gas?
                     Chapter 5, section 8, Heating and Cooling Systems                      323

                                                                    Heat 31
 1. compression                                  05:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 2. power                                           Consider the following statements.
                                                    A. A central heating system generates heat
 3. exhaust                                      for an entire building from one central source.
                                                    B. The source of heat for a heat pump
 4. intake                                       system is electricity.
                                                    C. Glass is a poor conductor of heat.
                   Heat 28                          Which statement(s) is/are true?
05:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                   1. Only A and C are true.
  A diesel engine
                                                   2. Only B is true.
 1. uses only air during the intake stroke.
                                                   3. A, B, and C are true.
 2. is an external-combustion engine.
                                                   4. Only A is true.
 3. uses a spark plug to ignite fuel.
                                                   5. Only C is true.
 4. uses Freon.
                                                   6. Only A and B are true.
                   Heat 29
05:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      7. Only B and C are true.

  A cooling tower                                  8. None are true.

 1. cools water as it flows through pipes.

 2. causes thermal pollution.

 3. cools water through insolution.

 4. is controlled by a thermostat.

                   Heat 30
05:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

  In passive solar heating,

 1. buildings are heated directly by the sun.

 2. a solar collector absorbs sunlight.

 3. buildings have pipes to circulate hot wa-
ter.

 4. a heat exchaner is needed.
                          Chapter 5, section 9, Thermal Pollution   324


                   Heat 22
05:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

  The greenhouse effect occurs when

 1. radiated heat from the Earth is absorbed
by the atmosphere.

 2. steam heating systems are used.

 3. ultraviolet light is absorbed by the atmo-
sphere.

 4. cooling towers malfunction.
                  Chapter 5, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 05                    325

                                                  05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                   Heat 01
05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.       Which of the following substances conducts
                                                  heat well?
  When steam condenses
                                                   1. glass
 1. it changes from the gas phase to the liquid
phase.                                             2. plastic

 2. it gives off heat.                              3. wood

 3. molecules move closer together.                4. metal

 4. all of these occur.                                              Heat 05
                                                  05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 5. only one of these occurs.
                                                    The specific heat of copper is 385 J/kg◦ C.
 6. only two of these occur.                        Which equation would you use to calculate
                                                  the amount of heat needed to raise the tem-
                   Heat 02                        perature of 0.75 kg of copper from 10◦ C to
05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.     25◦ C?

  The boiling point of ether is 35◦ C.             1. heat = 385 J/kg◦ C (25◦ C)
  What is the boiling point of ether on the
Kelvin scale?                                      2. heat = 385 J/kg◦ C (15◦ C)

 1. 208 K                                          3. heat = 0.75 kg (385 J/kg◦ C) (25◦ C)

 2. 308 K                                          4. heat = 0.75 kg (385 J/kg◦ C) (15◦ C)

 3. −238 K                                         5. heat = 0.75 kg + 385 J/kg◦ C + 25◦ C

 4. 35 K                                           6. heat = 0.75 kg + 385 J/kg◦ C + 15◦ C

                   Heat 03                                           Heat 06
05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.     05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

  Heat energy from the sun reaches the earth        When a substance has just reached its freez-
by                                                ing point,

 1. radiation.                                     1. its molecules have no kinetic energy.

 2. convection.                                    2. it has a temperature at or below 0 K.

 3. conduction.                                    3. it is at its melting point.

 4. thermal expansion.                             4. it is at its boiling point.

                   Heat 04                                            Heat 07
                  Chapter 5, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 05                   326

05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.       6. Only A and B are true.

  The measurement of the average kinetic            7. Only B and C are true.
energy of the molecules in a substance is called
                                                    8. None are true.
 1. temperature.
                                                                      Heat 20
 2. internal energy.                               05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

 3. convection.                                      Consider the following statements.
                                                     A. During the phase change called melting,
 4. conduction.                                    the temperature remains constant.
                                                     B. Ice is more dense than water.
                   Heat 08                           C. Adding heat to a substance increases the
05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.      motion of the molecules.
                                                     Which statement(s) is/are true?
   The amount of heat needed to raise the
temperature of 1 kg of a substance by 1 ◦ C is      1. Only B is true.
its
                                                    2. Only A and C are true.
 1. temperature.
                                                    3. A, B, and C are true.
 2. specific heat.
                                                    4. Only A is true.
 3. internal energy.
                                                    5. Only C is true.
 4. calories.
                                                    6. Only A and B are true.
                   Heat 19
05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.       7. Only B and C are true.

  Consider the following statements.                8. None are true.
  A. The amount of heat in a substance de-
pends on the motion of the molecules.                                 Heat 32
  B. Cold is the absence of temperature.           05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
  C. A calorimeter is used to measure tem-
perature.                                             Consider the following statements.
  Which statement(s) is/are true?                     A. The process of combustion is involved in
                                                   the operation of all heat engines.
 1. Only A is true.                                   B. A cooling tower helps lessen the effects
                                                   of thermal pollution.
 2. Only A and C are true.                            C. In the greenhouse effect, infrared rays
                                                   are trapped in the atmosphere.
 3. A, B, and C are true.                             Which statement(s) is/are true?

 4. Only B is true.                                 1. A, B, and C are true.

 5. Only C is true.                                 2. Only A and C are true.
                 Chapter 5, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 05                   327

 3. Only B is true.
                                                  3. The kinetic energy of gas molecules don’t
 4. Only A is true.                              change.

 5. Only C is true.                               4. Temperature has to do with random
                                                 speeds.
 6. Only A and B are true.
                                                   5. It would be statistically possible for any
 7. Only B and C are true.                       large number of molecules to have the same
                                                 speed.
 8. None are true.
                                                             Hewitt CP9 15 E05
                   Heat 33                       05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                   Which of the following has the greatest
  Consider the following statements.             amount of internal energy.
  A. The process of convection is involved in
the operation of cooling systems to remove        1. An iceberg
heat energy.
  B. Steam engines are internal-combustion        2. A cup of hot coffee
engines.
  C. In the intake stroke of a four-stroke en-    3. A cup of water
gine, gasoline is mixed with air.
  Which statement(s) is/are true?                 4. A pencil

 1. Only C is true.                               5. A laptop

 2. A, B, and C are true.                                    Hewitt CP9 15 E11
                                                 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 3. Only A and C are true.
                                                    What do you say about the temperature of
 4. Only B is true.                              water at the bottom of Niagara Falls to be
                                                 slightly higher than the temperature at the
 5. Only A is true.                              top of the fall?

 6. Only A and B are true.                        1. A little higher than the temperature at
                                                 the top
 7. Only B and C are true.
                                                  2. A little lower than the temperature at the
 8. None are true.                               top

            Hewitt CP9 15 E03                     3. Much lower than the temperature at the
05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.    top

  Which of the following is correct?              4. The same as the temperature as the tem-
                                                 perature at the top
 1. Gas molecules move at random speed.
                                                  5. All are wrong.
 2. Gas molecules move at the same speed.
                 Chapter 5, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 05                   328

            Hewitt CP9 15 E13
05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.                Hewitt CP9 15 E17
                                                 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
  Which of the following is wrong?
                                                    Iceland, so named to discourage conquest
  1. Adding the same amount of heat to two       by expanding empires, is not at all ice-covered
different objects necessarily produce the same    like Greenland and parts of Siberia, even
increase in temperature.                         though it is close to the Arctic Circle. The
                                                 average winter temperature of Iceland is con-
 2. Different substances have different ther-      siderably higher than regions at the same lati-
mal properties due to differences in the way      tude in eastern Greenland and central Sibetia.
energy is stored internally in the substances.      Which of the following is correct?

  3. When the same amount of hert produces        1. The climate of Iceland is moderated by
different changes in temperature in two sub-      the surrounding water.
stances of the same mass, we say that they
have different specific heat capacities.            2. The height of Iceland is higher.

 4. Each substance has its own characteristic     3. The height of Iceland is lower.
specific heat capacity.
                                                  4. The Iceland is covered with ice.
 5. Temperature measures the average ki-
netic energy of random motion, but not other      5. All above are wrong.
kinds of energy.
                                                             Hewitt CP9 15 E19
            Hewitt CP9 15 E15                    05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
                                                    If the winds at the latitude of San Fran-
  Which of the following is wrong?               cisco and Washington D.C. were from the
                                                 east rather than from the west,
 1. Water has a low specific heat capacity.          which of the following is wrong?

 2. A watermelon stay cool for a longer time      1. The climate of San Francisco will be
than sandwiches when both are removed from       warmer and the climate of Washington D.C.
a cooler on a hot day.                           will be cooler.

 3. Water has a high specific heat capacity,        2. San Francisco might be able to grow only
which is to say, it normally takes a long time   cherry trees and Washington D.C. only palm
to heat up, or cool down.                        trees.

  4. The water in the watermelon resists          3. As the ocean off the coast of Washington
changes in temperature, so once cooled it        D.C. cools in the winter, the heat it loses
will stay cool longer than sandwiches or other   warms the atmosphere it comes in contact
non-watery substances under the same condi-      with.
tions.
                                                  4. The climate of San Francisco would be
  5. The watermelon stay cool for a longer       chilled by winter winds from dry and cold
time because it has a high specific heat capac-   Nevada.
ity.
                 Chapter 5, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 05                   329

  5. The climate would be reversed in Wash-       5. If water had a higher specific heat, ponds
ington D.C., because air warmed by the cool-     would be less likely to freeze.
ing of the Atlantic Ocean would blow over
Washington D.C. and produce a warmer cli-                    Hewitt CP9 16 E05
mate in winter there.                            05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

            Hewitt CP9 15 E21                      There is a layer of copper and aluminum on
05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.    the bottom of stainless steel cookware.
                                                   Which of the following is the reason?
  Desert sand is very hot in the day and very
cool at night.                                    1. Copper and aluminum are better conduc-
  Which of the following is wrong?               tors than stainless steel.

 1. Sand has a high specific heat compared         2. Stainless steel are better conductors than
with air.                                        copper and aluminum.

 2. Sand has a low specific heat compared          3. Stainless steel more quickly transfer heat
with air.                                        to the cookwares’s interior.

 3. Sand has a relatively large temperature        4. Copper is better conductors than stainless
changes for small changes in internal energy.    steel and aluminum.

 4. A substance with a high specific heat must     5. All above are wrong.
absorb or give off large amount of internal
energy for comparable temperature changes.                   Hewitt CP9 16 E07
                                                 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
 5. A substance with a low specific heat must
absorb or give off small amount of internal         Many tongues have been injured by licking
energy for comparable temperature changes.       a piece of metal on a very cold day.
                                                   Which of the following is wrong?
            Hewitt CP9 15 E49
05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.     1. The tongues are injured because of the
                                                 cold weather.
  Which of the following is wrong?
                                                   2. In touching tongue to very cold metal,
 1. If water had a lower specific heat, ponds     enough heat can be quickly conducted away
would be less likely to freeze.                  from the tongue.

 2. If water had a lower specific heat, ponds       3. No harm result if a piece of wood were
would be more likely to freeze.                  licked on the same day.

 3. If water had a lower specific heat, the        4. In the case of wood, much less heat is con-
temperature would decrease more when watr        ducted from the tongue and freezing doesn’t
give up energy.                                  take place fast.

 4. If water had a lower specific heat, wa-        5. When the saliva is brought to sub-zero
ter would readily be cooled to the freezing      temperature where it freezes, locking the
point.                                           tongue to the metal.
                 Chapter 5, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 05                   330

             Holt SF 11C 01                       heat?
05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                              Holt SF 11C 06
                                                  05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
   If a steam engine takes in 2.254 × 104 kJ      wording-variable.
from the boiler and gives up 1.915 × 104 kJ in
exhaust during one cycle, what is the engine’s      If the energy removed from an engine as
efficiency?                                         heat during one cycle is 6.0 × 102 J, how much
                                                  energy must be added to the engine during
              Holt SF 11C 02                      one cycle in order for it to operate at 31
05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-      percent efficiency?
mal.
                                                              Holt SF 11Rev 19
  A test model for an experimental gasoline       05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
engine does 45 J of work in one cycle and gives   wording-variable.
up 31 J as heat.
  What is the engine’s efficiency?                    A power plant has a power output of
                                                  1055 MW and operates with an efficiency of
             Holt SF 11C 03                       33.0 percent. Excess energy is carried away
05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,           as heat from the plant to a nearby river that
wording-variable.                                 has a flow rate of 1.1 × 106 kg/s.
                                                    How much energy is transferred as heat to
                  Part 1 of 2                     the river each second?
   A steam engine absorbs 1.98 × 105 J and
expels 1.49 × 105 J in each cycle. Assume that                Holt SF 11Rev 20
all of the remaining energy is used to do work.   05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
   a) What is the engine’s efficiency?              wording-variable.

               Part 2 of 2                          Heat is added to an open pan of water
b) How much work is done in each cycle?           at 100.0◦ C, vaporizing the water. The ex-
                                                  panding steam that results does 43.0 kJ of
              Holt SF 11C 04                      work, and the internal energy of the system
05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-      increases by 604 kJ.
mal.                                                How much energy is transferred to the sys-
                                                  tem as heat?
  If a gasoline engine has an efficiency of 21
percent and loses 780 J to the cooling system                 Holt SF 11Rev 21
and exhaust during each cycle, how much           05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
work is done by the engine?                       wording-variable.

             Holt SF 11C 05                                          Part 1 of 3
05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,              Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 .
wording-variable.                                    A 150 kg steel rod in a building under con-
                                                  struction supports a load of 6050 kg. During
  A certain diesel engine performs 372 J of       the day the rod’s temperature increases from
work in each cycle with an efficiency of 33.0       22 ◦ C to 47 ◦ C, causing the rod to thermally
percent.                                          expand and raise the load 5.5 mm.
  How much energy is transferred from the            a) Find the energy transferred as heat to
engine to the exhaust and cooling system as       or from the rod. (Assume the specific heat
                  Chapter 5, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 05   331

capacity of steel is the same as for iron.)

                 Part 2 of 3
b) Find the work done by or on the rod in this
process.

                  Part 3 of 3
c) How great is the change in the rod’s internal
energy?

             Holt SF 11Rev 28
05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor-
mal.

   In one cycle, an engine burning a mixture
of air and methanol (methyl alcohol) absorbs
525 J and expels 415 J.
   What is the engine’s efficiency?

            Holt SF 11Rev 29
05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.

  The energy provided each hour by heat to
the turbine in an electric power plant is 9.5 ×
1012 J.
  If 6.5 × 1012 J of energy is exhausted each
hour from the engine as heat, what is the
efficiency of this heat engine?

            Holt SF 11Rev 30
05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.

  A heat engine absorbs 850 J of energy per
cycle from a high-temperature source.
  The engine does 3.5 × 102 J of work during
each cycle, expelling 5.0 × 102 J as heat.
  What is the engine’s efficiency?
                           Chapter 6, section 1, Wave Properties                           332

                                                 of sound in air is 340 m/s.
                Beach Waves
06:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.                            Part 2 of 2
                                                 b) Find the minimum wavelength in air at-
  4 waves crash onto a beach every 30 s.         tained by this instrument.
  What is their frequency?
                                                              Holt SF 12D 02
              Chirp of a Bat 01                  06:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
06:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.          wording-variable.

   The sound emitted by bats has a wave-                          Part 1 of 3
length of 3.5 mm.                                  The speed of all electromagnetic waves in
   What is the frequency in air?                 empty space is 3.00 × 108 m/s.
                                                   a) What is the wavelength of radio waves
              Chirp of a Bat 02                  emitted at 88.0 MHz?
06:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                                  Part 2 of 3
   A bat can detect small objects such as an     b) What is the wavelength of visible light
insect whose size is approximately equal to      emitted at 6.0 × 108 MHz?
one wavelength of the sound the bat makes.
   Assume: Bats emit a chirp at a frequency                      Part 3 of 3
of 60 kHz, and that the speed of sound in air    c) What is the wavelength of X rays emitted
is 340 m/s.                                      at 3.0 × 1012 MHz?
   What is the smallest insect a bat can de-
tect?                                                           Holt SF 12D 03
                                                 06:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
           Frequency of a Wave
06:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.            The red light emitted by a He-Ne laser has
                                                 a wavelength of 633 nm in air and travels at
                  Part 1 of 2                    3.00 × 108 m/s.
  A wave has a wavelength of 4×10−7 m and a        Find the frequency of the laser light.
speed of 2.5×108 m/s in a particular material.
What is its frequency in this material?                       Holt SF 12D 04
                                                 06:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
                 Part 2 of 2                     wording-variable.
The frequency of a wave does not change as
the wave moves from one material to another.                       Part 1 of 2
Find the wavelength of this wave in vacuum.         A tuning fork produces a sound with a fre-
                                                 quency of 256 Hz and a wavelength in air of
             Holt SF 12D 01                      1.35 m.
06:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,             a) What value does this give for the speed
wording-variable.                                of sound in air?

                 Part 1 of 2                                       Part 2 of 2
   A piano emits frequencies that range from     b) What would be the wavelength of the wave
a low of about 28 Hz to a high of about 4200     produced by this tuning fork in water in which
Hz.                                              sound travels at 1500 m/s?
   a) Find the maximum wavelength in air
attained by this instrument when the speed
                           Chapter 6, section 1, Wave Properties                            333

            Holt SF 12Rev 36                                 Holt SF 12Rev 51
06:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,          06:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.                                wording-variable.

  Microwaves travel at the speed of light,                          Part 1 of 2
3.00 × 108 m/s.                                     The notes produced by a violin range in
  When the frequency of microwaves is 9.00×      frequency from approximately 196 Hz to 2637
  9
10 Hz, what is their wavelength?                 Hz.
                                                    a) Find the maximum wavelength in air
              Holt SF 12Rev 48                   produced by this instrument when the speed
06:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.    of sound in air is 340 m/s.

                 Part 1 of 2                                      Part 2 of 2
  Green light has a wavelength of 5.20 × 10−7    b) Find the minimum wavelength produced
m and travels through the air at a speed of      by this instrument.
3.00 × 108 m/s.
  a) Calculate the frequency of green light                    Holt SF 12Rev 55
waves with this wavelength.                      06:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.

                 Part 2 of 2                        Yellow light travels through a certain glass
b) Calculate the period of green light waves     block at a speed of 1.97 × 108 m/s. The
with this wavelength.                            wavelength of the light in this particular type
                                                 of glass is 3.81 × 10−7 m (381 nm).
            Holt SF 12Rev 49                        What is the frequency of the yellow light in
06:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,          the glass block?
wording-variable.
                                                             Holt SF 12Rev 57
                 Part 1 of 3                     06:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
  You dip your finger into a pan of water twice   wording-variable.
each second, producing waves with crests that
are separated by 0.15 m.                            The distance between two successive crests
  a) Determine the frequency of these water      of a certain transverse wave is 1.20 m. Eight
waves.                                           crests pass a given point along the direction
                                                 of travel every 12.0 s.
                 Part 2 of 3                        Calculate the wave speed.
b) Determine the period of these water waves.
                                                             Holt SF 12Rev 59
                 Part 3 of 3                     06:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
c) Determine the speed of these water waves.     wording-variable.

            Holt SF 12Rev 50                        A harmonic wave is traveling along a rope.
06:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,          The oscillator that generates the wave com-
wording-variable.                                pletes 40.0 vibrations in 30.0 s. A given crest
                                                 of the wave travels 425 cm along the rope in a
  A sound wave traveling at 343 m/s is emit-     time period of 10.0 s.
ted by the foghorn of a tugboat. An echo is         What is the wavelength?
heard 2.60 s later.
  How far away is the reflecting object?                        Lightening Strike
                                                 06:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                           Chapter 6, section 1, Wave Properties                                334

                                                  through steel. A wavelength of 11.66 m is
   The speed of the lightwaves in air is          measured.
3 × 108 m/s. The speed of sound waves in            What is the speed of the sound in steel?
air is 333 m/s. What is the time lapse be-
tween seeing a lightening strike and hearing                     Sound in Water
the thunder if the lightening flash is 1 km        06:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
away?
                                                     The wavelength of a 440 Hz sound in fresh
              Ocean Waves 01                      water is 3.3 m. What is the speed of the sound
06:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.           in water?

   An ocean wave has a length of 10 m. A                        Swaying Building
wave passes a fixed location every 2 s. What       06:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
is the speed of the wave?
                                                    The Sears Building in Chicago sways back
              Ocean Waves 02                      and forth with a frequency of about 0.1 Hz.
06:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.           What is its period of vibration?

   An ocean wave travels 10 m in 5 s. The                           Units 75
distance between the two nearest wave crests      06:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
is 3 m. What is the frequency f of the wave?
                                                    FREQ is measured in Hertz and has the
               Sound in Air 01                    units ? .
06:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                   1. sec−1
                  Part 1 of 3
   A sound wave of wavelength 0.7 m and            2. meters
velocity 330 m/s is produced for 0.5 s. What
is the frequency of the wave?                      3. Joules × sec

               Part 2 of 3                         4. meter/sec
How many complete waves are emitted in this
time interval?                                                    Water Wave
                                                  06:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                  Part 3 of 3
After 0.5 s, how far is the front wave from the                     Part 1 of 3
source of the sound?                                 The time needed for a water wave to change
                                                  from the equilibrium level to the crest is 0.18 s.
               Sound in Air 02                    What fraction of a wavelength is this?
06:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                                   Part 2 of 3
   A sound having a frequency of 200 Hz trav-     What is the period of the wave?
els through air at 300 m/s. What is the
wavelength of the sound?                                           Part 3 of 3
                                                  What is the frequency of the wave?
               Sound in Steel
06:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.                         Waves in a Pond
                                                  06:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
  Sound with a frequency of 442 Hz travels
                           Chapter 6, section 1, Wave Properties   335


  A rock dropped into a pond produces a
wave that takes 10 s to reach the opposite
shore, 20 m away. The distance between
consecutive crests of the wave is 2 m. What is
the frequency of the wave?
                       Chapter 6, section 2, Electromagnetic Waves                                                                       336


             AM Radio Signals
06:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, fixed.
                                                                                                                 closest
                                                                                    I0                          distance
                 Part 1 of 4                                                          I                                                        Earth
   AM radio signals are broadcast at frequen-                                             J   Jupiter                        E           S       E
                                                                                                                                     Sun
cies between 550 kHz and 1600 kHz(kilohertz)
and travel 2.99792 × 108 m/s. What is the
                                                                                                                           farthest distance
shortest AM wavelength?

                 Part 2 of 4
What is the longest AM wavelength?                    Figure 1: A schematic of the Sun,
                                                      Earth, Jupiter, and the eclipse of Io.
                 Part 3 of 4                        The variation, 15 seconds, in the period of
FM frequencies range between 88 MHz and          Io was hard to determine accurately and was
108 MHz(megahertz) and travel at the same                                      o
                                                 not necessarily used in Ole R¨mer’s determi-
speed. What is the shortest FM wavelength?       nation of the speed of light. This variation
                                                 is most pronounced as the Earth moved from
                 Part 4 of 4                     a point in its orbit where its motion is to-
What is the longest FM wavelength?               ward Jupiter to a diametrically opposite point
                                                 where it moves away from Jupiter, see Fig. 2.
            Earth Sun Distance
06:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                                                   14 s
                                                 Observed Period



                                                                                                                     sine function
                                     o
   As a result of his observations, R¨mer con-
                                                                   42 h 28 m 16 s




cluded that the time interval between eclipses                                                 time interval
                                                                                              between eclipse
of Io by Jupiter increased by 22 min dur-                                                           ∆T
ing a 6 month period as the Earth moved                                             closest distance                 farthest distance
from a point in its orbit where its motion
is toward Jupiter to a diametrically opposite                                                             1 year
point where it moves away from Jupiter. The          Figure 2: A simplified version of
presently accepted value of the speed of light                                    o
                                                     the measurement made by R¨mer.
in vacuum is 2.998 × 108 m/s.                        The large errors in the data points
   Find an average value for the distance be-        are not shown.
tween the Earth and the Sun.                       Calculate the speed of light from these
                                                 data.
         Eclipses of Io by Jupiter
06:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.                       Fizeau Apparatus
                                                 06:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                                         o
  As a result of his observations, Ole R¨mer
concluded that the time interval between                             In an experiment to measure the
eclipses of Io by Jupiter increased and de-                        speed of light using the apparatus
creased by ∆T = 22 min (within a few per-                          of Fizeau (see figure), the distance
cent) during a six month period, see Fig. 1.                       between the light source and mirror
                    sun
       Assume: Rearth = 1.5 × 108 km                               was 11.45 km and the wheel had
     is the accepted value, at that                                720 notches. The experimentally deter-
     time, for the average radius of                               mined value of c was 2.998 × 108 m/s.
     the Earth’s orbit around the Sun.
                         Chapter 6, section 2, Electromagnetic Waves                            337

                             d                                    Part 4 of 4
                                                  Find the second-lowest speed of rotation for
                                                  Part 3.

                                                                FM Radio Wave
                     A
                         C                        06:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
                     B
                                                                   Part 1 of 2
                                                    The frequency of oscillation of the wave
                                                  emitted by an FM radio station is 88 MHz.
                 Toothed         Mirror           Use 3 × 108 m/s as the speed of the wave.
                  wheel                           Find the wave’s period of vibration.
  Fizeau’s method for measuring the speed
  of light using a rotating toothed wheel.                          Part 2 of 2
  The speed of rotation of the wheel con-         Find its wavelength. (Radio waves travel at
  trols what an observer sees. For example,       the speed of light.)
  if the light passing the opening at point A
  should return at the instant that tooth B                      Frequency 50
  had rotated into position to cover the re-      06:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, fixed.
  turn path, the light would not reach the
  observer. At a faster rate of rotation, the       Which has the greater frequency, a 300 nm
  opening at point C could move into posi-        photon or a 500 nm photon?
  tion to allow the reflected beam to reach
  the observer.                                     1. the 300 nm photon
  Calculate the minimum angular speed of
the wheel for this experiment.                      2. the 500 nm photon

            Fizeau Experiment                       3. they have the same frequency because c
06:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal.           is constant

                   Part 1 of 4                                Hewitt CP9 26 R21
  The Fizeau experiment is performed such         06:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.
that the round-trip distance for the light is
40 m.                                               How does the average speed of light in glass
  Given: The wheel has 360 teeth/rev and          compare with its speed in a vacuum?
the speed of light is 2.99792 × 108 m/s.
  Find the lowest speed of rotation that allow      1. The speed of light in glass is higher.
the light to pass through a notch between the
teeth of the wheel.                                 2. The speed of light in glass is lower.

                   Part 2 of 4                     3. For light speed,there is no difference be-
Find the second-lowest speed of rotation that     tween in glass and in vacuum.
allow the light to pass through a notch.
                                                   4. It cannot be judged because we don’t
                  Part 3 of 4                     know what kind of glass it is.
Repeat the calculation in Part 1 for a round-
trip distance of 4000 m.                           5. For colorless glass,the light speed in it is
                                                  higher than in vacuum; for colored glass, the
                        Chapter 6, section 2, Electromagnetic Waves                           338

light speed in it is lower than in vacuum.       MHz and 29.7 MHz.
                                                  a) What is the wavelength at 3.50 MHz ?
            Hewitt CP9 27 R29
06:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, fixed.                    Part 2 of 2
                                                 b) What is the wavelength at 29.7 MHz ?
   What part of the electromagnetic spectrum
is most absorbed by water?                                    Holt SF 14A 04
                                                 06:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min,
 1. Infrared part.