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24 August 2007 Homework Service Book Physical Science Chapters 01 to 10 All Questions Contact homework computer at World Wide Web URL https://hw.utexas.edu/ information: https://hw.utexas.edu/bur/overview.html signup: https://hw.utexas.edu/bur/instrGuestEID.html contact: homework@physics.utexas.edu Homework Service Book — Physical Science -2 - 00 Editing Examples 03-08 Fluid Forces and Pressure 00-01 Standard Problem Layouts 03-09 Hydraulic Devices 00-02 Basic Control Structures 03-10 Collisions 00-03 Advanced Control Structures 03-11 Buoyancy and Fluid Flow 00-04 Algorithmic Functions 03-99 Associated problems in Chapter 03 00-05 Manipulate Numbers and Characters 04 Work and Energy 00-06 Tables 04-01 Work 00-07 Special TEX Formatting 04-02 Power 00-08 General PSTricks Techniques 04-03 Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy 00-09 Graphs 04-04 Conservation of Energy 00-10 Special Figures 04-05 Forms and Sources of Energy 00-11 Deﬁne and Name Figures 04-06 Simple and Compound Machines 00-12 Chemistry Techniques 04-07 Non-conservative Energy 00-13 Mathematics Techniques 04-08 Rotational Energy 00-14 Physics Techniques 04-09 Torque 00-99 Associated problems in Chapter 00 04-10 Rolling Motion 01 Measurement 04-11 Simple Harmonic Motion 01-01 The Senses 04-12 Pendulum 01-02 Concepts and Fundamental Quantities 04-99 Associated problems in Chapter 04 01-03 Standard Units 05 Temperature and Heat 01-04 Derived Quantitites and Conversion 05-01 Temperature Factors 05-02 Heat 01-05 Measurement of Circles 05-03 Speciﬁc Heat and Latent Heat 01-06 Experimental Error 05-04 Thermodynamics 01-07 Scientiﬁc Notation 05-05 Heat Transfer 01-08 Scientiﬁc Method 05-06 Phases of Matter 01-09 Tools of Measurement 05-07 The Gas Laws and Kinetic Theory 01-10 Safety in the Laboratory 05-08 Heating and Cooling Systems 01-99 Associated problems in Chapter 01 05-09 Thermal Pollution 02 Motion 05-99 Associated problems in Chapter 05 02-01 Frame of Reference 06 Waves 02-02 Straight-line Motion 06-01 Wave Properties 02-03 Speed and Velocity 06-02 Electromagnetic Waves 02-04 Acceleration 06-03 Color 02-05 Acceleration in Uniform Circular Mo- 06-04 Sound Waves tion 06-05 Standing Waves and Resonance 02-06 Projectile Motion 06-06 The Doppler Eﬀect 02-07 Vectors 06-99 Associated problems in Chapter 06 02-08 Relative Velocity 07 Wave Eﬀects 02-09 Angular and Linear Quantities 07-01 Reﬂection 02-99 Associated problems in Chapter 02 07-02 Refraction and Dispersion 03 Force and Motion 07-03 Diﬀraction, Interference, and Polariza- 03-01 Force tion 03-02 Newton’s First Law of Motion 07-04 Spherical Mirrors 03-03 Newton’s Second Law of Motion 07-05 Lenses 03-04 Newton’s Law of Gravitation 07-99 Associated problems in Chapter 07 03-05 Newton’s Third Law of Motion 08 Electricity and Magnetism 03-06 Friction 08-01 Electric Charge 03-07 Momentum 08-02 Electricity Homework Service Book — Physical Science -3 - 08-03 Electric Circuits 13-05 Avogadro’s Number 08-04 Magnetism 13-06 Solutions 08-05 Electromagnetism 13-99 Associated problems in Chapter 13 08-06 Electronics 14 Chemical Reactions 08-07 Capacitance 14-01 Basic Concepts 08-08 AC Circuits 14-02 Energy and Rate of Reaction 08-99 Associated problems in Chapter 08 14-03 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 09 Atomic Physics 14-04 Electrochemical Reactions 09-01 The Dual Nature of Light 14-05 Acids and Bases 09-02 The Bohr Theory of the Hydrogen 14-06 Acids and Bases in Solution Atom 14-99 Associated problems in Chapter 14 09-03 Quantum-Physics Applications 15 Complex Molecules 09-04 Matter Waves and Quantum Mechan- 15-01 Common Organic Compounds ics 15-02 Biochemistry 09-05 Atomic Quantum Numbers 15-03 The Ingredients of Life and the Genetic 09-06 Multielectron Atoms and the Periodic Code Table 15-04 Artiﬁcial Molecules — Plastics 09-99 Associated problems in Chapter 09 15-05 Drugs 10 Nuclear Physics 15-99 Associated problems in Chapter 15 10-01 The Atomic Nucleus 16 The Sky 10-02 Nuclear Stability 16-01 Introduction 10-03 Radioactive Decay 16-02 The Sky and Its Motion 10-04 Nuclear Reactions 16-03 Cycles of the Sky 10-05 Fission and Fusion 16-04 The Origin of Modern Astronomy 10-99 Associated problems in Chapter 10 16-05 Gravitation 11 The Periodic Table 16-06 Radiation and Spectra 11-01 Elements 16-07 Astronomical Instruments 11-02 The Periodic Table 16-99 Associated problems in Chapter 16 11-03 Classiﬁcation of Elements 17 The Stars 11-04 Periodic Characteristics 17-01 Starlight 11-05 Groups of Elements 17-02 The Sun 11-99 Associated problems in Chapter 11 17-03 The Family of Stars 12 Compounds, Molecules, and Ions 17-04 Celestial Distances 12-01 Principles of Compound Formation 17-05 Gas and Dust in Space 12-02 Ionic Compounds 17-06 Formation and Structure of Stars 12-03 Properties of Ionic Compounds 17-07 Evolution of Stars 12-04 Covalent Compounds 17-08 Deaths of Stars 12-05 Properties of Covalent Compounds 17-09 Neutron Stars and Black Holes 12-06 Oxidation Number 17-99 Associated problems in Chapter 17 12-07 Naming Compounds 18 The Galaxies 12-08 Carbon and Some Simple Organic 18-01 The Milky Way Galaxy Compounds 18-02 Galaxies 12-09 Hydrocarbons 18-03 Active Galaxies, Quasars, Giant Black 12-99 Associated problems in Chapter 12 Holes 13 Some Chemical Principles 18-04 Cosmology 13-01 Types of Matter 18-05 Evolution, Distribution of Galaxies 13-02 Early Chemical Laws 18-99 Associated problems in Chapter 18 13-03 Atomic and Molecular Weights 19 The Solar System 13-04 Molecular Volumes 19-01 Origin of the Solar System Homework Service Book — Physical Science -4 - 19-02 Earth, the Terrestrial Planets, and the 25-09 Cenozoic: Tertiary Period Moon 25-10 Cenozoic: Quaternary Period 19-03 The Large Planets 25-11 Cenozoic Life 19-04 Rings, Moons and Pluto 25-99 Associated problems in Chapter 25 19-05 Asteroids, Comets and Meteors 26 The Atmosphere 19-99 Associated problems in Chapter 19 26-01 Composition 20 The Universe 26-02 Origin 20-01 The Big Bang 26-03 Vertical Structure 20-02 Life in the Universe 26-04 Energy Content 20-99 Associated problems in Chapter 20 26-05 Atmospheric Measurement 21 Earth 26-99 Associated problems in Chapter 26 21-01 Dynamic and Evolving Planet 27 Winds and Clouds 21-02 Minerals and Rocks 27-01 Causes of Air Motion 21-03 Igneous Rocks, Intrusive Activity 27-02 Local Winds and World Circulation 21-04 Volcanism and Volcanoes 27-03 Jet Streams 21-05 Weathering, Erosion, Soil 27-04 Cloud Classiﬁcation 21-06 Sediment, Sedimentary Rocks 27-05 Cloud Formation 21-07 Metamorphism, Metamorphic Rocks 27-06 Condensation and Precipitation 21-99 Associated problems in Chapter 21 27-99 Associated problems in Chapter 27 22 Structural Geology 28 Air Masses and Storms 22-01 Geologic Time 28-01 Air Masses 22-02 Earthquakes 28-02 Fronts and Cyclonic Disturbances 22-03 Earth’s Interior 28-03 Local Storms 22-04 The Seaﬂoor 28-04 Tropical Storms 22-05 Plate Tectonics 28-99 Associated problems in Chapter 28 22-99 Associated problems in Chapter 22 29 Weather Forecasting 23 Isostasy 29-01 The National Weather Service 23-01 Deformation, Mountain Building 29-02 Data Collection and Weather Observa- 23-02 Running Water tion 23-03 Groundwater 29-03 Weather Maps 23-04 Glaciers and Glaciation 29-04 Folklore and the Weather 23-05 Wind and Deserts 29-99 Associated problems in Chapter 29 23-06 Shorelines 30 Pollution and Climate 23-07 Mass Wasting 30-01 Pollutants 23-99 Associated problems in Chapter 23 30-02 Sources of Pollution 24 Concepts and Principles 30-03 The Cost of Pollution 24-01 Fossils 30-04 Pollution, Weather, and Climate 24-02 Evolution: Theory, Evidence 30-99 Associated problems in Chapter 30 24-03 Primate and Human Evolution 31 Oceanography 24-99 Associated problems in Chapter 24 31-01 Origins 25 Eons and Eras 31-02 History 25-01 Precambrian: Hadean, Archean 31-03 Plate Tectonics 25-02 Precambrian: Proterozoic 31-04 Ocean Basins 25-03 Early Paleozoic History 31-05 Sediments 25-04 Late Paleozoic History 31-06 Water 25-05 Paleozoic Invertebrates 31-07 Atomspheric Circulation 25-06 Paleozoic Vertebrates and Plants 31-08 Ocean Circulation 25-07 Mesozoic History 31-09 Waves 25-08 Mesozoic Life 31-10 Tides Homework Service Book — Physical Science -5 - 31-11 Coasts 31-12 Life in the Ocean 31-13 Pelagic Communities 31-14 Benthic Communities 31-15 Uses and Abuses 31-99 Associated problems in Chapter 31 Chapter 1, section 1, The Senses 6 2. hits the rear of the bus slightly before it Approaching Cars hits the front. 01:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 3. hits the front and back of the bus simul- Part 1 of 3 taneously. Two cars approach each other; both cars are moving westward, one at 78 km/h, the 4. Not enough information to form a conclu- other at 64 km/h. sion. What is the magnitude of the velocity of the ﬁrst car relative to (in the frame of reference of) the second car? Part 2 of 3 What is the direction of the resultant veloc- ity? 1. westward 2. eastward 3. Unable to determine. Part 3 of 3 After they pass, how will their relative veloc- ity change? 1. Less than before. 2. Greater than before. 3. No change. 4. Unable to determine. Relative Speeds 01 01:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. A ﬂashbulb is placed in the middle of a bus. When the ﬂashbulb goes oﬀ, light from the bulb strikes the rear and front of the bus simultaneously, as seen by an observer, Karl, sitting in the bus. As seen by another observer, Fred, standing on the curb as the bus moves past, the light . 1. hits the front of the bus slightly before it hits the rear. Chapter 1, section 2, Concepts and Fundamental Quantities 7 Comparison 50 01:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Which is the biggest number? 1. 3 × 10−8 2. 3.0 × 10−18 3. 4 × 10−8 4. 4 × 10−18 Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units 8 Conversion 01 Conversion 105 01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Which conversion factor would you use to How many miles are there in change 18 kilometers to meters? 5100 kilometers? 1000 m 1. Conversion 106 1 km 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 1 km 2. 1000 m How many kilometers are there in 100 m 5100 miles? 3. 1 km 1 km Conversion 107 4. 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 100 m Conversion 100 How many centimeters are there in 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 5.1 yards? A temperature of 0.5 ◦ C corresponds to Conversion 108 ? ? 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Conversion 101 How many seconds are there in 510 days? 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Conversion 109 Convert a temperature of 270 ◦ C into 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Kelvin. How many days are there in 595.5 seconds? Conversion 102 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Conversion 110 260 Kelvin is the same as how many ◦ F? 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Conversion 103 How many kilograms are there in 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 5500 milligrams? Convert 5.1 gallons into the equivalent Conversion 111 number of liters. 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Conversion 104 How many milligrams are there in 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 5.1 pounds? There are special instruments called mi- Conversion 112 crometers which are able to measure distances 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 1 as small as of an inch. 10000 1 How many liters are there in 43 milliliters? How many millimeters is of an 10000 inch? Conversion 113 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units 9 How many milliliters are there in Conversion 122 0.465 liters? 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Conversion 114 How many milliliters are there in 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 0.465 liters? Convert 5.1 gallons into the equivalent Conversion 123 number of milliliters. 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Conversion 115 500 K is equal to what ◦ F? 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Conversion 124 How many centimeters are there in 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 5.1 yards? How many millipoise are there in Conversion 116 0.54 kilopoise? 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Conversion 125 How many kilometers are there in 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 5100 miles? How many kilopoise are there in Conversion 117 55 millipoise? 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Conversion 126 How many miles are there in 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 5100 kilometers? Convert a temperature of 18 degrees Kelvin Conversion 118 into ◦ C. 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Conversion 127 How many seconds are there in 510 days? 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Conversion 119 300 Kelvin is the same as how many ◦ F? 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Conversion 128 Convert the temperature 1.58114×109◦ C to 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Kelvin. (Only use three signiﬁcant digits.) There are special instruments called mi- Conversion 120 crometers which are able to measure distances 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. as small as 1/10000 of an inch. How many millimeters is 1/10000 of an How many liters are there in 43 milliliters? inch? Conversion 121 Conversion 129 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. How many centifeet are there in How many miles are there in 5.1 millifeet? Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units 10 5100 kilometers? 2. 10460 Conversion 130 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 3. 12590 How many kilometers are there in 4. 14920 5100 miles? 5. 83700 Conversion 131 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Conversion 52 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. How many centimeters are there in 5.1 yards? A liter is 1000 cm3 . What is the length of any side (in cm) of a Conversion 132 regular cube which will have a volume of 1000 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. liters? Assume that all chickens have 1. 10 cm 5500 feathers. If it takes you 5.5 seconds to pluck 2. 100 cm 54.5 feathers, how many hours would it take you to defeather 4950 chickens? 3. 1000 cm Conversion 133 4. None of these 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Conversion 53 The side of a square is 5.1 centimeters. 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. What is the area of the square? A sample of 354. g iron is the same as: Conversion 50 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. 0.354 kg 42.7 g of Cu represents how many kg? 2. 3.54 kg 1. 0.0427 kg 3. 35.4 kg 2. 4.27 × 101 kg 4. none of the other answers is correct 3. 42,700 kg Conversion 54 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. 4.27 × 104 A sheet of typing paper is 11.5 inches long. Conversion 51 How many centimeters is this? 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. 16.2 cm A 2000 kilocalorie diet corresponds to how many kilojoules? 2. 18.7 cm 1. 8368 3. 24.3 cm Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units 11 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. 29.2 cm Convert 3.97 g/cm3 to lb/in3 . Conversion 55 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. .143 lb/in3 A weight of 0.16 kilogram is ? . 2. .0222 lb/in3 1. 1600 mg 3. 110. lb/in3 2. 1.6 × 105 mg 4. 6.99 lb/in3 3. 16000 mg Conversion 59 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. 1.6 × 10−4 mg Convert: 35.0 cc = ? mL Conversion 56 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. 35.0 Assuming that a sheet of typing paper is 2. 35 21.50 cm wide, what is the width expressed in meters? 3. 350 1. 0.2150 4. 3.50 2. 0.215 Conversion 60 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. 215.0 Earl Campbell, FB 1974-77 and the 1977 4. 215 Heisman Trophy Winner, rushed for 4443 yards in 765 attempts for his career at UT. Conversion 57 Calculate his average gain per rush in me- 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. ters. Austin’s average rainfall per year is 31.5 1. 5.81 inches. Convert this measurement to meters per 2. 5.31 decade. (1 in = 2.54 cm, and 1 decade = 10 years) 3. .188 1. 8.00 4. 3.69 2. 80.0 Conversion 61 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. .125 Express 1.09 kcal in J. 4. 315. 1. 4560 J Conversion 58 Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units 12 2. 4560. J 4. 1.1076 × 10−2 3. 1090 J 5. 1 × 10−2 4. 4.56 J Conversion 65 Conversion 62 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. How many calories is 130. joules? (1 calorie 2 Express 13.4 cm in square millimeters. = 4.18 joules) 1. 0.134 mm2 1. 31.1 2. 1.34 mm2 2. 3.11 3. 1340 mm2 3. 543 4. 13400 mm2 4. 54.3 5. 13.4 mm2 Conversion 66 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Conversion 63 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. How many grams are in 268. mg? Five liters is also ? . 1. 2.68 g 1. 5000 mL 2. 26.8 g 2. 500 mL 3. 0.268 g 3. 50000 mL 4. none of the other answers is correct 4. 5 × 105 mL Conversion 67 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Conversion 64 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. How many grams of tomatoes are equiv- alent to 1.50 pounds of tomatoes? (1 lb = For the conversion of 0.0003140 kilograms 453.6 g) to ounces, the conversion factors are 103 grams per kilogram, 1 pound per 453.6 grams 1. 453. and 16 ounces per pound. The correctly expressed answer is ? 2. 680. ounces. 3. 920. 1. 1.1 × 10−2 4. 1300. 2. 1.11 × 10−2 Conversion 68 3. 1.108 × 10−2 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units 13 How many kilograms are in 120. lbs? (1 lb 1. 2.5 × 102 cm2 = 453.6 g) 2. 2.5 × 10−1 m2 1. 54.43 3. 2.5 m2 2. 54.4 4. 2.5 × 104 mm2 3. 26.45 Conversion 72 4. 26.5 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 5. 5.44 × 107 The density of aluminum is 1.424 oz./in3 . In the SI system it is ( 1 in3 = 16.4 mL; 1 Conversion 69 oz = 31.1 g) 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. 2.70 g/mL How many microns (µm) are in a kilometer (km)? 2. 2.70 mL/g 1. thousand 3. 0.751 g/mL 2. million 4. 726 mL/g 3. billion Conversion 73 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. trillion The length of 4 meters is the same as ? . 5. bajillion 1. 400 mm Conversion 70 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. 40 mm One liter, a volume of a cube with sides of 3. 4000 mm length 10 cm, is the same as 4. 40000 mm 1. 100 cm3 Conversion 74 2. 1000 cm3 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. 10 cm3 The number of millimeters in 0.101 meter is 4. none of the other answers is correct 1. 1.01 × 10−4 mm Conversion 71 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. 1.01 × 10−3 mm The area of a square with 50 cm sides is 3. 1.01 × 104 mm ? . Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units 14 4. 1.01 × 102 mm Conversion 78 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 5. 9.90 × 103 mm What is the weight in milligrams of 0.0013 Conversion 75 kg of iron? 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. 130 mg The weight of one atom of carbon weighing 12.01 u when expressed in ounces is ? . (1 2. 1300 mg u is 1.66 × 10−24 gram and 16.0 oz is 453.6 grams) 3. 13 mg 1. 7.03 × 10−25 4. 1.3 mg 2. 3.19 × 10−22 Conversion 79 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. 1.99 × 10−23 Which distance is longest? 4. 7.23 × 1024 1. one mile Conversion 76 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. one kilometer How many centimeters are there in 0.500 3. 1000 centimeters mile? (1 mile = 5280 ft and 2.54 cm. = 1 inch.) 4. 10,000 millimeters 1. 8.05 × 104 Conversion 80 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. 8.048 × 103 Which is the largest energy unit? 3 3. 6.70 × 10 1. a calorie 5 4. 1.61 × 10 2. a Calorie Conversion 77 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. a joule Using the identity 2.540 cm = 1 inch, how 4. a kilojoule many centimeters are in 1 yard (36 in)? Conversion 81 1. 9.144 cm 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. 14.17 cm Which of the following units is largest? 3. 23.31 cm 1. all are equivalent 4. 91.44 cm 2. 100 cm Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units 15 3. 0.00100 km 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. 1.00 m How many grams of tomatoes are equiva- lent to 1.50 pounds of tomatoes? 5. 1000 mm 1. 453. Conversion 82 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. 680. Which of the following units of volume is 3. 920. largest? 4. 1300. 1. mL Conversion 86 2. L 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. cL How many liters of milk are there in 1 gallon of milk? 4. dL 1. 3.78 5. qt. 2. 3.92 Conversion 83 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. 4.03 You are shopping for a new washing ma- 4. 4.57 chine. If you have 36 inches of space (width) avail- Conversion 87 able, will a machine of 97 cm width ﬁt? 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. yes Assume that a sheet of typing paper is 21.50 centimeters wide. 2. no What is the width expressed in meters? Conversion 84 1. 0.2150 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. 0.215 A sheet of typing paper is 11.5 inches long. How many centimeters is it? 3. 215.0 1. 16.21 4. 215 2. 18.71 Conversion 88 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. 24.31 The average lead pencil is 190. mm long. 4. 29.2 What is its length in inches? Conversion 85 1. 7.48 Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units 16 scale? 2. 48.26 1. 77 K 3. 482.6 2. 112 K 4. 74.8 3. 362 K Conversion 89 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. 210 K For the conversion of 0.0003140 kilograms 5. 146 K to ounces, 1 × 103 grams = 1 kilogram, 1 pound = 453.58 grams, and 16 ounces = 1 Conversion 92 pound 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. The correct answer is ? ounces. How many liters is 50 milliliters? 1. 1.1 × 10−2 1. .050 L 2. 1.11 × 10−2 2. .50 L 3. 1.108 × 10−2 3. 5.0 L 4. 1.1076 × 10−2 4. 50 L 5. 1.0 × 10−2 5. 500 L Conversion 90 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Conversion 93 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. For the conversion of 0.073 gallons to milliliters, 4 quarts = 1 gallon and 1.057 The boiling point of liquid oxygen (LOX) is quarts 1 liter. 54.4 K. The correct answer is ? mL. What is its boiling point on the Fahrenheit scale? 1. 2.8 × 102 1. −361.8◦ F 2 2. 3 × 10 2. −336.2◦ F 2 3. 2.763 × 10 3. −451.4◦ F 2 4. 2.76 × 10 4. −425.8◦ F 5. 2.7625 × 102 5. −139.3◦ F Conversion 91 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Conversion 94 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Liquid nitrogen boils at −321◦ F. What is its boiling point on the Kelvin The boiling point of zinc is 420◦ C. Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units 17 What is this in ◦ F? 1. 11 1. 251◦ F 2. 10.6 2. 216◦ F 3. 0.094 3. 724◦ F 4. 10.58 4. 962◦ F 5. 0.0945 5. 788◦ F Conversion 98 Conversion 95 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 0.0367 seconds is equal to how many mil- ◦ Copper melts at 1083 C. liseconds? What is its melting temperature in ◦ F? 1. 36.7 1. 1324◦ F 2. 0.0367 2. 583◦ F 3. 3.67 3. 619◦ F 4. 3.67 × 10−5 4. 797◦ F 5. 3.67 × 10−6 5. 1981◦ F Conversion 99 Conversion 96 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. ◦ A temperature of 2 F corresponds to Express 13.4 square centimeters in square ? ? millimeters. Density 01 1. 0.134 mm2 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 2. 1.34 mm2 A block of wood has a volume of 64 cm3 and a mass of 640 g. 3. 1340 mm2 What would be its density? 4. 13400 mm2 Density 02 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 5. 13.4 mm2 A marble is found to have a volume of 4 mL Conversion 97 and a mass of 16 g. 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. What would be its density? There are 36 inches in a yard. Error 50 How many yards are in a 381 inch ribbon? 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units 18 2. length * width What is the percent relative error of the mass length of a paper clip which has a measured 3. value of 1.05 inches with the uncertainty of volume 0.05 inches? 4. mass * volume 1. 2100% Formula 03 01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. 476% The formula for area is 3. 4.76% 1. length * width * height 4. 4.0% 2. length * width 5. 2.10% mass 3. Estimation 50 volume 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. mass * volume A liter is about Metric 01 01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. a cup The kilogram is a unit of 2. a pint 1. mass. 3. a quart 2. volume. 4. a gallon 3. length. Formula 01 01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. temperature. The formula for density is Metric 02 01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. length * width * height 1 The preﬁx that means is 2. length * width 1000 mass 1. kilo. 3. volume 2. centi. 4. mass * volume 3. milli. Formula 02 01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. micro. The formula for volume is Metric 03 01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. length * width * height Length is to meter as Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units 19 1. mass is to kilogram. 3. fraction that has a larger numerator than denominator. 2. liter is to distance. 4. fraction that has a larger denominator 3. weight is to mass. than numerator. 4. density is to volume. Metric 07 01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Metric 04 01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. One tenth (0.1) of a meter is called Which of the following has the greatest 1. centimeter. mass? 2. dekameter. 1. a slice of bread 3. decimeter. 2. a snail 4. millimeter. 3. your science textbook Metric 08 4. a child 01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Metric 05 A gram is what part of a kilogram? 01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. 0.5 Dimensional analysis is the 2. 0.01 1. ability to identify the properties of a sub- stance. 3. 0.001 2. skill of using a conversion factor eﬀec- 4. 0.1 tively. Metric 09 3. skill of converting one unit of measure to 01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. another. Which of the following is equivalent to a 4. ability to identify a problem and solve cubic centimeter? it. 1. liter Metric 06 01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. centiliter A factor that always equals one is a 3. milliliter 1. fraction that has been simpliﬁed to its 4. deciliter lowest terms. Metric 10 2. conversion factor. 01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units 20 3. 60 m2 Liquid volume can best be measured in 4. 60 m3 1. liters. 5. 60 m 2. cubic centimeters. 6. 60 cm 3. meters. Metric 14 4. grams. 01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Metric 11 The length of this piece of paper could best 01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. be measured in The length of a ”normal” car would best be 1. centimeters. measured in 2. dekameters. 1. liters. 3. hectometers. 2. dekameters. 4. meters. 3. millimeters. Metric 15 4. meters. 01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Metric 12 A school bus would be a meter. 01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. longer than Which of the following would you use for ﬁlling your gas tank? 2. shorter than 1. milliliters 3. the same as 2. kiloliters Metric 16 01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. liters 10 km = m. 4. meters 1. 100. Metric 13 01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. 1000. If a room measures 10 m by 6 m, what 3. 10,000. would its area be? 4. 100,000. 1. 60 cm2 Metric 17 2. 60 cm3 01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units 21 Which of the following would equal 5 me- 4. 1000 ters? 5. log 10 1. 50 Dm Metric System 51 2. 50 dm 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. 0.5 Hm Velocity is measured as ? in the metric system. 4. 50 cm 1. m/s Metric 18 01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. m3 /s Mass can be measured in units called 3. m/s3 1. grams. 4. m2 /s2 2. liters. Metric System 52 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. cubic centimeters. Volume in the metric system is measured 4. None of these as ? . Metric 19 1. meter 01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. liter Volume can be measured in units called 3. m2 1. grams. 4. L3 2. liters. Metric System 53 3. square centimeters. 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. None of these Which set of units is NOT in order of in- creasing magnitude? Metric System 50 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. µW < kW < MW The metric system of measurement is based 2. µg < mg < ng on units of ? 3. cPa < dPa < kPa 1. 100 4. mm < cm < dm 2. 10 5. µL < dL < kL 3. 1 Metric System 54 Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units 22 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 6. 1.87 km Which set of units is in order of increasing 7. 1.9 km magnitude? 8. 2 km 1. nL < mL < dL Part 2 of 3 2. mg < dg < cg NOTE: For this problem use signiﬁcant ﬁg- ures. 3. mW < kW < cW You observe your speedometer reading at 60 mph. Convert this into the proper SI unit 4. Mm < km < cm with the proper preﬁx. 5. mA < µA < cA 1. 26.82 m/s Metric System 55 2. 26.8 m/s 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. 27 m/s Which answer is expressed to the nearest milligram? 4. 30 m/s 1. 14.7 g 5. 1.342×105 m/s 2. 14.72 g 6. 134 km/s 3. 14.721 g 7. 130 km/s 4. 14.7213 g 8. 100 km/s PS303 Unit Conversion Sig Figs Part 3 of 3 01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. NOTE: For this problem use signiﬁcant ﬁg- ures. Part 1 of 3 A marathon is 26.3 miles. How many cen- NOTE: For this problem use signiﬁcant ﬁg- timeters is that? ures. You measure a distance to be 3 miles. Con- 1. 4.232×106 cm vert this into the proper SI unit with the proper preﬁx. 2. 4.23×106 cm 1. 4.827 km 3. 4.2×106 cm 2. 4.83 km 4. 4.0×106 cm 3. 4.8 km 5. 4×106 cm 4. 5 km 6. 42.3167×106 cm 5. 1.865 km 7. 0.423×103 cm Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units 23 8. 42.3×106 cm Scientiﬁc Notation 52 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Scientiﬁc Notation 01 01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. The number 0.00875 in scientiﬁc notation is What is the standard form for 2 × 10−3 ? 1. .0875 × 101 1. 2000 2. 8.75 × 10−3 2. 200 3. 8.75 × 103 3. 20 4. 8.8 × 10−3 4. 2 Scientiﬁc Notation 53 5. 0.2 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 6. 0.02 The number 0.0540 in scientiﬁc notation is 7. 0.002 1. 5.40 × 10−2 . 8. 0.0002 2. 5.4 × 10−3 . Scientiﬁc Notation 50 3. 5.4 × 10−2 . 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. 5.4 × 102 . 0.00397 in scientiﬁc notation is ? . Scientiﬁc Notation 54 −3 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. 3.97 × 10 2. 3.97 × 103 The ? of a number tells how many times the number must be multiplied by itself. 3. 3.97 × 105 1. exponent 4. 39.7 × 10−5 2. signiﬁcant digit Scientiﬁc Notation 51 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. scientiﬁc notation 45,500,000,000 in scientiﬁc notation is 4. mantissa 1. 4.55 × 1010 5. base number 2. 4.55 × 10−10 Scientiﬁc Notation 55 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. 455. × 107 When coding a number in scientiﬁc nota- −7 tion, moving the decimal point to the left 4. 455. × 10 corresponds to multiplying by a ? power Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units 24 of 10. Scientiﬁc Notation 59 1. positive 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. negative Express the number 0.0006584 in scientiﬁc notation to 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. Scientiﬁc Notation 56 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. 6.580 × 10−4 Actor Kevin Costner, who played baseball 2. 6.58 × 10−3 for Cal State Fullerton, earned $48 million in the years 1991-1992. 3. 6.59 × 10−4 Express his earnings in appropriate scien- tiﬁc notation. 4. 6.58 × 10−4 1. 4.8 × 107 Scientiﬁc Notation 60 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. 48 × 106 Express the number 9067.5 in scientiﬁc no- 7 3. 4.8000000 × 10 tation to 4 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. 4. 48,000,000 1. 9.068 × 103 Scientiﬁc Notation 57 2. 9.067 × 103 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. 906.7 × 101 Express 4592.3 to two (2) signiﬁcant ﬁg- ures. 4. 90.67 × 102 1. 4.5 × 103 Scientiﬁc Notation 61 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. 4.592 × 103 Express 4592.3 to two (2) signiﬁcant ﬁg- 2 3. 4.59 × 10 ures. 4. 4.6 × 103 1. 4.5 × 103 Scientiﬁc Notation 58 2. 4.592 × 103 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. 4.59 × 102 −4 Express 3.90 × 10 in decimal notation. 4. 4.6 × 103 1. 0.000390 Scientiﬁc Notation 62 2. 0.00039 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. 39,000 In a measurement which digit(s) is/are an approximation? 4. 3.900 Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units 25 1. ﬁrst Scientiﬁc Notation 66 2. last 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. only those in proper scientiﬁc notation A factor of 1.0 × 103 corresponds to the preﬁx ? . 4. no digit is uncertain 1. kilo Scientiﬁc Notation 63 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. centi A factor of 1.0 × 10−12 corresponds to the 3. deci preﬁx ? . 4. hecto 1. pico Scientiﬁc Notation 67 2. femto 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. nano A factor of 1.0 × 10−3 corresponds to the preﬁx ? . 4. micro 1. milli Scientiﬁc Notation 64 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. centi A factor of 1.0 × 102 corresponds to the 3. deci preﬁx ? . 4. kilo 1. hecto Scientiﬁc Notation 68 2. kilo 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. deci A factor of 1.0 × 106 corresponds to the preﬁx ? . 4. centi 1. mega Scientiﬁc Notation 65 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. giga A factor of 1.0 × 10−2 corresponds to the 3. tera preﬁx ? . 4. kilo 1. centi Scientiﬁc Notation 69 2. kilo 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. deka A factor of 1.0 × 10−6 corresponds to the preﬁx ? . 4. milli Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units 26 1. micro 5. none of these 2. milli Scientiﬁc Notation 73 3. mega 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. nano The preﬁx centi corresponds to a factor of ? . Scientiﬁc Notation 70 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. 1.0 × 10−2 A factor of 1.0 × 10−9 corresponds to the 2. 1.0 × 102 preﬁx ? . 3. 1.0 × 104 1. nano 4. 1.0 × 10−4 2. milli Scientiﬁc Notation 74 3. micro 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. pico The preﬁx centi means Scientiﬁc Notation 71 1. one thousand (1000) 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. one hundred (100) 12 The factor 1.0 × 10 corresponds to the preﬁx ? . 3. one thousandth (1/1000) 1. tera 4. one hundredth (1/100) 2. kilo Scientiﬁc Notation 75 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. giga The preﬁx deci corresponds to a factor of 4. mega ? . Scientiﬁc Notation 72 1. 1.0 × 10−1 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. 1.0 × 101 The measurement 3.2 × 10−3 g could also be written as: 3. 1.0 × 10−3 1. 3.2 g 4. 1.0 × 103 2. 3.2 kg Scientiﬁc Notation 76 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. 3.2 pg The preﬁx giga corresponds to a factor of 4. 3.2 mg ? . Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units 27 4. 1.0 × 10−8 1. 1.0 × 109 Scientiﬁc Notation 80 2. 1.0 × 10−9 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. 1.0 × 106 The preﬁx milli corresponds to a factor of ? . 4. 1.0 × 10−6 1. 1.0 × 10−3 Scientiﬁc Notation 77 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. 1.0 × 103 The preﬁx kilo corresponds to a factor of 3. 1.0 × 104 ? . 4. 1.0 × 10−4 1. 1.0 × 103 Scientiﬁc Notation 81 2. 1.0 × 10−3 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. 1.0 × 106 The preﬁx milli means 4. 1.0 × 10−6 1. one thousand (1000) Scientiﬁc Notation 78 2. one hundred (100) 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. one thousandth (1/1000) The preﬁx mega corresponds to a factor of ? . 4. one hundredth (1/100) 1. 1.0 × 106 Scientiﬁc Notation 82 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. 1.0 × 10−6 The SI preﬁx that corresponds to a multi- 3. 1.0 × 109 plication factor of 1000 is 4. 1.0 × 10−9 1. milli Scientiﬁc Notation 79 2. kilo 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. micro The preﬁx micro corresponds to a factor of ? . 4. centi 1. 1.0 × 10−6 Scientiﬁc Notation 83 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. 1.0 × 106 The SI preﬁx that corresponds to a multi- 3. 1.0 × 10−7 plication factor of 0.01 is Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units 28 1. mega 4. 2.4 × 10−1 2. kilo 5. 2.4 × 10−2 3. micro 6. 2.4 × 10−3 4. centi 7. None of these Scientiﬁc Notation 84 01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Signiﬁcant Digits 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Write 635000.0 in scientiﬁc notation. The number x = 0.0411 has how many 5 1. 6.35 × 10 signiﬁcant digits? 2. 6.35 × 10−5 Signiﬁcant Digits 02 01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. 63.5 × 104 Part 1 of 2 4. 63.5 × 10−4 The number of signiﬁcant digits in 0.0314 is 3 5. 635 × 10 1. 1 −3 6. 635 × 10 2. 2 9. None of these 3. 3 Signiﬁcant Digits 01 01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. 4 Part 1 of 2 5. 5 The number of signiﬁcant digits in 2400 is Part 2 of 2 1. 1 Scientiﬁc notation for 0.0314 is 2. 2 1. 3.14 × 103 3. 3 2. 3.14 × 102 4. 4 3. 3.14 × 101 Part 2 of 2 4. 3.14 × 10−3 Scientiﬁc notation for 2400 is 5. 3.14 × 10−2 1 1. 2.4 × 10 6. 3.14 × 10−1 2 2. 2.4 × 10 7. None of these 3. 2.4 × 103 Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units 29 Signiﬁcant Digits 100 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. What is pq if p = 5.1 × 10−3 and q = 5.1 × 104 ? Keeping in mind scientiﬁc notation, round- ing, and signiﬁcant ﬁgures, what is 60 / 30 / Signiﬁcant Digits 109 14.5? 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Signiﬁcant Digits 102 What is p/q if p = 0.0051 and q = 51000 ? 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Signiﬁcant Digits 110 Keeping in mind scientiﬁc notation, round- 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. ing, and signiﬁcant ﬁgures, what is 12.5 + 10.05 + 48.5? Write the following number in scientiﬁc no- tation: 1.000/ 0.00016 . 1. 71.1 Signiﬁcant Digits 111 2. 71.05 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 3. 70 Indicate in scientiﬁc notation the number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures in the following: r= 1.5 x 4. 100 103 . 5. None of these Signiﬁcant Digits 112 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Signiﬁcant Digits 103 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Evaluate the following expression: ( −7 0.105 )( 0.084 )( 285 )/(( 1.05 )( 3.5 x 10 )) Keeping in mind scientiﬁc notation, round- ing and signiﬁcant ﬁgures, what is 20 − 58? Signiﬁcant Digits 113 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Signiﬁcant Digits 104 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. (3.785 × 10−3 ) × (4.81 × 105 ) = ? What is p + q if p = 0.51 and q = 51? Signiﬁcant Digits 114 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Signiﬁcant Digits 106 01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- 0.000859 =? in scientiﬁc notation mal. Signiﬁcant Digits 115 What is p − q if p = 0.51 and q = 51? 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Signiﬁcant Digits 107 The number 186,000 in scientiﬁc notation 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. is If p = 5.1 × 10−3 and q = 5.1 × 10−4 , ﬁnd Signiﬁcant Digits 116 p − q. 01:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- mal. Signiﬁcant Digits 108 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units 30 What is p times q if p = 5.1 x 10−3 and q = 5.1 x 104 ? 2. 27.6 cm2 . Signiﬁcant Digits 117 3. 27.7 cm2 . 01:03, basic, numeric, < 1 min, normal. 4. 28.0 cm2 . What is p − q if p = 0.51 and q = 51? Signiﬁcant Digits 53 Signiﬁcant Digits 50 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. (6.34 cm) (1.2 cm) Calculate , round oﬀ if A bathroom scale can weigh something up (1.217 cm2 ) to 200 lbs. The 200 lbs is divided into one necessary, and apply the rule for multiplica- pound increments. A boy’s weight falls be- tion and division of data numbers. tween 113 and 114 pounds on this scale. How many signiﬁcant ﬁgures can be re- 1. 6.2514379 ported in his weight? 2. 6.251 1. 2 3. 6.25 2. 3 4. 6.2 3. 4 5. 6.3 4. 5 Signiﬁcant Digits 54 Signiﬁcant Digits 51 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Calculate 124. mm − 87.2 mm, round oﬀ if Calculate 13.21 m × 61.5 m, round oﬀ if necessary, and apply the rule for addition and necessary, and apply the rule for multiplica- subtraction of data numbers. tion and division of data numbers. 1. 37.0 mm. 2 1. 812.415 m 2. 36.8 mm. 2. 812. m2 3. 37. mm. 3. 812.4 m2 4. 36. mm. 4. 812.42 m2 Signiﬁcant Digits 55 Signiﬁcant Digits 52 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Calculate 3217. km + 13.1 km + 1.30 km, Calculate 21.3 cm × 1.3 cm, round oﬀ if round oﬀ if necessary, and apply the rule for necessary, and apply the rule for multiplica- addition and subtraction of data numbers. tion and division of data numbers. 1. 3230. km 1. 27.69 cm2 . Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units 31 2. 3231. km 1. greatest; least 3. 3231.4 km 2. least; least 4. 3231.40 km 3. same; least 5. 3200. km 4. greatest; most Signiﬁcant Digits 56 5. least; most 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Signiﬁcant Digits 59 How many signiﬁcant ﬁgures are in the 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. number 0.00038? In calculating 12.34 × 2.36 = 29.1224, how 1. 5 many signiﬁcant ﬁgures are you allowed to retain? 2. 4 1. 1 3. 3 2. 2 4. 2 3. 3 5. 1 4. 4 Signiﬁcant Digits 57 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Signiﬁcant Digits 60 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. How many signiﬁcant ﬁgures are in the number 0.00204? Keeping in mind the rules for rounding, signiﬁcant digits and scientiﬁc notation, what 1. 3 is 0.0025 × 111.09? 2. 5 1. 0.278 3. 2 2. 0.27 4. 6 3. 0.3 5. 4 4. 0.28 Signiﬁcant Digits 58 Signiﬁcant Digits 61 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. In any calculations involving multiplication Keeping in mind the rules for rounding, or division, the answer should be expressed in signiﬁcant digits, and scientiﬁc notation, what the ? number of digits that are present in 975.0321 is ? the ? precise number used in the calcula- 0.0003 tion. 1. 325010.7 Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units 32 2. 3.250107 × 106 Signiﬁcant Digits 65 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. 3 × 106 Find 3.87 × 10−1 − 4.670 × 102 . 6 4. 3.25 × 10 1. −466.6 6 5. 3.3 × 10 2. 466.613 Signiﬁcant Digits 62 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. −4.67 × 102 Keeping in mind the rules for signiﬁcant 4. 467 digits, if we multiply 11.55 by 2.5, how many signiﬁcant digits are we allowed to keep? Signiﬁcant Digits 66 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. 2 9.188 × 1019 Find . 2. 4 6.02 × 10−14 1. 1.53 × 1033 3. 3 2. 1.5262 × 1033 4. 5 3. 1.5333 Signiﬁcant Digits 63 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. 1.53 × 10−34 Find 0.00147 × 8.314 × 7.100. Signiﬁcant Digits 67 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. 8.68 × 10−2 Round 0.046151 to three signiﬁcant ﬁgures. 2. 8.677 × 10−2 1. .0462 3. .087 2. .046 4. 8.7 × 102 3. .0461 Signiﬁcant Digits 64 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. 4.615 × 10−2 Find 1.14 + 274.1 + 12.041 + 0.5817. Signiﬁcant Digits 68 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. 287.9 State the number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures in 2. 287.8627 the following: 3610.; 8.90; 0.003010; 6.3 × 10−2 3. 287.863 1. 4; 3; 4; 2 4. 287.86 Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units 33 2. 3; 2; 3; 2 3. 2 3. 4; 2; 6; 2 4. 4 4. 3; 3; 3; 3 5. 5 Signiﬁcant Digits 69 Signiﬁcant Digits 72 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. The largest crowd to ever see a UT foot- The number 0.0920007 has ? signiﬁcant ball game in Memorial Stadium was 83,053 vs digits. Houston in 1978. How many signiﬁcant digits are in this 1. 6 count? 2. 3 1. 5 3. 8 2. 4 4. 7 3. inﬁnite 5. 0 4. 1 Signiﬁcant Digits 73 Signiﬁcant Digits 70 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. The number 03.045 has ? signiﬁcant The number 0.000001010 has ? signiﬁ- digits. cant digits. 1. 4 1. 4 2. 5 2. 3 3. 3 3. 2 4. 2 4. 10 5. 1 5. 9 Signiﬁcant Digits 74 Signiﬁcant Digits 71 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. The number 1.091 has ? signiﬁcant dig- The number 0.02 has ? signiﬁcant dig- its. its. 1. 5 1. 1 2. 4 2. 3 Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units 34 3. 3 4. 604.046 4. 2 5. 604.0465 5. 1 Signiﬁcant Digits 78 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Signiﬁcant Digits 75 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3.42 Using correct signiﬁcant ﬁgures, = 4.731 The number 199,078 has ? signiﬁcant 1. 0.72 digits. 2. 0.723 1. 6 3. 0.7229 2. 5 4. 0.72289 3. 4 5. 84 4. 3 Signiﬁcant Digits 79 5. 2 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Signiﬁcant Digits 76 Using signiﬁcant ﬁgures, 8.90 + 15.3274 = 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. 24 The number 4.0500 rounded to two signiﬁ- cant ﬁgures is 2. 24.2 1. 4.06 3. 24.22 2. 4.05 4. 24.23 3. 4.1 5. 24.2274 4. 4.0 Signiﬁcant Digits 80 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 5. 4 Which digits in 0.00139 are signiﬁcant? Signiﬁcant Digits 77 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. All six digits. Using signiﬁcant ﬁgures, 28.03 × 21.55 = 2. The ﬁrst three digits only. 1. 604 3. The las three digits only. 2. 604.0 4. The 1 only. 3. 604.04 5. The 3 and 9 only. Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units 35 Signiﬁcant Digits 81 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Signiﬁcant Digits 84 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Which of the following rules for determining signiﬁcant digits is false? Find 3.22 × (4 × 101 ) × 13.250. 1. All nonzero ﬁgures are signiﬁcant. 1. 1706.6 2. All ﬁnal zeroes are signiﬁcant. 2. 1707 3. Zeroes between signiﬁcant ﬁgures are sig- 3. 1710 niﬁcant. 4. 1700 4. You never start counting signiﬁcant digits until you reach the ﬁrst nonzero ﬁgure. 5. 2000 Signiﬁcant Digits 82 Signiﬁcant Digits 85 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Michael Jordan received a record high In the calculation 12.34 × 2.35 = 28.9990, 2,451,136 votes to go to the NBA All-Star how many signiﬁcant digits are you allowed game. to retain? How many signiﬁcant ﬁgures is that num- ber? 1. 1 1. six 2. 2 2. seven 3. 3 3. inﬁnite 4. 4 4. four 5. 5 5. none Signiﬁcant Digits 86 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Signiﬁcant Digits 83 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. How many signiﬁcant digits are present in the number 1090.? Find 3.12 + 40.124 + 1.2. 1. 2 1. 44.444 2. 3 2. 44.44 3. 4 3. 44.4 4. 5 4. 44 Signiﬁcant Digits 87 5. 40 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units 36 Rounded oﬀ to 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures, this How many signiﬁcant ﬁgures are there in number becomes ? . 0.004309? 1. 2.00 g 1. 7 2. 2.01 g 2. 4 3. 2.04 g 3. 6 4. 2.05 g 4. 3 5. 2.06 g Signiﬁcant Digits 88 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Signiﬁcant Digits 91 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Express the answer to 3.42 / 4.731 using the correct signiﬁcant ﬁgures. Three samples were weighed using three diﬀerent balances. All measurements are as 1. 0.72 accurate as the precision below indicates. The weights are 1.21 kg, 546 mg, and 23.14 g. 2. 0.723 The total mass should be reported as ? . 3. 0.7229 1. 1233.676 g 4. 0.72289 2. 1233.68 g 5. 84 3. 1233.7 g Signiﬁcant Digits 89 4. 1234 g 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 5. 1.23 × 103 g Express the answer to 8.90 + 15.3274 using the correct signiﬁcant ﬁgures. Signiﬁcant Digits 92 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. 24 Express 14.80 × 12.10 × 5.05 in scientiﬁc 2. 24.2 notation with the proper signiﬁcant ﬁgures. 3. 24.22 1. 904 4. 24.23 2. 9.04 × 102 5. 24.2274 3. 9.044 × 102 Signiﬁcant Digits 90 4. 904.4 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Signiﬁcant Digits 93 The mass of a piece of sodium metal was 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. determined to be 2.0050 g. Chapter 1, section 3, Standard Units 37 What is the proper solution for 2. 0.0140 115.016 + 12.0 + 3.5182 =? 3. 1.070 1. 130. 4. 0.016 2. 130.5 5. 7,203.002 3. 130.53 Signiﬁcant Digits 97 01:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 4. 130.534 Keeping in mind scientiﬁc notation, round- 5. 130.5342 ing, and signiﬁcant ﬁgures, what is 22.5 × 15? Signiﬁcant Digits 94 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Time 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Convert 6.65 × 10−1 to decimal form: The modern standard of length is 1 m and 1. 0.665 the speed of light is 3 ×108 m/sec. Find the time ∆t taken to cover one meter 2. 0.0665 at the given speed. 3. 6.65 1. 3.3 ×10−7 s 4. 66.5 2. 3.3 ×10−8 s Signiﬁcant Digits 95 3. 3.3 ×10−9 s 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. 3.3 ×10−10 s Give the proper answer for the summation Units 50 7491 + (1 × 102 ) = 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. 7.591 × 103 A cube with sides of 0.1 meter has a volume of ? . 2. 7.59 × 103 1. 1 liter 3 3. 7.6 × 10 2. 100 cm3 4. 8 × 103 3. 1 × 106 cm3 Signiﬁcant Digits 96 01:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. 1 m3 Which one has three signiﬁcant ﬁgures? 1. 16.07 Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors 38 Acceleration Conversion A block of material has dimensions 4 cm by 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 7 cm by 3 cm. Its mass is 566 gm. What is its density? An acceleration of 2 mi/h/s is equal to: Building a Fence Air in a Classroom 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. John and Mary Smith plan to put a wooden Part 1 of 2 fence around their yard in order to keep the A classroom measures 40 m by 20 m by mean cats away from their dog Fido. 12 m. The density of air is 1.29 kg/m3 . What total length of fence is required to What is the volume of the room in cubic enclose a rectangular yard whose sides are feet? 11 m and 21 m in length? There is a gate that is 1 m long. (Remember that 1 m = Part 2 of 2 3.281 ft.) What is the weight of air in the room, in pounds? Conversion 134 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Air in a Classroom 2 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Given that 1 liter is equal to 1000 cubic centimeters, how many liters are there in 2.5 Part 1 of 2 cubic meters? A classroom measures 40 m by 20 m by 12 m. The density of air is 1.29 kg/m3 . 1. 2500 What is the volume of the room in cubic feet? 2. 250 Part 2 of 2 3. 25000 What is the weight of air in the room, in pounds? 4. 25 Area of a Lot Conversion 135 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. A rectangular building lot is 100 ft by 150 ft. Express 300 liters of water in gallons. Find the area of this lot in m2 . 1. 79.25 Bike Chain 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 2. 39.63 To protect her new two-wheeler, Iroda Bike 3. 158.50 buys a length of chain. She ﬁnds that its linear density is 0.9 lb/ft. 4. 60.0 If she wants to keep its weight below 1.7 lb, what length of chain is she allowed? Conversion 136 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Block Density 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. If a leaking faucet drips at a rate of one Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors 39 drop per second and the volume of each drop Conversion 140 is 0.05 ml, calculate the volume, in liters, of 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. water wasted per day. How much volume does a 55 carat diamond 1. 4320 occupy? 2. 4.320 Cube Density 04 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 3. 2160 Calculate the density of a solid cube that 4. 8.64 measures 5 cm on each side and has a mass of 350 g. Conversion 137 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Cube Density 05 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. A pint of blood would be how many mL? (1 L = 1.057 qt and 1 qt = 2 pints.) The mass of a solid cube is 856 g, and each edge has a length of 5.35 cm. 1. 529 mL Find the density of the cube. 2. 946 mL Density 100 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 3. 473 mL A sample of air, analyzed for particulate 4. 454 mL matter, is found to contain 0.0185 grams of particulate matter in 54.5 m3 of air. Conversion 138 What is the concentration of this particu- 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. late matter in µg/m3 ? This evening after the ﬁnal, Ralph plans to Density 101 consume at least 255 g of milk. 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Calculate this volume in milliliters. A sample of air contains 52.5 µg/m3 of 1. 281 asbestos. How much asbestos would be present in 2. 232 a room with dimensions 12.5 meters by 17.5 meters by 11 meters? 3. 280.8 Density 102 4. 231.6 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 5. 256 A sample of air contains 27.5 µg/m3 of beryllium dust. Conversion 139 How many atoms of beryllium are present 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. in a room with dimensions of 10 feet by 12.5 feet by 17.5 feet? Convert the volume of 3.5 in3 of mercury to its volume in milliliters. Density 103 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors 40 volume where π = 3.1416.) 3 The density of water is 1 gm/cm . What is the mass of 426 cm3 of water? 1. 0.00152 Density 104 2. 660. 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 3. 0.0420 What is the mass of 17.5 cubic centimeters of mercury? Its density is 13.6 grams per 4. 0.00476 cubic centimeter. 5. 210. Density 105 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Density 51 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. What is the mass of 5.1 milliliters of a solution that has a density of 1 grams per Given: milliliter? 1 pennyweight = 1.55 grams 1 hogshead = 238.5 liters Density 106 1 peck = 9.091 liters 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Calculate the density of copper in penny- weights per peck for a piece of copper with A substance has a density of 2.35 grams per a volume of 0.250 hogsheads and a mass of cubic centimeter. 54.424 kg. What volume of this substance weighs 55 grams? 1. 5.35 × 103 pw/peck Density 107 2. 1.90 × 10−4 pw/peck 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 3. 3.45 × 103 pw/peck An object occupies a volume of 51 cubic centimeters and weighs 510 grams. 4. 6.57 pw/peck What is the density of the object? 5. 157.22 pw/peck Density 108 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Density 52 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. A metal cube having a mass of 80 grams is dropped into a graduated cylinder that con- 1 mole of silver has a volume of 10.3 mL. tains 28.5 mL of water. This causes the water What is the density of silver? level to rise to 42 mL. What is the density of the metal? 1. 10.5 g/L Density 50 2. 10.5 g/mL 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. 0.0971 g/mL Big Bertha is the largest bass drum in the world. It measures 54 inches in radius r, has a 4. 2.73 g/L width w of 36 inches, and weighs 500. pounds. Find the density in g/cm3 . (Use πr2 w for Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors 41 5. 2.73 g/mL Density 56 Density 53 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. An insoluble solid has a mass of 20.0 g. It A graduated cylinder contains 20.0 mL of is placed in a graduated cylinder containing water. An irregularly shaped object is placed 40.00 ml of water. The ﬁnal volume is read as in the cylinder and the water level rises to the 46.00 ml. 31.2 mL mark. What is the density of the solid? If the object has a mass of 47.9 g, what is its density? 1. 0.300 g/ml 1. 4.28 g/cm3 2. 0.500 g/ml 2. 1.53 g/mL 3. 2.30 g/ml 3. 2.40 g/mL 4. 3.33 g/ml 4. 2.34 g/cm3 Density 57 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Density 54 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Calculate the density of mercury if 272 grams occupies 20 milliliters. A liquid has a density of 1.20 g/mL. How many mL of the liquid are there in a 1. 272 g 60.0 g sample? 2. 20 mL 1. 50.0 mL 3. 272 mL 2. 36.0 mL 4. 0.07 g/mL 3. 54.0 mL 5. 13.6 g/mL 4. 72.0 mL Density 58 Density 55 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Copper has a density of 8.96 g/cm3 . A liquid has a density of 1.50 g/mL. If a cylinder of copper weighing 42.38 g is How many mL of the liquid are there in a dropped into a graduated cylinder containing 30.0 g sample? 20.00 mL of water, what will be the new water level? 1. 20.0 mL 1. 4.73 mL 2. 30.0 mL 2. 24.73 mL 3. 40.0 mL 3. 20.21 mL 4. 45.0 mL Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors 42 4. .211 mL Density 62 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Density 59 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Find the volume of the Hope Diamond given the density of diamond (carbon) is 3.51 Copper has a density of 8.96 g/cm3 . g/cm3 and the weight is 44 karats. (Conver- If a cylinder of copper weighing 48.85 g is sion: 1 karat = 0.200 g) dropped into a graduated cylinder containing 20.00 mL of water, what will be the new water 1. 2.5 cm3 level? 2. 772.00 cm3 1. 5.45 mL 3. 63 cm3 2. 24.7 mL 4. 31 cm3 3. 25.5 mL Density 63 4. 45.8 mL 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 5. 68.9 mL If a pure gold crown weighed 2271.0 g in air and 2153 g when submerged in water, the Density 60 weight of the water displaced by the crown is 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 118 g. Find the density of the metal in the crown. Density is measured as ? . 1. 19.2 g/cm3 1. kg/m3 2. .0520 g/cm3 2. kg/m 3. 18.2 g/cm3 3. kg/m2 4. 19.246 g/cm3 4. m2 /kg Density 64 Density 61 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. The density of ethyl alcohol is 0.790 g/mL. Density is the ? of a substance. How many liters are in 1507 grams of ethyl alcohol? (Use signiﬁcant digits.) 1. mass per unit volume 1. 1.907 2. weight per unit volume 2. 1.91 3. mass per unit weight 3. 1.190 4. volume per unit mass 4. 1.19 5. volume per unit weight Density 65 Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors 43 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. The density of gold is 19.3 g/mL. Which of the following is NOT a unit for What is the mass of a gold nugget which density? has a volume of 3.28 mL? 1. g/cm3 1. 63.3 g 2. g/L 2. 5.88 g 3. pounds/L 3. .170 g 4. mg/mL 4. 30.4 g 5. g/cm2 Density 66 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Density 69 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. What is the density of a wood block that has a mass of 97.5 g and measures 12 cm × Which two properties must be known to 3.33 cm × 4.2 cm? (Use signiﬁcant digits.) calculate the density of an object? 1. 0.58 g/cm3 1. mass, temperature 2. 0.5809381 g/cm3 2. mass, melting point 3. 0.581 g/cm3 3. boiling point, mass 4. 1.72 g/cm3 4. volume, mass 5. 1.723538 g/cm3 5. boiling point, volume Density 67 Density 70 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. What is the density of an apple that occu- You need 100.00 mL of H2 O and 5.00 mL pies 24 cm3 and has a mass of 45.0 g? (Use of liquid plant food to make a solution for signiﬁcant digits.) your plants. You forgot to bring a measuring cup out to the greenhouse, but you do have 1. 1.875 g/cm3 a scale and know that the density of H2 O = 1.00 g/cm3 , the density of liquid plant food = 2. 1.9 g/cm3 1.21 g/cm3 and 1 cm3 = 1 mL. How many g of the liquid plant food would 3. 0.53 g/cm3 you use? 4. 0.5 g/cm3 1. 6.05 g 5. 0.2536 g/cm3 2. 0.242 g Density 68 3. 4.13 g Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors 44 3. 0.0108 4. 6.21 g 4. 36.1 5. 3.79 g Density 74 Density 71 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Suppose a solid object has a volume of 2 You need 50.0 g of milk for a cookie recipe, milliliters and a mass of 1.5 grams. Suppose but you don’t have a scale. You do know that some liquid has a volume of 0.5 liter and a milk has a density of 1.10 g/cm3 . mass of 0.6 kilogram. Knowing that 1 cm3 = 1 mL, how many mL If this solid is placed in this liquid, the solid of milk should you should use for this cookie ? . recipe? 1. will sink to the bottom 1. 45.5 mL choice20.022 mL 2. will ﬂoat to the top 3. 55.0 mL 3. will remain wherever we put it 4. 51.1 mL Density 75 5. 48.90 mL 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Density 72 1.00 mole of silver has a volume of 10.3 mL. 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. What is the density of silver? The density of gold is 19.3 g/ml. 1. 10.5 g/L What is the volume of a 2.00 g gold ingot? 2. 10.5 g/mL 1. 0.104 ml 3. 0.0971 g/mL 2. 9.65 ml 4. 2.73 g/L 3. 21.3 ml 5. 2.73 g/mL 4. 38.6 ml Density 76 5. none of these 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Density 73 Ethyl alcohol has a density of 0.789 g/mL. 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. What is the mass of 250 mL of this alcohol? The density of octane is 0.702 g/cm3 . 1. 197 grams What is the mass of 65.00 cm3 of octane? 2. 317 grams 1. 45.6 3. 171 grams 2. 92.6 4. 250 grams Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors 45 Density 80 Density 77 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. What is the density of an object that has a The density of Pepsi is 0.972 g/mL. mass of 47.5 g and occupies 75 cm3 ? How many ounces of Pepsi are in a 205 ml cup? (1 gram = 0.035302 ounces.) Density 81 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 1. 7.24 ounces You are stranded on a tropical island and 2. 7.44 ounces have limited kitchen utensils. You have de- cided to make a coconut milkshake. You need 3. 5640 ounces 7.5 mL of coconut milk, but do not have a measuring cup. You do have a scale. 4. 7.03 ounces Knowing 1 cm3 = 1 mL and that coconut milk has a density of 27.5 g/mL how many 5. 199 ounces grams of coconut milk would you weigh out? Density 78 Density 82 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Compare the densities of 1 liter of water At normal temperature and pressure, air with a bathtub-full of water. has a density of 0.001184 g/mL. The density of 1 liter of water is What is the mass of air in a room that is 3.35 meters by 3.25 meters by 3.1 meters? 1. the same as for a bath-tub full. Density 83 2. less than for a bath-tub full. 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 3. greater than for a bath-tub full. A scary vapor has a density of 2.35 mg/cm3 . How much will 291.5 liters of this haunting Density 79 substance weigh? 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Density 84 A block of wood is 105 cm × 5.1 cm × 6.2 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. cm and weighs 2.26 kg. What is its density? A substance has a density of 2.35 g/cm3 . What volume of this substance weighs 1. 0.68 g/cm3 55 grams? 2. 6.8 × 10−4 g/cm3 Density 85 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 3. 1.5 × 103 g/cm3 Suppose you are scheduled to receive 5.1 mg 4. 1.5 g/cm3 of vitamin B daily. If the container from which your shot is 5. not enough information given to answer drawn is labeled 0.51 mg of vitamin B per the question mL, how many mL will you receive daily? Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors 46 Density 86 cylinder and liquid 11.5 grams; reading from 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. cylinder 6.5 mL. Calculate the density of this liquid using An object occupies a volume of 51 cm3 and the data. weighs 510 grams. What is the density of the object per cm3 ? Density 93 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Density 87 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. A 10 gram sample of a granulated metal with a density of 5.25 was added to a gradu- What is the weight of 5.1 ml of a solution ated cylinder containing 6.5 mL of water. that has a density of 1 g/mL? What is the apparent volume reading of the water in the cylinder containing the granu- Density 88 lated metal sample? 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Density 94 At normal temperature and pressure, air 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. has a density of 0.01184 g/mL. What is the weight of the air in a room that 5.5 grams of a liquid with a density of is 3.3 meters by 3.3 meters by 3.3 meters? 5.75 g/mL was added to a graduated cylin- der. Density 89 What volume reading does the liquid 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. have? A spherical particle has a radius of 1.4 × Density 95 10−8 cm and a mass of 1.25 × 10−19 g. 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. What is the density of the particle? An object with a volume of 4.9 milliliters Density 90 has a mass of 49 grams. 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. What is the density of the object? How many mL of water would 7 grams of a Density 96 metal with a density of 5.05 g/mL displace? 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Density 91 A gas cylinder having a volume of 16 mL 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. contains 3.6 g of gas. What is the density of the gas L? A granular sample of metal weighs 15 grams. It displaces 6.5 mL of water. Density 97 What is the density of the metal? 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Density 92 Calculate the mass of 3.5 in3 of mercury. 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. (The density of Hg( )=13.6 g/cm3 .) The density of a liquid can be determined Density 98 by weighing a known volume of the liquid in 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. a graduated cylinder. The data from the experiment is as fol- A sample of organic liquid has density 1.54 lows: weight of cylinder 10.5 grams; weight of g/mL. Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors 47 What does 70 mL of the liquid weigh? A human hair is approximately 50 µm in Density 99 diameter. 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Express this diameter in meters. What is the density of a substance if 3.8 g 1. 5 × 10−5 m occupies 1.47 cm3 ? 2. 5 × 105 m Distance Conversion 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 3. 5 × 10−6 m Convert 60 mi/h to m/s. You may need 1 4. 5 × 106 m mi = 1609 m. 5. 5 × 10−7 m Fill a Pool 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 6. 5 × 107 m Water ﬂows into a swimming pool at the 7. None of these rate of 5 gal/min. If the pool dimensions are 20 ft wide, 40 ft Holt SF 01A 02 long and 10 ft deep, how long does it take to 01:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- ﬁll the pool? (1 gallon = 231 cubic inches) mal. Fill a Water Bottle A typical radio wave has a period of 1 µs. 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Express this period in seconds. A plastic tube allows a ﬂow of 15 cm3 /s of Holt SF 01A 03 water through it. 01:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- How long will it take to ﬁll a 211 cm3 bottle mal. with water? Part 1 of 3 Heartbeats A hydrogen atom has a diameter of about 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 10 nm. a) Express this diameter in meters. Assuming 60 heartbeats/min, estimate the total number of times the heart of a human Part 2 of 3 beats in an average lifetime of 70 years. b) Express this diameter in millimeters. Holt SF 01A 01 Part 3 of 3 01:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- c) Express this diameter in micrometers. mal. Holt SF 01A 04 A human hair is approximately 50 µm in 01:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- diameter. mal. Express this diameter in meters. Part 1 of 2 Holt SF 01A 01M The distance between the sun and the Earth 01:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- is about 1.5 × 1011 m. mal. a) Express this distance with an SI preﬁx. Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors 48 1. 1.5 × 10−1 Tm 6. 1.5 × 1011 km 2. 1.5 × 10−1 Pm 7. None of these 3. 1.5 × 10−1 Gm Holt SF 01A 05 01:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 4. 1.5 × 10−1 Mm wording-variable. 5. 1.5 × 10−1 mm The average mass of an automobile in the United States is about 1.440 × 106 g. 6. 1.5 × 10−1 km Express this mass in kilograms. 7. None of these 1. 1.440 × 103 kg Part 2 of 2 2. 1.440 × 109 kg b) Express this distance in kilometers. 3. 1.440 × 1012 kg 8 1. 1.5 × 10 km 4. 1.440 × 10−3 kg 9 2. 1.5 × 10 km 5. 1.440 × 10−6 kg 3. 1.5 × 106 km 6. 1.440 × 10−9 kg 4. 1.5 × 107 km 7. 1.440 × 10−12 kg 5. 1.5 × 1010 km 8. 1.440 × 100 kg 6. 1.5 × 1011 km 9. None of these 6. None of these Holt SF 01Rev 11 Holt SF 01A 0402 01:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- 01:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- mal. mal. Part 1 of 7 The distance between the sun and the Earth a) Express 2 dm in millimeters. is about 1.5 × 1011 m. Express this distance in kilometers. Part 2 of 7 b) Express 2 h 10 min in seconds. 1. 1.5 × 108 km Part 3 of 7 2. 1.5 × 109 km c) Express 16 g in micrograms. 3. 1.5 × 106 km Part 4 of 7 d) Express 0.75 km in centimeters. 4. 1.5 × 107 km Part 5 of 7 5. 1.5 × 1010 km e) Express 0.675 mg in grams. Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors 49 Holt SF 01Rev 38 Part 6 of 7 01:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- f) Express 462 µm in centimeters. mal. Part 7 of 7 A billionaire oﬀers to give you $5 billion if g) Express 35 km/h in meters per second. you will count out the amount in $1 bills or a lump sum of $5000. Assume that you can Holt SF 01Rev 12 count at an average rate of one bill per second, 01:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- and be sure to allow for the fact that you need mal. about 10 hours a day for sleeping and eating. Which oﬀer should you accept? Part 1 of 5 In order to answer this, how long will it Use the SI preﬁxes to convert these hy- take you to count out the $5 billion? pothetical units of measure into appropriate quantities. Holt SF 01Rev 39 a) Express 10 rations in dekarations. 01:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- mal. Part 2 of 5 b) Express 2000 mockingbirds in kilomock- Exactly 1 qt of ice cream is to be made in ingbirds. the form of a cube. What should be the length of one side in Part 3 of 5 meters for the container to have the appropri- c) Express 10 −6 phones in microphones. ate volume? 4 qt = 3.786 × 10−3 m3 . Part 4 of 5 Holt SF 01Rev 42 d) Express 10 −9 goats in nanogoats. 01:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Part 5 of 5 If one micrometeorite (a sphere with a di- e) Express 10 19 miners in examiners. ameter of 1.0 × 10−6 m) struck each square meter of the moon each second, it would take Holt SF 01Rev 13 many years to cover the moon with microme- 01:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, teorites to a depth of 1.0 m. Consider a cubic wording-variable. box, 1.0 m on a side, on the moon. How long would it take to completely ﬁll Use the fact that the speed of light in a the box with micrometeorites? vacuum is about 3.00 × 108 m/s to determine how many kilometers a pulse from a laser Holt SF 01Rev 43 beam travels in exactly one hour. 01:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- mal. Holt SF 01Rev 14 01:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- One cubic centimeter 1.0 cm3 of water mal. has a mass of 0.001 kg at 25◦ C. Find the mass of 1 m3 of water at 25◦ C. A metric ton is 1.000 × 103 kg. How many 85 kg people can safely occupy Holt SF 01Rev 44 an elevator that can hold a maximum mass of 01:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- exactly 1 metric ton? mal. Part 1 of 2 Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors 50 Assuming biological substances are 90% Find the density of this planet (The volume water and the density of water is 1000 kg/m3 , 4 of a sphere is given by π r3 .) estimate the masses of the following: 3 a) a spherical cell with a diameter of 1 µm Part 2 of 2 4 volume = πr3 . Find its surface area s in square feet. (The 3 surface area of a sphere is given by 4π r 2 .) Part 2 of 2 b) a ﬂy, which can be approximated by a Population Density cylinder 4 mm long and 2 mm in diameter 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. volume = πr 2 . Mivalle has a population of 40200 people House Volume and an area of 6.84 mi2 . 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. What is its population density? Part 1 of 2 Rain Density A house is 50 ft long and 26 ft wide, and 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. has 8 ft high ceilings. What is the volume of the house? Rain drops fall on a tile surface at a density of 4675 drops/ft2 . There are 16 tiles/ft2 . Part 2 of 2 How many drops fall on each tile? What is the volume of the house in cubic centimeters? Rectangle Area 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Mass Comparisons 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. What is the area of a rectangle whose sides are 5 m and 4 m? One cubic meter (1.0 m3 ) of aluminum has a mass of 2700 kg, and a cubic meter of iron Room Volume has a mass of 7860 kg. 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Find the radius of a solid aluminum sphere that has the same mass as a solid iron sphere A room is 15 ft deep, 20 ft wide and 7 ft of radius 2 cm. high. Express the volume of this room in cubic Mass Density Ratio meters. You will need 1 inch = 2.54 cm. 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Saturn Density 01 The planet Jupiter has an average radius 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 10.95 times that of the Earth and a mass 317.4 times that of the Earth. Part 1 of 2 Calculate the ratio of Jupiter’s mass density The mass of the planet Saturn is 5.64 × to the mass density of the Earth. 1026 kg and its radius is 6 × 107 m. a) Calculate its density. Planet Density 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Part 2 of 2 b) If this planet were placed in a large enough Part 1 of 2 ocean of water, would it ﬂoat? The radius of a certain planet is 5.85 × 107 m, and its mass is 5.68 × 1026 kg. 1. No Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors 51 A ? is a measure for the ? of elec- 2. Yes tricity. 3. More information is needed. 1. coulomb, quantity Saturn Density 02 2. coulomb, quality 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. luminosity, quantity The mass of the planet Saturn is 5.64 × 26 10 kg and its radius is 6 × 107 m. 4. luminosity, quality a) Calculate its density. Units 53 Sphere Mass 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. A(n) ? is a measurement of electrical A sphere of metal has a radius of 4.6 cm ? . and has a density of 7.9 gm/cm3 . What is the mass of the sphere? 1. ohm, resistance Units 03 2. ohm, capacitance 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 3. volt, resistance Part 1 of 3 Express the following distances in meters: 4. volt, capacitance The length of a 100 yd dash. Units 54 Part 2 of 3 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. The length of a marathon run of 26 mi, 385 yd. A pascal is a unit of measurement of ? Part 3 of 3 and is deﬁned as ? . The distance from Seattle, Washington, to Miami, Florida ( 3273 mi). 1. pressure, kg/m-s2 Units 51 2. pressure, kg/m-s 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. temperature, ◦ C/m2 A farad is a measure of electrical ? . 4. temperature, ◦ C/m 1. capacitance Units 55 2. diﬀerential resistance 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. shock A unit of energy is 4. potential 1. a calorie Units 52 2. a degree centigrade 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. electricity Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors 52 sured in ? . 4. heat 1. volts Units 56 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. watts A unit of temperature is a 3. farads 1. calorie 4. ohms 2. Kelvin Units 60 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. speciﬁc heat Energy is deﬁned as kg m2 /s2 which is 4. joule called a ? . Units 57 1. joule 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. watt A ? , which is a unit of force, is deﬁned as kg m/s2 . 3. volt 1. newton 4. ohm 2. watt Units 61 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. ohm kg m2 /s3 deﬁnes the unit of measurement 4. volt called a ? . Units 58 1. watt 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. candela An SI unit of energy is 3. volt 1. meter, m 4. ampere 2. kilogram, kg Units 62 3. Kelvin, K 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. joule, J The base unit for length is the ? . 5. second, s 1. meter Units 59 2. gram 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. millimeter Electrical potential diﬀerences are mea- Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors 53 4. milligram 2. minute Units 63 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. hour The base unit for mass is the ? . 4. day 1. kilogram Units 67 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. centimeter The calorie is a unit of 3. meter 1. length 4. degree 2. volume Units 64 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. temperature The base unit for temperature on the abso- 4. energy lute scale is ? . 5. density 1. kelvin Units 68 2. celsius 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. fahrenheit The Kelvin scale is more commonly used by chemists because it is ? 4. degree 1. easier to spell than Fahrenheit. Units 65 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. the only scale which has a temperature for boiling water. The base unit for the amount of a substance is the ? . 3. the only temperature scale with an abso- lute zero. 1. mole 4. the same size as a Fahrenheit degree. 2. gram 5. None of these 3. meter Units 69 4. liter 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Units 66 What is the zero point on the absolute scale 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. deﬁned as? The base unit for time is the ? . 1. The temperature at which water freezes and ice melts. 1. second Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors 54 2. The temperature at which molecular mo- 2. meter tion ceases. 3. mole 3. The temperature at which water boils. 4. density ◦ 4. The equivalent to 0 C. Volume 50 ◦ 5. The equivalent to 0 F. 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Units 70 4 The volume of a sphere is πr3 , r being the 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3 radius. Calculate the volume of a ball (in cm3 ) that Which of the following is a fundamental has a diameter of 9.3 inches. (1 inch = 2.54 unit of measure? cm exactly) 1. velocity 1. 4.95 × 101 2. volume 2. 6.9 × 103 3. length 3. 3.369 × 103 4. density 4. 1.21095 × 105 5. energy 5. 5.5212 × 105 Units 71 Volume 51 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Which of the following is a fundamental Which one has the largest volume? unit of measure? 1. 380 g water (density = 1 g/cm3 ) 1. volume 2. 600 g chloroform (density = 1.5 g/cm3 ) 2. mass 3. 0.5 L milk (density = 1.05 g/cm3 ) 3. area 4. 100 cm3 steel (density = 7.86 g/cm3 ) 4. pressure Volume Conversion 5. energy 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Units 72 Convert the volume 8.5 in.3 to m3 , recalling 01:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. that 1 in. = 2.54 cm and 1 cm = 10−2 m. Which of the following is not a fundamental Washington Monument unit? 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 1. grams The Washington Monument in the District Chapter 1, section 4, Derived Quantitites and Conversion Factors 55 of Columbia has a height of 555 ft, 5 in. Express this height in meters to four signif- icant ﬁgures. Wire Mass 01:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. A piece of wire has a density of 6.4 gm/cm. What is the mass of 13.6 cm of the wire? Chapter 1, section 5, Measurement of Circles 56 Holt SF 01Rev 37 01:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 1 of 4 Consider a circle of radius 3.5 cm. a) Calculate its circumference (C = 2πr). Part 2 of 4 b) Calculate its area A = πr 2 . Part 3 of 4 Consider a circle of radius 4.65 cm. c) Calculate its circumference (C = 2πr). Part 4 of 4 d) Calculate its area A = πr 2 . Holt SF 01Rev 41 01:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- mal. Part 1 of 2 An ancient unit of length called the cubit was equal to approximately 50 centimeters, which is, or course, approximately 0.50 me- ters. It has been said that Noah’s ark was 300 cubits long, 50 cubits wide, and 30 cubits high. a) Estimate the volume of the ark using 1 palm = 0.08 m and 6 palms = 1 cubit. Part 2 of 2 b) Estimate the volume of a typical home (2000 ft2 in size and 10 ft tall). Chapter 1, section 7, Scientiﬁc Notation 57 on a fairly large but smooth water surface. Hewitt CP9 01 E05 The resulting ”oil slick” that forms on the 01:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. surface of the water will be approximately one molecule thick. When you step from the shade into the Given an oil droplet with a mass of 9.00 × sunlight the Sun’s heat is as evident as the 10 −7 kg and a density of 918 kg/m3 that heat from hot coals in a ﬁreplace in an oth- spreads out to form a circle with a radius of erwise cold room. You feel the Sun’s heat 41.8 cm on the water surface, what is the not because of its high temperature (higher approximate diameter of an oil molecule? temperatures can be found in some welder’s torches), but because the Sun is big. Which do you estimate is larger, the Sun’s radius or the distance between the moon and the Earth? Do you ﬁnd your answer surpris- ing? 1. Sun’s radius is larger. 2. Sun’s radius is smaller. 3. Equal size. 4. Unable to determine. Hewitt CP9 01 P07 01:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Let the solar image fall upon a coin, say a dime, lying on cardboard. Position the card- board so the image just covers the coin. This is a convenient way to measure the diame- ter of the image–the same as the diameter of the easy-to-measure coin. Then measure the distance between the cardboard and the coin. Your ratio of image size to image distance 1 should be about . This is the ratio of solar 100 diameter to solar distance to the Earth. Using the information that the Sun is 150,000,000 kilometers distant, calculate the diameter of the Sun. Holt SF 01Rev 40 01:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. You can obtain a rough estimate of the size of a molecule with the following simple experiment: Let a droplet of oil spread out Chapter 1, section 8, Scientiﬁc Method 58 3. the amount of light Experiment 01 01:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. the color of the light Part 1 of 4 Part 4 of 4 Two students noticed that plants growing d) Which of the plants are in the experimental close to a window grew better than the same group? kind of plant growing at the back of the room under a colored light bulb. They thought 1. Plants A and B the diﬀerence might be the type of light the plants received. To see if they were correct, 2. Plants B and C they placed plant A in white (normal) light, plant B under a violet light, and plant C under 3. Plants A and C green light. They watched and measured the 3 plants over a two-week period, making sure 4. All three plants all three plants got the same amount of water. They found plant A grew 8 cm, plant B grew 5. None of the plants 6 cm, and plant C grew 3 cm. a) What was their hypothesis? Experiment mod02 01:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. Light comes in diﬀerent colors. Part 1 of 5 2. Plants grow in light. Two students noticed that plants growing close to a window grew better than the same 3. Colored light helps plants grow. kind of plant growing at the back of the room under a colored light bulb. They thought 4. The type of light aﬀects a plant’s the diﬀerence might be the type of light the growth. plants received. To see if they were correct, they placed plant A in white (normal) light, Part 2 of 4 plant B under a violet light, and plant C under b) Which plant could be considered a control? green light. They watched and measured the 3 plants over a two-week period, making sure 1. Plant A all three plants got the same amount of water. They found plant A grew 8 cm, plant B grew 2. Plant B 6 cm, and plant C grew 3 cm. a) What was their hypothesis? 3. Plant C 1. Light comes in diﬀerent colors. 4. All three plants 2. Plants grow in light. 5. None of the plants 3. Colored light helps plants grow. Part 3 of 4 c) What is the variable being tested? 4. Color of light aﬀects plant growth. 1. humidity Part 2 of 5 b) Which variable is the independent variable 2. the amount of water in this experiment? Chapter 1, section 8, Scientiﬁc Method 59 1. the amount of water the plants receive 5. None of the variables listed here 2. the color of the light Hewitt CP9 01 E01 3. the temperature of the plants 01:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. the amount the plants grow Which of the following is not a scientiﬁc hypotheses? 5. None of the variables listed here 1. Chlorophyll makes grass green. Part 3 of 5 c) What is the dependent variable in this 2. The Earth rotates about its axis because experiment? living things need an alternation of light and darkness. 1. the amount of water the plants receive 3. Tides are caused by the moon. 2. the color of the light 4. The Earth rotates around the Sun. 3. the temperature of the plants 5. The wind is caused by the Sun. 4. the amount the plants grow Hewitt CP9 01 P01 5. None of the variables listed here 01:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Part 4 of 5 What is fact? d) What is an example of a controlled variable in this experiment? 1. A phenomenon about which competent observers who have made a series of observa- 1. the amount of water the plants receive tions are in agreement. 2. the color of the light 2. An educated guess; a reasonable expla- nation of an observation or experimental re- 3. the temperature of the plants sult that is not fully accepted as factual until tested over and over again by experiment. 4. the amount the plants grow 3. A general hypothesis or statement about 5. None of the variables listed here the relationship of natural quantities that has not been contradicted; also known as a prin- Part 5 of 5 ciple. e) What is an example of a uncontrolled vari- able in this experiment? 4. An orderly method for gaining, organiz- ing, and applying new knowledge. 1. the amount of water the plants receive 5. A synthesis of a large body of information 2. the color of the light that encompasses well-tested and verify hy- potheses about certain aspects of the natural 3. the temperature of the plants world. 4. the amount the plants grow Hewitt CP9 01 P02 Chapter 1, section 8, Scientiﬁc Method 60 01:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. that encompasses well-tested and verify hy- potheses about certain aspects of the natural What is a hypothesis? world. 1. A phenomenon about which competent Hewitt CP9 01 P04 observers who have made a series of observa- 01:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. tions are in agreement. What is the scientiﬁc method? 2. An educated guess; a reasonable expla- nation of an observation or experimental re- 1. A phenomenon about which competent sult that is not fully accepted as factual until observers who have made a series of observa- tested over and over again by experiment. tions are in agreement. 3. A general hypothesis or statement about 2. An educated guess; a reasonable expla- the relationship of natural quantities that has nation of an observation or experimental re- not been contradicted; also known as a prin- sult that is not fully accepted as factual until ciple. tested over and over again by experiment. 4. An orderly method for gaining, organiz- 3. A general hypothesis or statement about ing, and applying new knowledge. the relationship of natural quantities that has not been contradicted; also known as a prin- 5. A synthesis of a large body of information ciple. that encompasses well-tested and verify hy- potheses about certain aspects of the natural 4. An orderly method for gaining, organiz- world. ing, and applying new knowledge. Hewitt CP9 01 P03 5. A synthesis of a large body of information 01:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. that encompasses well-tested and verify hy- potheses about certain aspects of the natural What is law? world. 1. A phenomenon about which competent Hewitt CP9 01 P05 observers who have made a series of observa- 01:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. tions are in agreement. What is theory? 2. An educated guess; a reasonable expla- nation of an observation or experimental re- 1. A phenomenon about which competent sult that is not fully accepted as factual until observers who have made a series of observa- tested over and over again by experiment. tions are in agreement. 3. A general hypothesis or statement about 2. An educated guess; a reasonable expla- the relationship of natural quantities that has nation of an observation or experimental re- not been contradicted; also known as a prin- sult that is not fully accepted as factual until ciple. tested over and over again by experiment. 4. An orderly method for gaining, organiz- 3. A general hypothesis or statement about ing, and applying new knowledge. the relationship of natural quantities that has not been contradicted; also known as a prin- 5. A synthesis of a large body of information ciple. Chapter 1, section 8, Scientiﬁc Method 61 step is to 4. An orderly method for gaining, organiz- ing, and applying new knowledge. 1. gather information on the problem. 5. A synthesis of a large body of information 2. form a hypothesis. that encompasses well-tested and verify hy- potheses about certain aspects of the natural 3. record and analyze data. world. 4. state the problem. Hewitt CP9 01 P06 01:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Scientiﬁc Method 02 01:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Poke a hole in a piece of cardboard and hold the cardboard in the sunlight. Note the image In any experiment, the one factor that is of the sun that is cast below. being tested is the Try a square hole; what is the image of the sun? 1. variable. 1. triangular 2. control. 2. round 3. experiment. 3. square 4. data. 4. pentagon Scientiﬁc Method 03 01:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 5. hexagon The set of steps used to solve problems in Hewitt CP9 01 R01 an orderly way. 01:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. experiment Which of the following activities involves the upmost human expression of passion, tal- 2. observation ent, and intelligence? 3. scientiﬁc method 1. painting and sculpture 4. variable 2. literature 5. control 3. music Scientiﬁc Method 04 4. religion 01:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 5. science A procedure for testing a hypothesis. Scientiﬁc Method 01 1. experiment 01:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. observation When using the scientiﬁc method, the ﬁrst Chapter 1, section 8, Scientiﬁc Method 62 3. scientiﬁc method 4. variable 5. control Scientiﬁc Method 05 01:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Any factor in an experiment that aﬀects the results of the experiment. 1. hypothesis 2. observation 3. scientiﬁc method 4. variable 5. control Scientiﬁc Method 50 01:08, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. A scientiﬁc statement, often mathematical in form, that summerizes experimental data is called a ? . 1. law 2. theory 3. hypothesis 4. proposition Chapter 1, section 9, Tools of Measurement 63 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Length 01 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Part 1 of 3 What is the measurement? Consider the metric ruler. a b c Mass 02 01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Consider the scale on a balance. ﬁg[1,210] a) What is the measurement for a? What is the measurement? Part 2 of 3 Mass 03 b) What is the measurement for b? 01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Consider the scale on a balance. ﬁg[1,210] Part 3 of 3 What is the measurement? c) What is the measurement for c? Measurement 50 Length 02 01:09, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. ? refers to how closely a measured value Consider the metric ruler. ﬁg[1,100] What agrees with the correct value. is the measurement? 1. accuracy Length 03 01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. precision Consider the metric ruler. ﬁg[1,100] What Measurement 51 is the measurement? 01:09, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Liquid 01 ? refers to how closely individual mea- 01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. surements agree with each other. A word meaning the shape of a liquid at its 1. precision surface is 2. accuracy 1. meniscus. Measurement 52 2. control. 01:09, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. variable. You bought a 5 pound bag of sugar at H.E.B. Not trusting the store, you weighed 4. capillarity. the sugar at home to make sure that you got what you paid for. Your scale reports that the Mass 01 store’s 5 pound bag of sugar does weigh 5 lbs. 01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. This is an example of Consider the scale on a balance. Chapter 1, section 9, Tools of Measurement 64 1. accuracy. 1. metric ruler 2. precision. 2. triple-beam balance Measurement 53 01:09, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. graduated cylinder You have a reported 1 pound bar of gold, 4. Celsius thermometer but every time you weigh it, the scale reports that it weighs 937.00 g. Measurements 04 This is an example of 01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. precision. Which instrument would be used to mea- sure the mass of a cube of sugar? 2. accuracy. 1. metric ruler Measurements 01 01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. triple-beam balance Which instrument would be used to mea- 3. graduated cylinder sure the mass of a small stone? 4. Celsius thermometer 1. metric ruler Measurements 05 2. triple-beam balance 01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. graduated cylinder Which instrument would be used to mea- sure the volume of a small jar of juice? 4. Celsius thermometer 1. metric ruler Measurements 02 01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. triple-beam balance Which instrument would be used to mea- 3. graduated cylinder sure the length of your ﬁnger? 4. Celsius thermometer 1. metric ruler Measurements 06 2. triple-beam balance 01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. graduated cylinder Which instrument would be used to mea- sure the air temperature? 4. Celsius thermometer 1. metric ruler Measurements 03 01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. triple-beam balance Which instrument would be used to mea- 3. graduated cylinder sure the temperature of a glass of lemonade? Chapter 1, section 9, Tools of Measurement 65 4. Celsius thermometer 1. metric ruler Measurements 07 01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. triple-beam balance Which instrument would be used to mea- 3. graduated cylinder sure the mass of a handful of powder? 4. Celsius thermometer 1. metric ruler Temperature 01 2. triple-beam balance 01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. graduated cylinder Part 1 of 2 Consider the Celsius thermometers. 4. Celsius thermometer a) 80 b) 10 5 Measurements 08 01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 70 0 -5 Which instrument would be used to mea- sure the volume of a diamond? 60 -10 a) What is the ﬁrst measurement? 1. metric ruler Part 2 of 2 2. triple-beam balance b) What is the second measurement? 3. graduated cylinder Temperature 02 01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. Celsius thermometer Part 1 of 2 Measurements 09 Consider the Celsius thermometers. 01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. ﬁg[1,50] a) What is the ﬁrst measurement? Which instrument would be used to mea- Part 2 of 2 sure your height? b) What is the second measurement? 1. metric ruler Temperature 03 01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. triple-beam balance Part 1 of 2 3. graduated cylinder Consider the Celsius thermometers. ﬁg[1,50] a) What is the ﬁrst measurement? 4. Celsius thermometer Part 2 of 2 Measurements 10 b) What is the second measurement? 01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Which instrument would be used to mea- Volume 01 sure the mass of a coin? 01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Chapter 1, section 9, Tools of Measurement 66 Part 1 of 2 Consider the graduated cylinders. a) b) 4 3 50 2 1 40 a) What is the ﬁrst measurement? Part 2 of 2 b) What is the second measurement? Volume 02 01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Consider the graduated cylinder. ﬁg[1,50] What is the measurement? Volume 03 01:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Consider the graduated cylinder. 100 100 90 90 80 80 70 70 60 60 50 50 40 40 30 20 10 What is the measurement? Chapter 1, section 10, Safety in the Laboratory 67 Safety 01 4. None of these 01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Safety 04 When diluting an acid, always pour 01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. the water into the acid. Always point a test tube that is being heated 2. the acid into the water. 1. away from you and toward others. 3. the base into the water. 2. toward you and away from others. 4. the water into the base. 3. toward you and others. Safety 02 01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. away from you and others. When inserting glass tubing into a rubber 5. straight up. stopper, A. use a turning motion. Safety 05 B. apply a lubricant. 01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. C. force the tubing into the stopper. When working with chemicals and burners, 1. Only A is true. always wear A. safety goggles. 2. Only B is true. B. a laboratory apron or coat. 3. Only C is true. C. long sleeves. 1. Only A is true. 4. A and B are true. 2. Only B is true. 5. B and C are true. 3. Only C is true. 6. A and C are true. 4. A and B are true. 7. None is true. 5. A and C are true. 8. All three are true. 6. B and C are true. Safety 03 01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 7. All are true. To protect glassware from an open ﬂame, 8. None is true. 1. use a wire or asbestos screen. Safety 06 01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. immerse the glasware in water. To test the odor of fumes, 3. hold the glassware over the ﬂame. Chapter 1, section 10, Safety in the Laboratory 68 1. inhale the fumes directly from the con- tainer. Safety 10 01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. gently wave the fumes toward your nose. After cutting glass tubing, always ﬁre pol- 3. heat the substance before smelling it. ish the ends 4. take a deep breath and inhale. 1. to remove impurities. Safety 07 2. for easier insertion into stoppers. 01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. to remove sharp edges. When using scalpels or razor blades, cut the material 4. and place in cold water. 1. away from you. Safety 11 01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. on a right angle. Consider the following statements: 3. toward you. A. Never perform activities that are not authorized by your teacher. 4. in your hand. B. When working with acids and bases, pour them over your work bench. Safety 08 01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. C. You may heat liquids in a closed container. To dispose of all chemicals, 1. Only A is true. 1. follow your teacher’s instructions. 2. Only B is true. 2. throw them in the trash. 3. Only C is true. 3. burn them in a burner. 4. A and B are true. 4. ﬂush them down the sink. 5. B and C are true. Safety 09 6. A and C are true. 01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 7. None is true. You should know the location of safety equipment in the laboratory and 8. All three are true. 1. where it is produced. Safety 12 01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. use or test it once a week. Consider the following statements: 3. use or test it once a month. 4. how to use it properly. Chapter 1, section 10, Safety in the Laboratory 69 A. When you ﬁnish an experiment, leave all of the equipment at your 8. All three are true. work station for the next group. Safety 14 B. Always use a clamp or tongs when 01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. handling hot containers. C. If you spill any material, quickly Which of the following is a safe lab proce- clean it up with a cloth. dure? 1. Only A is true. 1. Carry out experiments you do not under- stand. 2. Only B is true. 2. Work alone in the lab. 3. Only C is true. 3. Wear safety goggles when heating chemi- 4. A and B are true. cals. 5. B and C are true. 4. Remove your safety goggles to check a ﬂame. 6. A and C are true. 5. None of these is safe. 7. None is true. 6. All of these are safe. 8. All three are true. Safety 15 Safety 13 01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. If acid is splashed on your lab partner, im- Consider the following statements: mediately do which of the following? A. Rinse any acids oﬀ your skin or clothing with water. 1. Wipe them oﬀ with a paper towel. B. Always keep the lids of all chemical containers open. 2. Flush the area with lots of water. C. Glassware may be heated before it 3. Wrap them in the ﬁre blanket. has completely dried. 1. Only A is true. 4. Spray them with the ﬁre extinguisher. 2. Only B is true. Safety 16 01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. Only C is true. An important rule to follow in class is to 4. A and B are true. 1. follow your teacher’s instructions. 5. B and C are true. 2. be very popular in your lab group. 6. A and C are true. 3. eat lots of healthy snacks during lab. 7. None is true. Chapter 1, section 10, Safety in the Laboratory 70 4. get to lab early so you can start before class. Safety 17 01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. At the end of an experiment, you should 1. leave the lab equipment out for the next class to use. 2. clean your lab equipment and area. 3. wear your goggles out of the room. 4. dispose of all trash in the sinks. Safety 18 01:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. MSDS (Material Safety and Data Sheets) are used to tell 1. a chemical’s shelf life. 2. information on any potentially harmful chemical in the lab. 3. where the chemical can be found natu- rally. 4. how to use a chemical for home experi- ments. Chapter 1, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 01 71 Holt SF 01Rev 16 4. 3 01:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. 5. 5 Part 1 of 5 6. 6 How many signiﬁcant ﬁgures are in the fol- lowing measurements? 7. None of these a) 300 000 000 m/s. Part 4 of 5 1. 1 d) 1.004 J. 2. 2 1. 4 3. 3 2. 1 4. 4 3. 2 5. 5 4. 3 6. 6 5. 5 7. None of these 6. 6 Part 2 of 5 7. None of these ◦ b) 25.030 C. Part 5 of 5 1. 5 e) 1.3 05 20 MHz. 2. 1 1. 6 3. 2 2. 1 4. 3 3. 2 5. 4 4. 3 6. 6 5. 4 7. None of these 6. 5 Part 3 of 5 7. None of these c) 0.006 070◦ C. Holt SF 01Rev 18 1. 4 01:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. 2. 1 Part 1 of 3 3. 2 The value of the speed of light is now known Chapter 1, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 01 72 to be 2.997 924 58 × 108 m/s. Express the speed of light 3. 3.00 × 108 m/s a) with three signiﬁcant ﬁgures. 4. 2.998 × 108 m/s 1. 3 × 108 m/s 5. 2.9979 × 108 m/s 2. 3.00 × 108 m/s 6. 2.997925 × 108 m/s 3. 3.0 × 108 m/s 7. 2.99792 × 108 m/s 4. 2.998 × 108 m/s 8. 2.9979246 × 108 m/s 5. 2.9979 × 108 m/s 9. None of these 6. 2.99792 × 108 m/s Holt SF 01Rev 19 7. 2.997925 × 108 m/s 01:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- mal. 8. 2.9979246 × 108 m/s Part 1 of 4 9. None of these How many signiﬁcant ﬁgures are in the fol- lowing measurements? Part 2 of 3 a) 78.9 ± 0.2 m. b) with ﬁve signiﬁcant ﬁgures. 1. 3 8 1. 3 × 10 m/s 2. 1 8 2. 3.0 × 10 m/s 3. 2 8 3. 3.00 × 10 m/s 4. 4 8 4. 2.9979 × 10 m/s 5. 5 8 5. 2.998 × 10 m/s 6. 6 8 6. 2.99792 × 10 m/s 7. None of these 8 7. 2.997925 × 10 m/s Part 2 of 4 8 9 8. 2.9979246 × 10 m/s b) 3.788 × 10 s. 9. None of these 1. 4 Part 3 of 3 2. 1 c) with seven signiﬁcant ﬁgures. 3. 2 1. 3 × 108 m/s 4. 3 2. 3.0 × 108 m/s Chapter 1, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 01 73 5. 5 1. Whole number (797 g) 6. 6 2. Hundredths (796.53 g) 7. None of these 3. Tenths (796.5 g) Part 3 of 4 c) 2.46 × 106 kg. 4. Tens (800 g) 1. 3 5. Three signiﬁcant ﬁgures (797 g) 2. 1 6. Two signiﬁcant ﬁgures (800 g) 3. 2 7. One signiﬁcant ﬁgure (800 g) 4. 4 8. None of these 5. 5 Part 2 of 4 3.2 m b) Find the quotient . 6. 6 3.563 s 1. Two signiﬁcant ﬁgures (0.90 m/s) 7. None of these 2. One signiﬁcant ﬁgure (0.9 m/s) Part 4 of 4 d) 0.0032 mm. 3. Three signiﬁcant ﬁgures (0.898 m/s) 1. 2 4. Four signiﬁcant ﬁgures (0.8981 m/s) 2. 1 5. Tenths (0.9 m/s) 3. 3 6. Hundredths (0.90 m/s) 4. 4 7. Thousandths (0.898 m/s) 5. 5 8. None of these 6. 6 Part 3 of 4 c) Find the product of 5.67 mm and π. 7. None of these 1. Three signiﬁcant ﬁgures (17.8 mm) Holt SF 01Rev 20 01:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 2. Two signiﬁcant ﬁgures (18 mm) wording-variable. 3. Four signiﬁcant ﬁgures (17.81 mm) Part 1 of 4 Use signiﬁcant ﬁgures to calculate the fol- 4. Five signiﬁcant ﬁgures (17.813 mm) lowing: a) Find the sum of the measurements 756 g, 5. Whole number (18 mm) 37.2 g, 0.83 g, and 2.5 g. Chapter 1, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 01 74 6. Tenths (17.8 mm) 5. Two signiﬁcant ﬁgures (230 cm) 7. Hundredths (17.81 mm) 6. Three signiﬁcant ﬁgures (229 cm) 8. Thousandths (17.813 mm) 7. Four signiﬁcant ﬁgures (228.8 cm) 9. None of these 8. Five signiﬁcant ﬁgures (228.76 cm) Part 4 of 4 d) Find the diﬀerence of 27.54 s and 3.8 s. 9. None of these 1. Tenths (23.7 s) Holt SF 01Rev 22 01:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 1. Tens (20 s) wording-variable. 1. Whole number (24 s) A farmer measures the distance around a rectangular ﬁeld. The length of each long side 1. Hundredths (23.74 s) of the rectangle is found to be 38.44 m, and the length of each short side is found to be 3. One signiﬁcant ﬁgure (20 s) 19.5 m. What is the total distance around the ﬁeld? 3. Two signiﬁcant ﬁgures (24 s) 1. Tenths (115.9 m) 3. Three signiﬁcant ﬁgures (23.7 s) 2. Whole number (116 m) 3. Four signiﬁcant ﬁgures (23.74 s) 3. Hundredths (115.88 m) 4. None of these 4. Hundreds (120 m) Holt SF 01Rev 21 01:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 5. Two signiﬁcant ﬁgures (120 m) wording-variable. 6. Three signiﬁcant ﬁgures (116 m) A ﬁsherman catches two sturgeons. The smaller of the two has a measured length of 7. Four signiﬁcant ﬁgures (115.9 m) 93.46 cm (two decimal places and four signif- icant ﬁgures), and the larger ﬁsh has a mea- 8. Five signiﬁcant ﬁgures (115.88 m) sured length of 135.3 cm (one decimal place and four signiﬁcant ﬁgures). 9. None of these What rule must be used on the sum to ﬁnd the total length of the two ﬁsh? PS303 Notation 01:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. Tenths (228.8 cm) Part 1 of 3 2. Whole number (229 cm) Select the best conclusion to the sentence. We use signiﬁcant ﬁgures ... 3. Hundredths (228.76 cm) 1. to indicate uncertainty in a measure- 4. Hundreds (230 cm) ment. Chapter 1, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 01 75 2. for convenience in writing and reading. 2. for convenience in writing and reading. 3. because they are more accurate. 3. because they are more accurate. 4. to indicate the measurement tool used. 4. to indicate the measurement tool used. 5. because we like that they confuse physical 5. because we like that they confuse physical science students. science students. 6. to speed up the measurement process. 6. to speed up the measurement process. 7. because it was mandated in the US Con- 7. because they were mandated in the US stitution. Constitution. 8. because they are an international stan- 8. because they are an international stan- dard. dard. PS303 Unit I Problem 4 Part 2 of 3 01:99, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Select the best conclusion to the sentence. We use scientiﬁc notation ... Part 1 of 3 The following are some measurements of 1. to indicate uncertainty in a measure- the gas mileage for a car (in miles per hour): ment. 2. for convenience in writing and reading. 20.4 mph 21.4 mph 22.4 mph 23.4 mph 24.4 mph 25.4 mph 3. because it is more accurate. 26.4 mph 27.4 mph 28.4 mph 29.4 mph 30.4 mph 31.4 mph . 4. to indicate the measurement tool used. What is the average gas mileage? 5. because we like that it confuses physical science students. Part 2 of 3 What is the uncertainty in this result? 6. to speed up the measurement process. Part 3 of 3 7. because it was mandated in the US Con- What is the relative uncertainty? stitution. 8. because it is an international standard. Part 3 of 3 Select the best conclusion to the sentence. We use SI units such as meters, kilograms and seconds ... 1. to indicate uncertainty in a measure- ment. Chapter 2, section 1, Frame of Reference 76 a) Where is runner A with respect to the Motion 03 parking lot? 02:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. −5 km from the lot. Motion is 2. −10 km from the lot. 1. an increase in the speed of an object. 3. +5 km from the lot. 2. a decrease in the speed of an object. 4. +10 km from the lot. 3. the stopping of an object relative to a frame of reference. Part 2 of 2 b) The parking lot is 4. a change in position relative to a frame of reference. 1. a position between the two runners. Motion 10 2. the displacement between the two run- 02:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. ners. The object or point from which movement 3. a reference point for the two runners. is determined is called 4. a distance between the two runners. 1. terminal velocity. Relative Velocities 2. motion. 02:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 3. momentum. Part 1 of 3 Two cars approach each other. Both cars 4. frame of reference. are moving westward, one at v1 = 70 km/h, the other at v2 = 60 km/h. Motion 11 What is the magnitude of the velocity of the 02:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. ﬁrst car relative to (in the frame of reference of) the second car? The most common frame of reference is Part 2 of 3 1. the Earth. What is the direction of the resultant veloc- ity? 2. the object you are observing. 1. Unable to determine. 3. you. 2. eastward 4. the sky. 3. westward Motion 12 02:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Part 3 of 3 After they pass, will their relative velocity Part 1 of 2 change? Runner A is 5 km east of runner B, who is 5 km east of a parking lot. 1. yes Chapter 2, section 1, Frame of Reference 77 2. no 3. Unable to determine. Speeding Electron 02:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. An electron travels 1.63 m in 5.7 × 10−8 s. How fast is it traveling? Upstream vs Downstream 02:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. You head downstream on a river in a canoe. You can paddle at 5 km/h and the river is ﬂowing at 2 km/h. How far downstream will you be in 30 min? Chapter 2, section 2, Straight-line Motion 78 has a 15 min lead on the slower car? Average Speed 01 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Cars Leaving School 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. A person takes a trip, driving with a con- stant speed 89.5 km/h except for a 22 min Part 1 of 4 rest stop. Both car A and car B leave school at the If the person’s average speed is 77.8 km/h, same time, traveling in the same direction. how far is the trip? Car A travels at a constant speed of 75 km/h, while car B travels at a constant speed of Average Velocity 01 85 km/h. 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. How far is Car A from school 2 h later? Part 1 of 2 Part 2 of 4 After 12.5 s, a jogger’s displacement is How far is car B from school 2 h later? 400 m. What is the average velocity in a) m/s? Part 3 of 4 How long does it take car A to reach a gas Part 2 of 2 station a distance 100 km from the school? b) in km/h? Part 4 of 4 Blown Oﬀ Course How long does it take car B to reach the gas 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. station? Part 1 of 2 Coasting Down a Hill A ship is expecting to travel to its home 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. port 500 km due East. Before the ship starts to travel, a severe storm comes up and blows Part 1 of 3 the ship 400 km due South. The position of a car coasting down a hill How far is the ship from its home port? was observed at various times and the results are summarized in the table below. Part 2 of 2 Consider: East to be 0◦ and North 90◦ . time distance At what angle North of East must the ship travel to reach its destination? 0s 0m 1s 3m Building a Lead 2s 10.5 m 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 3s 23 m 4s 40.5 m Part 1 of 2 5s 63 m Two cars travel in the same direction along a straight highway, one at 55 mi/h and the a) Find the average velocity of the car dur- other at 70 mi/h. ing the ﬁrst second. Assuming they start at the same point, how much sooner does the faster car arrive at a Part 2 of 3 destination 10 miles away? b) Find the average velocity of the car during the last three seconds. Part 2 of 2 How far must the faster car travel before it Part 3 of 3 Chapter 2, section 2, Straight-line Motion 79 c) Find the average velocity of the car during 3. The east component of the vector is 1 the entire period of observation. mile; the south component is 3 miles. Constant Velocity 01 4. The west component of the vector is 1 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. mile; the south component is 3 miles. At 1:00 p.m., a car, traveling at a constant 5. The east component of the vector is three velocity of 94 km/h toward the west, is 20 km miles; the south component is 3 miles. to the west of our school. Where will it be at 3:30 p.m.? 6. The east component of the vector is 1 mile; the north component is 3 miles. Cyclist 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 7. None of these. Part 1 of 2 Displacement 01 A cyclist maintains a constant velocity of 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 5 m/s headed away from point A. At some initial time, the cyclist is 250 m from point A. Part 1 of 2 What will be his displacement from his Tammy leaves the oﬃce, drives 26 km due starting position after 60 s? north, then turns onto a second highway and continues in a direction of 30 ◦ north of east Part 2 of 2 for 62 km. What will be his position from point A after What is her total displacement from the that time? oﬃce? Darting Child Part 2 of 2 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. At what angle is her displacement? (Consider east to be 0◦ and north 90◦ .) Ann is driving down a street at 55 km/h. Suddenly a child runs into the street. Displacement 02 If it takes Ann 0.75 s to react and apply the 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. brakes, how far will she have moved before she begins to slow down? Part 1 of 2 John is running at 5 m/s along the x axis. Directions He runs for 4 s. How far does John run? 02:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Part 2 of 2 When giving directions to your house, you What is the relationship should be used to tell someone to drive two miles east, then solve the previous problem? three miles north, then one mile west. v What are the components of a vector that 1. x = t points from his house to yours? 2. x = v × t 1. The west component of the vector is three miles; the north component is 3 miles. 3. x = v + t 2. The west component of the vector is 1 4. x = v − t mile; the north component is 3 miles. 5. None of these. Chapter 2, section 2, Straight-line Motion 80 Displacement and Distance 9. 8 m 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 10. None of these Part 1 of 2 A physics book is moved once around the Displacement and Velocity perimeter of a table of dimensions 1 m by 3 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. m. If the book ends up at its initial position, Part 1 of 3 what is its displacement? A particle moving along the x axis is located at 12 m at 1 s and at 4 m at 3 s. 1. 0 m a) Find its displacement during this time interval. 2. 1 m Part 2 of 3 3. 2 m b) What is its average velocity during this time interval? 4. 3 m Part 3 of 3 5. 4 m c) Calculate the particle’s average speed dur- ing this time interval. 6. 5 m Distance 7. 6 m 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 8. 7 m How far will an object move in 2 s if its average speed during that time is 52 m/s? 9. 8 m Distance Time Graph 01 10. None of these 02:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Part 2 of 2 Part 1 of 6 What is the distance traveled? Consider the following graph of motion. 50 1. 0 m 40 Distance (m) 30 2. 1 m 20 10 0 3. 2 m 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time (sec) 4. 3 m a) How far did the object travel between 2 s and 4 s? 5. 4 m 1. 10 m 6. 5 m 2. 20 m 7. 6 m 3. 30 m 8. 7 m Chapter 2, section 2, Straight-line Motion 81 4. 40 m 3. 150 m 5. 50 m 4. 200 m Part 2 of 6 5. 250 m b) The graph indicates 6. 300 m 1. constant position. 7. 350 m 2. constant velocity. 8. 400 m 3. increasing velocity. 9. 450 m 4. decreasing velocity. 10. 500 m 5. no motion. Part 5 of 6 Part 3 of 6 e) The graph indicates c) What is the speed from 2 s to 4 s? 1. constant position. 1. 10 m/s 2. constant velocity. 2. 20 m/s 3. increasing velocity. 3. 5 m/s 4. decreasing velocity. 4. 15 m/s 5. no motion. 5. 0 m/s Part 6 of 6 Part 4 of 6 f) What is the average speed from 3 s to 9 s? Consider the following graph of motion. 400 1. 20 m 350 300 2. 25 m Distance (m) 250 200 3. 30 m 150 100 4. 36 m 50 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 5. 40 m Time (sec) d) How far did the object travel between 3 s 6. 47 m and 9 s? 7. 50 m 1. 50 m 8. 58 m 2. 100 m 9. 60 m Chapter 2, section 2, Straight-line Motion 82 400 Distance Time Graph 02 350 300 02:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Distance (m) 250 200 Part 1 of 3 150 Consider the following graph of motion. 30 100 Distance (km) 20 50 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Time (sec) 0 1 2 3 4 Time (hr) c) The distance is a) What distance was covered in the ﬁrst 3 hours? 1. constant. 1. 5 km 2. increasing. 2. 10 km 3. decreasing. 3. 15 km Distance vs Time 02:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. 20 km The slope at any point of a distance-time 5. 25 km graph represents 6. 30 km 1. displacement. Part 2 of 3 2. average acceleration. b) The graph indicates 3. instantaneous acceleration. 1. constant position. 4. instantaneous velocity. 2. constant velocity. 5. average force. 3. changing velocity. Elevator Speed 4. no acceleration. 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 5. no motion. Part 1 of 2 The elevators in the John Hancock building Part 3 of 3 in Chicago move 900 ft in 30 s. Consider the following graph of motion. a) What is their speed? Part 2 of 2 b) What is this speed in miles per hour? Glacier Movement 01 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Part 1 of 2 Chapter 2, section 2, Straight-line Motion 83 A glacier advances at 4.8 × 10−6 cm/s. Part 2 of 7 How far will it move in 63000 s? b) How far can Swimmer 2 cover in 30 sec- onds? Part 2 of 2 How far in 7 years? 1. 10 m Glacier Movement 02 2. 20 m 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 3. 30 m −6 A glacier advances at 4.8 × 10 cm/s. How far will it move in 7 years? 4. 40 m Graphical Analysis 01 5. 50 m 02:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 6. 60 m Part 1 of 7 Consider the following graph of motion. 7. 70 m 100 80 8. 80 m Distance (m) 1 60 er 9. 90 m m er 2 im 40 m Sw S wim 20 10. 100 m 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Time (sec) Part 3 of 7 c) Predict the distance Swimmer 1 can go in a) How many meters can Swimmer 1 cover in 60 seconds. 30 seconds? 1. 40 m 1. 10 m 2. 50 m 2. 20 m 3. 60 m 3. 30 m 4. 70 m 4. 40 m 5. 80 m 5. 50 m 6. 90 m 6. 60 m 7. 100 m 7. 70 m 8. 110 m 8. 80 m 9. 120 m 9. 90 m 10. 130 m 10. 100 m Part 4 of 7 Chapter 2, section 2, Straight-line Motion 84 d) Predict the distance Swimmer 2 can go in 7. 7 m/s. 60 seconds. 8. 8 m/s. 1. 40 m 9. None of these 2. 50 m Part 7 of 7 3. 60 m g) The speed of Swimmer 2 is 4. 70 m 1. 1 m/s. 5. 80 m 2. 2 m/s. 6. 90 m 3. 3 m/s. 7. 100 m 4. 4 m/s. 8. 110 m 5. 5 m/s. 9. 120 m 6. 6 m/s. 10. 130 m 7. 7 m/s. Part 5 of 7 8. 8 m/s. e) Which swimmer has the greatest speed? 9. None of these 1. Swimmer 1 Graphical Analysis 02 2. Swimmer 2 02:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, nor- mal. 3. The speeds are the same. Part 1 of 3 4. Unable to determine. Consider the following graph of motion. 80 C Part 6 of 7 70 f) The speed of Swimmer 1 is arB 60 dC an Distance (km) 50 A 1. 1 m/s. Car 40 rA 2. 2 m/s. 30 Ca 20 B 3. 3 m/s. r Ca 10 4. 4 m/s. 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 Time (hr) 5. 5 m/s. a) How long does it take for the cars to be at the same position? 6. 6 m/s. Chapter 2, section 2, Straight-line Motion 85 1. 0.5 hr 4. Unable to determine 2. 0.1 hr Hewitt CP9 02 E01 02:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. 0.2 hr A ball is rolling across the top of a billiard 4. 0.3 hr table and slowly rolls to a stop. How would Aristotle interpret this observa- 5. 0.4 hr tion? How would Galileo interpret it? 6. 0.6 hr 1. They both would say that the ball comes to rest because the ball seeks its natural state 7. 1.5 hr of rest. 8. 1.4 hr 2. They both would say that it comes to rest because of some forces acting on it–likely Part 2 of 3 friction between the ball and table surface and b) How far apart are they after 0.3 h? with the air. 1. 8 km 3. Aristotle would say that the ball comes to rest because the ball seeks its natural state of 2. 5 km rest. Galileo would likely have said it comes to rest because of some forces acting on it–likely 3. 6.4 km friction between the ball and table surface and with the air. 4. 7.3 km 4. Galileo would say that the ball comes to 5. 1.5 km rest because the ball seeks its natural state of rest. Aristotle would likely have said it 6. 3.0 km comes to rest because of some forces acting on it–likely friction between the ball and table 7. 9 km surface and with the air. 8. 11 km 5. All are wrong. 9. 10.5 km Hewitt CP9 02 E03 02:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 10. 2 km What Aristotelian idea did Galileo discredit Part 3 of 3 in his fabled Leaning Tower demonstration? c) Which car maintained a constant speed for the entire trip? 1. He discredited Aristotle’s idea that the rate at which bodies fall is directly propor- 1. Car A tional to their weight. 2. Car B 2. He discredited Aristotle’s idea that the rate at which bodies fall is not related to their 3. Both cars weight. Chapter 2, section 2, Straight-line Motion 86 3. He discredited Aristotle’s idea that the rate at which bodies fall is inversely propor- 5. All are wrong. tional to their weight. Jet in Flight 4. He discredited Aristotle’s idea of gravita- 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. tion. Part 1 of 3 5. All are wrong. A jet travels at 400 m/s. How long does it take to travel 200 m? Hewitt CP9 02 E07 02:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Part 2 of 3 How long to travel 5 km? A space probe may be carried by a rocket into outer space. What keeps the probe mov- Part 3 of 3 ing? How long to travel 5 in.? 1. The air keeps the probe moving. Jogging 01 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 2. The gravitation force keeps the probe moving. Part 1 of 2 A boy runs 3 blocks north, 4 blocks north- 3. Nothing keeps the probe moving. In the east, and 5 blocks west. absence of a propelling force it would continue Determine the length of the displacement moving in a straight line. vector that goes from the starting point to his ﬁnal position. 4. Nothing keeps the probe moving. The probe will stop and drop to the earth. Part 2 of 2 Determine the direction of the displacement 5. All are wrong. vector. (Use counterclockwise as the positive angular direction, between the limits of −180◦ Hewitt CP9 02 E09 and +180◦ from east) 02:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Jogging 02 Your friend says that inertia is a force that 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. keeps things in their places, either at rest or motion. Part 1 of 2 Do you agree? Why or why no? A jogger runs in a straight line with an average velocity of 5 m/s for 4 min, and then 1. Agree. Only force can keep things in their with an average velocity of 4 m/s for 3 min. places. What is her total displacement? 2. Disagree. Inertia is a force that keeps Part 2 of 2 things moving. What is her average velocity during this time? 3. Agree. Inertia is not a force that keeps things moving. Light From the Sun 01 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. Disagree. Inertia is a property of matter to behave this way, not some kind of force. Light from the sun reaches Earth in 8.3 min. Chapter 2, section 2, Straight-line Motion 87 The velocity of light is 3 × 108 m/s. 02:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. How far is the Earth from the sun? Which of the following are important in Light Speed measuring motion? 02:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. distance, time, speed The time it takes for light, traveling at a speed of 3.0 × 108 m/s, to cover 300 m is: 2. velocity, acceleration, density 1. 10−6 s 3. distance, volume, speed 2. 1011 s 4. acceleration, momentum, speed 3. 106 s Motion 02 02:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. 10−11 s The distance traveled by an object per unit 5. None of these time is called Mile Markers 01 1. velocity. 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 2. speed. Part 1 of 2 While John is traveling along an interstate 3. momentum. highway, he notices a(n) 160 mi marker as he passes through town. Later John passes a(n) 4. acceleration. 115 mi marker. a) What is the distance between town and Motion 04 John’s current location? 02:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Part 2 of 2 Find the speed of an object that covers b) What is John’s current position? 400 km in 5 hr. Mile Markers 02 1. 40 km/hr 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 2. 80 km/hr Part 1 of 2 While John is traveling along a straight 3. 2000 km/hr interstate highway, he notices that the mile marker reads 260 km. John travels until he 4. 800 km/hr reaches the 150 km marker and then retraces his path to the 175 km marker. Motion 05 What is John’s resultant displacement from 02:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. the 260 km marker? Velocity is Part 2 of 2 How far has he traveled? 1. the same as speed. Motion 01 2. the same as acceleration. Chapter 2, section 2, Straight-line Motion 88 in college football history, and the only UT 3. speed in a speciﬁc direction. player, to rush for more than 1000 yards in each of three consecutive seasons. In 1967 4. the same as momentum. vs. TCU, he had Texas’ longest run from scrimmage, 96 yards. Motion 14 At an average speed of 4.9 s for 40.0 yards, 02:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. how long did this run take? Part 1 of 2 1. 12 s Consider a position-time graph. a) The position is to be graphed 2. 8.5 s 1. along the vertical axis. 3. 11.76 s 2. along the horizontal axis. 4. 12.63 s 3. along either axis you choose. Motion 51 02:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Part 2 of 2 b) The slope of the graph is How many feet will a snail travel in 4.80 hours if it moves at an average speed of 1.26 1. the velocity. inches per minute? 2. the speed. 1. 30.2 ft 3. the displacement. 2. 6.3 ft 4. the acceleration. 3. .0331 ft Motion 15 4. 24. ft 02:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Motion 52 When an object is moving, average velocity 02:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. is The 440 yard dash in track has been re- 1. total distance divided by total time. placed by the 400 meter dash. Which is the longer distance and by how 2. changes in comparison to a reference many meters? 1 meter = 39.37 inches point. 1. 400 meters; 2.34 meters longer 3. distance covered by a moving object per unit of time. 2. 440 yards; 2.34 meters longer 4. the average of all the velocities. 3. 400 meters; 40.3 meters longer Motion 50 4. 440 yards; 40.3 meters longer 02:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Motion 53 Chris Gilbert, 1966-68, was the ﬁrst person 02:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Chapter 2, section 2, Straight-line Motion 89 What is the velocity of 55 miles/hour ex- Motion 57 pressed in meter/sec? 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. 25 m/s A molecule of N2 in air travels at about 1000 ft/sec. 2. 2.5 × 103 m/s If the supersonic transport Concorde trav- els at 1500 miles/hour, how fast does it travel 3. 1.5 × 103 m/s in ft/sec? (1 mile = 5280 ft) 4. 8.9 × 104 m/s Newspaper Route 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 5. 2.1 m/s Part 1 of 2 Motion 54 A girl delivering newspapers covers her 02:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. route by traveling 3 blks west, 4 blks north, then 6 blks east. A sprinter completes the 100. yard dash in 9.30 seconds. a) What was her resultant displacement? How long would it take her to complete 100. meters if she continued at the same speed? Part 2 of 2 b) What was the total distance she traveled? 1. 10.2 sec Position vs Time 01 2. 10.9 sec 02:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. 9.30 sec An object was suspended in a ﬁxed place (y = 0) and then allowed to drop in a free fall. 4. 10.7 sec Which of the following graphs correctly rep- resents its motion as the magnitude of the Motion 55 vertical displacement vs time? 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. A jogger runs 105 yd in 10.00 seconds. 1. What would be his time for a 450 m run at |y| the same rate? t Motion 56 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 2. The distance between bases on a baseball |y| diamond (a perfect square) is 90. feet and the pitchers mound is one-half the distance between home and second base. t If Burt Hooton (All SWC, RHP, 1969-1971, ERA 1.14, 35 career wins, an average 11.94 strikeouts per 9 innings) throws a slider at 3. 87.5 mi/hr, how many seconds will it take for the ball to reach the plate? Chapter 2, section 2, Straight-line Motion 90 |y| scale on the horizontal axis is 2 s per divi- sion and on the vertical axis 3 m per division. t position (m) 4. |y| time (s) t What is the time represented by the second tic mark on the horizontal axis? Part 2 of 3 5. What is the position represented by the third |y| tic mark on the vertical axis? t Part 3 of 3 What is the position when t = 4 s? Position vs Time 02 Position vs Time 04 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Part 1 of 3 Part 1 of 4 The The scale on the horizontal axis is 2 s per divi- scale on the horizontal axis is 2 s per divi- sion and on the vertical axis 3 m per division. sion and on the vertical axis 3 m per division. position (m) position (m) time (s) time (s) What is the time represented by the fourth What is the time represented by the third tic tic mark on the horizontal axis? mark on the horizontal axis? Part 2 of 4 Part 2 of 3 What is the position represented by the third What is the position represented by the fourth tic mark on the vertical axis? tic mark on the vertical axis? Part 3 of 4 Part 3 of 3 What velocity is represented by the graph? What is the position when t = 6 s? Part 4 of 4 Position vs Time 03 In which direction is the motion? 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 1. forward Part 1 of 3 The 2. backward Chapter 2, section 2, Straight-line Motion 91 3. Unable to determine. Part 2 of 7 b) How far can Swimmer 2 cover in 30 sec? Position vs Time 05 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 1. 10 m Part 1 of 2 2. 20 m The scale on the horizontal axis is 2 s per divi- 3. 30 m sion and on the vertical axis 4 m per division. 4. 40 m position (m) 5. 50 m 6. 60 m time (s) 7. 70 m What is the position when t = 6 s? 8. 80 m Part 2 of 2 What is the velocity when t = 6 s? 9. 90 m 10. 100 m Snail Race 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Part 3 of 7 Part 1 of 7 c) Predict the distance Swimmer 1 can go in Consider the following lineup of a race: 60 sec. ﬁg[1,120] ﬁg[2,120] ﬁg[3,120] a) How many meters can Swimmer 1 cover in 30 sec? 1. 40 m 1. 10 m 2. 50 m 2. 20 m 3. 60 m 3. 30 m 4. 70 m 4. 40 m 5. 80 m 5. 50 m 6. 90 m 6. 60 m 7. 100 m 7. 70 m 8. 110 m 8. 80 m 9. 120 m 9. 90 m 10. 130 m 10. 100 m Part 4 of 7 Chapter 2, section 2, Straight-line Motion 92 d) Predict the distance Swimmer 2 can go in 7. 7 m/sec. 60 sec. 8. 8 m/sec. 1. 40 m 9. None of these 2. 50 m Part 7 of 7 3. 60 m g) The speed of Swimmer 2 is 4. 70 m 1. 1 m/sec. 5. 80 m 2. 2 m/sec. 6. 90 m 3. 3 m/sec. 7. 100 m 4. 4 m/sec. 8. 110 m 5. 5 m/sec. 9. 120 m 6. 6 m/sec. 10. 130 m 7. 7 m/sec. Part 5 of 7 8. 8 m/sec. e) Which swimmer has the greatest speed? 9. None of these 1. Swimmer 1 Tortoise and Hare 2. Swimmer 2 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 3. The speeds are the same. Part 1 of 2 A speedy tortoise can run at 10 cm/s, and a 4. Unable to determine. hare can run 20 times as fast. In a race, they start at the same time, but the hare stops to Part 6 of 7 rest for 2 min and so the tortoise wins by a f) The speed of Swimmer 1 is shell (20 cm). How long does the race take? 1. 1 m/sec. Part 2 of 2 2. 2 m/sec. What is the length of the race? 3. 3 m/sec. Traveling Electron 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 4. 4 m/sec. An electron travels 1.63 m in 4.23 × 10−8 s. 5. 5 m/sec. How fast does it travel? 6. 6 m/sec. Tugboat Foghorn 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Chapter 2, section 2, Straight-line Motion 93 A sound wave, traveling at 340 m/s, is emmitted by the foghorn of a tugboat. An echo is heard 2.6 s later. How far away is the reﬂecting object? Waiting at the End 02:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. You and a friend each drive 50 km to the same destination. You travel at 90 km/h and your friend at 95 km/h. How long will your friend wait for you at the end of the trip? Chapter 2, section 3, Speed and Velocity 94 Hewitt CP9 03 E01 The ocean’s level is currently rising at 02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- about 1 mm per year. mal. At this rate, in how many years will sea level be 3 m higher than now? What is the impact speed when a car mov- ing at 100 km/h bumps into the rear of an- Hewitt CP9 03 P07 other car traveling in the same direction at 02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 98 km/h? wording-variable. Hewitt CP9 03 E03 A reconnaissance plane ﬂies 600 km away 02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. from its base at 400 m/s, then ﬂies back to its base at 600 m/s. You are stopped for speeding. What is its average speed? Which of the following is your traﬃc ﬁne based on? Holt SF 02A 01 02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 1. Average speed wording-variable. 2. Instantaneous speed Heather and Matthew walk eastward with a speed of 0.98 m/s east. 3. Linear speed If it takes them 34 min to walk to the store, how far have they walked? 4. Circle speed Holt SF 02A 02 5. None of these 02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Hewitt CP9 03 E09 02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. If Joe rides south on his bicycle in a straight line for 15 min with an average speed of 12.5 Which of the following is wrong? km/h, how far has he ridden? 1. The dragster rounded the curve at a con- Holt SF 02A 03 stant velocity of 100 km/h. 02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. 2. The dragster rounded the curve at a changing velocity of 100 km/h. Part 1 of 2 It takes you 9.5 min to walk with an average 3. The dragster rounded the curve at a velocity of 1.2 m/s to the north from the bus changing speed of 100 km/h. stop to the museum entrance. a) How far did you walk? 4. The dragster ran along a line at a constant velocity of 100 km/h. Part 2 of 2 b) What is your direction? 5. All are wrong. 1. North Hewitt CP9 03 P01 02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- 1. East mal. Chapter 2, section 3, Speed and Velocity 95 1. South school from your house. If the average velocity of the bus is 19.0 1. West km/h to the east, what is the displacement? Holt SF 02A 04 05 Holt SF 02Rev 10 02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. wording-variable. Part 1 of 2 Part 1 of 2 Simpson drives his car with an average ve- Consider the position-time graph for a locity of 48.0 km/h to the east. squirrel running along a clothesline. a) How long will it take him to drive 144 4 km on a straight highway? 3 position (m) Part 2 of 2 2 b) How much time would Simpson save by increasing his average velocity to 56.0 km/h 1 to the east? 0 1 2 3 4 5 −1 Holt SF 02A 06 02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, −2 wording-variable. time (s) Part 1 of 2 a) What is the squirrel’s displacement at A bus travels 280 km south along a straight the time t = 4.0 s? path with an average velocity of 88 km/h to the south. The bus stops for 24 min, then it Part 2 of 2 travels 210 km south with an average velocity b) What is the squirrel’s average velocity dur- of 75 km/h to the south. ing the time interval between 0.0 s and 4.0 a) How long does the total trip last? s? Part 2 of 2 Holt SF 02Rev 10A b) What is the average velocity for the total 02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, trip? wording-variable. Holt SF 02Rev 08 Part 1 of 2 02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Consider the position-time graph for a wording-variable. squirrel running along a clothesline. A bus travels from El Paso, Texas, to an area near Chihuahua, Mexico, in 5.2 h with an average velocity of 73 km/h to the south. What is the bus’s displacement? Holt SF 02Rev 09 02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. A school bus takes 0.530 h to reach the Chapter 2, section 3, Speed and Velocity 96 4 3 position (m) 2 1 CarA CarA 0 CarB CarB 1 2 3 4 5 −1 −2 time (s) Note: Figure is not drawn to scale. a) Find the displacement of Car A after 5.0 a) What is the squirrel’s displacement at s. the time t = 3.5 s? Part 2 of 4 Part 2 of 2 b) Find the displacement of Car B after 5.0 s. b) What is the squirrel’s average velocity dur- ing the time interval between 0.0 s and 3.5 Part 3 of 4 s? c) Find the average velocity of Car A during 5.0 s. Holt SF 02Rev 11 02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Part 4 of 4 d) Find the average velocity of Car B during The Olympic record for the marathon is 2 5.0 s. h, 9 min, 21 s. If the average speed of a runner achieving Holt SF 02Rev 13 this record is 5.436 m/s, what is the marathon 02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, distance? wording-variable. Holt SF 02Rev 12 Part 1 of 2 02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Sally travels by car from one city to an- wording-variable. other. She drives for 30.0 min at 80.0 km/h, 12.0 min at 105 km/h, and 45.0 min at 40.0 Part 1 of 4 km/h, and she spends 15.0 min eating lunch Two cars are traveling on a desert road and buying gas. between three consecutive poles, as shown in a) Find the total distance traveled. the ﬁgure. After 5.0 s, they are side by side at the next telephone pole. The distance Part 2 of 2 between the poles is 70.0 m. b) Find the average speed for the trip. Holt SF 02Rev 14 02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 1 of 6 The ﬁgure shows the position of a runner at diﬀerent times during a run. Chapter 2, section 3, Speed and Velocity 97 constant velocity of 8.0 km/h due west. 5 How far are the runners from the ﬂagpole position (× 1000 m) 4 when their paths cross? Holt SF 02Rev 47 3 02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- 2 mal. 1 Part 1 of 2 Two cars travel westward along a straight 0 highway, one at a constant velocity of 0 10 20 30 40 85 km/h, and the other at a constant velocity time (min) of 115 km/h. a) Assuming that both cars start at the same point, how much sooner does the faster Note: Figure is drawn to scale. car arrive at a destination 16 km away? a) For the time interval between t = 0 min Part 2 of 2 and t = 10 min, what is the runner’s displace- b) How far must the cars travel for the faster ment? car to arrive 15 min before the slower car? Part 2 of 6 Holt SF 02Rev 60 b) For the same time interval, ﬁnd the run- 02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ner’s average velocity. wording-variable. Part 3 of 6 One swimmer in a relay race has a 0.50 s c) For the time interval between t = 10 min lead and is swimming at a constant speed of and t = 20 min, what is the runner’s displace- 4.00 m/s. The swimmer has 50.0 m to swim ment? before reaching the end of the pool. A second swimmer moves in the same direction as the Part 4 of 6 leader. d) For the same time interval, ﬁnd the run- What constant speed must the second ner’s average velocity. swimmer have in order to catch up to the leader at the end of the pool? Part 5 of 6 e) What is the runner’s total displacement? Holt SF 03Rev 59 02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 6 of 6 wording-variable. f) Find the average velocity for the entire run. How long does it take an automobile trav- eling 60.0 km/h to become even with a car Holt SF 02Rev 15 that is traveling in another lane at 40.0 km/h 02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, if the cars’ front bumpers are initially 125 m wording-variable. apart? Runner A is initially 6.0 km west of a ﬂag- Mountain Hike pole and is running with a constant velocity 02:03, basic, numeric, < 1 min, normal. of 9.0 km/h due east. Runner B is initially 5.0 km east of the ﬂagpole and is running with a You are on a hike in the mountains. You Chapter 2, section 3, Speed and Velocity 98 have 3.5 km left to go before your next camp- 8. None of these site. The sun will set in 2.5 h. What averave speed must you walk to get to camp at sunset? Part 3 of 5 Answer in km/hr. How fast is the apple traveling relative to you? Relative Speeds 02 1. 60 m/s 02:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- mal. 2. 120 m/s Part 1 of 5 3. 180 m/s You are sitting in a bus that is traveling along a straight, level road at 60 m/s. 4. 240 m/s a) How fast are you traveling relative to the road? 5. 30 m/s 1. 60 m/s 6. 15 m/s 2. 120 m/s 7. 0 m/s 3. 180 m/s 8. None of these 4. 240 m/s Part 4 of 5 If you drop the apple, what kind of motion 5. 30 m/s will you see? 6. 15 m/s 1. Vertical motion straight down. 7. 0 m/s 2. Curved motion downward with initial ver- tical velocity. 8. None of these 3. Projectile motion with initial horizontal Part 2 of 5 velocity. a) If you hold an apple over your head, how fast is it moving relative to the road? 4. Horizontal motion straight forward. 1. 60 m/s 5. Linear motion at an angle downward. 2. 120 m/s 6. Not enough information to draw a con- clusion. 3. 180 m/s Part 5 of 5 4. 240 m/s When you drop the apple, what kind of mo- tion will a pedestrian outside the bus see? 5. 30 m/s 1. Horizontal motion straight forward. 6. 15 m/s 2. Curved motion downward with initial ver- 7. 0 m/s tical velocity. Chapter 2, section 3, Speed and Velocity 99 3. Vertical motion straight down. is 0.5 m/s relative to the shore, and the skater darts upstream 0.56 m (relative to a spot on 4. Curved motion downward with initial shore) in 0.8 s during the ﬁrst part of its mo- horizontal velocity. tion. Take upstream as the positive direction. Determine the velocity of the skater relative 5. Linear motion at an angle downward. to the water during its dash upstream. 6. Not enough information to draw a con- Part 2 of 3 clusion. How far upstream relative to the water does the skater move during one cycle of this mo- Up Escalator tion? 02:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Part 3 of 3 Part 1 of 2 What is the average velocity of the skater An escalator is 20 m long. If a person stands relative to the water? on the “up” escalator, it takes 50 s to ride to the top. If a person walks up the moving escalator with a speed of 0.5 m/s relative to the es- calator, how long does it take to get to the top? Part 2 of 2 If a person walks down the “up” escalator with the same relative speed as in Part 1, how long does it take to reach the bottom? Velocity Direction 02:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Consider the instantaneous velocity of a body. This velocity is always in the direction of 1. the motion at that instant. 2. the net force at that instant. 3. the least resistance at that instant. Water Spider 02:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Part 1 of 3 A skater (water spider) maintains an av- erage position on the surface of a stream by darting upstream (against the current), then drifting downstream (with the current) to its original position. The current in the stream Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration 100 Ant Race Acceleration 01 02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Two ants race across a table 50 cm long. An object that speeds up, slows down, or One travels at 4 cm/s and the other at 2 cm/s. changes direction is undergoing When the ﬁrst one crosses the ﬁnish line, how far behind is the second one? 1. acceleration. Average Speed 02 2. deceleration. 02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 3. momentum. Part 1 of 2 A person travels by car from one city to 4. potential energy. another. She drives for 30 min at 80 km/h, 12 min, at 100 km/h, and 45 min at 40 km/h, Acceleration 02 while spending 15 min eating lunch and buy- 02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. ing gas. Determine the average speed for the trip. A car travels in a straight line for 2.5 h at a constant speed of 51 km/h. Part 2 of 2 What is its acceleration? Determine the distance between the cities along this route. Acceleration at the Top 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Average Velocity 02 02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. A stone is thrown straight up- ward and at the top of its trajec- Part 1 of 2 tory its velocity is momentarily zero. You drive a car 2 h at 40 km/h, then 2 h at 60 km/h. What is your average velocity? Part 2 of 2 What is your average velocity if you drive a distance of 100 km at a speed of 40 km/h, then the same distance at a speed of 60 km/h? Average Velocity 03 02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. What is its acceleration at this point? A car travels along a straight stretch of road. It proceeds for 14.5 mi at 55 mi/h, then 1. Zero 22.5 mi at 45 mi/h, and ﬁnally 30.5 mi at 35 mi/h. 2. 9.8 m/s2 down What is the car’s average velocity during the entire trip? 3. 9.8 m/s2 up Baseball Acceleration 4. Unable to determine 02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration 101 A baseball goes from zero to 30 m/s in What speed will the bolt have attained 2 s 0.11 s. after leaving the crossbow? What is its average acceleration? Part 3 of 3 Body Acceleration How far will the bolt have traveled during the 02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 2 s? Part 1 of 2 Displacement Curve The initial speed of a body is 5.2 m/s. 02:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. What is its speed after 2.5 s if it accelerates uniformly at 3 m/s2 ? Part 1 of 4 Consider a moving object whose po- Part 2 of 2 sition x is plotted as a function of What is its speed after 2.5 s if it accelerates the time t on the following ﬁgure: uniformly at −3 m/s2 ? x 3 Car Acceleration 01 02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 2 A car accelerates from rest at 2 m/s2 . 1 How much time does it need to attain a O t speed of 6 m/s? I 1 II 2 III 3 Car Acceleration 02 Clearly, the object moved in diﬀerent ways 02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. during the time intervals denoted I, II and III on the ﬁgure. A vehicle moves in a straight line with an During these three intervals, when was the acceleration of 2 km/h2 . object’s speed highest? Caution: Do not By how much does the speed change each confuse the speed with the velocity. second? 1. During interval I. Car Acceleration 03 2. During interval II. 02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 3. During interval III. A car increases its velocity from zero to 60 km/h in 8 s. 4. During intervals II and III (same speed What is its acceleration? during those two intervals). Crossbow Experiment 5. Same speed during each of the three in- 02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. tervals. Part 1 of 3 Part 2 of 4 In deep space (no gravity), the bolt (arrow) During which interval(s) did the object have of a crossbow accelerates at 215 m/s2 and no change in displacement? attains a speed of 125 m/s when it leaves the bow. 1. During interval I only. For how long is it accelerated? 2. During interval II only. Part 2 of 3 Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration 102 3. During interval III only. Falling Side By Side 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. During each of the three intervals. Two bodies are falling with negligible air 5. During none of the three intervals. resistance, side by side, above a horizontal plane. 6. During intervals II and III. If one of the bodies is given an additional horizontal acceleration during its descent, it Part 3 of 4 During which interval(s) did the object’s ve- 1. strikes the plane at the same time as the locity remain constant? other body 1. During interval I only. 2. has the vertical component of its velocity altered 2. During interval II only. 3. has the vertical component of its acceler- 3. During interval III only. ation altered 4. During each of the three intervals. 4. follows a hyperbolic path 5. During none of the three intervals. 5. follows a straight line path along the re- sultant acceleration vector Part 4 of 4 During which interval(s) does the object have Final Velocity non-zero, positive acceleration? 02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 1. During interval I only. A car traveling initially at 7 m/s accelerates at the rate of 0.8 m/s2 for 2 s. 2. During interval II only. What is its velocity at the end of the accel- eration? 3. During interval III only. Graphical Analysis 04 4. During each of the three intervals. 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 5. During none of the three intervals. Identify which of the following graphs rep- resent motion at constant speed (note the axes Electron Acceleration carefully). 02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. a) x Part 1 of 2 An electron has an initial speed of t 128000 m/s. If it undergoes an acceleration of 1.8 × b) 1014 m/s2 , how long will it take to reach a v speed of 516000 m/s? t Part 2 of 2 c) How far has it traveled in this time? Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration 103 a about the same time. t 5. All are wrong. d) Hewitt CP9 03 E05 v 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. t Light travels in a straight line at a constant e) speed of 300,000 m/s. a What is the acceleration of light? m 1. 300,000 t s2 m 2. 300,0 1. (a) and (d) s2 m 3. 30 2. (a), (b), and (c) s2 m 4. 0 2 3. (a) and (c) s 5. All are wrong. 4. (a), (b), and (d) Hewitt CP9 03 E07 5. (d) only 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 6. (a), (b), and (e) Can an object reverse its direction of travel while maintaining a constant acceleration? 7. (a) only 1. Yes. A ball tossed upward reverses its 8. (c) only direction of travel at its highest point while its acceleration g, directed downward, remains 9. (e) only constant. 10. None of these 2. No. The direction of the speed is the same as the direction of the acceleration. Hewitt CP9 02 E05 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. Yes. A ball bounces back from a wall. Was it Galileo or Newton who ﬁrst came up 4. No. If the acceleration is constant, the with the concept of inertia? direction of the speed will be unchanged. 1. Newton 5. All are wrong. 2. Galileo came up with the concept of iner- Hewitt CP9 03 E11 tia before Newton was born. 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. Galileo came up with the concept of iner- Starting from rest, Car 1 accelerates to a tia after Newton was born. speed of 50 km/h, Car 2 accelerates to a speed of 60 km/h, Car 3 accelerates to a speed of 70 4. They came up with the concept of inertia km/h, and Car 4 is still. Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration 104 Can you say which car underwent the greater acceleration? 4. The balls reach the bottom at the same time. 1. Car 1 5. 1 and 2 2. Car 2 6. 2 and 3 3. Car 3 7. 1 and 3 4. Car 4 Hewitt CP9 03 E19 5. You can’t tell which one is the great- 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- est. mal. Hewitt CP9 03 E15 Which is greater, an acceleration from 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 25 km/h to 30 km/h or one from 96 km/h to 100 km/h if both occur during the same Which one of the following is not an ex- time. ample wherein the acceleration of a body is opposite in direction to its velocity? 1. First situation. 1. A ball rising. 2. Second situation. 2. A car braking to a stop. 3. Same acceleration for both. 3. A ball falling. 4. Unable to tell. 4. A tennis ball being hit by a racket. Hewitt CP9 03 E23 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 5. A piece of paper rising thrown to the sky. Suppose that a freely falling object were somehow equipped with a odometer. Would Hewitt CP9 03 E17 the readings of distance fallen each second 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. indicate equal or diﬀerent falling distances for successive seconds? Suppose that three balls are rolled simulta- neously from the top of a hill along the slopes 1. Distance reading would indicate greater as shown below. distances fallen in successive seconds. 1 2 3 2. Distance reading would indicate smaller distances fallen in successive seconds. Which one reaches the bottom ﬁrst? 3. Distance reading would indicate equal distances fallen in successive seconds. 1. 1 4. At ﬁrst,distance reading would indicate 2. 2 equal distances fallen in successive seconds, then greater distances fallen in successive sec- 3. 3 onds. Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration 105 5. All are wrong. 5. All are wrong. Hewitt CP9 03 E25 Hewitt CP9 03 E29 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. If air resistance can be neglected, how does If you drop an object, its acceleration to- the acceleration of a ball that has been tossed ward the ground is 10 m/s2 . straight upward compare with its acceleration If you throw it down instead, what is its if simply dropped? acceleration? 1. The acceleration of a ball tossed upward is 1. greater than 10 m/s2 greater than that of a ball dropped downward which is g. 2. smaller than 10 m/s2 2. The acceleration of a ball tossed upward is 3. 10 m/s2 smaller than that of a ball dropped downward, which is g. 4. It depends on the force of throwing 3. The acceleration of a ball tossed upward 5. All are wrong. is same as that of a ball dropped downward. Both are greater than g. Hewitt CP9 03 E31 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- 4. The acceleration of a ball tossed upward mal. is same as that of a ball dropped downward. Both are smaller than g. While rolling balls down an inclined plane, Galileo observed that the ball rolled 1 cubit 5. The acceleration of a ball tossed upward (the distance from elbow to ﬁngertip) as he is same as that of a ball dropped downward, counted to ten. which is g. How far had the ball rolled from its starting point when he had counted to twenty? Hewitt CP9 03 E27 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Hewitt CP9 03 E35 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Someone standing at the edge of a cliﬀ throws a ball nearly straight up at a cer- Two balls are released simultaneously from tain speed, and another ball nearly straight rest at the left end of equal-length tracks as down with the same initial speed. shown. If the air resistance is negligible, which ball will have the greater speed when it strikes the A ground below? B 1. The ball up 2. The ball down 3. The speed of the two ball is same. Which ball reaches the end of its track ﬁrst? 4. That depends on the height of the cliﬀ. 1. A Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration 106 What is the instantaneous velocity of a 2. B freely falling object 10 s after it is released from a position of rest? 3. They reach the end of the track at the same time. Part 2 of 3 What is its average velocity during this 10 s 4. It depends on the initial speed. interval? g = 9.8 m/s2 . 5. All are wrong. Part 3 of 3 How far will it fall during this time? Hewitt CP9 03 P02 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- Hewitt CP9 03 P09 mal. 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- mal. What is the acceleration of a vehicle that changes its velocity from 100 km/h to a dead If there were no air drag, how fast would stop in 10 s? drops fall from a cloud 1000 m above the Earth’s surface? g = 10 m/s2 . Hewitt CP9 03 P03 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- Hewitt CP9 05 E27 mal. 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. A ball is thrown straight up with an initial Which of the following are scalar quantities, speed of 30 m/s. which are vector quantities? How high does it go, and how long is it in a) velocity. the air? g = 10 m/s2 . b) age. c) speed. Hewitt CP9 03 P05 d) acceleration. 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- e) temperature. mal. 1. Vectors: velocity, acceleration. Scalars: Part 1 of 3 age, temperature, speed. Assume: g = 10 m/s2 . What is the magnitude of the instantaneous 2. Vectors: velocity. Scalars: age, tempera- velocity (speed) of a freely falling object 10 s ture, speed,acceleration. after it is released from a position of rest? 3. Vectors: age, temperature, speed. Part 2 of 3 Scalars: velocity, acceleration. What is its average speed during this 10 s interval? 4. Vectors: velocity, acceleration, age, tem- perature, speed. Part 3 of 3 How far will it fall during this time? 5. All are wrong. Hewitt CP9 03 P05b Holt SF 02B 01 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, mal. wording-variable. Part 1 of 3 When the shuttle bus comes to a sudden Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration 107 stop to avoid hitting a dog, it accelerates Holt SF 02C 01 uniformly at −4.1 m/s2 as it slows from 9.0 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, m/s to 0 m/s. wording-variable. Find the time interval of acceleration for the bus. A car accelerates uniformly from rest to a speed of 23.7 km/h in 6.5 s. Holt SF 02B 02 Find the distance the car travels during this 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, time. wording-variable. Holt SF 02C 02 A car traveling at 7.0 m/s accelerates 2.5 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, m/s2 to reach a speed of 12.0 m/s. wording-variable. How long does it take for this acceleration to occur? When Maggie applies the brakes of her car, the car slows uniformly from 15.0 m/s to 0 Holt SF 02B 03 m/s in 2.50 s. 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, How many meters before a stop sign must wording-variable. she apply her brakes in order to stop at the sign? With an average acceleration of −0.50 m/s2 , how long will it take a cyclist to bring a Holt SF 02C 03 bicycle with an initial speed of 13.5 m/s to a 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, complete stop? wording-variable. Holt SF 02B 04 Hint: To answer this question, calculate the 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, distance the plane travels while it is coming wording-variable. to a rest. A jet plane lands with a speed of 100 m/s Turner’s treadmill starts with a velocity of and can accelerate uniformly at a maximum −1.2 m/s and speeds up at regular intervals rate of −5.0 m/s2 as it comes to rest. during a half-hour workout. After 25 min, the Can this plane land at an airport where the treadmill has a velocity of −6.5 m/s. runway is 0.80 km long? What is the average acceleration of the treadmill during this period? Holt SF 02C 04 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- Holt SF 02B 05 mal. 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. A driver in a car traveling at a speed of 78 km/h sees a cat 101 m away on the road. Part 1 of 2 How long will it take for the car to acceler- Suppose a treadmill has an average acceler- ate uniformly to a stop in exactly 99 m? ation of 0.0047 m/s2 . a) How much does its speed change after Holt SF 02C 05 5.0 min? 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 2 of 2 b) If the treadmill’s initial speed is 1.7 m/s, A car enters the freeway with a speed of 6.4 what will its ﬁnal speed be? m/s and accelerates uniformly for 3.2 km in 3.5 min. Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration 108 How fast is the car moving after this time? A driver of a car traveling at 15.0 m/s ap- plies the brakes, causing a uniform accelera- Holt SF 02D 01 tion of −2.0 m/s2 . 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, a) How long does it take the car to acceler- wording-variable. ate to a ﬁnal speed of 10.0 m/s? Part 1 of 2 Part 2 of 2 A car with an initial speed of 23.7 km/h b) How far has the car moved during the accelerates at a uniform rate of 0.92 m/s2 for braking period? 3.6 s. a) Find the ﬁnal speed of the car. Holt SF 02E 01 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 2 of 2 wording-variable. b) Find the displacement of the car after that time. A baby sitter pushing a stroller starts from rest and accelerates uniformly at a rate of Holt SF 02D 02 0.500 m/s2 . 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, What is the velocity of the stroller after it wording-variable. has traveled 6.32 m? Part 1 of 2 Holt SF 02E 02 An automobile with an initial speed of 4.30 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, m/s accelerates uniformly at the rate of 3.0 wording-variable. m/s2 . a) Find the ﬁnal speed of the car after 5.0 Part 1 of 3 s. A car traveling initially at +7.0 m/s accel- erates uniformly at the rate of +0.80 m/s2 for Part 2 of 2 a distance of 245 m. b) Find the displacement of the car after 5.0 a) What is its velocity at the end of the s. acceleration? Holt SF 02D 03 Part 2 of 3 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, b) What is its velocity after it accelerates for wording-variable. 125 m? Part 1 of 2 Part 3 of 3 A car starts from rest and travels for 5.0 s c) What is its velocity after it accelerates for with a uniform acceleration of −1.5 m/s2 . 67 m? a) What is the ﬁnal velocity of the car? Holt SF 02E 03 Part 2 of 2 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, b) How far does the car travel in this time wording-variable. interval? Part 1 of 2 Holt SF 02D 04 A car accelerates uniformly in a straight 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, line from rest at the rate of 2.3 m/s2 . wording-variable. a) What is the speed of the car after it has traveled 55 m? Part 1 of 2 Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration 109 Holt SF 02F 02 Part 2 of 2 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, b) How long does it take the car to travel 55 wording-variable. m? Part 1 of 2 Holt SF 02E 04 A ﬂowerpot falls from a windowsill 25.0 m 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, above the sidewalk. wording-variable. a) What is the velocity of the ﬂowerpot when it strikes the ground? A certain car is capable of accelerating at a uniform rate of 0.85 m/s2 . Part 2 of 2 What is the magnitude of the car’s displace- b) How much time does a passerby on the ment as it accelerates uniformly from a speed sidewalk below have to move out of the way of 83 km/h to one of 94 km/h? before the ﬂowerpot hits the ground? Holt SF 02E 05 Holt SF 02F 03 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, mal. wording-variable. An aircraft has a lift oﬀ speed of 120 km/h. Part 1 of 2 What minimum uniform acceleration does A tennis ball is thrown vertically upward this require if the aircraft is to be airborne with an initial velocity of +8.0 m/s. after a takeoﬀ run of 240 m? a) What will the ball’s velocity be when it returns to its starting point? Holt SF 02E 06 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 2 of 2 wording-variable. b) How long will the ball take to reach its starting point? A motorboat accelerates uniformly from a velocity of 6.5 m/s to the west to a velocity of Holt SF 02F 04 1.5 m/s to the west. 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, If its acceleration was 2.7 m/s2 to the east, wording-variable. how far did it travel during the acceleration? Part 1 of 2 Holt SF 02F 01 Stephanie serves a volleyball from a height 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, of 0.80 m and gives it an initial velocity of wording-variable. +7.5 m/s straight up. a) How high will the volleyball go? Part 1 of 2 A robot probe drops a camera oﬀ the rim of Part 2 of 2 a 239 m high cliﬀ on Mars, where the free-fall b) How long will it take the ball to reach its acceleration is −3.7 m/s2 . maximum height? a) Find the velocity with which it hits the ground. Holt SF 02F 05 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 2 of 2 wording-variable. b) Find the time required for the camera to reach the ground. Part 1 of 2 Maria throws an apple vertically upward Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration 110 from a height of 1.3 m with an initial velocity Part 1 of 2 of +2.4 m/s. A snowmobile has an initial velocity of +3.0 a) Will the apple reach a friend in a tree m/s. house 5.3 m above the ground? a) If it accelerates at the rate of +0.50 m/s2 for 7.0 s, what is the ﬁnal velocity? 1. No, the apple will reach 3.70642 m below the tree house Part 2 of 2 b) If instead it accelerates at the rate of −0.60 2. Yes, the apple will reach 3.70642 m above m/s2 , how long will it take to reach a complete the tree house stop? 3. Yes, the apple will reach 1.5055 m above Holt SF 02Rev 23 the tree house 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. 4. Yes, the apple will reach 1.38807 m above the tree house Part 1 of 3 A car moving westward along a straight, 5. No, the apple will reach 1.5055 m below level road increases its velocity uniformly from the tree house +16 m/s to +32 m/s in 10.0 s. a) What was the car’s acceleration? 6. No, the apple will reach 1.38807 m below the tree house Part 2 of 3 b) How far did it move while accelerating? Part 2 of 2 b) If the apple is not caught, how long will it Part 3 of 3 be in the air before it hits the ground? c) What was its average velocity? Holt SF 02Rev 20 Holt SF 02Rev 24 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. wording-variable. A car traveling in a straight line has a ve- A ball initially at rest rolls down a hill with locity of +5.0 m/s. After an acceleration of an acceleration of 3.3 m/s2 . 0.75 m/s2 , the car’s velocity is +8.0 m/s. If it accelerates for 7.5 s, how far will it In what time interval did the acceleration move? occur? Holt SF 02Rev 25 Holt SF 02Rev 21 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. wording-variable. A bus slows down uniformly from 75.0 A car traveling at +7.0 m/s accelerates at km/h to 0 km/h in 21.0 s. the rate of 0.80 m/s2 for an interval of 2.0 s. How far does it travel before stopping? Find vf . Holt SF 02Rev 26 Holt SF 02Rev 22 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. wording-variable. Part 1 of 2 Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration 111 A car accelerates from rest at −3.00 m/s2 . 3 a) What is the velocity at the end of 5.0 s? 2 ¢ ¢ Part 2 of 2 1 velocity (m/s) b) What is the displacement after 5.0 s? 0 ¡ Holt SF 02Rev 27 −1 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, −2 wording-variable. −3 A car accelerates uniformly from rest to a −4 speed of 65 km/h (18 m/s) in 12 s. −5 ¢ ¡¢ Find the distance the car travels during this time. −6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 time (s) Holt SF 02Rev 28 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Find the average acceleration during the wording-variable. time interval 0 s to 3 s. Part 1 of 2 Part 2 of 6 A car starts from rest and travels for 5.0 Find the average acceleration during the time s with a uniform acceleration of +1.5 m/s2 . interval 3 s to 6 s. The driver then applies the brakes, causing a uniform acceleration of −2.1 m/s2 . Part 3 of 6 a) If the brakes are applied for 3.0 s, how Find the average acceleration during the time fast is the car going at the end of the braking interval 0 s to 9 s. period? Part 4 of 6 Part 2 of 2 Find the instantaneous acceleration at 2 s. b) How far has it gone from its start? Part 5 of 6 Holt SF 02Rev 29 Find the instantaneous acceleration at 4 s. 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 6 of 6 Find the instantaneous acceleration at 7 s. A boy sledding down a hill accelerates at 1.40 m/s2 . Holt SF 02Rev 31 If he started from rest, in what distance 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, would he reach a speed of 7.00 m/s? wording-variable. Holt SF 02Rev 30 Part 1 of 2 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- A plane lands with a velocity of +120 m/s mal. and accelerates at a maximum rate of −6.0 m/s2 . Part 1 of 6 a) From the instant the plane touches the Consider the plot below describing motion runway, what is the minimum time needed of an object along a straight path as shown in before it can come to rest? the ﬁgure below. Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration 112 Part 2 of 2 wording-variable. The plane is landing on a naval aircraft carrier that is 0.80 km long. Part 1 of 2 b) What distance does the plane require to A ball is thrown vertically upward with a land? speed of 25.0 m/s from a height of 2.0 m. a) How long does it take to reach its highest Holt SF 02Rev 33 point? 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 2 of 2 b) How long does the ball take to hit the An elevator is moving upward 1.20 m/s ground after it reaches its highest point? when it experiences an acceleration of 0.31 m/s2 downward, over a distance of 0.75 m. Holt SF 02Rev 42 What will its ﬁnal speed be? 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- mal. Holt SF 02Rev 38 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 1 of 4 wording-variable. Suppose you are on another planet where the acceleration of gravity is diﬀerent than A worker drops a wrench from the top of a that on Earth; e.g., g = 9.8 m/s2 . tower 80.0 m tall. A ball is thrown directly upward into the What is the velocity when the wrench air. A continuous measurement is made of strikes the ground? the vertical position of the ball with respect to time. The result is a curve shown in the Holt SF 02Rev 39 ﬁgure below. 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 0.20 position (m) wording-variable. 0.15 A peregrine falcon dives at a pigeon. The falcon starts downward from rest with free-fall 0.10 acceleration. 0.05 If the pigeon is 76.0 below the initial posi- 0 tion of the falcon, how long does the falcon 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 take to reach the pigeon? Assume that the pigeon remains at rest. time (s) How much time does the ball take to reach Holt SF 02Rev 40 its maximum height of 0.2 m? (The required 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- precision of your answer is decreased because mal. of graphical resolution in the ﬁgure.) A ball is thrown upward from the ground Part 2 of 4 with an initial speed of 25 m/s; at the same How much time does the ball take to reach instant, a ball is dropped from rest from a one-half of its maximum height h = 0.1 m ? building 15 m high. After how long will the balls be at the same Part 3 of 4 height? Estimate the slope of the position vs time graph at several places; e.g., the ﬁrst one- Holt SF 02Rev 41 half height (h = 0.1 m), the full height (h = 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration 113 0.2 m), and the second one-half height (h = Part 2 of 3 0.1 m). b) How much of this 5.00 min period does the Hint: Draw a velocity vs time graph. You train spend between points B and C? should see a straight line. The acceleration of gravity on your planet is the slope of this line. Part 3 of 3 What is the slope of the velocity vs time c) How much of this 5.00 min period does the graph? train spend between points C and D? Part 4 of 4 Holt SF 02Rev 45 What is the velocity of the ball when it was 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, initially thrown upward? wording-variable. Holt SF 02Rev 43 Part 1 of 4 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Two students are on a balcony 19.6 m above wording-variable. the street. One student throws a ball verti- cally downward at 14.7 m/s. At the same The Earth’s radius is about 6380 km. The instant, the other student throws a ball verti- space shuttle is orbiting about 320.0 km above cally upward at the same speed. The second Earth’s surface. ball just misses the balcony on the way down. If the average speed of the space shuttle is a) What is the velocity of the ﬁrst ball as it 27800 km/h, ﬁnd the time required for it to strikes the ground? circle Earth. Part 2 of 4 Holt SF 02Rev 44 b) What is the velocity of the second ball as 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, it strikes the ground? wording-variable. Part 3 of 4 Part 1 of 3 c) What is the diﬀerence in the time the balls A train travels between stations 1 and 2, spend in the air? as shown in the ﬁgure. The engineer of the train is instructed to start from rest at station Part 4 of 4 1 and accelerate uniformly between points A d) How far apart are the balls 0.800 s after and B, then coast with a uniform velocity be- they are thrown? tween points B and D, and ﬁnally accelerate uniformly between points C and D until the Holt SF 02Rev 46 train stops at station 2. The distances AB, 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, BC, and CD are all equal, and it takes 5.00 wording-variable. min to travel between the two stations. As- sume that the uniform accelerations have the A rocket moves upward, starting from rest same magnitude, even when they are opposite with an acceleration of 29.4 m/s2 for 3.98 s. in direction. It runs out of fuel at the end of the 3.98 s, but Station A Station B does not stop. How high does it rise above the ground? A B C D Holt SF 02Rev 48 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, a) How much of this 5.00 min period does wording-variable. the train spend between points A and B? Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration 114 Part 1 of 2 b) How far does the speeder get before being A small ﬁrst-aid kit is dropped by a rock overtaken by the police car? climber who is descending steadily at 1.3 m/s. a) After 2.5 s, what is the velocity of the Holt SF 02Rev 52 53 ﬁrst-aid kit? 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 2 of 2 b) How far is the kit below the climber after Part 1 of 5 the 2.5 s? An ice sled powered by a rocket engine starts from rest on a large frozen lake and Holt SF 02Rev 49 accelerates at 13.0 m/s2 . At t1 the rocket 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, engine is shut down and the sled moves with wording-variable. constant velocity v for another t2 s. The total distance traveled by the sled is 5.30 × 103 m Part 1 of 2 and the total time is 90.0 s. A small ﬁsh is dropped by a pelican that is a) Find t1 . rising steadily at 0.50 m/s. a) After 2.5 s, what is the velocity of the Part 2 of 5 ﬁsh? b) Find t2 . Part 2 of 2 Part 3 of 5 b) How far below the pelican is the ﬁsh after c) Find v. the 2.5 s? Part 4 of 5 Holt SF 02Rev 50 At the 5800 m mark, the sled begins to accel- 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, erate at −7.0 m/s2 . wording-variable. d) What is the ﬁnal position of the sled when it comes to rest? A ranger in a national park is driving at 56 km/h when a deer jumps onto the road Part 5 of 5 65 m ahead of the vehicle. After a reaction e) How long does it take for the sled to come time of t s, the ranger applies the brakes to to rest? produce an acceleration of −3.0 m/s2 . What is the maximum reaction time al- Holt SF 02Rev 54 lowed if the ranger is to avoid hitting the 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, deer? wording-variable. Holt SF 02Rev 51 A tennis ball with a velocity of +10.0 to 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, the right is thrown perpendicularly at a wall. wording-variable. After striking the wall, the ball rebounds in the opposite direction with a velocity of −8.00 Part 1 of 2 m/s to the left. A speeder passes a parked police car at 30.0 If the ball is in contact with the wall for m/s. The police car starts from rest with a 0.012 s, what is the average acceleration of uniform acceleration of 2.44 m/s2 . the ball while it is in contact with the wall? a) How much time pases before the speeder is overtaken by the police car? Holt SF 02Rev 55 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 2 of 2 Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration 115 wording-variable. Part 2 of 3 Part 1 of 2 b) When does the rocket reach maximum A parachutist descending at a speed of 10.0 height? m/s loses a shoe at an altitude of 50.0 m. a) What is the velocity of the shoe just Part 3 of 3 before it hits the ground? c) How long is the rocket in the air? Part 2 of 2 Holt SF 02Rev 58 b) When does the shoe reach the ground? 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Holt SF 02Rev 56 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 1 of 4 wording-variable. A professional race-car driver buys a car that can accelerate at 5.9 m/s2 . The racer Part 1 of 4 decides to race against another driver in a A mountain climber stands at the top of a souped-up stock car. Both start from rest, 50.0 m cliﬀ hanging over a calm pool of water. but the stock-car driver leaves 1.0 s before the The climber throws two stones vertically 1.0 driver of the sports car. The stock car moves s apart and observes that they cause a single with a constant acceleration of +3.6 m/s2 . splash when they hit the water. The ﬁrst a) Find the time it takes the sports-car stone has an initial velocity of +2.0 m/s. driver to overtake the stock-car driver. a) What will the velocity of the ﬁrst stone be at the instant both stones hit the water? Part 2 of 4 b) Find the distance the two drivers travel Part 2 of 4 before they are side by side. b) How long after the release of the ﬁrst stone will the two stones hit the water? Part 3 of 4 c) Find the velocity of the race car when the Part 3 of 4 two drivers are side by side. c) What is the initial velocity of the second stone when it is thrown? Part 4 of 4 d) Find the velocity of the stock car when the Part 4 of 4 two drivers are side by side. d) What will the velocity of the second stone be the instant both stones hit the water? Holt SF 02Rev 59 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Holt SF 02Rev 57 wording-variable. 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 1 of 3 Two cars are traveling along a straight line Part 1 of 3 in the same direction, the lead car at 25 m/s A model rocket is launched straight upward and the other car at 35 m/s. At the moment with an initial speed of 50.0 m/s. It acceler- the cars are 45 m apart, the lead driver ap- ates with a constant upward acceleration of plies the brakes, causing the car to have an 2.00 m/s2 until its engines stop at an altitude acceleration of −2.0 m/s2 . of 150 m. a) How long does it take for the lead car to a) What is the maximum height reached by stop? the rocket? Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration 116 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Part 2 of 3 Assume that the driver of the chasing car Acceleration is the applies the brakes at the same time as the driver of the lead car. 1. rate of change in momentum. b) What must the chasing car’s minimum negative acceleration be to avoid hitting the 2. rate of change in displacement. lead car? 3. rate of change in velocity. Part 3 of 3 c) How long does it take the chasing car to 4. amount of time needed for an object to stop? reach its destination. Holt SF 03Rev 56 Motion 07 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. wording-variable. Deceleration is 2 Given: g = 9.81 m/s . A ball is thrown straight upward and re- 1. negative velocity. turns to the thrower’s hand after 3.00 s in the air. A second ball is thrown at an angle of 2. negative speed. 30.0◦ with the horizontal. At what speed must the second ball be 3. negative acceleration. thrown so that it reaches the same height as the one thrown vertically? 4. negative density. Holt SF 03Rev 61 Motion 08 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. wording-variable. What is the acceleration of an object that Part 1 of 2 takes 20 s to change from a speed of 200 m/s Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . to 300 m/sec? A car is parked on a cliﬀ overlooking the ocean on an incline that makes an angle of 1. 5 m/s 24.0◦ below the horizontal. The negligent driver leaves the car in neutral, and the emer- 2. 5 m/s/s gency brakes are defective. The car rolls from rest down the incline with a constant acceler- 3. 100 m/s ation of 4.00 m/s2 and travels 50.0 m to the edge of the cliﬀ. The cliﬀ is 30.0 m above the 4. 100 m/s/s ocean. a) How long is the car in the air? Motion 09 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Part 2 of 2 b) What is the car’s position relative to the An object traveling at a constant 20 m/sec base of the cliﬀ when the car lands in the in a circular path is changing its ocean? 1. speed. Motion 06 Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration 117 2. momentum. 8. Nothing can be determined without addi- tional information. 3. velocity. Object Acceleration 4. mass. 02:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Motion 13 If the acceleration of an object is zero at 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. some instant in time, what can be said about its velocity at that time? If the average velocity of an object is the same for all time intervals, then the object 1. It is negative. moves at a(n) 2. It is zero. 1. constant velocity. 3. It is positive. 2. instantaneous velocity. 4. It is not changing at that time. 3. changing speed. 5. Unable to determine. 4. relative speed. Outwitted Again No Change in Velocity 02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Another scheme to catch the roadrunner Assume: Quantanties are instantaneous has failed and a safe falls from rest from the unless stated otherwise. top of a 25 m high cliﬀ toward Wiley Coy- The change in velocity ∆v of an object is ote, who is standing at the base. Wiley ﬁrst zero over a short time interval ∆t. notices the safe after it has fallen 15 m. Which of the following must be true? How long does he have to get out of the way? 1. The object must be at rest. Particle Acceleration 2. The object must have constant accelera- 02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. tion over the interval. A particle accelerates from rest at 2 m/s2 . 3. The object must have constant velocity What is its speed 3 s after the particle starts over the interval. moving? 4. The object must have zero average accel- Projectile Fired Up eration over the interval. 02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 5. The object must have zero average veloc- Part 1 of 2 ity over the interval. A projectile is ﬁred straight upward at 100 m/s. 6. The object must be changing position. How fast is it moving at the instant it reaches the top of its trajectory? 7. The object must begin and end at the same position. Part 2 of 2 How fast is it moving at the instant it reaches Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration 118 the top of its trajectory if the projectile is ﬁred upward at 12◦ from the horizontal? Part 3 of 3 Projectile Motion Which of the following best indicates the di- 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. rection of the net force, if any, on the ball at point Q? Part 1 of 3 Q 1. P R How do the speeds of the ball at the three points compare? 2. 1. vP < vQ < vR 2. vR < vQ < vP 3. 3. vQ < vR < vP 4. vQ < vP = vR 4. 5. vP = vR < vQ Part 2 of 3 Which of the following diagrams best shows 5. There is no net force on the ball at point the direction of the acceleration of the ball at Q. point P? Rebounding Tennis Ball 1. 02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. A tennis ball with a speed of 10 m/s is thrown perpendicularly at a wall. After strik- ing the wall, the ball rebounds in the opposite 2. direction with a speed of 8 m/s. If the ball is in contact with the wall for 0.012 s, what is the magnitude of the average acceleration a of the ball while it is in contact with the wall? 3. Return to the Start 02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 4. A particle, traveling at 6 m/s decelerates at 1.1 m/s2 . How long will it take to get back to the starting point? 5. Rocket Acceleration Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration 119 02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. ball. Point A is before the ball reaches the top. Point B is at the top, point C is af- A rocket initially at rest accelerates at a ter it has passed the top and it is on its rate of 50 m/s2 for 1 min. way down and having passed the level of A. What is its speed at the end of this time? B Rocket Powered Sleds A 02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. C Part 1 of 2 Rocket-powered sleds are been used to test the responses of humans to acceleration. Starting from rest, one sled can reach a speed of 444 m/s in 1.8 s and can be brought to a stop again in 2.15 s. The magnitudes of the acceleration are re- Find the acceleration of the sled while ac- lated as celerating. 1. aA = g Part 2 of 2 Find the acceleration of the sled when brak- 2. aA < aB ing. Part 2 of 3 Sled Acceleration The magnitudes of the acceleration are re- 02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. lated as Part 1 of 3 1. aB = 0 A rocket-driven sled running on a straight, level track has been used to study the physio- 2. aB = aA logical eﬀects of large accelerations on astro- nauts. One such sled can attain a speed of 3. aB > aC 444 m/s in 1.8 s starting from rest. What is the acceleration of the sled, assum- Part 3 of 3 ing it is constant? The magnitudes of the acceleration are re- lated as Part 2 of 3 How many g’s would you pull? (What factor 1. aC < aB and aA < aB times g = 9.80 m/s2 is this?) 2. aC = aB = aA Part 3 of 3 How far does the sled travel in 1.8 s, starting Vehicle Acceleration from rest? 02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Trajectory Acceleration A car traveling in a straight line has a ve- 02:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. locity of 5 m/s at some instant. After 4 s, its velocity is 8 m/s. Part 1 of 3 What is its average acceleration in this time A boy throws a ball upward. Compare interval? the magnitudes of the gravitational acceler- ations at three points along the path of the Velocity vs Time 01 Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration 120 02:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. velocity (m/s) An object was suspended in a ﬁxed place, then allowed to drop in a free fall. Taking the positive direction downwards, which of the follow- ing graphs correctly represents its motion? time (s) a) v What is the time represented by the second tic mark on the horizontal axis? t b) Part 2 of 3 v What is the velocity represented by the third tic mark on the vertical axis? t c) v Part 3 of 3 What is the velocity when t = 4 s? t Velocity vs Time 03 d) v 02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. t Part 1 of 3 e) The scale on the horizontal axis is 2 s per v division and on the vertical axis 3 m/s per division. t velocity (m/s) 1. (a) time (s) 2. (d) What is the time represented by the third tic 3. (c) mark on the horizontal axis? 4. (b) Part 2 of 3 What is the velocity represented by the fourth 5. (e) tic mark on the vertical axis? Velocity vs Time 02 Part 3 of 3 02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. What is the velocity when t = 6 s? Part 1 of 3 Velocity vs Time 04 The scale on the horizontal axis is 2 s per 02:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. division and on the vertical axis 3 m/s per division. The diagram shows a velocity-time graph for a car moving in a straight line. Chapter 2, section 4, Acceleration 121 v P t At point P the car must be 1. moving with zero acceleration. 2. climbing the hill. 3. stationary. 4. accelerating. 5. moving at about 45◦ with respect to the x axis. Wind Acceleration 02:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. A sailboat is initially moving at a speed of 3 m/s. A strong wind blows up and ac- celerates the boat forward with a constant acceleration of 0.2 m/s2 for 10 s. What is the ﬁnal speed of the sail boat? Zero Acceleration 02:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. An object’s acceleration is zero at some instant in time, t . Its velocity is 1. not changing at any time. 2. zero at t. 3. positive at t. 4. negative at t. 5. not changing at t. Chapter 2, section 5, Acceleration in Uniform Circular Motion 122 1. The moon moves in a straight line toward Hewitt CP9 03 E13 the Earth. 02:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. The moon falls in the sense that it falls Which one of the following is an example of away from the straight line it would follow if something that undergoes acceleration while there were no forces acting on it. moving at constant speed? 3. Some stones on the moon drop from it 1. An object moving in a circular path at toward the Earth. constant speed. Hewitt CP9 10 E15 2. A football in the air. 02:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. A car moving on the road. Since the moon is gravitationally attracted to the Earth, why doesn’t it simply crash into 4. A man in the elevator. the Earth? 5. All are wrong. 1. When the moon moves close to the Earth, the air on the Earth repels it. Hewitt CP9 08 R01 02:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. The moon does not have enough speed to crash into the Earth. Why is the linear speed greater for a horse on the outside of a merry-go-round than for a 3. The moon’s tangential velocity is what horse closer to the center? keeps the moon coasting around the Earth rather than crashing into it. 1. Because the tangential speed of the horse is directly proportional to the distance from 4. The sun attracts the moon so that the the center. moon cannot move to the Earth. 2. Because it is easier for the outside horse Hewitt CP9 10 E16 to move. 02:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. Because the horse on the outside is When the space shuttle coasts in a circular stronger. orbit at constant speed about the Earth, is it accelerating? If so, in what direction? 4. Because the horse on the outside has longer legs. 1. No, the shuttle is not accelerating. 5. Because the horse on the outside feels less 2. Yes, the shuttle is accelerating. The ac- force from the merry-go-round. celeration is toward the Earth’s center. 6. None of these 3. Yes, the shuttle is accelerating. The ac- celeration is in the direction from the Earth Hewitt CP9 09 R03 to the moon. 02:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. Yes, the shuttle is accelerating. The ac- In what sense does the moon “fall”? celeration is in the direction from the moon to the sun. Chapter 2, section 5, Acceleration in Uniform Circular Motion 123 lands. Once the launching of satellites fails, Hewitt CP9 10 E17 the satellite can easily go to the sea instead of 02:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. damaging the residential areas. Which planets have a greater period than 1 4. Hawaii is closer to the equator, and there- Earth year, those closer to the sun than Earth fore has a greater tangential speed about the or those farther from the sun than Earth? polar axis. 1. those closer to the sun Hewitt CP9 10 E27 02:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. those farther from the sun Two planets are never seen at midnight. 3. It cannot be determined. Which two? 4. both the planets closer to the sun than 1. Jupiter and Mars Earth and those farther from the sun than Earth 2. Neptune and Pluto Hewitt CP9 10 E23 3. Saturn and Jupiter 02:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. Neptune and Mercury Would the speed of a satellite in close circuit orbit about Jupiter be greater than, equal to, 5. Venus and Mercury or less than 8 km/s? Hewitt CP9 10 E32 1. greater than 02:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. equal to What is the shape of the orbit when the velocity of the satellite is everywhere perpen- 3. less than dicular to the force of gravity? 4. not to be determined 1. rectangle Hewitt CP9 10 E26 2. parabola 02:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. hyperbola Of all the United states, why is Hawaii the most eﬃcient launching site for non-polar 4. circle satellites?(Hint:look at the spinning Earth from above either pole and compare it to a 5. ellipse spinning turntable.) Hewitt CP9 10 E33 1. Hawaii is the warmest place in the US, 02:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. and therefore energy is saved most. If the Space Shuttle circled the Earth at 2. There is not any strong cold wind in a distance equal to the Earth-moon distance, Hawaii. how long would it take for it to make a com- plete orbit? 3. Hawaii is composed by some small is- Chapter 2, section 5, Acceleration in Uniform Circular Motion 124 1. 28 days 4. Because there is no power on the satel- lites. 2. 35 days 3. 365 days 4. 7 days 5. 24 hours Hewitt CP9 10 E36 02:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. A “geosynchronous”Earth satellite can re- main directly overhead in Singapore, but not in San Francisco. Why? 1. The temperature in Singapore is warm enough, but not for San Francisco. 2. Singapore lies on the Earth’s equator while San Francisco doesn’t. 3. There are much more people in Singapore than in San Francisco. So they use more pow- erful commercial satellite which can remain directly overhead in Singapore. 4. The climate in Singapore is constant over the year while it is not in San Francisco. Hewitt CP9 10 E42 02:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. If you stopped an Earth satellite dead in its tracks, it would simply crash into the Earth. Why, then, don’t the communications satel- lites that hover motionless above the same spot on Earth crash into the Earth? 1. Because the satellites are not attracted by the Earth. 2. Because their orbital period coincides with the daily rotation of the Earth. 3. Because the moon attracts the satellites at the same time. Chapter 2, section 6, Projectile Motion 125 circular track. Hewitt CP9 02 E35 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 5. All are wrong. Before the time of Galileo and Newton, Hewitt CP9 10 E01 some learned scholars thought that a stone 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. dropped from the top of a tall mast of a moving shop would fall vertically and hit the A heavy crate accidentally falls from a high- deck behind the mast by a distance equal to ﬂying airplane just as it ﬂies directly above a how far the ship had moved forward while the shiny red Camaro smartly parked in a car lot. stone was falling. Relative to the Camaro, where will the In light of your understanding of Newton’s crate crash? ﬁrst law, what do you think about this? 1. The crate will hit the Camaro. 1. That’s right; if the speed is fast enough, the stone will drop into the sea. 2. The crate will not hit the Camaro, but will crash a distance beyond it determined by 2. The stone will fall vertically if released the height and speed of the plane. from rest. 3. The crate will continue to ﬂy and will not 3. The stone will have a horizontal motion; crash. it will hit the deck in front of the mast. 4. The crate will hit the front part of the 4. The stone will fall in any trajectory; it car. depends on the speed of the shop. Hewitt CP9 10 E03 5. All are wrong. 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Hewitt CP9 02 E39 How does the vertical component of a pro- 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. jectile’s motion compare with the motion of vertical free fall? The chimney of a stationary toy train con- sists of a vertical spring gun that shoots steel 1. When air resistance is negligible, the ver- balls a meter or so straight into the air–so tical component of motion for a projectile is straight that the ball always falls back into greater than that of free fall. the chimney. If the train is moving, under which condi- 2. When air resistance is negligible, the ver- tion will the ball fall back into the chimney? tical component of motion for a projectile is less than that of free fall. 1. The train moves at constant speed along the straight track. 3. When air resistance is negligible, the ver- tical component of motion for a projectile is 2. The train suddenly increases its speed identical to that of free fall. when the ball is in the air. 4. It cannot be determined. 3. The train suddenly decreases its speed when the ball is in the air. Hewitt CP9 10 E05 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. The train moves at a constant speed on a Chapter 2, section 6, Projectile Motion 126 At what point in its trajectory does a bat- table. The mouse steps out of the way, and ted baseball have it’s minimum speed? the cat slides oﬀ the table and strikes the ﬂoor 2.2 m from the edge of the table. 1. Minimum speed occurs at the bottom. What was the cat’s speed when it slid oﬀ the table? 2. Minimum speed occurs at the top. Holt SF 03D 03 04 3. Minimum speed occurs at somewhere in 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, the middle height. wording-variable. 4. Minimum speed occurs at the beginning Part 1 of 2 point. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A pelican ﬂying along a horizontal path 5. Minimum speed occurs at the ending drops a ﬁsh from a height of 5.4 m. The ﬁsh point. travels 8.0 m horizontally before it hits the water below. Hewitt CP9 10 E09 a) What was the pelican’s initial speed? 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Part 2 of 2 When a riﬂe is being ﬁred at a distant b) If the pelican was traveling at the same target, why isn’t the barrel lined up so that it speed but was only 2.7 m above the water, points exactly at the target? how far would the ﬁsh travel horizontally be- fore hitting the water below? 1. The target might be moving. Holt SF 03E 01 2. To compensate for the bullet’s fall, the 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, barrel is elevated. wording-variable. 3. The target is not so clear. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . In a scene in an action movie, a stunt man 4. The bullet might be blew by the air. jumps from the top of one building to the top of another building 4.0 m away. After a Holt SF 03D 01 running start, he leaps at an angle of 15◦ with 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, respect to the ﬂat roof while traveling at a wording-variable. speed of 5.0 m/s. To determine if he will make it to the other Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . roof, which is 2.5 m shorter than the build- An autographed baseball rolls oﬀ of a 0.70 ing from which he jumps, ﬁnd his vertical m high desk and strikes the ﬂoor 0.25 m away displacement upon reaching the front edge of from the desk. the lower building with respect to the taller How fast was it rolling on the desk before it building. fell oﬀ? Holt SF 03E 02 Holt SF 03D 02 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. wording-variable. A golfer can hit a golf ball a horizontal Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . distance of over 300 m on a good drive. A cat chases a mouse across a 1.0 m high What maximum height will a 301.5 m drive Chapter 2, section 6, Projectile Motion 127 reach if it is launched at an angle of 25.0◦ to the ground? Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . The fastest recorded pitch in Major League Holt SF 03E 03 Baseball was thrown by Nolan Ryan in 1974. 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, If this pitch were thrown horizontally, the ball wording-variable. would fall 0.809 m (2.65 ft) by the time it reached home plate, 18.3 m (60 ft) away. Part 1 of 2 How fast was Ryan’s pitch? Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A baseball is thrown at an angle of 25◦ Holt SF 03Rev 35 relative to the ground at a speed of 23.0 m/s. 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, The ball is caught 41.3 m from the thrower. wording-variable. a) How long is it in the air? Part 1 of 2 Part 2 of 2 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . b) How high is the tallest spot in the ball’s A shell is ﬁred from the ground with an path? initial speed of 1.70 × 103 m/s (approximately ﬁve times the speed of sound) at an initial Holt SF 03E 04 angle of 55.0◦ to the horizontal. 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, a) Neglecting air resistance, ﬁnd the shell’s wording-variable. horizontal range. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Part 2 of 2 Salmon often jump waterfalls to reach their b) How long is the shell in motion? breeding grounds. Starting 2.00 m from a waterfall 0.550 m Holt SF 03Rev 36 in height, at what minimum speed must a 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, salmon jumping at an angle of 32.0◦ leave the wording-variable. water to continue upstream? Part 1 of 2 Holt SF 03E 05 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, A person standing at the edge of a seaside wording-variable. cliﬀ kicks a stone over the edge with a speed of 18 m/s. The cliﬀ is 52 m above the water’s Part 1 of 2 surface, as shown. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A quarterback throws the football to a sta- 18 m/s tionary receiver who is 31.5 m down the ﬁeld. The football is thrown at an initial angle of 40.0◦ to the ground. a) At what initial speed must the quarter- back throw the ball for it to reach the receiver? 52 m Part 2 of 2 b) What is the ball’s highest point during its ﬂight? Holt SF 03Rev 34 Note: Figure not drawn to scale 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. a) How long does it take for the stone to fall Chapter 2, section 6, Projectile Motion 128 to the water? m/s. A net is positioned at a horizontal dis- tance of 50.0 m from the cannon from which Part 2 of 2 the daredevil is shot. b) With what speed does the stone strike the At what height above the cannon’s mouth water? should the net be placed in order to catch the daredevil? Holt SF 03Rev 37 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Holt SF 03Rev 40 wording-variable. 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A spy in a speed boat is being chased down Part 1 of 2 a river by government oﬃcials in a faster craft. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Just as the oﬃcials’ boat pulls up next to the When a water gun is ﬁred while being spy’s boat, both boats reach the edge of a 5.0 held horizontally at a height of 1.00 m above m waterfall. The spy’s speed is 15 m/s and ground level, the water travels a horizontal the oﬃcials’ speed is 26 m/s. distance of 5.00 m. How far apart will the two vessels be when a) Find the initial velocity of the water. they land below the waterfall? Part 2 of 2 Holt SF 03Rev 38 A child, who is holding the same gun in a 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, horizontal position, is sliding down a 45.0◦ wording-variable. incline at a constant speed of 2.00 m/s. The child ﬁres the gun when it is 1.00 m above the Part 1 of 2 ground and the water takes 0.329 s to reach Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . the ground. A place kicker must kick a football from a b) How far will the water travel horizon- point 36.0 m (about 39 yd) from the goal. As tally? a result of the kick, the ball must clear the crossbar, which is 3.05 m high. When kicked, Holt SF 03Rev 41 the ball leaves the ground with a speed of 20.0 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, m/s at an angle of 53◦ to the horizontal. wording-variable. a) To determine if the ball clears the cross- bar, what is its height with respect to the Part 1 of 2 crossbar when it reaches the plane of the Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . crossbar? A ship maneuvers to within 2.50 × 103 m of an island’s 1.80 × 103 m high mountain Part 2 of 2 peak and ﬁres a projectile at an enemy ship b) To determine if the ball approaches the 6.10 × 102 m on the other side of the peak, crossbar while still rising or while falling, what as illustrated. The ship shoots the projectile is its vertical velocity at the crossbar? with an initial velocity of 2.50 × 102 m/s at an angle of 75.0◦ . Holt SF 03Rev 39 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, s m/ wording-variable. 1800 m 0 25 75◦ Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A daredevil is shot out of a cannon at 45.0◦ 2500 m 610 m to the horizontal with an initial speed of 25.0 Chapter 2, section 6, Projectile Motion 129 Note: Figure is not drawn to scale a) How close to the enemy ship does the Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . projectile land? A 2.00 m tall basketball player attempts a goal 10.00 m from the basket (3.05 m high). Part 2 of 2 If he shoots the ball at a 45.0◦ angle, at b) How close (vertically) does the projectile what initial speed must he throw the basket- come to the peak? ball so that it goes through the hoop without striking the backboard? Holt SF 03Rev 53 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Holt SF 03Rev 58 wording-variable. 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- mal. Part 1 of 3 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A ball player hits a home run, and the A 80 g autographed baseball rolls oﬀ of baseball just clears a wall 7.00 m high located a 1.2 m high table and strikes the ﬂoor a 130.0 m from home plate. The ball is hit at horizontal distance of 0.8 m away from the an angle of 35.0◦ to the horizontal, and air table. See the ﬁgure below. resistance is negligible. Assume the ball is hit at a height of 1.0 m above the ground. a) What is the initial speed of the ball? Part 2 of 3 b) How much time does it take for the ball to reach the wall? 1.2 m Part 3 of 3 c) Find the speed of the ball when it reaches the wall. Holt SF 03Rev 54 0.8 m 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, How fast was it rolling on the table before wording-variable. it fell oﬀ? Part 1 of 2 Holt SF 03Rev 58A Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- A daredevil jumps a canyon 12 m wide. To mal. do so, he drives a car up a 15◦ incline. a) What minimum speed must he achieve Part 1 of 2 to clear the canyon? Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A 80 g autographed baseball slides oﬀ of Part 2 of 2 a 1.2 m high table and strikes the ﬂoor a b) If the daredevil jumps at this minimum horizontal distance of 0.9 m away from the speed, what will his speed be when he reaches table. See the ﬁgure below. the other side? Holt SF 03Rev 55 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Chapter 2, section 6, Projectile Motion 130 a) How far could the person jump on the moon, where the free-fall acceleration is g/6 and g = 9.81 m/s2 ? Part 2 of 2 1.2 m b) How far could the person jump on Mars, where the acceleration due to gravity is 0.38g? Holt SF 03Rev 68 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 0.9 m wording-variable. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A science student riding on a ﬂatcar of a How fast was it rolling on the table before train moving at a constant speed of a 10.0 it fell oﬀ? m/s throws a ball toward the caboose along a path that the student judges as making Part 2 of 2 an initial angle of 60.0◦ with the horizontal. What was the direction of the ball’s velocity The teacher, who is standing on the ground just before it hit the ﬂoor? nearby, observes the ball rising vertically. That is, at what angle (in the range −90◦ to How high does the ball rise? +90◦ relative to the horizontal directed away from the table) did the ball hit the ﬂoor? Holt SF 03Rev 69 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Holt SF 03Rev 63 wording-variable. 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A football is thrown toward a receiver with Part 1 of 2 an initial speed of 18.0 m/s at an angle of Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . 35.0◦ above the horizontal. At that instant, A golf ball with an initial angle of 34◦ the receiver is 18.0 m from the quarterback. lands exactly 240 m down the range on a With what constant speed should the re- level course. ceiver run to catch the football at the level at a) Neglecting air friction, what initial speed which it was thrown? would achieve this result? Holt SF 03Rev 70 Part 2 of 2 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, b) Find the maximum height reached by the wording-variable. ball. Part 1 of 3 Holt SF 03Rev 67 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . 02:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, A rocket is launched at an angle of 53◦ wording-variable. above the horizontal with an initial speed of 75 m/s, as shown. It moves for 25 s along Part 1 of 2 its initial line of motion with an overall accel- A person can jump a horizontal distance of eration of 25 m/s2 . At this time its engines 3.0 m on Earth. fail and the rocket proceeds to move as a free body. Chapter 2, section 6, Projectile Motion 131 a) What is the rocket’s maximum altitude? Part 2 of 3 b) What is the rocket’s total time of ﬂight? Part 3 of 3 c) What is the rocket’s horizontal range? Chapter 2, section 7, Vectors 132 Holt SF 03A 04 Holt SF 03A 01 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- wording-variable. mal. Part 1 of 2 Part 1 of 2 A hummingbird ﬂies 1.2 m along a straight A truck driver attempting to deliver some path at a height of 3.4 m above the ground. furniture travels 8 km east, turns around and Upon spotting a ﬂower below, the humming- travels 3 km west, and then travels 12 km east bird drops directly downward 1.4 m to hover to his destination. in front of the ﬂower. a) What distance has the driver traveled? a) What is the magnitude of the humming- bird’s total displacement? Part 2 of 2 b) What is the magnitude of the driver’s total Part 2 of 2 displacement? How many degrees below the horizontal is this total displacement? Holt SF 03A 02 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Holt SF 03B 01 02 wording-variable. 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- mal. Part 1 of 2 While following the directions on a treasure Part 1 of 2 map, a pirate walks 45.0 m north, then turns A truck travels beneath an airplane that is and walks 7.5 m east. moving 105 km/h at an angle of 25 ◦ to the a) What is the magnitude of the sin- ground. gle straight-line displacement that the pirate a) How fast must the truck travel to stay could have taken to reach the treasure? beneath the airplane? Part 2 of 2 Part 2 of 2 b) At what angle with the north would he b) What is the magnitude of the vertical com- have to walk? ponent of the velocity of the plane? Holt SF 03A 03 Holt SF 03B 03 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- wording-variable. mal. Part 1 of 2 Part 1 of 2 Emily passes a soccer ball 6.0 m directly A truck travels up a hill with a 15◦ incline. across the ﬁeld to Kara, who then kicks the The truck has a constant speed of 22 m/s. ball 14.5 m directly down the ﬁeld to Luisa. a) What is the horizontal component of the a) What is the magnitude of the ball’s total truck’s velocity? displacement as it travels between Emily and Luisa? Part 2 of 2 b) What is the vertical component of the Part 2 of 2 truck’s velocity? b) How many degrees to the side of straight down the ﬁeld is the ball’s total displace- Holt SF 03B 04 ment? 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- mal. Chapter 2, section 7, Vectors 133 the skier’s acceleration (perpendicular to the Part 1 of 2 direction of free fall)? A cat climbs 5 m directly up a tree. a) What is the horizontal component of the Part 2 of 2 cat’s displacement? b) What is the vertical component of the skier’s acceleration? Part 2 of 2 b) What is the vertical component of the cat’s Holt SF 03C 01 displacement? 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- mal. Holt SF 03B 05 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- Part 1 of 2 mal. A football player runs directly down the ﬁeld for 35 m before turning to the right at Part 1 of 2 an angle of 25 ◦ from his original direction A superhero ﬂies 125 m from the top of and running an additional 15 m before being a tall building at an angle of 25 ◦ below the tackled. horizontal. a) What is the magnitude of the runner’s a) What is the horizontal component of the total displacement? superhero’s displacement? Part 2 of 2 Part 2 of 2 b) At what angle to his original displacement b) What is the vertical component of the su- is his total displacement (with counterclock- perhero’s displacement? wise positive)? Holt SF 03B 06 Holt SF 03C 02 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. wording-variable. Part 1 of 2 Part 1 of 2 A child rides a toboggan down a hill that A plane travels 2.5 km at an angle of 35◦ to descends at an angle of 30.5◦ to the horizontal. the ground, then changes direction and travels The hill is 23.0 m long. 5.2 km at an angle of 22◦ to the ground. a) What is the horizontal component of the a) What is the magnitude of the plane’s child’s displacement? total displacement? Part 2 of 2 Part 2 of 2 b) What is the vertical component of the b) At what angle above the horizontal is the child’s displacement? plane’s total displacement? Holt SF 03B 07 Holt SF 03C 03 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. wording-variable. Part 1 of 2 Part 1 of 2 A skier squats low and races down a(n) 18◦ During the rodeo, a clown runs 8.0 m north, ski slope. During a 5 s interval, the skier turns 35◦ east of north, and runs 3.5 m. Then, accelerates at 2.5 m/s2 . after waiting for the bull to come near, the a) What is the horizontal component of clown turns due east and runs 5.0 m to exit Chapter 2, section 7, Vectors 134 the arena. A golfer takes two putts to sink his ball in a) What is the magnitude of the clown’s the hole once he is on the green. The ﬁrst total displacement? putt displaces the ball 6.00 m east, and the second putt displaces it 5.40 m south. Part 2 of 2 a) How large a displacement would put the b) How many degrees east of north is the ball in the hole in one putt? clown’s total displacement? Part 2 of 2 Holt SF 03C 04 b) What is the direction (measured from due 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, east, with counterclockwise positive) of the wording-variable. displacement? Part 1 of 2 Holt SF 03Rev 24 An airplane ﬂying parallel to the ground 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, undergoes two consecutive displacements. wording-variable. The ﬁrst is 75 km at 30.0◦ west of north, and the second is 155 km at 60.0◦ east of A quarterback takes the ball from the line north. of scrimmage, runs backward for 10.0 yards, a) What is the magnitude of the plane’s then runs sideways parallel to the line of total displacement? scrimmage for 15.0 yards. At this point, he throws a 50.0 yard forward pass straight down Part 2 of 2 the ﬁeld. b) At what angle east of north is the plane’s What is the magnitude of the football’s total displacement? resultant displacement? Holt SF 03Rev 22 Holt SF 03Rev 25 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. wording-variable. Part 1 of 3 Part 1 of 4 A girl delivering newspapers travels 5 Note: You are not given the direction blocks west, 8 blocks north, then 9 blocks moved after any of the 90◦ turns, so there east. could be more than one answer. a) What is the magnitude of her resultant A shopper pushing a cart through a store displacement? moves 40.0 m south down one aisle, then makes a 90◦ turn and moves 15.0 m. He Part 2 of 3 then makes another 90◦ turn and moves 20.0 b) Find the direction (measured from due m. east, with counterclockwise positive) of her a) What is the magnitude of the small- displacement. est possible displacement the shopper could have? Part 3 of 3 c) What is the total distance she travels? Part 2 of 4 b) At how many degrees from due south is Holt SF 03Rev 23 this displacement? 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 3 of 4 c) What is the magnitude of the largest pos- Part 1 of 2 sible displacement the shopper could have? Chapter 2, section 7, Vectors 135 Part 4 of 4 Part 1 of 2 d) At how many degrees from due south is A person walks the path shown. The total this displacement? trip consists of four straight-line paths. 100 m Holt SF 03Rev 26 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, N wording-variable. 300 m W E Part 1 of 2 A submarine dives 110.0 m at an angle of S 10.0◦ below the horizontal. 200 a) What is the horizontal component of the m submarine’s displacement? 30.0◦ 60.0◦ m 150 Part 2 of 2 Note: Figure is not drawn to scale. b) What is the vertical component of the sub- a) At the end of the walk, what is the mag- marine’s displacement? nitude of the person’s resultant displacement measured from the starting point? Holt SF 03Rev 27 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 2 of 2 wording-variable. b) What is the direction (measured from due west, with counterclockwise positive) of the Part 1 of 2 person’s resultant displacement? A person walks 25.0◦ north of east for 3.10 km. Another person walks due north and due Holt SF 03Rev 49 east to arrive at the same location. 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, a) How large is the east component of this wording-variable. second path? Part 1 of 2 Part 2 of 2 The pilot of an aircraft wishes to ﬂy due b) How large is the north component of this west in a 50.0 km/h wind blowing toward the second path? south. The speed of the aircraft in the absence of a wind is 205 km/h. Holt SF 03Rev 28 a) How many degrees from west should the 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, aircraft head? Let clockwise be positive. wording-variable. Part 2 of 2 Part 1 of 2 b) What should the plane’s speed be relative A roller coaster travels 41.1 m at an angle to the ground? of 40.0◦ above the horizontal. a) How far does it move horizontally? Holt SF 03Rev 50 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 2 of 2 wording-variable. b) How far does it move vertically? A hunter wishes to cross a river that is Holt SF 03Rev 29 1.5 km wide and that ﬂows with a speed of 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 5.0 km/h. The hunter uses a small powerboat wording-variable. Chapter 2, section 7, Vectors 136 that moves at a maximum speed of 12 km/h stands on the escalator, it takes 50.0 s to ride with respect to the water. from the bottom to the top. What is the minimum time necessary for If a person walks up the moving escalator crossing? with a speed of 0.500 m/s relative to the escalator, how long does it take the person to Holt SF 03Rev 52 get to the top? 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Holt SF 03Rev 60 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 1 of 3 wording-variable. A motorboat heads due east at 12.0 m/s across a river that ﬂows toward the south at a The eye of a hurricane passes over Grand speed of 3.5 m/s. Bahama Island. It is moving in a direction a) What is the magnitude of the resultant 60.0◦ north of west with a speed of 41.0 km/h. velocity relative to an observer on the shore? Exactly 3.00 hours later, the course of the hurricane shifts due north, and its speed slows Part 2 of 3 to 25.0 km/h, as shown. b) What is the angle from the original heading How far from Grand Bahama is the hurri- (with counterclockwise positive) of the boat’s cane 4.50 h after it passes over the island? displacement? Holt SF 03Rev 62 Part 3 of 3 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, c) If the river is 1360 m wide, how long does wording-variable. it take the boat to cross? A boat moves through a river at 7.5 m/s Holt SF 03Rev 57 relative to the water, regardless of the boat’s 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, direction. wording-variable. If the water in the river is ﬂowing at 1.5 m/s, how long does it take the boat to make a Part 1 of 2 round trip consisting of a 250 m displacement An escalator is 20.0 m long. If a person downstream followed by a 250 m displacement stands on the escalator, it takes 50.0 s to ride upstream? from the bottom to the top. a) If a person walks up the moving escalator Holt SF 03Rev 64 with a speed of 0.500 m/s relative to the 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, escalator, how long does it take the person to wording-variable. get to the top? Part 1 of 4 Part 2 of 2 A water spider maintains an average po- b) If a person walks down the “up” escala- sition on the surface of a stream by darting tor with the same relative speed as in the upstream (against the current), then drifting ﬁrst part, how long does it take to reach the downstream (with the current) to its origi- bottom? nal position. The current in the stream is 0.500 m/s relative to the shore, and the water Holt SF 03Rev 57 shortened spider darts upstream 0.560 m (relative to a 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, spot on shore) in 0.800 s during the ﬁrst part wording-variable. of its motion. Use upstream as the positive direction. An escalator is 20.0 m long. If a person a) Find the velocity of the water spider Chapter 2, section 7, Vectors 137 relative to the water during its dash upstream. Part 2 of 4 b) What is its velocity (relative to the water) during its drift downstream? Part 3 of 4 c) How far upstream relative to the water does the water spider move during one cycle of this upstream and downstream motion? Part 4 of 4 d) What is the average velocity of the water spider relative to the water for one complete cycle? Holt SF 03Rev 65 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 1 of 2 A car travels due east with a speed of 50.0 km/h. Rain is falling vertically with respect to Earth. The traces of the rain on the side windows of the car make an angle of 60.0◦ with the vertical. a) Find the magnitude of the velocity of the rain with respect to the car. Part 2 of 2 b) Find the magnitude of the rain’s velocity with respect to Earth. Holt SF 03Rev 66 02:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. A shopper in a department store can walk up a stationary (stalled) escalator in 30.0 s. If the normally functioning escalator can carry the standing shopper to the next ﬂoor in 20.0 s, how long would it take the shopper to walk up the moving escalator? Assume the same walking eﬀort for the shopper whether the escalator is stalled or moving. Chapter 2, section 8, Relative Velocity 138 locity relative to the road? Holt SF 03F 01 02:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 2 of 2 wording-variable. b) At how many degrees east of north is the dog actually moving? A passenger at the rear of a train traveling at 15 m/s relative to Earth throws a base- Holt SF 03Rev 47 ball with a speed of 15 m/s in the direction 02:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, opposite the motion of the train. wording-variable. What is the velocity of the baseball relative to Earth as it leaves the thrower’s hand? The pilot of a plane measures an air velocity of 165 km/h south. An observer on the ground Holt SF 03F 02 sees the plane pass overhead at a velocity of 02:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 145 km/h toward the north. wording-variable. What is the velocity of the wind that is aﬀecting the plane? Let north be positive. A spy runs from the front to the back of an aircraft carrier at a velocity of 3.5 m/s. The Holt SF 03Rev 48 aircraft carrier is moving forward at 18.0 m/s. 02:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, How fast does the spy appear to be run- wording-variable. ning when viewed by an observer on a nearby stationary submarine (forward is positive)? Part 1 of 3 A river ﬂows due east at 1.50 m/s. A Holt SF 03F 03 boat crosses the river from the south shore 02:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, to the north shore by maintaining a constant wording-variable. velocity of 10.0 m/s due north relative to the water. Part 1 of 2 a) What is the magnitude of the velocity of A ferry is crossing a river. The ferry is the boat as viewed by an observer on shore? headed due north with a speed of 2.5 m/s relative to the water and the river’s velocity Part 2 of 3 is 3.0 m/s to the east. b) How many degrees oﬀ course is the boat a) What is magnitude of the boat’s velocity forced by the current? relative to Earth? Part 3 of 3 Part 2 of 2 c) If the river is 325 m wide, how far down- b) Find the direction in which the ferry is stream is the boat when it reaches the north moving (measured from due east, with coun- shore? terclockwise positive). Holt SF 03Rev 51 Holt SF 03F 04 02:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 02:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. wording-variable. Part 1 of 2 Part 1 of 2 A swimmer can swim in still water at a A pet store supply truck moves at 25.0 m/s speed of 9.50 m/s. He intends to swim directly north along a highway. Inside, a dog moves at across a river that has a downstream current 1.75 m/s at an angle of 35.0◦ east of north. of 3.75 m/s. a) What is the magnitude of the dog’s ve- a) How many degrees from straight across Chapter 2, section 8, Relative Velocity 139 the river should he head? Let upstream be a positive angle. Part 2 of 2 b) What is the magnitude of the swimmer’s velocity relative to the bank? Chapter 2, section 9, Angular and Linear Quantities 140 b) What is the value of b? Holt SF 07A 01 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 3 of 4 wording-variable. c) What is the value of c? A girl sitting on a merry-go-round moves Part 4 of 4 counterclockwise through an arc length of d) What is the value of d? 2.50 m. If the girl’s angular displacement is 1.67 Holt SF 07B 01 rad, how far is she from the center of the 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, merry-go-round? wording-variable. Holt SF 07A 02 A car tire rotates with an average angular 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, speed of 29 rad/s. wording-variable. In what time interval will the tire rotate 3.5 times? A beetle sits at the top of a bicycle wheel and ﬂies away just before it would be Holt SF 07B 02 squashed. Assuming that the wheel turns 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, clockwise, the beetle’s angular displacement wording-variable. is π rad, which corresponds to an arc length of 1.2 m. A girl ties a toy airplane to the end of a What is the wheel’s radius? string and swings it around her head. The plane’s average angular speed is 2.2 rad/s. Holt SF 07A 03 In what time interval will the plane move 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, through an angular displacement of 3.3 rad? wording-variable. Holt SF 07B 03 A car on a Ferris wheel has an angular 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, displacement of π rad, which corresponds to 4 wording-variable. an arc length of 29.8 m. What is the Ferris wheel’s radius? The average angular speed of a ﬂy moving in a circle is 7.0 rad/s. Holt SF 07A 04 How long does the ﬂy take to move through 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 2.3 rad? wording-variable. Holt SF 07B 04 Part 1 of 4 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Consider the following table: wording-variable. ∆θ ∆s r Part 1 of 4 a +0.25 m 0.10 m Consider the following table: +0.75 rad b 8.5 m ωavg ∆θ ∆t c −4.2 m 0.75 m +135◦ +2.6 m d a +2.3 rad 10.0 s +0.75 rev/s b 0.050 s c −1.2 turns 1.2 s a) What is the value of a? +2.0π rad/s +1.5π rad d Part 2 of 4 a) What is the value of a? Chapter 2, section 9, Angular and Linear Quantities 141 Holt SF 07D 01 Part 2 of 4 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, b) What is the value of b? wording-variable. Part 3 of 4 The wheel on an upside-down bicycle moves c) What is the value of c? through 18.0 rad in 5.00 s. What is the wheel’s angular acceleration if Part 4 of 4 its initial angular speed is 2.0 rad/s? d) What is the value of d? Holt SF 07D 02 Holt SF 07C 01 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. wording-variable. A diver performing a double somersault A ﬁgure skater begins spinning counter- spins at an angular speed of 4.0π rad/s pre- clockwise at an angular speed of 4.0π rad/s. cisely 0.50 s after leaving the platform. During a 3.0 s interval, she slowly pulls her Assuming the diver begins with zero initial arms inward and ﬁnally spins at 8.0π rad/s. angular speed and accelerates at a constant What is her average angular acceleration rate, what is the diver’s angular acceleration during this time interval? during the double somersault? Holt SF 07C 02 Holt SF 07D 03 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. wording-variable. What angular acceleration is necessary to A ﬁsh swimming behind an oil tanker gets increase the angular speed of a fan blade from caught in a whirlpool created by the ship’s 8.5 rad/s to 15.4 rad/s in 5.2 s? propellers. The ﬁsh has an angular speed of 1.0 rad/s. After 4.5 s, the ﬁsh’s angular speed Holt SF 07C 03 is 14.5 rad/s. 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, If the water in the whirlpool accelerates at wording-variable. a constant rate, what is the angular accelera- tion? Part 1 of 3 Consider the following table: Holt SF 07D 04 05 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, αavg ∆ω ∆t wording-variable. a +121.5 rad/s 7.0 s +0.75 rad/s2 b 0.050 s Part 1 of 2 c −1.2 turns/s 1.2 s A remote-controlled car’s wheel accelerates a) What is the value of a? at 22.4 rad/s2 . a) If the wheel begins with an angular speed Part 2 of 3 of 10.8 rad/s, what is the wheel’s angular b) What is the value of b? speed after exactly three full turns? Part 3 of 3 Part 2 of 2 c) What is the value of c? b) How long does the wheel in part a) take to make the three turns? Chapter 2, section 9, Angular and Linear Quantities 142 Holt SF 07E 01 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 4 of 4 wording-variable. d) What is the value of d? A woman passes through a revolving door Holt SF 07F 01 with a tangential speed of 1.8 m/s. 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, If she is 0.80 m from the center of the door, wording-variable. what is the door’s angular speed? A dog on a merry-go-round undergoes a 1.5 Holt SF 07E 02 m/s2 linear acceleration. 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, If the merry-go-round’s angular accelera- wording-variable. tion is 1.0 rad/s2 , how far is the dog from the axis of rotation? A softball pitcher throws a ball with a tan- gential speed of 6.93 m/s. Holt SF 07F 02 If the pitcher’s arm is 0.660 m long, what 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, is the angular speed of the ball before the wording-variable. pitcher releases it? A young boy swings a yo-yo horizontally Holt SF 07E 03 above his head at an angular acceleration of 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 0.35 rad/s2 . wording-variable. If the tangential acceleration of the yo-yo at the end of the string is 0.18 m/s2 , how long An athlete spins in a circle before releasing is the string? a discus with a tangential speed of 9.0 m/s. What is the angular speed of the spinning Holt SF 07F 03 athlete? Assume the discus is 0.75 m from the 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, athlete’s axis of rotation. wording-variable. Holt SF 07E 04 What is a tire’s angular acceleration if the 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, tangential acceleration at a radius of 0.15 m wording-variable. is 9.4 × 10−2 m/s2 ? Part 1 of 4 Holt SF 07G 01 Consider the following table: 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. vt ω r a 121.5 rad/s 0.0300 m A girl sits on a tire that is attached to 0.75 m/s b 0.050 m an overhanging tree limb by a rope. The c 1.2 turns/s 3.8 m girl’s father pushes her so that her centripetal 2.0 π m/s 1.5 π rad/s d acceleration is 3.0 m/s2 . If the length of the rope is 2.1 m, what is a) What is the value of a? the girl’s tangential speed? Part 2 of 4 Holt SF 07G 02 b) What is the value of b? 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 3 of 4 c) What is the value of c? A young boy swings a yo-yo horizontally Chapter 2, section 9, Angular and Linear Quantities 143 above his head so that the yo-yo has a cen- force opposing the girl’s weight, the magni- tripetal acceleration of 250 m/s2 . tude of the force that maintains her circular If the yo-yo’s string is 0.50 m long, what is motion is 88.0 N. the yo-yo’s tangential speed? What is the girl’s mass? Holt SF 07G 03 Holt SF 07H 02 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. wording-variable. Part 1 of 2 A bicyclist is riding at a tangential speed of A dog sits 1.5 m from the center of a merry- 13.2 m/s around a circular track with a radius go-round. of 40.0 m. a) If the dog undergoes a 1.5 m/s2 cen- If the magnitude of the force that maintains tripetal acceleration, what is the dog’s linear the bike’s circular motion is 377 N, what is the speed? combined mass of the bicycle and rider? Part 2 of 2 Holt SF 07H 03 b) What is the angular speed of the merry-go- 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, round? wording-variable. Holt SF 07G 04 A dog sits 1.50 m from the center of a 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, merry-go-round with an angular speed of 1.20 wording-variable. rad/s. If the magnitude of the force that maintains A race car moves along a circular track at the dog’s circular motion is 40.0 N, what is an angular speed of 0.512 rad/s. the dog’s mass? If the car’s centripetal acceleration is 15.4 m/s2 , what is the distance between the car Holt SF 07H 04 and the center of the track? 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Holt SF 07G 05 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, A 905 kg test car travels around a 3.25 km wording-variable. circular track. If the magnitude of the force that maintains A piece of clay sits 0.20 m from the center the car’s circular motion is 2140 N, what is of a potter’s wheel. the car’s tangential speed? If the potter spins the wheel at an angular speed of 20.5 rad/s, what is the magnitude Holt SF 07Rev 05 of the centripetal acceleration of the piece of 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, clay on the wheel? wording-variable. Holt SF 07H 01 A car on a Ferris wheel has an angular 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, displacement of 0.34 rad. wording-variable. If the car moves through an arc length of 12 m, what is the radius of the Ferris wheel? A girl sits on a tire that is attached to an overhanging tree limb by a rope 2.10 m in Holt SF 07Rev 06 length. The girl’s father pushes her with a 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, tangential speed of 2.50 m/s. Besides the wording-variable. Chapter 2, section 9, Angular and Linear Quantities 144 constant angular acceleration, the drill turns When a wheel is rotated through an angle at a rate of 2628 rad/s. of 35◦ , a point on the circumference travels a) Find the drill’s angular acceleration. through an arc length of 2.5 m. When the wheel is rotated through angles of 35 rad and Part 2 of 2 35 rev, the same point travels through arc b) Determine the angle through which the lengths of 143 m and 9.0×102 m, respectively. drill rotates during this period. What is the radius of the wheel? Holt SF 07Rev 12 Holt SF 07Rev 07 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. wording-variable. A tire placed on a balancing machine in How long does it take the second hand of a a service station starts from rest and turns clock to move through 4.00 rad? through 4.7 rev in 1.2 s before reaching its ﬁnal angular speed. Holt SF 07Rev 08 Assuming that the angular acceleration of 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, the wheel is constant, calculate the wheel’s wording-variable. angular acceleration. A phonograph record has an initial angular Holt SF 07Rev 21 speed of 33 rev/min. The record slows to 11 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, rev/min in 2.0 s. wording-variable. What is the record’s average angular accel- eration during this time interval? A small pebble breaks loose from the treads of a tire with a radius of 32 cm. Holt SF 07Rev 09 If the pebble’s tangential speed is 49 m/s, 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, what is the tire’s angular speed? wording-variable. Holt SF 07Rev 22 If a ﬂywheel increases its average angular 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, speed by 2.7 rad/s in 1.9 s, what is its average wording-variable. angular acceleration? The Emerald Suite is a revolving restaurant Holt SF 07Rev 10 at the top of the Space Needle in Seattle, 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Washington. wording-variable. If a customer sitting 12 m from the restaurant’s center has a tangential speed of A potter’s wheel moves from rest to an 2.18 × 10−2 m/s, what is the angular speed of angular speed of 0.20 rev/s in 30.0 s. the restaurant? Assuming constant angular acceleration, what is its angular acceleration in rad/s2 ? Holt SF 07Rev 23 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Holt SF 07Rev 11 wording-variable. 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. A bicycle wheel has an angular acceleration of 1.5 rad/s2 . Part 1 of 2 If a point on its rim has a tangential accel- A drill starts from rest. After 3.20 s of eration of 48 cm/s2 , what is the radius of the Chapter 2, section 9, Angular and Linear Quantities 145 wheel? B Holt SF 07Rev 24 10 m 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. 15 m A When a string is pulled in the correct di- rection on a window shade, a lever is released and the shaft that the shade is wound around Note: Figure is not drawn to scale. spins. a) If at point A the track exerts a force on If the shaft’s angular acceleration is 3.8 the car that is 2.06 × 104 N greater than the rad/s2 and the shade accelerates upward at car’s weight, what is the mass of the car? 0.086 m/s2 , what is the radius of the shaft? Part 2 of 2 Holt SF 07Rev 25 b) What is the maximum speed the car can 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, have at point B for the gravitational force to wording-variable. hold it on the track? A building superintendent twirls a set of Holt SF 07Rev 41 keys in a circle at the end of a cord. 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. If the keys have a centripetal acceleration of 145 m/s2 and the cord has a length of 0.34 Earth orbits the sun once every 365.25 days. m, what is the tangential speed of the keys? Find the average angular speed of Earth about the sun. Holt SF 07Rev 26 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Holt SF 07Rev 43 wording-variable. 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. A sock stuck to the side of a clothes-dryer barrel has a centripetal acceleration of 28 Part 1 of 2 m/s2 . An airplane is ﬂying in a horizontal circle If the dryer barrel has a radius of 27 cm, at a speed of 105 m/s. The 80.0 kg pilot what is the tangential speed of the sock? does not want the centripetal acceleration to exceed 7.00 times free-fall acceleration. Holt SF 07Rev 37 a) Find the minimum radius of the plane’s 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, path. wording-variable. Part 2 of 2 Part 1 of 2 b) At this radius, what is the magnitude of Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . the net force that maintains circular motion A roller-coaster car speeds down a hill past exerted on the pilot by the seat belts, the point A and then rolls up a hill past point B, friction against the seat, and so forth? as shown in the ﬁgure. The car has a speed of 20.0 m/s at point A. Holt SF 07Rev 44 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. A car traveling at 30.0 m/s undergoes a constant negative acceleration of magnitude Chapter 2, section 9, Angular and Linear Quantities 146 2.00 m/s2 when the brakes are applied. ter of a steel turntable. The coeﬃcient of How many revolutions does each tire make static friction between the block and the sur- before the car comes to a stop? Assume that face is 0.53. The turntable starts from rest the car does not skid and that each tire has a and rotates with a constant angular accelera- radius of 0.300 m. tion of 0.50 rad/s2 . After what time interval will the block start Holt SF 07Rev 45 to slip on the turntable? 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Holt SF 07Rev 52 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, A coin with a diameter of 2.40 cm is wording-variable. dropped onto a horizontal surface. The coin starts out with an initial angular speed of Part 1 of 2 18.0 rad/s and rolls in a straight line without Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . slipping. An air puck of mass 0.025 kg is tied to If the rotation slows with an angular ac- a string and allowed to revolve in a circle celeration of magnitude 1.90 rad/s2 , how far of radius 1.0 m on a frictionless horizontal does the coin roll before coming to rest? surface. The other end of the string passes through a hole in the center of the surface, Holt SF 07Rev 46 and a mass of 1.0 kg is tied to it, as shown 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, in the ﬁgure. The suspended mass remains wording-variable. in equilibrium while the puck revolves on the surface. A mass attached to a 50.0 cm string starts from rest and is rotated in a circular path 0.025 kg exactly 40 times in 1.00 min before reaching a 1m ﬁnal angular speed. What is the angular speed of the mass after 1.00 min? Holt SF 07Rev 50 1 kg 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. a) What is the magnitude of the force that maintains circular motion acting on the puck? Part 1 of 2 The radius of the Earth is about Part 2 of 2 6.37 × 106 m. b) What is the linear speed of the puck? a) What is the centripetal acceleration of a point on the equator? Holt SF 08Rev 58 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 2 of 2 wording-variable. b) What is the centripetal acceleration of a point at the North Pole? A cable passes over a pulley. Because of the friction, the force in the cable is not the same Holt SF 07Rev 51 on opposite sides of the pulley. The force on 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, one side is 120.0 N, and the force on the other wording-variable. side is 100.0 N. Assuming that the pulley is a uniform disk Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . with a mass of 2.1 kg and a radius of 0.81 A copper block rests 30.0 cm from the cen- Chapter 2, section 9, Angular and Linear Quantities 147 m, determine the magnitude of the angular oﬀ the peg? acceleration of the pulley. Holt SF 08Rev 68 Holt SF 08Rev 60 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. wording-variable. Part 1 of 3 Part 1 of 3 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A pulley has a moment of inertia of A cylindrical 5.00 kg pulley with a radius of 5.0 kg · m2 and a radius of 0.50 m. A cord 0.600 m is used to lower a 3.00 kg bucket into is wrapped over the pulley and attached to a well. The bucket starts from rest and falls a hanging object on either end. Assume the for 4.00 s. cord does not slip, the axle is frictionless, and a) What is the linear acceleration of the the two hanging objects have masses of 2.0 kg falling bucket? and 5.0 kg. a) Find the acceleration of each mass. Part 2 of 3 b) How far does it drop? Part 2 of 3 b) Find the force in the cord supporting the Part 3 of 3 smaller mass. c) What is the angular acceleration of the cylindrical pulley? Part 3 of 3 c) Find the force in the cord supporting the Holt SF 08Rev 64 larger mass. 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Holt SF 08Rev 69 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . wording-variable. A horizontal 800.0 N merry-go-round with a radius of 1.5 m is started from rest by a Part 1 of 3 constant horizontal force of 50.0 N applied Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . tangentially to the merry-go-round. A 4.0 kg mass is connected by a light cord to Find the kinetic energy of the merry-go- a 3.0 kg mass on a smooth surface as shown. round after 3.0 s. Assume it is a solid cylin- The pulley rotates about a frictionless axle der. and has a moment of inertia of 0.50 kg · m2 and a radius of 0.30 m. Holt SF 08Rev 65 3 kg R 02:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, F2 wording-variable. F1 A top has a moment of inertia of 4.00 × 10−4 kg · m2 and is initially at rest. It is free to rotate about a vertical stationary axis. A 4 kg string around a peg along the axis of the top is pulled, maintaining a constant tension of 5.57 N in the string. Note: Figure is not drawn to scale If the string does not slip while it is wound Assume that the cord does not slip on the around the peg, what is the angular speed of pulley. the top after 80.0 cm of string has been pulled a) What is the acceleration of the two Chapter 2, section 9, Angular and Linear Quantities 148 masses? Part 2 of 3 b) What is the magnitude of the force F1 ? Part 3 of 3 c) What is the magnitude of the force F2 ? Chapter 2, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 02 149 Hewitt CP9 10 E12 02:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. When you jump upward, your hang time is the time your feet are oﬀ the ground. Does hang time depend on your vertical component of velocity when you jump, your horizontal component of velocity, or both? 1. Hang time depends only on the vertical component of your lift-oﬀ velocity. 2. Hang time depends only on the horizontal component of your lift-oﬀ velocity. 3. Hang time depends on both the horizontal and the vertical component of your lift-oﬀ velocity. 4. Sometimes hang time depends only on the vertical component of your lift-oﬀ velocity, sometimes it depends on both the vertical and horizontal. Vector Quantity 02:99, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Which of the following is a vector quantity? 1. mass 2. density 3. none of these 4. temperature 5. speed Chapter 3, section 1, Force 150 4. pressure. Force on a Crate 03:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Forces 11 03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Part 1 of 2 The force of friction acting on a sliding crate is the tendency of matter to resist any is 100 N. change in motion. How much force must be applied to main- tain a constant velocity? 1. Inertia Part 2 of 2 2. Momentum What will be the net force acting on the crate? 3. Friction Force on a Table Top 4. Pressure 03:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Forces 12 Atmospheric pressure is 14.7 lb/in2 . 03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. What is the total force on a table top 27 in wide by 43 in long? The weakest of the universal forces is Forces 01 1. gravity. 03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. magnetic. No force is necessary to 3. electric. 1. start an object moving. 4. nuclear. 2. stop an object from moving. Forces 13 3. cause a change in the motion of an ob- 03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. ject. Objects with diﬀerent charges attract each 4. keep an object moving the way it is al- other because of force. ready moving. 1. electric Forces 08 03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. gravitational A push or pull that gives energy to an ob- 3. centripetal ject, causing that object to start moving, stop moving, or change its motion is 4. nuclear 1. a force. Forces 14 03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. inertia. The universal force that acts on the protons 3. friction. and neutrons of an atom is called the force. Chapter 3, section 1, Force 151 3. 2 1. nuclear 1. 3 2. electric 5. No. I can’t tell. 3. gravitational Hewitt CP9 04 E11 4. magnetic 03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Forces 15 In the orbiting space shuttle you are handed 03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. four identical boxes. The ﬁrst one is ﬁlled with sand. The second one is ﬁlled with iron. The An example of the weak nuclear force is third one is ﬁlled with water. The last one is ﬁlled with feathers. Shake the boxes. 1. nuclear decay. Which one oﬀers the greatest resistance and which one oﬀers the smallest resistance? 2. lightning. 1. iron, feathers 3. static cling. 2. sand, water 4. ocean tides. 3. iron, water Hewitt CP9 04 E01 03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. feathers, iron What is the net force on a Mercedes con- 5. All are wrong. vertible traveling along a straight road at a steady speed of 100 km/h? Hewitt CP9 04 E23 03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. 0 N A race car travels along a raceway at a 2. 10 N constant velocity of 200 km/h. What is the net force acting on the car? 3. 100 N 1. 0 N 4. 200 N 2. It depends on the mass of the car. 5. All are wrong. 3. 200 N Hewitt CP9 04 E03 03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. 100 N If an object is not accelerating, can you tell 5. All are wrong. how many forces acts on it? Hewitt CP9 04 E27 1. 0 03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. 1 What force pushes up on you when you jump vertically oﬀ the ground? Chapter 3, section 1, Force 152 A mass of 0.55 kg attached to a vertical 1. The force of the ground pushing up on spring stretches the spring 36 cm from its you original equilibrium position. What is the spring constant? 2. The force of your feet pushing your body Holt SF 12A 02 3. The force of gravitation 03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. 4. The force of air drag A load of 45 N attached to a spring that 5. All are wrong. is hanging vertically stretches the spring 0.14 m. Hewitt CP9 04 E35 What is the spring constant? 03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Holt SF 12A 03 04 What is the net force on a 1-N apple when 03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, you hold it at rest above your head and what wording-variable. is the net force on it after you release it? Part 1 of 2 1. 0 N, 1 N A slingshot consists of a light leather cup attached between two rubber bands. It takes 2. 0 N, 0 N a force of 32 N to stretch the bands 1.2 cm. a) What is the equivalent spring constant 3. 1 N, 0 N of the rubber bands? 4. 1 N, 1 N Part 2 of 2 b) How much force is required to pull the cup 5. All above are wrong. of the slingshot 3.0 cm from its equilibrium position? Holt SF 04A 04 03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- Holt SF 12Rev 08 mal. 03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 1 of 2 The wind exerts a force of 452 N north on Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . a sailboat, while the water exerts a force of Janet wants to ﬁnd the spring constant of a 325 N west on the sailboat. given spring, so she hangs the spring vertically a) What is the magnitude of the net exter- and attaches a 0.40 kg mass to the spring’s nal force on the sailboat? other end. If the spring stretches 3.0 cm from its Part 2 of 2 equilibrium position, what is the spring con- b) How many degrees west of north is this net stant? external force directed? Holt SF 12Rev 09 Holt SF 12A 01 03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. wording-variable. In preparing to shoot an arrow, an archer 2 Given: g = 9.81 m/s . pulls a bow string back 0.400 m by exerting a Chapter 3, section 1, Force 153 force that increases uniformly from 0 to 230 2. upward N. What is the equivalent spring constant of Part 3 of 4 the bow? What is their resultant if they both act down- ward? Holt SF 12Rev 46 03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 4 of 4 wording-variable. What is the direction of this resultant? In an arcade game, a 0.12 kg disk is shot 1. downward across a frictionless horizontal surface by be- ing compressed against a spring and then re- 2. upward leased. The spring has a spring constant of 230 N/m and is compressed from its equilib- Net Force 03 rium position by 6.0 cm. 03:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. What is the magnitude of the spring force on the disk at the moment it is released? Part 1 of 3 A(n) 30 N object is in free fall. What net Holt SF 12Rev 47 force acts on the object? 03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 2 of 3 What is the net force when the object encoun- A child’s toy consists of a piece of plastic ters 10 N of air resistance? attached to a spring, as shown. The spring is compressed against the ﬂoor a distance of 2.0 Part 3 of 3 cm and released. What is the net force when it falls fast enough to encounter an air resistance of 30 N? Perpendicular Vectors 01 03:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. A pair of 200 N vectors are perpendicular. If the spring constant is 85 N/m, what is What is the magnitude of their resultant? the magnitude of the spring force acting on the toy at the moment it is released? Perpendicular Vectors 02 03:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Net Force 02 03:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Two vectors of magnitudes 10 N and 20 N act at right angles to each other. Part 1 of 4 What is the magnitude of their resultant? You have two forces, 100 N and 75 N. What is their resultant if the ﬁrst acts upward and PS 303 7 11 the second downward? 03:01, basic, numeric, < 1 min, wording- variable. Part 2 of 4 What is the direction of the resultant? Suppose the gravitational force between the moon and the earth were equal to S. 1. downward If the moon’s mass were doubled, by what Chapter 3, section 1, Force 154 factor of S would the gravitational force be- 3. (5 N, 9.4 N) tween the earth and moon be? 4. (4 N, 8.2 N) PS 303 7 2 03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 5. (7 N, 4.8 N) wording-variable. 6. (5 N, 9.3 N) Part 1 of 2 The sum of two forces, one having a magni- 7. (6 N, 6.5 N) tude of 8 N acting due west and other having a magnitude of 3 N acting due north is 8. (2 N, 7.5 N) 1. (−8 N, 3 N) 9. (8 N, 3.1 N) 2. (8 N, −3 N) 10. (6 N, 6.4 N) 3. (8 N, 3 N) Part 2 of 2 What is the sum of these two forces in polar 4. (−8 N, −3 N) coordinates? 5. (3 N, −8 N) 1. (6.80074 N, N 36.0274 ◦ E) 6. (−3 N, 8 N) 2. (4.83322 N, N 24.444 ◦ E) 7. (3 N, 8 N) 3. (8.78009 N, N 52.8691 ◦ E) 8. (−3 N, −8 N) 4. (5.91692 N, N 30.4655 ◦ E) 8. (11 N, 11 N) 5. (5.94643 N, N 42.2737 ◦ E) 8. (5 N, −5 N) 6. (8.73155 N, N 20.0952 ◦ E) Part 2 of 2 7. (8.44038 N, N 36.3268 ◦ E) What is the magnitude of that force? 8. (8.544 N, N 69.444 ◦ E) PS 303 7 3 03:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 9. (8.7 N, N 43.6028 ◦ E) wording-variable. 10. (11.1665 N, N 38.8201 ◦ E) Part 1 of 2 Force FA has a magnitude of 5.5 N and PS303 Spring Balance points north. Force FB = (4 N, 0 N) . 03:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. What is the sum of these two forces in rectangular coordinates? From your experience with springs in lab, you learned something about the relationship 1. (4 N, 5.5 N) between the extension of a spring scale and the weight hung from it. 2. (8 N, 8.7 N) Assume you observe for a certain spring that it stretched a distance 1.7 cm when you Chapter 3, section 1, Force 155 hung a weight of 1.9 N from it. When you hung a 2.85 N weight it stretched a total of 4. 33 N/m 2.55 cm. Using this information determine the weight of an object which causes a 4 cm 5. 66 N/m displacement when hung from the spring bal- ance. Stretching a Spring 01 03:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Reaction Force 03 03:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. A certain spring stretches 2 cm when it supports a load of 0.5 kg. Part 1 of 2 If the elastic limit is not reached, how far A 0.75 kg physics book with dimensions of will it stretch when it supports a load of 24 cm by 20 cm is on a table. What force does 32 cm? the book apply to the table? Stretching a Spring 02 Part 2 of 2 03:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. What pressure does the book apply? Part 1 of 2 Scaling a Vector 01 The force required to stretch a Hooke’s-law 03:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. spring varies from 0 N to 50 N as we stretch the spring by moving one end 12 cm from its A vector drawn 3 cm long represents a force unstressed position. Find the force constant of 10 N. of the spring. What force does a vector that is 13 cm long, drawn to the same scale, represent? Part 2 of 2 Find the work done in stretching the spring. Scaling a Vector 02 03:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. A vector drawn 3 cm long represents a force of 10 N. How long would you draw a vector for a force of 110 N? Springs 03:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. An ideal spring obeys Hooke’s law, F = −kx. A mass of 0.50 kilogram hung vertically from this spring stretches the spring 0.075 meter. The value of the force constant k for the spring is most nearly 1. 0.33 N/m 2. 0.66 N/m 3. 6.6 N/m Chapter 3, section 2, Newton’s First Law of Motion 156 Comparing Accelerations Forces 05 03:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Suppose a cart is being moved by a certain Newton’s third law of motion describes net force. If the net force is increased by a factor of 2, 1. why forces act in pairs. by what factor does its acceleration change? 2. all aspects of an object’s motion. Forces 02 03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. motion when a balanced force acts on an object. When forces are balanced, the motion of the object 4. motion when an unbalanced force acts on an object. 1. does not change. Forces 06 2. is completely stopped. 03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. is decreased. Isaac Newton developed how many laws that describe all states of motion? 4. is increased. 1. three Forces 03 03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. one For every action, the reaction is 3. two 1. equal and opposite in direction. 4. four 2. equal and in the same direction. Forces 07 03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. unequal and opposite in direction. Force equals mass times 4. unequal and in the same direction. 1. acceleration. Forces 04 03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. inertia. Motion when an unbalanced force acts on 3. velocity. an object is described by Newton’s 4. friction. 1. second law of motion. Forces 09 2. ﬁrst law of motion. 03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. third law of motion. Forces that are opposite and equal are called forces. 4. law of universal gravitation. Chapter 3, section 2, Newton’s First Law of Motion 157 1. balanced 03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. unbalanced Can an object be in mechanical equilibrium when only a single force acts on it? Explain. 3. frictional 1. Yes, it can. The object will have an equal 4. ﬂuid and opposite force because the force acted on it. Forces 10 03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. Yes, it can. The single force will keep the object in mechanical equilibrium. forces always cause a change in mo- tion. 3. No, it can’t. There would be have to be another or other forces to result in a zero net 1. unbalanced force for equilibrium. 2. balanced 4. No, it can’t. To be in mechanical equilib- rium, no forces can act on the object. 3. frictional 5. All are wrong. 4. ﬂuid Hewitt CP9 02 E21 Hewitt CP9 02 E17 03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. A hockey puck slides across the ice at a Start a ball rolling down a bowling alley constant speed. and you’ll ﬁnd it moves slightly slower with Is it in equilibrium? Why or why not? time. Does this violate Newton’s law of inertia? 1. Yes. It is in dynamic equilibrium. Defend your answer. 2. Yes. The puck can be considered at rest. 1. Yes, it violates Newton’s law because no force acted upon it. 3. No. It is moving. 2. No, it doesn’t violate Newton’s law be- 4. No. The puck can’t be considered at cause air drag and friction acted upon the rest. ball. 5. All are wrong. 3. Yes, it violates Newton’s law because the air drag cancels the friction; the total force on Hewitt CP9 02 E37 the ball is zero. 03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. No, it doesn’t violate Newton’s law be- A child learns in school that the Earth is cause the law of inertia also can be applied traveling faster than 100,000 kilometers per upon moving objects. hour around the sun, and in a frightened tone asks why we aren’t swept oﬀ. 5. All are wrong. What is your explanation? Hewitt CP9 02 E19 1. Because we are traveling just as fast as Chapter 3, section 2, Newton’s First Law of Motion 158 the Earth. x axis, with counterclockwise positive)? 2. Because we are traveling faster than the Holt SF 04A 03 Earth. 03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. 3. Because we are traveling slower than the Earth. Part 1 of 2 A gust of wind blows an apple from a tree. 4. Because the Earth rotates on its own As the apple falls, the force of gravity on the axis. apple is 9.25 N downward, and the force of the wind on the apple is 1.05 N to the right. 5. All are wrong. a) What is the magnitude of the net exter- nal force on the apple? Holt SF 04A 01 03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 2 of 2 wording-variable. b) What is the direction of the net external force on the apple (measured from the down- Part 1 of 2 ward vertical, so that the angle to the right of A man is pulling on his dog with a force of downward is positive)? 70.0 N directed at an angle of +30.0◦ to the horizontal. Holt SF 04Rev 10 a) What is the x component of this force? 03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- mal. Part 2 of 2 b) What is the y component of this force? Part 1 of 2 Four forces act on a hot-air balloon, shown Holt SF 04A 02 from the side. 03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. 5120 N Part 1 of 4 A crate is pulled to the right with a force of 82.0 N, to the left with a force of 115 N, 1520 N 950 N upward with a force of 565 N, and downward with a force of 236 N. 4050 N a) What is the net external force in the x direction? Part 2 of 4 b) What is the net external force in the y direction? Part 3 of 4 c) What is the magnitude of the net external Note: Figure is not drawn to scale force on the crate? a) Find the magnitude of the resultant force on the balloon. Part 4 of 4 d) What is the direction of the net external Part 2 of 2 force on the crate (measured from the positive Chapter 3, section 2, Newton’s First Law of Motion 159 b) Find the direction of the resultant force (in Mass 51 relation to the 1520 N force, with up being 03:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. positive). Area is measured as ? . Holt SF 04Rev 11 03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 1. m2 wording-variable. 2. meter Part 1 of 2 Two lifeguards pull on ropes attached to 3. m3 a raft. If they pull in the same direction, the raft experiences a net external force of 4. m4 334 N to the right. If they pull in opposite directions, the raft experiences a net external Mass 52 force of 106 N to the left. 03:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. a) Draw a free body diagram for each situ- ation and ﬁnd the magnitude of the larger of Doug English, former UT All-American the two individual forces. and All-Pro lineman, had a mass of 119.8 kg in 1974. Part 2 of 2 On the moon, his mass would be ? . b) What is the magnitude of the smaller of the individual forces? 1. 0.0 kg Holt SF 04Rev 12 2. 119.8 kg 03:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- mal. 3. 20.0 kg Part 1 of 2 4. 0.0 lbs A dog pulls on a pillow with a force of 5 N at an angle of 37◦ above the horizontal Mass 53 a) What is the x component of this force? 03:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Part 2 of 2 Suppose the mass and weight of 1 liter of b) What is the y component of this force? iron were measured on the earth and on the moon. Mass 50 The mass would be ? in the two places 03:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. and the weight would be ? in the two places. A pilot with an 80 kg mass on earth would have a mass of ? in zero gravity. 1. the same, diﬀerent 1. 80. kg 2. the same, the same 2. 13 kg 3. diﬀerent, diﬀerent 3. 0.0 kg 4. diﬀerent, the same 4. .800 kg Weight 50 03:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Chapter 3, section 2, Newton’s First Law of Motion 160 An astronaut weighs 120 lbs on the surface of the Earth. On the moon, where the gravity is 1 that of 6 Earth, she would weigh 1. 20 lbs. 2. 120 lbs. 3. 114 lbs. 4. 360 lbs. 5. 720 lbs. Chapter 3, section 3, Newton’s Second Law of Motion 161 Part 2 of 2 Acceleration to the Right How far will it move in 2 s? 03:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Dragster Acceleration Part 1 of 2 03:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Two forces act on a 30 kg mass to give it an acceleration of 40 m/s2 in the positive x Part 1 of 3 direction. A dragster and driver together have mass If one of the forces acts in the negative y 873 kg. If the dragster, starting from rest, direction with a magnitude of 25 N, what is attains a speed of 26.3 m/s in 0.59 s. the magnitude of the second force? Find the average acceleration of the drag- ster during this time interval. Part 2 of 2 What is the direction of the second force? Part 2 of 3 What is the size of the average force on the 1. Unable to determine. dragster during this time interval? 2. Up to the left Part 3 of 3 Assume: The driver has a mass of 68 kg. 3. Down to the right What horizontal force does the seat exert on the driver? 4. Down to the left Hewitt CP9 02 E15 5. Straight up 03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 6. Straight down Each bone in the chain of bones forming your spine is separated from its neighbors by 7. To the right disks of elastic tissue. What happens, then, when you jump heav- 8. To the left ily onto your feet from an elevated position? 9. Up to the right 1. The space between each disk will become larger because of Newton’s ﬁrst law. Crate and Dolly 03:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 2. The discs tend to compress upon each other because of Newton’s ﬁrst law. Part 1 of 2 The com- 3. The space between each disk will become bined weight of a crate and dolly is 300 N. larger because of Newton’s second law. T 4. The discs tend to compress upon each other because of Newton’s second law. If the person pulls on the rope with a con- stant force of 20 N, what is the acceleration of 5. All are wrong. the system (crate plus dolly)? Assume that the system starts from rest and that there are Hewitt CP9 04 E29 no frictional forces opposing the motion of the 03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. system. When you jump vertically oﬀ the ground, Chapter 3, section 3, Newton’s Second Law of Motion 162 what is your acceleration when you reach your 03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, highest point? wording-variable. 1. g A soccer ball kicked with a force of 13.5 N g accelerates at 6.5 m/s2 to the right. 2. What is the mass of the ball? 2 g 3. Holt SF 04Rev 20 3 03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 4. 0 m/s2 wording-variable. 5. All are wrong. What acceleration will you give to a 24.3 kg box if you push it with a force of 85.5 N? Holt SF 04B 01 03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Holt SF 04Rev 21 wording-variable. 03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. The net external force on the propeller of a 3.2 kg model airplane is 7.0 N forward. A freight train has a mass of 1.5 × 107 kg. What is the acceleration of the airplane? If the locomotive can exert a constant pull of 7.5 × 105 N, how long would it take to Holt SF 04B 02 increase the speed of the train from rest to 03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- 85 km/h? (Disregard friction.) mal. Holt SF 04Rev 23 The net external force on a golf cart is 390 N 03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, north. wording-variable. If the cart has a total mass of 270 kg, what is the cart’s acceleration? Part 1 of 3 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Holt SF 04B 03 A 3.00 kg ball is dropped from the roof of 03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, a building 176.4 m high. While the ball is wording-variable. falling to Earth, a horizontal wind exerts a constant force of 12.0 N on the ball. A car has a mass of 1.50 × 103 kg. a) How long does it take to hit the ground? If the force acting on the car is 6.75 × 103 N to the east, what is the car’s acceleration? Part 2 of 3 b) How far from the building does the ball hit Holt SF 04B 04 the ground? 03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 3 of 3 c) What is its speed when it hits the ground? A 2.0 kg otter starts from rest at the top of a muddy incline 85 cm long and slides down Holt SF 04Rev 24 to the bottom in 0.50 s. 03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, What net external force acts on the otter wording-variable. along the incline? Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Holt SF 04B 05 A 40.0 kg wagon is towed up a hill inclined Chapter 3, section 3, Newton’s Second Law of Motion 163 at 18.5◦ with respect to the horizontal. The zontal force F , as shown. tow rope is parallel to the incline and exerts a force of 140 N on the wagon. Assume that the wagon starts from rest at the bottom of 25◦ the hill, and disregard friction. F g How fast is the wagon going after moving 5k 30.0 m up the hill? 0 µ= 25◦ Holt SF 04Rev 25 03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. What is the magnitude of F ? Part 1 of 2 Part 2 of 2 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . What is the magnitude of the normal force? A shopper in a supermarket pushes a loaded 32 kg cart with a horizontal force of 12 N. Holt SF 04Rev 47 a) Disregarding friction, how far will the 03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, cart move in 3.5 s, starting from rest? wording-variable. Part 2 of 2 A 2.0 kg mass starts from rest and slides b) How far will the cart move in the 3.5 s if down an inclined plane 8.0×10−1 m long in the shopper places a(n) 85 N child in the cart 0.50 s. before pushing it? What net force is acting on the mass along the incline? Holt SF 04Rev 43 03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Holt SF 04Rev 48 wording-variable. 03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A 2.00 kg block is in equilibrium on an Part 1 of 2 incline of 36.0◦ . Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . What is Fn of the incline on the block? A 2.26 kg book is dropped from a height of 1.5 m. Holt SF 04Rev 45 a) What is its acceleration? 03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 2 of 2 b) What is its weight? What net external force is required to give a 25 kg suitcase an acceleration of 2.2 m/s2 to Holt SF 04Rev 50 the right? 03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Holt SF 04Rev 46 03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . wording-variable. A 5.0 kg bucket of water is raised from a well by a rope. Part 1 of 2 If the upward acceleration of the bucket is Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . 3.0 m/s2 , ﬁnd the force exerted by the rope A block with a mass of 5.0 kg is held in on the bucket of water. equilibrium on an incline of 25.0◦ by the hori- Chapter 3, section 3, Newton’s Second Law of Motion 164 wording-variable. Holt SF 04Rev 51 03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 1 of 4 wording-variable. The ﬁgure below shows a plot of the speed of a person’s body during a chin-up versus Part 1 of 2 time. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . t v A 3.46 kg briefcase is sitting at rest on a 0.00 s 0.000 m/s level ﬂoor. 0.50 s 0.100 m/s a) What is its acceleration? 1.00 s 0.200 m/s 1.50 s 0.200 m/s Part 2 of 2 2.00 s 0.000 m/s b) What is its weight? All motion is vertical and the mass of the person (excluding the arms) is 64.0 kg. Holt SF 04Rev 52 03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 0.3 Speed (m/s) wording-variable. 0.2 Part 1 of 3 A boat moves through the water with two forces acting on it. One is a 2.10×103 N 0.1 forward push by the motor, and the other is a 1.80×103 N resistive force due to the water. a) What is the acceleration of the 1200 kg 0 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 boat? Time (s) Part 2 of 3 Note: The line through the b) If it starts from rest, how far will it move points is only to guide the eye. in 12 s? a) What is the magnitude of the average force exerted on the body by the arms during Part 3 of 3 the ﬁrst time interval? c) What will its speed be at the end of this time interval? Part 2 of 4 b) What is the magnitude of the average force Holt SF 04Rev 58 exerted on the body by the arms during the 03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, second time interval? wording-variable. Part 3 of 4 Part 1 of 2 c) What is the magnitude of the average force A 1250 kg car is pulling a 325 kg trailer. exerted on the body by the arms during the Together, the car and trailer have an acceler- third time interval? ation of 2.15 m/s2 . a) What is the net force on the car? Part 4 of 4 d) What is the magnitude of the average force Part 2 of 2 exerted on the body by the arms during the b) What is the net force on the trailer? last time interval? Holt SF 04Rev 60 Holt SF 04Rev 61 03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Chapter 3, section 3, Newton’s Second Law of Motion 165 03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 2 of 2 b) What is the tension in the horizontal ca- A machine in an ice factory is capable of ble? exerting 3.00 × 102 N of force to pull large blocks of ice up a slope. The blocks each weigh 1.22 × 104 N. Assuming there is no friction, what is the maximum angle that the slope can make with the horizontal if the machine is to be able to complete the task? Holt SF 04Rev 67 03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 1 of 3 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A hockey puck is hit on a frozen lake and starts moving with a speed of 12.0 m/s. Ex- actly 5.00 s later, its speed is 6.00 m/s. a) What is its average acceleration? Part 2 of 3 b) What is the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction between the puck and the ice? Part 3 of 3 c) How far does the puck travel during this 5.00 s interval? Holt SF 04Rev 68 03:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- mal. Part 1 of 2 Consider the 700 N weight held by two cables shown below. The left-hand cable is horizontal. ◦ 35 700 N a) What is the tension in the cable slanted at an angle of 35◦ ? Chapter 3, section 4, Newton’s Law of Gravitation 166 3. less than its initial speed. Acceleration 03 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. Not enough information to answer. If you drop an object, it will accelerate Ball Tossed Up 02 downward at a rate of g = 9.8 m/s2 . 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. If you throw it downward instead, its accel- eration (in the absence of air resistance) will A ball tossed vertically upward rises, be reaches its highest point, and then falls back to its starting point. 1. 9.8 m/s2 During this time the acceleration of the ball is . 2. less than 9.8 m/s2 . 1. directed upward. 3. greater than 9.8 m/s2 . 2. in the direction of motion. 4. Unable to determine. 3. opposite its velocity. Acceleration 04 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. directed downward. A solid metal ball and a hollow plastic ball 5. directed upward initially, then directed of the same external radius are released from downward. rest in a large vacuum chamber. When each has fallen 1 m, they both have Bullet Fired Down 01 the same 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. inertia Part 1 of 2 A bullet is ﬁred straight down from the top 2. speed of a high cliﬀ. Ignoring air friction, once the bullet has left 3. momentum the gun, the acceleration of the bullet will be . 4. kinetic energy 1. ﬁrst slower than 9.8 m/s2 , then faster. 5. change in potential energy 2. equal to 0. Ball Tossed Up 01 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. less than 9.8 m/s2 . A ball is thrown upwards and caught when 4. more than 9.8 m/s2 . it comes back down. Neglecting air resistance, its speed when 5. ﬁrst faster than 9.8 m/s2 , then slower. caught is . 6. equal to 9.8 m/s2 . 1. more than its initial speed. 7. Not enough information to answer. 2. the same as its initial speed. Part 2 of 2 Chapter 3, section 4, Newton’s Law of Gravitation 167 The speed of the bullet will be . 2. Always slower than its initial speed. 1. equal to 9.8 m/s. 3. Equal to 9.8 m/s. 2. always slower than its initial speed. 4. Equal to 9.8 m/s2 . 3. always faster than its initial speed. 5. Equal to zero. 4. equal to 9.8 m/s2 . 6. Equal to its initial speed. 5. equal to zero. 7. First faster than its initial speed, then slower. 6. equal to its initial speed. 8. Always faster than its initial speed. 7. ﬁrst faster than its initial speed, then slower. 9. Not enough information to answer. 8. ﬁrst slower than its initial speed, then Coin Acceleration faster. 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 9. Not enough information to answer. Part 1 of 3 The following 3 questions refer to a coin Bullet Fired Down 02 which is tossed straight up into the air. Af- 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. ter it is released it moves upward, reaches its highest point and falls back down again. Part 1 of 2 Choose the statement which indicates the ac- A bullet is ﬁred straight down from the top celeration of the coin during each of the stages of a high cliﬀ. of the coin’s motion described below. Take up What is the acceleration of the bullet? to be the positive direction. The coin is moving upward after it is re- 1. Less than 9.8 m/s2 . leased. 2. Equal to 9.8 m/s2 . 1. The acceleration is zero. 3. More than 9.8 m/s2 . 2. The acceleration is in the negative direc- tion and increasing. 4. First faster than 9.8 m/s2 , then slower. 3. The acceleration is in the negative direc- 5. First slower than 9.8 m/s2 , then faster. tion and decreasing. 6. Not enough information to answer. 4. The acceleration is in the negative direc- tion and constant. Part 2 of 2 What conclusion can be reached about the 5. The acceleration is in the positive direc- speed of the bullet? tion and constant. 1. First slower than its initial speed, then 6. The acceleration is in the positive direc- faster. tion and increasing. Chapter 3, section 4, Newton’s Law of Gravitation 168 7. The acceleration is in the positive direc- Dripping Faucet tion and decreasing. 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Part 2 of 3 Consider drops of water that fall from The coin is at its highest point. a dripping faucet. As the drops fall they . 1. The acceleration is in the positive direc- tion and decreasing. 1. Unable to determine. 2. The acceleration is in the negative direc- 2. get closer together. tion and increasing. 3. remain at a relatively ﬁxed distance from 3. The acceleration is in the negative direc- one another. tion and decreasing. 4. get farther apart. 4. The acceleration is zero. Dropped Golf Ball 5. The acceleration is in the positive direc- 03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. tion and constant. Part 1 of 2 6. The acceleration is in the positive direc- A golf ball is released from rest from the top tion and increasing. of a very tall building. Choose a coordinate system whose origin is at the starting point 7. The acceleration is in the negative direc- of the ball, and whose y axis points vertically tion and constant. upward. Neglecting air resistance, calculate the ve- Part 3 of 3 locity of the ball after 3 s. The coin is moving downward. Part 2 of 2 1. The acceleration is zero. What is the position of the ball after 3 s? (Neglect air resistance.) 2. The acceleration is in the negative direc- tion and increasing. Dropped Object 01 03:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. The acceleration is in the negative direc- tion and decreasing. In the absence of air friction, an object dropped near the surface of the Earth ex- 4. The acceleration is in the negative direc- periences a constant acceleration of about tion and constant. 9.8 m/s2 . This means that the 5. The acceleration is in the positive direc- tion and constant. 1. speed of the object increases 9.8 m/s dur- ing each second. 6. The acceleration is in the positive direc- tion and increasing. 2. speed of the object as it falls is 9.8 m/s. 7. The acceleration is in the positive direc- 3. object falls 9.8 meters during each sec- tion and decreasing. ond. Chapter 3, section 4, Newton’s Law of Gravitation 169 4. object falls 9.8 meters during the ﬁrst 1. is greater for the dropped bullet. second only. 2. is greater for the ﬁred bullet. 5. derivative of the distance with respect to time for the object equals 9.8 m/s2 . 3. depends on how high they started. Dropped Object 02 4. is the same for each bullet. 03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 5. Unable to determine. An object is dropped from rest. What is its instantaneous speed when it has Dropping vs Throwing been in motion for 3 s? 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Dropped Object 03 If you drop an object, it will accelerate 03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. downward at a rate of 9.8 m/s2 . If you throw it downward instead, its accel- An object is dropped from rest. eration (in the absence of air resistance) will What is the acceleration after 2 s? be . Dropped Rock 1. Unable to determine. 03:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, nor- mal. 2. less than 9.8 m/s2 . If you drop a rock from a height of 5 m, it 3. greater than 9.8 m/s2 . accelerates at 9.8 m/s2 and strikes the ground 1.01015 s later. 4. 9.8 m/s2 If you drop the same rock from half that height, its acceleration will be . Earth Acceleration 01 03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 1. about half. When you drop a 0.4 kg apple, Earth ex- 2. the same. erts a force on it that accelerates it at 9.8 m/s2 toward the earth’s surface. According to New- 3. more. ton’s third law, the apple must exert an equal but opposite force on Earth. 4. 0. If the mass of the earth 5.98 × 1024 kg, what is the magnitude of the earth’s acceleration 5. Unable to determine. toward the apple? Dropped vs Fired Falling Object 01 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, ﬁxed. A bullet is dropped into a river from a very An object is falling freely. high bridge. At the same time, a second bullet How much gain in speed each second does is ﬁred from a gun, straight down toward the it acquire? water. Neglecting air resistance, the acceleration Falling Object 02 just before striking the water . 03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Chapter 3, section 4, Newton’s Law of Gravitation 170 An object is in free fall. At one instant, it is traveling at 40 m/s. In each second of fall, the distance a freely Exactly 1.5 s later, what is its speed? falling object will attain is . Falling Object 03 1. Unable to determine. 03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 2. about 5 m. An object falls freely from rest on a planet where the acceleration due to gravity is 3. about 10 m. 15 m/s2 . After 3 s, what will be its speed? 4. the same, but not 5 m or 10 m. Falling Object 04 5. increasing. 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Gravitational 01 Assuming no air resistance, objects fall at 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. constant . The strength of the gravitational force be- 1. velocity. tween objects depends on 2. acceleration. 1. the mass of each object and the distance between them. 3. speed. 2. neither the masses nor the distance be- 4. distances each successive second. tween them. Free Fall 01 3. the mass of each object. 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. the distance between the objects. A freely falling body has a constant accel- eration of 9.8 m/s2 . Gravity 01 This means that: 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. the body falls 9.8 m during each second. Near the surface of the Earth, the accelera- tion due to gravity is 9.8 m/sec/sec. 2. the body falls 9.8 m during the ﬁrst second After falling 6 sec, an object would have a only. velocity of 3. the acceleration of the body decreases by 1. 58.8 m/sec. 9.8 m/s2 during each second. 2. 15.8 m/sec. 4. the acceleration of the body increases by 9.8 m/s2 during each second. 3. 3.8 m/sec. 5. the speed of the body increases by 9.8 4. 9.8 m/sec. m/s during each second. Gravity 02 Free Fall 02 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Chapter 3, section 4, Newton’s Law of Gravitation 171 The size of the force of gravity between two What force(s) act on the the rock during its objects depends on the of the two objects curved path? and the distance between them. 1. gravitation force 1. mass 2. friction force 2. volume 3. air drag 3. friction 1. air push 4. motion 5. All are wrong. Gravity on Planet X 03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Hewitt CP9 04 E15 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- Part 1 of 2 mal. On planet X, an object weighs 12 N. On planet B where the magnitude of the free-fall Part 1 of 4 acceleration is 1.6 g (where g = 9.8 m/s2 is Gravity on the surface of the moon is only the gravitational acceleration on Earth), the 1 as strong as gravity on the Earth. object weighs 27 N. 6 a) What is the mass of the object on planet What is the weight of a 10 kg object on the X? Earth? g = 10 m/s2 . Part 2 of 2 Part 2 of 4 b) What is the free-fall acceleration on planet What is the weight on the moon? X? Part 3 of 4 Heavy vs Light What is the mass on the earth? 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Part 4 of 4 A heavy object and a light object are What is the mass on the moon? dropped at the same time from rest in a vac- uum. Hewitt CP9 10 E04 The heavier object reaches the ground 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. . In the absence of air drag, why does the hor- 1. later than the lighter object. izontal component of a projectile’s motion not change, while the vertical component does? 2. sooner than the lighter object. 1. Gravitation acts vertically while there are 3. at the same time as the lighter object. no forces horizontally. 4. Unable to determine. 2. Gravitation acts horizontally while there are no forces vertically. Hewitt CP9 04 E07 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. The force exerted by the projectile’s power is equal to the gravitational force. An astronaut tosses a rock on the moon. Chapter 3, section 4, Newton’s Law of Gravitation 172 4. The force exerted by the projectile’s Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . power is greater than the gravitational force. Tarzan tries to cross a river by swinging from one bank to the other on a vine that 5. The force exerted by the projectile’s is 10.0 m long. His speed at the bottom of power is less than the gravitational force. the swing, just as he clears the surface of the river, is 8.0 m/s. Tarzan does not know that Holt SF 07I 01 the vine has a breaking strength of 1.0 × 103 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, N. wording-variable. What is the largest mass Tarzan can have and make it safely across the river? Two balls, each with a mass of 0.800 kg, exert a gravitational force of 8.92 × 10−11 N Holt SF 07Rev 39 on each other. 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, How far apart are the balls? wording-variable. Holt SF 07I 02 The gravitational force of attraction be- 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, tween two students sitting at their desks in wording-variable. physics class is 3.20 ×10−8 N. If one student has a mass of 50.0 kg and the Mars has a mass of about 6.40 × 1023 kg, other has a mass of 60.0 kg, how far apart are and its moon Phobos has a mass of about the students sitting? 9.60 × 1015 kg. If the magnitude of the gravitational force Holt SF 07Rev 40 between the two bodies is 4.60 ×1015 N, how 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, far apart are Mars and Phobos? wording-variable. Holt SF 07I 03 If the gravitational force between the elec- 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, tron (9.11 × 10−31 kg) and the proton (1.67 × wording-variable. 10−27 kg) in a hydrogen atom is 1.0 × 10−47 N, how far apart are the two particles? Part 1 of 3 Find the magnitude of the gravitational Holt SF 07Rev 47 force a 67.5 kg person would experience while 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, standing on the surface of wording-variable. a) Earth, with a mass of 5.98 ×1024 kg and a radius of 6.37 ×106 m. Part 1 of 3 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Part 2 of 3 A 13500 N car traveling at 50.0 km/h b) Mars, with a mass of 6.34 ×1023 kg and a rounds a curve of radius 2.00 × 102 m. radius of 3.43 ×106 m. a) Find the centripetal acceleration of the car. Part 3 of 3 c) Pluto, with a mass of 1.32 ×1022 kg and a Part 2 of 3 radius of 1.15 ×106 m. b) Find the force that maintains circular mo- tion. Holt SF 07Rev 38 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 3 of 3 wording-variable. c) Find the minimum coeﬃcient of static fric- tion between the tires and the road that will Chapter 3, section 4, Newton’s Law of Gravitation 173 allow the car to round the curve safely. riders suspended against the wall in a vertical position. Holt SF 07Rev 48 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 3m wording-variable. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A 2 ×103 kg car rounds a circular turn of radius 20.0 m. If the road is ﬂat and the coeﬃcient of static friction between the tires and the road is 0.70, how fast can the car go without skidding? Holt SF 07Rev 49 What minimum coeﬃcient of friction be- 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. tween a rider’s clothing and the wall of the cylinder is needed to keep the rider from slip- Part 1 of 3 ping? During a solar eclipse, the moon, Earth, and sun lie on the same line, with the moon Mass and Weight 01 between Earth and the sun. 03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. mEarth = 5.98 × 1024 kg Part 1 of 2 A person weighs 125 lb. mmoon = 7.36 × 1022 kg Determine her weight in newtons. msun = 1.99 × 1030 kg Part 2 of 2 8 Determine her mass in kilograms. dEarth,moon = 3.84 × 10 m dEarth,sun = 1.496 × 1011 m Mass and Weight 02 a) How large a gravitational force is exerted 03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. on the moon by the sun? Part 1 of 3 An object has a mass of 10 kg. Part 2 of 3 What is its weight on the earth? b) How large a gravitational force is exerted on the moon by Earth? Part 2 of 3 What is its mass on the moon where the force Part 3 of 3 of gravity is 1/6 that of the earth? c) How large a gravitational force is exerted on Earth by the sun? Part 3 of 3 What is the weight of that object on the Holt SF 07Rev 53 moon? 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Motion 18 Given: g = 9.81 m/s . 2 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. In a popular amusement-park ride, a cylin- der of radius 3.00 m is set in rotation at an The force that causes an object to follow a angular speed of 5.00 rad/s, as shown in the circular path is a(n) force. ﬁgure. The ﬂoor then drops away, leaving the Chapter 3, section 4, Newton’s Law of Gravitation 174 1. centripetal Projectiles 01 2. gravitational 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. ﬂuid Projectile motion is caused by the 4. inertial 1. downward force of gravity and horiontal motion of velocity. Motorcycle Mass 03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 2. downward force of gravity. You new motorcycle weighs 2450 N. 3. horizontal motion of velocity. What is its mass? 4. vertical motion of velocity. Odometer Reading 01 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Rock Thrown Up 01 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Assume a freely-falling object were some- how equipped with an odometer to measure A rock thrown straight up reaches its max- the distance it travels. imum height. The distance it travels each second would Its velocity is . be . 1. zero and its acceleration is zero. 1. Not enough information to determine. 2. zero and its acceleration is about 10 2. constant. m/s2 . 3. less than the second before. 3. about 10 m/s and its acceleration is about 10 m/s2 . 4. greater than the second before. 4. about 10 m/s and its acceleration is Odometer Reading 02 zero. 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 5. Not enough information to answer. Assume a freely-falling object on earth is somehow equipped with a speedometer. Rock Thrown Up 02 Its speed reading would increase each sec- 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. ond by . When a rock thrown straight up reaches its 1. an amount dependent on its initial maximum height, its speed. 1. velocity is 10 m/s and its acceleration is 2. about 5 m/s. zero. 3. about 15 m/s. 2. velocity is zero and its acceleration is zero. 4. about 20 m/s. 3. velocity is about 10 m/s and its accelera- 5. about 10 m/s. tion is about 10 m/s2 Chapter 3, section 4, Newton’s Law of Gravitation 175 4. velocity is zero and its acceleration is You place a 7.5 kg television set on a spring about 10 m/s2 scale. If the scale reads 78.4 N, what is the accel- 5. Not enough information to answer. eration of gravity at that location? Speedometer Reading 01 Thrown Vertically 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Assume a freely-falling object were some- Someone standing at the edge of a cliﬀ how equipped with a speedometer on a planet throws one ball straight up and another ball where the acceleration due to gravity is 20 straight down at the same initial speed. meters per second per second. Neglecting air resistance, which ball has Its speed reading would increase each sec- the greatest ﬁnal velocity upon reaching the ond by . ground? 1. 20 m/s. 1. The ball with initial upward velocity. 2. 10 m/s. 2. They will both hit with the same veloc- ity. 3. 30 m/s. 3. The ball with initial downward velocity. 4. 40 m/s. 4. Unable to determine. 5. 5 m/s. Velocity and Acceleration 6. a value dependent on its initial speed. 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Speedometer Reading 02 An object falls with constant acceleration. 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Its velocity must . If a freely-falling object were somehow 1. continually decrease. equipped with a speedometer on a planet where the acceleration due to gravity is 20 2. be constant also. meters per second per second, then its speed reading would increase each second by 3. continually change by varying amounts depending on its speed. 1. 30 m/s. 4. continually change by the same amount 2. 10 m/s. each second. 3. 20 m/s. 5. none of these. 4. 40 m/s. Vertical Motion 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 5. It depends on its initial speed. An object is shot vertically upward into the Spring Scale air with a positive initial velocity. 03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Which of the following correctly describes Chapter 3, section 4, Newton’s Law of Gravitation 176 the velocity and acceleration of the object at 8.35 N. its maximum elevation? What is the value of gravitational ﬁeld at that location? 1. velocity > 0 Acceleration > 0 Weight of a Boxer 2. velocity = 0 Acceleration = 0 03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 3. velocity < 0 Acceleration < 0 Part 1 of 4 A 95.1 kg boxer has his ﬁrst match in 4. velocity = 0 Acceleration < 0 the Canal Zone with gravitational acceler- ation 9.782 m/s2 and his second match at 5. velocity > 0 Acceleration < 0 the North Pole with gravitational accelera- tion 9.832 m/s2 . Weight 01 a) What is his mass in the Canal Zone? 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Part 2 of 4 The weight of an object varies with the b) What is his weight in the Canal Zone? 1. pull of gravity. Part 3 of 4 c) What is his mass at the North Pole? 2. volume of the object. Part 4 of 4 3. dimensions of the object. d) What is his weight at the North Pole? 4. speed of the object. Weight of Lead 03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Weight 02 03:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. You have 11 kg of lead. What is the weight? Weight is measured in Weight on Alderon 1. Newtons. 03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 2. kilograms. You weigh 185 lb on Earth. When you reach Alderon, you discover that its gravity is 3. Pascals. 1.125 that of earth. What is your weight on Alderon? 4. m/sec/sec. Weight on Jupiter Weight Conversion 03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. A man weighs 875 N on Earth. Billy’s weight is 120 lb. What would he weigh on Jupiter, where the What is his actual weight in Newtons? free-fall acceleration is 25.9 m/s2 ? Weight in Space 03:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. A(n) 1.25 kg book in space has a weight of Chapter 3, section 5, Newton’s Third Law of Motion 177 with his feet, causing both chairs to move. Bag of Nails 03:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Part 1 of 2 When a 100 N bag of nails hangs motionless Bob Jim from a single vertical strand of rope, how In this situation, while Bob’s feet are in con- much tension is exerted in the strand? tact with Jim’s knees, Part 2 of 2 1. Neither student exerts a force on the How much tension if the bag is supported by other. 2 vertical strands? That is, how much tension is exerted in each strand? 2. Bob exerts a force on Jim, but Jim doesn’t exert a force on Bob. Earth Acceleration 02 03:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 3. Each student exerts a force on the other, but Jim exerts a larger force. If the Earth’s gravitational force causes a falling 60 kg student to accelerate down- 4. Each student exerts a force on the other, ward at 9.8 m/s2 , determine the upward ac- but Bob exerts a larger force. celeration of the Earth during the student’s fall. Take the mass of the Earth to be 5. Each student exerts the same amount of 5.98 × 1024 kg. force on the other. Elevator 6. None of these answers is correct. 03:05, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Hewitt CP9 02 E13 Consider a person standing in an elevator 03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. that is accelerating upward. The upward nor- mal force N exerted by the elevator ﬂoor on A car headrest help to guard against the person is whiplash in a rear-end collisions. Which law applies here? 1. larger than the weight (gravitational force) of the person. 1. The law of inertia 2. identical to the weight (gravitational 2. Newton’s second law force) of the person. 3. Newton’s third law 3. smaller than the weight (gravitational force) of the person. 4. The law of gravitation Force and Motion 5. All are wrong. 03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Hewitt CP9 02 E22 Two students sit in identical oﬃce chairs 03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- facing each other. Bob has a mass of 95 kg, mal. while Jim has a mass of 77 kg. Bob places his bare feet on Jim’s knees, as shown to the A staging that weighs Wstaging supports a right. Bob then suddenly pushes outward Chapter 3, section 5, Newton’s Third Law of Motion 178 painter weighing 200 N. The reading on the from his bosun’s chair. His weight is 500 N left scale is 400 N and the reading on the right and the rope, unknown to him, has a breaking scale is 300 N. point of 300 N. 400 N 300 N £ ¤ 200 N Wstaging What is the weight of the staging? Hewitt CP9 02 E23 Does the rope break when he is supported 03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- as shown at the left above. mal. 1. Harry’s weight is distributed over two A staging that weighs 300 N supports two ropes. painters, one 250 N and the other 300 N. The reading in the left scale is F = 400 N . 2. Harry is just lucky, and the rope doesn’t break. 400 N Fr 3. Harry’s weight is too great and the rope ¡ ¢ does break. 4. Harry is just unlucky, and the rope does break. Part 2 of 2 One day Harry is painting near a ﬂagpole, and, for a change, he ties the free end of the 250 N 300 N rope to the ﬂagpole instead of to his chair as 300 N shown at the right. Why did Harry end up taking his vacation What is the reading Fr in the right hand early? scale? 1. Harry’s weight is too great and the rope Hewitt CP9 02 E25 does break. 03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- mal. 2. Harry’s weight is distributed over two ropes. Part 1 of 2 Harry the painter swings year after year 3. Harry is just lucky, and the rope doesn’t Chapter 3, section 5, Newton’s Third Law of Motion 179 break. 03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. Harry is just unlucky, and the rope does Can you say that no force acts on a body at break. rest? Or is it correct to say that no net force acts Hewitt CP9 02 E27 on it? 03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Defend your answer. The rope supports a lantern that weighs 50 1. No force acts on a body at rest; if so, the N. body will move. Is the tension in the rope less than, equal to, or more than 50 N? 2. No force acts on a body at rest; All forces are canceled by each other when a body is at 1. Less than, by the parallelogram rule. rest. 2. Equal to, so the lantern is at equilib- 3. No net force acts on a body at rest; when rium. the net force is zero, the body is in static equilibrium. 3. More than, because the two ropes form some angle. 4. No net force acts on a body at rest; be- cause there is no force on the body at all. 4. It depends on the angle between the two ropes. 5. All are wrong. 5. All are wrong. Hewitt CP9 04 P02 03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- Hewitt CP9 02 E29 mal. 03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. What is the acceleration of a 10 kg block of As you stand on a ﬂoor, does the ﬂoor exert cement when pulled sideways with a net force an upward force against your force? of 200 N? How much force does it exert? Why are you not moved upward by this Hewitt CP9 04 P03 force? 03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- mal. 1. Yes. More than my weight, because the the two forces cancel each other. What is the acceleration of a 20 kg pail of cement that is pulled upward (not sideways!) 2. Yes. Less than my weight, because the with a force of 300 N? (g = 10 m/s2 ). the two forces cancel each other. Hewitt CP9 04 P04 3. Yes. Equal to my weight, because the the 03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- two forces cancel each other. mal. 4. No. The force is zero. If a mass of 1 kg is accelerated 1 m/s2 by a force of 1 N, what would be the acceleration 5. All are wrong. of a 2 kg mass acted on by a force of 2 N? Hewitt CP9 02 E31 Hewitt CP9 04 P05 Chapter 3, section 5, Newton’s Third Law of Motion 180 03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- mal. 1. Action: Earth pulls down on ball. Re- action: Ball pulls up on Earth. Action: Air How much acceleration does a 747 jumbo pushes ball. Reaction: Ball pushes air. jet of mass 30000 kg experience in takeoﬀ when the thrust for each of four engines is 2. Action: Ball pulls down on Earth. Re- 30000 N? action: Earth pulls up on ball. Action: Air pushes ball. Reaction: Ball pushes air. Hewitt CP9 04 P06 03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 3. Action: Bat pushes ball forward. Reac- wording-variable. tion: Ball pulls up on Earth. Action: Ball pushes air. Reaction: Air pushes ball. Two boxes are seen to accelerate at the same rate when a force F is applied to the 4. Action: Bat pushes ball backward. Reac- ﬁrst and 4F is applied the second. tion: Earth pulls down on ball. Action: Ball What is the mass ratio of the ﬁrst box to pushes air. Reaction: Air pushes ball. the second? 5. All are wrong. Hewitt CP9 04 P09 03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- Hewitt CP9 05 E05 mal. 03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Sprinting near the end of a race, a runner Consider a baseball player batting a ball. with a mass 60 kg accelerates from a speed Identify the action-reaction pairs when the of 6 m/s to a speed of 7 m/s in 2 s. To gain ball is being hit. speed the runner produces a backward force on the ground, so that the ground pushes the 1. Action: bat hits ball. Reaction: ball hits runner forward, providing the force necessary bat. for the acceleration. Calculate this average force. 2. Action: bat hits ball. Reaction: bat hits ball. Hewitt CP9 04 P10 03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- 3. Action: ball hits bat. Reaction: ball hits mal. bat Before going into orbit, an astronaut has a 4. Action: ball hits bat. Reaction: bat mass of 55 kg. When in orbit, a measurement pushes air determines that a force of 66 N causes her to move with an acceleration of 1.1 m/s2 . 5. All are wrong. To regain her original weight, should she go on a diet or start eating more candy? To Hewitt CP9 05 E09 answer this, ﬁnd her mass in orbit. 03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Hewitt CP9 05 E03 When the athlete holds the barbell on his 03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. hand, the reaction force is the weight of the barbell on his hand. Consider a baseball player batting a ball. How does this force vary for the case where Identify the action-reaction pairs when the the barbell is accelerated upward? Down- ball is in ﬂight. ward? Chapter 3, section 5, Newton’s Third Law of Motion 181 1. Upward: the reaction force is greater Hewitt CP9 05 E28 than the weight of the barbell. Downward: 03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. the reaction force is less than the weight of the barbell. When two vectors sum to zero, how must they be related? 2. Upward: the reaction force is greater than the weight of the barbell. Downward: 1. The magnitudes are the same; the direc- the reaction force is greater than the weight tions are opposite. of the barbell. 2. The magnitudes are the same; the direc- 3. Upward: the reaction force is less than tions are the same. the weight of the barbell. Downward: the reaction force is greater than the weight of 3. The magnitudes are diﬀerent; the direc- the barbell. tions are opposite. 4. Upward: the reaction force is less than 4. The magnitudes are diﬀerent; the direc- the weight of the barbell. Downward: the tions are the same. reaction force is less than the weight of the barbell. 5. All are wrong. 5. All are wrong. Hewitt CP9 05 E31 03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Hewitt CP9 05 E11 03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Why does vertically falling rain make slanted streaks on the side windows of a mov- Which one of the following is correct? ing automobiles? If the streaks make an angle of 45◦ , what 1. You can exert greater force on the pedals does this tell you about the relative speed of of a bicycle if you pull up on the handlebars. the car and the falling rain? You can exert smaller force on the pedals of a bicycle if you push down on the handlebars. 1. The speed of the car is the same as that of the falling rain. 2. You can exert greater force on the pedals of a bicycle if you pull up on the handlebars. 2. The speed of the car is half of that of the You can exert greater force on the pedals of a falling rain. bicycle if you push down on the handlebars. 3. The speed of the car is two times greater 3. You can exert smaller force on the pedals than that of the falling rain. of a bicycle if you pull up on the handlebars. You can exert greater force on the pedals of a 4. The speed of the car is three times greater bicycle if you push down on the handlebars. than that of the falling rain. 4. You can exert smaller force on the pedals 5. All are wrong. of a bicycle if you pull up on the handlebars. You can exert smaller force on the pedals of a Hewitt CP9 05 E33 bicycle if you push down on the handlebars. 03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 5. All are wrong. Consider a stone at rest on the ground. Chapter 3, section 5, Newton’s Third Law of Motion 182 There are two interactions that involve the stone. One is between the stone and the Part 5 of 5 Earth; Earth pulls down on the stone and the e) What is the magnitude of the force between stone pulls up on the Earth. the block with mass 2 kg and 4 kg? What is the other interaction? Horse and Buggy 1. The other interaction is between the stone 03:05, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. and the ground. Consider a buggy being pulled by a horse. 2. The other interaction is between the Which is correct? ground and the Earth. 1. The horse can pull the buggy forward only 3. The other interaction is between the if the horse weighs more than the buggy. ground and air. 2. The horse pulls forward slightly harder 4. The other interaction is between the than the buggy pulls backward on the horse, Earth and air. so they move forward. 5. All above are wrong. 3. The horse pulls before the buggy has time to react so they move forward. Holt SF 04Rev 63 03:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- 4. The force on the buggy is as strong as the mal. force on the horse. The horse is joined to the Earth by ﬂat hoofs, while the buggy is free to Part 1 of 5 roll on its round wheels. Given: g = 9.8 m/s2 . Three blocks are in contact with each other Net Force 01 on a frictionless horizontal surface. A 360 N 03:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. horizontal force is applied to the block with mass of 2 kg as shown in the ﬁgure below. Part 1 of 2 A book weighing 10 N is placed on a table. F 2 kg 4 kg 6 kg How much support force does a table exert on the book? µ=0 Part 2 of 2 a) What is the net force on the block with What is the net force on the book in this mass 2 kg? case? Part 2 of 5 Pulleys 03 b) What is the resultant force on the block 03:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. with mass 4 kg? Part 1 of 3 Part 3 of 5 The systems are in equilibrium. The c) What is the resultant force on the block suspended weight is W1 = 10 N. with mass 6 kg? Part 4 of 5 d) What is the magnitude of the force between the block with mass 4 kg and 6 kg? Chapter 3, section 5, Newton’s Third Law of Motion 183 T3 T1 T1 T2 T2 W3 W1 W2 m W Find the tension T1 . Find the tension T1 . Part 2 of 3 Part 2 of 2 The suspended weight is W2 = 10 N. The suspended weight is W = 15 N. Find the tension T2 . Find the tension T2 . Part 3 of 3 Pulleys 06 The suspended weight is W3 = 10 N. 03:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. What is the tension T3 ? Part 1 of 2 Pulleys 04 The systems are in equilibrium. In the sys- 03:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. tem on the left, m = 1.5 slug and W1 = 10 lb. Part 1 of 2 T2 The systems are in equilibrium. The suspended weight is W1 = 10 lb. W1 W3 T1 T1 m W3 W2 W1 W2 T2 Find the tension T1 . Find the tension T1 . Part 2 of 2 Part 2 of 2 In the system on the right, W2 = 8 N and The suspended weight is W2 = 20 N and the W3 = 10 N. weight in the string is W3 = 6 N. Find the tension T2 . Find the tension T2 . Pulleys 07 Pulleys 05 03:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 03:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. The system is in equilibrium. The sus- Part 1 of 2 pended mass m = 2.73 slug. Use g = 32 ft/s2 . The systems are in equilibrium. The ft suspended mass is m = 0.5 slug. Note: lb ≡ slug 2 . The pulleys and string s are massless and the string is unstretchable. Chapter 3, section 5, Newton’s Third Law of Motion 184 20 kg, m2 = 7 kg, and m3 = 9 kg. T m2 m m3 T Find the tension T . m1 Pulleys 08 03:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Find the tension T . Part 1 of 2 Pulleys 11 The systems are in equilibrium. The 03:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. suspended weight is W1 = 20 N. The system is in equilib- T1 T2 rium. The suspended mass m = 2.73 kg. W2 T W1 m Find the tension T1 . m Part 2 of 2 The suspended mass is m = 2000 g, and the suspended weight in the string is W2 = 1.5 N. Find the tension T . Find the tension T2 . Reaction Force 01 Pulleys 09 03:05, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 03:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. A book rests on the shelf of a bookcase. The system is in equilibrium. The sus- The reaction force to the force of gravity pended mass is 2.5 slug. acting on the book is 1. The force exerted by the book on the T earth. 2. None of these. m 3. The weight of the book. Find the tension T . 4. The frictional force between book and Pulleys 10 shelf. 03:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 5. The force of the shelf holding the book The system is in equilibrium. m1 = Chapter 3, section 5, Newton’s Third Law of Motion 185 up. Reaction Force 02 03:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. You hit someone with a force of 200 N. How much force is exerted on you? Three Forces 03:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Part 1 of 2 An object in equilibrium has three forces exerted on it. A(n) 33 N force acts at 80◦ , and a(n) 44 N force acts at 60◦ . What is the magnitude of the third force? Part 2 of 2 What is the direction of the third force? Tug of War 03:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. A 60 kg boy and a 40 kg girl use an elas- tic rope while engaged in a tug-of-war on a frictionless icy surface. If the acceleration of the girl toward the boy is 3 m/s2 , determine the magnitude of the acceleration of the boy toward the girl. Chapter 3, section 6, Friction 186 1. friction. Friction 01 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. inertia. The amount of sliding friction depends on 3. falling. the 4. unbalanced. 1. weight of the moving object and the type of surface that the object slides across. Friction 05 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. density and volume of the object. The opposing force that resists motion 3. acceleration and mass of the object. when two surfaces come into contact is called 4. density and mass of the object. 1. friction. Friction 02 2. inertia. 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. falling. Which of the following is not used to reduce friction? 4. unbalanced. 1. rough surfaces Friction 06 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. oil What kind of friction occurs when an object 3. wheels falls through the air? 4. ball bearings 1. ﬂuid Friction 03 2. sliding 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. falling The friction produced by wheels or ball bearings is called 4. rolling 1. rolling friction. Friction 07 03:06, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 2. sliding friction. Part 1 of 2 3. starting friction. A dockworker loading crates on a ship ﬁnds that a 20 kg crate, initially at rest on a hori- 4. ﬂuid friction. zontal surface, requires a 75 N horizontal force to set it in motion. However, after the crate Friction 04 is set in motion, a horizontal force of 60 N 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. is required to keep it moving with a constant speed. The force that opposes motion is Find the coeﬃcient µs of static friction be- tween crate and ﬂoor. Chapter 3, section 6, Friction 187 Part 2 of 2 4. Air resistance is as eﬀective in slowing a Find the coeﬃcient µk of kinetic friction. feather as a coin. Hewitt CP9 02 E11 5. All are wrong. 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Hewitt CP9 04 E05 Consider a ball at rest in the middle of a 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. toy wagon. When the wagon is pulled forward, what is If it takes 1 N to push horizontally on your the motion of the ball? book to make it slide at constant velocity, how much force of friction acts on the book? 1. The ball will stay at rest on the wagon. 1. 0 N 2. The ball will stay where it was; the surface would slide beneath the ball. 2. 1 N 3. From a point of view outside the wagon, 3. 2 N the ball stays in place as the back of the wagon moves toward it. Because of friction, the ball 1. 4 N may roll along the cart surface. 5. All are wrong. 4. The ball will move faster than the wagon. Hewitt CP9 04 E09 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- 5. All are wrong. mal. Hewitt CP9 02 E33 A(n) 400 kg bear grasping a vertical tree 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- slides down at constant velocity. mal. What is the friction force that acts on the bear? (g = 10 m/s2 ) Pull horizontally on a crate with a force of 200 N and it slides across the ﬂoor in dynamic Hewitt CP9 04 P01 equilibrium. 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- How much friction is acting on the crate? mal. Hewitt CP9 03 E21 What is the greatest acceleration a runner 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. can muster if the friction between her shoes and the pavement is 90% her weight? (g = Which of the following is correct? 10 m/s2 ). 1. In free fall, air resistance is more eﬀective Hewitt CP9 04 P07 in slowing a feather than a coin. 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- mal. 2. Air resistance is more eﬀective in slowing a feather than a coin. A ﬁreﬁghter of mass 80 kg slides down a vertical pole with an acceleration of 4 m/s2 . 3. Air resistance is less eﬀective in slowing a What is the friction force that acts on him? feather than a coin. (g = 10 m/s2 ). Chapter 3, section 6, Friction 188 Holt SF 04C 01 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Materials µs µk wording-variable. steel on steel 0.74 0.57 aluminum on steel 0.61 0.47 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Once a 24 kg crate is in motion on a hori- rubber on dry concrete 1.0 0.8 zontal ﬂoor, a horizontal force of 53 N keeps rubber on wet concrete – 0.5 the crate moving with a constant velocity. wood on wood 0.4 0.2 What is µk , the coeﬃcient of kinetic fric- glass on glass 0.9 0.4 tion, between the crate and the ﬂoor? waxed wood on wet snow 0.14 0.1 Holt SF 04C 02 waxed wood on dry snow – 0.04 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, metal on metal (lubricated) 0.15 0.06 wording-variable. ice on ice 0.1 0.03 Teﬂon on Teﬂon 0.04 0.04 Part 1 of 2 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . synovial joints in humans 0.01 0.003 A 25 kg chair initially at rest on a horizontal ﬂoor requires a 365 N horizontal force to set a) What is Fs,max for moving a 145 kg it in motion. Once the chair is in motion, a aluminum sculpture across a horizontal steel 327 N horizontal force keeps it moving at a platform? constant velocity. a) What is the coeﬃcient of static friction Part 2 of 8 between the chair and the ﬂoor? b) What is Fk for moving the 145 kg alu- minum sculpture across the horizontal steel Part 2 of 2 platform? b) What is the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction between the chair and the ﬂoor? Part 3 of 8 c) What is Fs,max for pulling a 15 kg steel Holt SF 04C 03 sword across a horizontal steel shield? 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 4 of 8 d) What is Fk for pulling the 15 kg steel sword Part 1 of 8 across the horizontal steel shield? Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A museum curator moves artifacts into Part 5 of 8 place on many diﬀerent display surfaces. Con- e) What is Fs,max for pushing a 250 kg wood sider the following table giving approximate bed on a wood ﬂoor? values for coeﬃcients of friction: Part 6 of 8 f) What is Fk for pushing the 250 kg wood bed on a wood ﬂoor? Part 7 of 8 g) What is Fs,max for sliding a 0.55 kg glass amulet on a glass display case? Part 8 of 8 Chapter 3, section 6, Friction 189 h) What is Fk for sliding the 0.55 kg glass amulet on a glass display case? Holt SF 04D 04 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Holt SF 04D 01 02 wording-variable. 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. A box of books weighing 325 N moves with a constant velocity across the ﬂoor when it is Part 1 of 2 pushed with a force of 425 N exerted down- Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . ward at an angle of 35.2◦ below the horizontal. A student moves a box of books down the Find µk between the box and the ﬂoor. hall by pulling on a rope attached to the box. The student pulls with a force of 185 N at an Holt SF 04Rev 22 angle of 25.0◦ above the horizontal. The box 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, has a mass of 35.0 kg, and µk between the box wording-variable. and the ﬂoor is 0.27. Find the acceleration of the box. Part 1 of 3 Two forces, 450 N at 15◦ and 300 N at 26◦ Part 2 of 2 are applied to a car in an eﬀort to accelerate Now the student moves the box up a ramp it. (with the same coeﬃcient of friction) inclined at 12◦ with the horizontal. 450 N 15 ◦ b) If the box starts from rest at the bottom 3000 kg of the ramp and is pulled at an angle of 25 ◦ 300 26 ◦ with respect to the incline and with the same N 185 N force, what is the acceleration up the a) Find the resultant of these two forces. ramp? Part 2 of 3 Holt SF 04D 03 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, b) Find the direction of the resultant force (in relation to forward, with counterclockwise wording-variable. considered positive). Part 1 of 2 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Part 3 of 3 A 75.0 kg box slides down a 25.0◦ ramp Assume: There is no friction. with an acceleration of 3.60 m/s2 . c) If the car has a mass of 3000 kg, what 2 acceleration does it have? /s 3.6 m Holt SF 04Rev 37 kg 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- 75 mal. µk 25◦ Part 1 of 2 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A(n) 95 kg clock initially at rest on a hor- a) Find µk between the box and the ramp. izontal ﬂoor requires a(n) 650 N horizontal force to set it in motion. After the clock is in Part 2 of 2 motion, a horizontal force of 560 N keeps it b) What acceleration would a 175 kg mass moving with a constant velocity. have down this ramp? a) Find µs between the clock and the ﬂoor. Chapter 3, section 6, Friction 190 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Part 2 of 2 A 5.4 kg bag of groceries is in equilibrium b) Find µk between the clock and the ﬂoor. on an incline of 25◦ . Holt SF 04Rev 38 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, kg 5.4 wording-variable. µ 25◦ Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A 30 kg box slides down a 30.0◦ ramp with an acceleration of 1.20 m/s2 . What is the magnitude of the normal force on the bag? kg Holt SF 04Rev 41 30 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, µ 30◦ wording-variable. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A clerk moves a box of cans down an aisle by pulling on a strap attached to the box. The Find the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction be- clerk pulls with a force of 185.0 N at an angle tween the box and the ramp. of 25.0◦ with the horizontal. The box has a mass of 35.0 kg, and the coeﬃcient of kinetic Holt SF 04Rev 39 friction between the box and ﬂoor is 0.450. 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, What is the acceleration of the box? wording-variable. Holt SF 04Rev 42 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, A 4.00 kg block is pushed along the ceiling wording-variable. with a constant applied force of 85.0 N that acts at an angle of 70.0◦ with the horizontal. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . The block accelerates to the right at 6.00 A(n) 925 N crate is being pushed across a m/s2 . level ﬂoor by a force of 325 N at an angle of 25 ◦ above the horizontal. The coeﬃcient µ of kinetic friction between the crate and the ﬂoor is 0.25. 4 kg N 325 25◦ ◦ 70 6 m/s2 85 N 925 N What is the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction µk = 0.25 between the block and the ceiling? What is the acceleration of the box? Holt SF 04Rev 40 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Holt SF 04Rev 44 wording-variable. 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Chapter 3, section 6, Friction 191 between the block and the incline? 2 Given: g = 9.81 m/s . A 35 kg box rests on the back of a truck. Part 3 of 4 The coeﬃcient of static friction between the c) What is the magnitude of the frictional box and the truck bed is 0.300. force acting on the block? What maximum acceleration can the truck have before the box slides backward? Part 4 of 4 d) What is the speed of the block after it slides Holt SF 04Rev 53 the distance of 2.00? 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Holt SF 04Rev 56 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . mal. A girl coasts down a hill on a sled, reaching level ground at the bottom with a speed of Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . 7.0 m/s. The coeﬃcient of kinetic friction A 75 kg person escapes from a burning between the sled’s runners and the hard, icy building by jumping from a window 25 m snow is 0.050, and the girl and sled together above a catching net. weigh 645 N. Assuming that air resistance is simply a How far does the sled travel on the level constant 95 N force on the person during the ground before coming to a rest? fall, determine the person’s velocity just be- fore hitting the net. Holt SF 04Rev 54 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Holt SF 04Rev 57 wording-variable. 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- mal. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A box of books weighing 319 N is shoved Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . across the ﬂoor by a force of 485 N exerted The parachute on a race car that weighs downward at an angle of 35◦ below the hori- 8820 N opens at the end of a quarter-mile run zontal. when the car is traveling 35 m/s. If µk between the box and the ﬂoor is 0.57, What net retarding force must be supplied how long does it take to move the box 4.00 m, by the parachute to stop the car in a distance starting from rest? of 1100 m? Holt SF 04Rev 55 Holt SF 04Rev 59 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- wording-variable. mal. Part 1 of 4 Given: g = 9.8 m/s2 . Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . The coeﬃcient of static friction between the A 3.00 kg block starts from rest at the top 3 kg crate and the 20◦ incline is 0.3. of a 30.0◦ incline and accelerates uniformly down the incline, moving 2.00 m in 1.50 s. a) What is the magnitude of the accelera- tion of the block? Part 2 of 4 b) What is the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction Chapter 3, section 6, Friction 192 friction is 0.600? F Holt SF 04Rev 65 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 3 kg wording-variable. µk 20◦ Part 1 of 3 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Two blocks with masses of 45.0 kg and 23.5 What minimum force F must be applied to kg are stacked on a table with the heavier the crate perpendicular to the incline to pre- block on top. The coeﬃcient of static friction vent the crate from sliding down the incline? is 0.600 between the two blocks and 0.300 between the bottom block and the table. A Holt SF 04Rev 62 horizontal force is slowly applied to the top 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, block until one of the blocks moves. wording-variable. a) What is the friction force between the blocks? The board sandwiched between two other boards in the ﬁgure weighs 95.5 N. Part 2 of 3 b) What is the friction force between the lower block and the table? 95.5 N Part 3 of 3 c) What minimum value for the coeﬃcient of static friction between the masses and the table would cause the slippage to ﬁrst happen between the blocks? If the coeﬃcient of friction between the boards is 0.663, what must be the magnitude of the horizontal forces acting on both sides Holt SF 04Rev 66 of the center board to keep it from slipping 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. downward? Part 1 of 2 A truck driver slams on the brakes and Holt SF 04Rev 64 skids to a stop through a displacement of ∆x. 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, a) If the truck has twice the mass, by what wording-variable. factor does the stopping distance change? Part 1 of 2 1. 1 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A car is traveling at 50.0 km/h on a ﬂat 2. 2 highway. a) If the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction be- 3. 4 tween the road and the tires on a rainy day is 0.100, what is the minimum distance needed 4. 0.5 for the car to stop? 5. 0.25 Part 2 of 2 b) What is the stopping distance when the 6. None of these surface is dry and the coeﬃcient of kinetic Chapter 3, section 6, Friction 193 Part 2 of 2 b) If the initial velocity of the truck were halved, by what factor would the stopping distance change? 1. 0.25 2. 1 3. 2 4. 4 5. 0.5 6. None of these Holt SF 04Rev 69 03:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 1 of 2 A 150 N block rests on a table. The sus- pended mass has a weight of 75 N. 150 N µs 75 N a) What is the magnitude of the minimum force of static friction required to hold both blocks at rest? Part 2 of 2 b) What minimum coeﬃcient of static friction is required to ensure that both blocks remain at rest? PS 303 7 7 03:06, basic, numeric, < 1 min, normal. If it requires 5 N to push a box weighing 20 N across the ﬂoor, what is the coeﬃcient of friction between the box and the ﬂoor? Chapter 3, section 7, Momentum 194 which has twice the inertial mass of cart A, is Bullet in a Block entirely passive. When the piston is released, 03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. it pushes against cart B, and the carts move apart. How do the magnitudes of the ﬁnal A(n) 15 g bullet is shot into a(n) 5085 g momenta p and kinetic energies K compare? wooden block standing on a frictionless sur- face. The block, with the bullet in it, acquires 1. pA > pB , KA = KB a velocity of 1 m/s. Calculate the velocity of the bullet before 2. pA > pB , KA > KB striking the block. 3. pA = pB , KA > KB Car Collision 01 03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 4. pA > pB , KA < KB A car with mass 1245 kg, moving at 29 m/s, 5. pA = pB , KA = KB strikes a(n) 2175 kg car at rest. If the two cars stick together, with what speed do they 6. pA = pB , KA < KB move? 7. pA < pB , KA > KB Car Collision 02 03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 8. pA < pB , KA = KB Part 1 of 2 9. pA < pB , KA < KB A 1000 kg car traveling initially with a speed of 55 m/s in an easterly direction Chunk the Textbook crashes into the rear end of a 3500 kg truck 03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. moving in the same direction at 18 m/s. A(n) 730 N man stands in the middle of a frozen pond of radius 5 m. He is unable to get Before to the other side because of a lack of friction between his shoes and the ice. To overcome V this diﬃculty, he throws his 1.2 kg physics textbook horizontally toward the north shore, at a speed of 5 m/s. After How long does it take him to reach the south shore? The velocity of the car right after the collision is 10 m/s to the east. What is the speed of Collision 01 the truck right after the collision? 03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Part 2 of 2 Part 1 of 2 How much mechanical energy is lost in the A(n) 25 g object moving to the right at collision? 20 cm/s overtakes and collides elastically with a 10 g object moving in the same direction at Cart Recoil 15 cm/s. 03:07, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Find the velocity of faster object after the collision. Two carts are put back-to-back on a track. Cart A has a spring-loaded piston; cart B, Part 2 of 2 Chapter 3, section 7, Momentum 195 Find the velocity of slower object after the collision. 3. Newton’s third law Collision 02 4. Gravitation law 03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 5. All are wrong. A(n) 2575 kg van runs into the back of a(n) 825 kg compact car at rest. They move oﬀ Hewitt CP9 05 E17 together at 8.5 m/s. Assuming no friction 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. with the ground, ﬁnd the initial speed of the van. Suppose two carts, one twice as massive as the other, ﬂy apart when the compressed Collision Eﬀect spring that joins them is released. 03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. How fast does the heavier cart roll com- pared with the lighter cart? Part 1 of 2 1 An impulse of 150 N s is required to stop a 1. vlight person’s head in a car collision. 2 If the face is in contact with the steering 2. 2 vlight wheel for 0.02 s, what is the force on the cheekbone? 3. vlight Part 2 of 2 1 4. vlight If a force of 900 N fractures the cheekbone, 3 how long must it be in contact with the steer- 5. All are wrong. ing wheel in order to fracture? Hewitt CP9 05 E19 Golf Club Speed 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. If a Mack truck and Honda Civic have a High-speed stroboscopic photographs show head-on collision, upon which vehicle is the that the head of a 200 g golf club is traveling impact force greater? at 55 m/s just before it strikes a 46 g golf ball Which vehicle experiences the greater ac- at rest on a tee. After the collision, the club celeration? head follows through at 40 m/s. Find the speed of the golf ball immediately 1. The forces are the same; the Civic experi- after impact. ences the greater acceleration. Hewitt CP9 04 E31 2. The force on the truck is greater; the 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. acceleration are the same. A common saying goes, “It’s not the fall 3. The forces are the same; the accelerations that hurts you; it’s the sudden stop.” are same. Translate this into Newton’s laws of mo- tion. 4. The forces are the same; the truck expe- riences the greater acceleration. 1. Newton’s ﬁrst law 5. All are wrong. 2. Newton’s second law Chapter 3, section 7, Momentum 196 Hewitt CP9 06 R02 Which one of the following undergoes the 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. greatest change in momentum if the baseballs have the same speed just before being caught How does impulse diﬀer from force? and just before being thrown. 1. Force produces acceleration. Impulse pro- 1. A baseball that is caught. duces change in momentum. 2. A baseball that is thrown. 2. Force produces acceleration.Impulse pro- duces momentum. 3. A baseball that is caught and then thrown back. 3. Force produces momentum.Impulse pro- duces acceleration. Hewitt CP9 06 R22 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. Force is usually bigger than momentum. Railroad car A rolls at a certain speed and 5. Momentum is bigger than force. makes a perfectly elastic collision with car B of the same mass. After the collision, car A is 6. None of these. observed to be at rest. How does the speed of car B compare with Hewitt CP9 06 R09 the initial speed of car A? 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. The speed of car B is more than the initial Why might a wine glass survive a fall onto speed of car A. a carpeted ﬂoor but not onto a concrete ﬂoor? 2. The speed of car B is less than the initial 1. Since the carpet is softer than the concrete speed of car A. and the force of impact is reduced by the extended time of impact. 3. The speed of car B is the same as the initial speed of car A. 2. The decrease of momentum of the wine glass in the carpet is less than that in the 4. Cannot compare since the number of the concrete. energy is not conserved. 3. The decrease of momentum of the wine Holt SF 06A 01 glass in the carpet is more than that in the 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- concrete. mal. 4. The decrease of velocity of the wine glass An ostrich with a mass of 146 kg is running in the carpet is less than that in the concrete. to the right with a velocity of 17 m/s. Find the momentum of the ostrich. 5. The decrease of velocity of the wine in the carpet is more than that in the concrete. Holt SF 06A 02 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 6. None of these wording-variable. Hewitt CP9 06 R14 Part 1 of 3 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. A 21 kg child is riding a 5.9 kg bike with a Chapter 3, section 7, Momentum 197 velocity of 4.5 m/s to the northwest. the player? a) What is the total momentum of the child and the bike together? Holt SF 06B 04 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 2 of 3 wording-variable. b) What is the momentum of the child? Part 1 of 2 Part 3 of 3 A 0.50 kg object is at rest. A 3.00 N force c) What is the momentum of the bike? to the right acts on the object during a time interval of 1.50 s. Holt SF 06A 03 a) What is the velocity of the object at the 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- end of this time interval? mal. Part 2 of 2 What velocity must a car with a mass of At the end of this interval, a constant force of 1210 kg have in order to have the same mo- 4.00 N to the left is applied for 3.00 s. mentum as a 2250 kg pickup truck traveling b) What is the velocity at the end of the at 25 m/s to the east? 3.00 s? Holt SF 06B 01 Holt SF 06C 01 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. wording-variable. A 0.50 kg football is thrown with a velocity Part 1 of 2 of 15 m/s to the right. A stationary receiver A 2250 kg car traveling to the west at 20.0 catches the ball and brings it to rest in 0.020 m/s slows down uniformly. s. a) How long would it take the car to come What is the force exerted on the receiver? to a stop if the force on the car is 8450 N to the east? Holt SF 06B 02 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 2 of 2 wording-variable. b) What is the car’s displacement during the time it takes to stop? An 82 kg man drops from rest on a diving board 3.0 m above the surface of the water Holt SF 06C 02 and comes to rest 0.55 s after reaching the 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, water. wording-variable. What force does the water exert on him? Part 1 of 3 Holt SF 06B 03 A 2500 kg car traveling to the north is 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, slowed down uniformly from an initial velocity wording-variable. of 20.0 m/s by a 6250 N braking force acting opposite the car’s motion. A 0.40 kg soccer ball approaches a player a) What is the car’s velocity after 2.50 s? horizontally with a velocity of 18 m/s to the north. The player strikes the ball and causes Part 2 of 3 it to move in the opposite direction with a b) How far does the car move during the 2.5 s velocity of 22 m/s. s? What impulse was delivered to the ball by Chapter 3, section 7, Momentum 198 Part 3 of 3 Part 1 of 3 c) How long does it take the car to come to a Each croquet ball in a set has a mass of complete stop? 0.50 kg. The green ball, traveling at 12.0 m/s, strikes the blue ball, which is at rest. Holt SF 06C 03 Assuming that the balls slide on a friction- 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, less surface and all collisions are head-on, ﬁnd wording-variable. the ﬁnal speed of the blue ball in each of the following situations: Part 1 of 2 a) The green ball stops moving after it A 2250 kg car traveling to the west at 20.0 strikes the blue ball. m/s slows down uniformly under a force of 8450 N to the east. Part 2 of 3 a) How much force would be required to b) The green ball continues moving after the cause the same acceleration on a car of mass collision at 2.4 m/s in the same direction. 3250 kg? Part 3 of 3 Part 2 of 2 c) The green ball continues moving after the b) How far would the car move before stop- collision at 0.3 m/s in the same direction. ping? Holt SF 06D 04 Holt SF 06D 01 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. wording-variable. A boy on a 2.0 kg skateboard initially at A 63.0 kg astronaut is on a space walk when rest tosses a(n) 8.0 kg jug of water in the the tether line to the shuttle breaks. The forward direction. astronaut is able to throw a 10.0 kg oxygen If the jug has a speed of 3.0 m/s relative to tank in a direction away from the shuttle with the ground and the boy and skateboard move a speed of 12.0 m/s, propelling the astronaut in the opposite direction at 0.60 m/s, ﬁnd the back to the shuttle. boy’s mass. Assuming that the astronaut starts from rest, ﬁnd the ﬁnal speed of the astronaut after Holt SF 06Rev 12 throwing the tank. 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- mal. Holt SF 06D 02 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 1 of 4 wording-variable. Calculate the magnitude of the linear mo- mentum for each of the following cases A(n) 85.0 kg ﬁsherman jumps from a dock a) a proton with mass 1.67 × 10−27 kg mov- into a 135.0 kg rowboat at rest on the west ing with a velocity of 5 × 106 m/s. side of the dock. If the velocity of the ﬁsherman is 4.30 m/s Part 2 of 4 to the west as he leaves the dock, what is the b) a 1.5 g bullet moving with a speed of ﬁnal velocity of the ﬁsherman and the boat? 300 m/s to the right. Holt SF 06D 03 Part 3 of 4 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, c) a 7.5 kg sprinter running with a velocity of wording-variable. 10 m/s. Chapter 3, section 7, Momentum 199 Holt SF 06Rev 24 Part 4 of 4 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, d) Earth (m = 5.98 × 1024 kg) moving with wording-variable. an orbital speed equal to 29800 m/s. Part 1 of 2 Holt SF 06Rev 13 A 65.0 kg ice skater moving to the right 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, with a velocity of 2.50 m/s throws a 0.150 kg wording-variable. snowball to the right with a velocity of 32.0 m/s relative to the ground. What is the momentum of a 0.148 kg base- a) What is the velocity of the ice skater ball thrown with a velocity of 35 m/s toward after throwing the snowball? Disregard the home plate? friction between the skates and the ice. Holt SF 06Rev 14 Part 2 of 2 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, A second skater initially at rest with a mass wording-variable. of 60.0 kg catches the snowball. b) What is the velocity of the second skater A 2.5 kg ball strikes a wall with a velocity after catching the snowball in a perfectly in- of 8.5 m/s to the left. The ball bounces oﬀ elastic collision? with a velocity of 7.5 m/s to the right. If the ball is in contact with the wall for Holt SF 06Rev 25 0.25 s, what is the constant force exerted on 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, the ball by the wall? wording-variable. Holt SF 06Rev 15 A tennis player places a 55 kg ball machine 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, on a frictionless surface. The machine ﬁres a wording-variable. 0.057 kg tennis ball horizontally with a veloc- ity of 36 m/s toward the north. A football punter accelerates a 0.55 kg foot- What is the ﬁnal velocity of the machine? ball from rest to a speed of 8.0 m/s in 0.25 s. Holt SF 06Rev 26 What constant force does the punter exert 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, on the ball? wording-variable. Holt SF 06Rev 16 Part 1 of 2 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, After being struck by a bowling ball, a 1.5 wording-variable. kg bowling pin sliding to the right at 3.0 m/s collides head-on with another 1.5 kg bowling Part 1 of 2 pin initially at rest. A 0.15 kg baseball moving at +26 m/s is Find the ﬁnal velocity of the second pin in slowed to a stop by a catcher who exerts a the following situations: constant force of −390 N. a) The ﬁrst pin moves to the right after the a) How long does it take this force to stop collision at 0.5 m/s. the ball? Part 2 of 2 Part 2 of 2 b) The ﬁrst pin stops moving when it hits the b) How far does the ball travel before stop- second pin. ping? Holt SF 06Rev 41 Chapter 3, section 7, Momentum 200 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A(n) 8.0 g bullet is ﬁred into a 2.5 kg pen- If a 0.147 kg baseball has a momentum of dulum bob initially at rest and becomes em- 6.17 kg·m/s as it is thrown from home to bedded in it. The pendulum rises a vertical second base, what is its velocity? distance of 6.0 cm. What was the initial speed of the bullet? Holt SF 06Rev 42 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Holt SF 06Rev 52 wording-variable. 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 1 of 2 A moving object has a kinetic energy of 150 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . J and a momentum of 30.0 kg·m/s. A bird perched on a swing like the one a) Find the speed of the object. below has a mass of 52.0 g, and the base of the swing has a mass of 153 g. Part 2 of 2 b) Find the mass of the object. Holt SF 06Rev 43 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. 8 cm Part 1 of 2 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A 0.10 kg ball of dough is thrown straight up into the air with an initial speed of 15 m/s. a) What is its momentum at its maximum height? The swing and bird are originally at rest, Part 2 of 2 then the bird takes oﬀ horizontally at 2.00 b) What is its momentum halfway to its max- m/s. imum height on the way up? How high will the base of the swing rise above its original level? Disregard friction. Holt SF 06Rev 47 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Holt SF 06Rev 53 wording-variable. 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. A 0.025 kg golf ball moving at 18.0 m/s crashes through the window of a house in 5.0× A 85.0 kg astronaut is working on the en- 10−4 s. After the crash, the ball continues in gines of a spaceship that is drifting through the same direction with a speed of 10.0 m/s. space with a constant velocity. The astronaut Assuming the force exerted on the ball by turns away to look at Earth and several sec- the window was constant, what was the mag- onds later is 30.0 m behind the ship, at rest nitude of this force? relative to the spaceship. The only way to re- turn to the ship without a thruster is to throw Holt SF 06Rev 51 a wrench directly away from the ship. The 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wrench has a mass of 0.500 kg, and the astro- wording-variable. Chapter 3, section 7, Momentum 201 naut throws the wrench with a speed of 20.0 wording-variable. m/s. How long does it take the astronaut to reach A merry-go-round rotates at the rate of the ship? 0.30 rad/s with a(n) 80.0 kg man standing at a point 2.0 m from the axis of rotation. Holt SF 06Rev 55 What is the new angular speed when the 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, man walks to a point 1.0 m from the center? wording-variable. Assume that the merry-go-round is a solid 6.50 × 102 kg cylinder with a radius of 2.00 Part 1 of 2 m. A constant force of 2.5 N to the right acts on a 1.5 kg mass for 0.50 s. Holt SF 08D 02 a) Find the ﬁnal velocity of the mass if it is 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, initially at rest. wording-variable. Part 2 of 2 A 2.0 kg bicycle wheel with a radius of b) Find the ﬁnal velocity of the mass if it 0.30 m turns at a constant angular speed of is initially moving along the x-axis with a 25 rad/s when a(n) 0.30 kg reﬂector is at a velocity of 2.0 m/s to the left. distance of 0.19 m from the axle. What is the angular speed of the wheel Holt SF 06Rev 56 when the reﬂector slides to a distance of 0.25 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, m from the axle? wording-variable. Holt SF 08D 03 Part 1 of 2 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, A 55 kg pole vaulter falls from rest from a wording-variable. height of 5.0 m onto a foam rubber pad. The pole vaulter comes to rest 0.30 s after landing A solid, vertical cylinder with a mass of on the pad. 10.0 kg and a radius of 2.00 m rotates with a) Calculate the athlete’s velocity just be- an angular speed of 7.00 rad/s about a ﬁxed fore reaching the pad. vertical axis through its center. A 0.250 kg piece of putty is dropped vertically at a point Part 2 of 2 1.00 m from the cylinder’s center of rotation b) Calculate the constant force exerted on the and sticks to the cylinder. pole vaulter due to the collision. What is the ﬁnal angular speed of the sys- tem? Holt SF 06Rev 57 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Holt SF 08D 04 wording-variable. 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Assume: g = −9.81 m/s2 . Use the value 5.98 × 1024 kg as the mass of Earth. As Halley’s comet orbits the sun, its dis- A 7.50 kg laundry bag is dropped from rest tance from the sun changes dramatically. at an initial height of 3.00 m. If the comet’s speed at a distance of 8.8 × What is the speed of Earth toward the bag 1010 m from the sun is 5.4 × 104 m/s and just before the bag hits the ground? angular momentum is conserved, what is its speed when it is 5.2 × 1012 m from the sun? Holt SF 08D 01 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Holt SF 08D 05 Chapter 3, section 7, Momentum 202 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 3. only its height from the ground. wording-variable. 4. only its speed. The entrance of a science museum features a funnel into which marbles are rolled one at 5. only its mass. a time. The marbles circle around the wall of the funnel, eventually spiraling down into the Momentum 02 neck of the funnel. The internal radius of the 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. funnel at the top is 0.54 m. At the bottom, the funnel’s neck narrows to an internal radius The formula for momentum is of 0.040 m. A 2.5 × 10−2 kg marble begins rolling in a large circular orbit around the 1. p = mv funnel’s rim at 0.35 rev/s. If it continues moving in a roughly circular ∆v 2. p = path, what will the marble’s angular speed be ∆t as it passes through the neck of the funnel? ∆d 3. p = (Consider only the eﬀects of the conservation ∆t of angular momentum.) 4. p = mgh Impulse on a Nail 1 03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 5. p = mv 2 2 A(n) 3.2 lb hammer head, traveling at Momentum 03 5.8 ft/s strikes a nail and is brought to a 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. stop in 0.00083 s. What force did the nail receive? When two objects collide, is con- served. Misguided Consolation 03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 1. momentum A(n) 130 lb student, contemplating the 2. acceleration poor score just received on a test, sits on the edge of a 71 ft high cliﬀ, pondering his 3. velocity bleak future. Just then his 6 slug buddy, un- aware of the hazard, rushes from behind at 4. speed 13 ft/s and grabs him consoling. How far from the bottom of the cliﬀ will 5. energy they land? Momentum and Energy Momentum 01 03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Part 1 of 4 The amount of momentum an object has A 30 kg gun is standing on a frictionless depends on its surface. The gun ﬁres a 50 g bullet with a muzzle velocity of 310 m/s. 1. mass and speed. Calculate the momentum of the bullet im- mediately after the gun was ﬁred. 2. mass and height from the ground. Part 2 of 4 Chapter 3, section 7, Momentum 203 Calculate the momentum of the gun immedi- throwing the camera at a speed of 12 m/s in ately after the gun was ﬁred. the direction away from the shuttle. How long will it take for her to reach the Part 3 of 4 shuttle? Calculate the kinetic energy of the bullet im- mediately after the gun was ﬁred. Riﬂe Recoil 03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Part 4 of 4 Calculate the kinetic energy of the gun imme- A(n) 2.5 kg riﬂe ﬁres a(n) 20 g bullet at diately after the gun was ﬁred. 400 m/s. The magnitude of the recoil mo- mentum of the riﬂe is: Momentum Comparison 03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Speed Comparison 03:07, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, nor- A 7 kg bowling ball moves in a straight line mal. at 3 m/s. How fast must a 2.45 g Ping-Pong ball move in a straight line so that the two An open train car moves with speed 15 m/s balls have the same momentum? on a ﬂat frictionless railroad track, with no engine pulling the car. It begins to rain. The Pitching Machine Recoil rain falls straight down and begins to ﬁll the 03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. train car. The speed of the car A baseball player uses a pitching machine to help him improve his batting average. He 1. decreases places the 50 kg machine on a frozen pond. The machine ﬁres a 0.15 kg baseball horizon- 2. increases tally at a speed of 36 m/s. What is the magnitude of the recoil velocity 3. stays the same of the machine? Stop a Freight Car Pitching Speed 03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. A(n) 10000 kg freight car is rolling along a A pitcher claims he can throw a baseball track at 3 m/s. with as much momentum as a 3 g bullet mov- Calculate the time needed for a force of ing with a speed of 1500 m/s. A baseball has 1000 N to stop the car. a mass of 0.145 kg. What must be its speed if the pitcher’s Stopped by a Block claim is valid? 03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Return to the Shuttle A 10 g bullet is stopped in a block of wood ( 03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. m = 5 kg ). The speed of the bullet-plus-wood combination immediately after the collision is A(n) 65 kg astronaut becomes separated 0.6 m/s. from the shuttle, while on a spacewalk. She What was the original speed of the bullet? ﬁnds herself 50 m away from the shuttle and moving with zero speed relative to the shuttle. Students on Skates She has a(n) 0.65 kg camera in her hand 03:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. and decides to get back to the shuttle by Chapter 3, section 7, Momentum 204 Two students on roller skates stand face-to- face, then push each other away. Which student will always have the fastest speed? 1. The student with the larger mass. 2. The student with the smaller mass. 3. Unable to determined. Velocity Change 03:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Small rockets are used to make small ad- justments in the speed of satellites. One such rocket has a thrust of 35 N. If it is ﬁred to change the velocity of a(n) 72000 kg space craft by 63 cm/s, how long should it be ﬁred? Chapter 3, section 8, Fluid Forces and Pressure 205 1. they again have equal weights Aerodynamics 01 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. the ax is heavier than the piston An airplane wing is designed to make the 3. both weigh less in air than in water air move 4. the piston is heavier than the ax 1. faster over the top than under the bot- tom. 5. whichever of the two is longer weighs more than the other 2. slower over the top than under the bot- tom. 6. whichever of the two is wider weighs more than the other 3. the same speed on both sides of the wing. Bubble From the Deep 03:08, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Brine Strength 03:08, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. At 25 m below the surface of the sea (den- sity of 1025 kg/m3 ), where the temperature Part 1 of 2 is 5 ◦ C, a diver exhales an air bubble having When pickling cucumbers or other vegeta- a volume of 1 cm3 . If the surface tempera- bles, it’s very important to use the right ture of the sea is 20◦ C, what is the volume of amount of salt. An old recipe recommends the bubble immediately before it breaks the putting an egg into the pickling solution and surface? making sure it neither sinks nor ﬂoats: A sinking egg indicates too little salt while an Buoyancy 01 egg that ﬂoats on the surface indicates too 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. much salt. What is the assumption behind this recipe? Consider the completion of the statement: ”The buoyant force exerted by a ﬂuid can be 1. all eggs have the same density. .” A. greater than the weight of the object. 2. all eggs have the same weight. B. less than the weight of the object. C. the same as the weight of the object. 3. all eggs have the same volume. 1. A, B, and C are true. 4. all eggs have the same shape. 2. Only A is true. 5. the salt tends to neutralize the cholesterol in the egg. 3. Only B is true. Part 2 of 2 4. Only C is true. Consider a steel ax and an aluminum piston. (Note that steel is denser than aluminum.) 5. Only A and B are true. When weighed in water, the ax and the piston have the same apparent weight. But when the 5. Only A and C are true. same ax and the same piston are weighed in air: 5. Only B and C are true. Chapter 3, section 8, Fluid Forces and Pressure 206 Buoyancy 02 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. only the wood An object ﬂoats because it displaces a 3. only the steel weight of ﬂuid 4. only the water 1. equal to or greater than its own weight. 5. only the wood and the steel 2. equal to its volume. 6. only the water and the steel 3. less than its own weight. 7. only the wood and the water 4. with a density greater than 1 g/cm3 . 8. None will ﬂoat. Buoyancy 03 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Part 3 of 3 c) If all four substances are placed in one Part 1 of 3 container, how will they be arranged from top Consider the table of densities. to bottom? Substance Density g/cm3 1. wood, water, steel, mercury Water 1.0 Wood 0.8 2. mercury, steel, water, wood Steel 7.8 Mercury 13.5 3. wood, water, mercury, steel a) Which substance(s) will ﬂoat when placed in water? 4. steel, mercury, water, wood 1. only the wood 5. water, mercury, steel, wood 2. only the steel 6. wood, steel, mercury, water 3. only the mercury 7. None of these 4. only the wood and the steel Buoyancy 04 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 5. only the mercury and the steel According to principle, the buoyant 6. only the wood and the mercury force on an object is equal to the weight of the ﬂuid displaced by that object. 7. All three will ﬂoat. 1. Archimede’s 8. None will ﬂoat. 2. Newton’s Part 2 of 3 3. Boyle’s b) Which substance(s) will ﬂoat when placed in mercury? 4. Charles’ 1. All three will ﬂoat. Chapter 3, section 8, Fluid Forces and Pressure 207 5. Bernouli’s Where is the ﬂuid pressure the greatest? Buoyancy 05 1. 2 meters below the surface of a swimming 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. pool. Why does a hot air balloon ﬂoat? 2. 1 meter below the surface of a swimming pool. 1. Its overall density is less than the density of the surrounding air. 3. 30 centimeters below the surface of a swimming pool. 2. The shape of the balloon provides lift. 4. The pressure is the same in all parts of a 3. The weight of air displaced by the balloon swimming pool. is less than the volume of the balloon. Buoyancy 09 4. The volume of the air dispaced by the bal- 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. loon is less than the volume of the balloon. Which of the following will ﬂoat in corn Buoyancy 06 syrup density 1.38 g/cm3 ? 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. rubber 1.23 g/cm3 Which of the following will sink in water density 1 g/cm3 ? 2. magnesium 1.75 g/cm3 1. steel 7.18 g/cm3 3. mercury 13.6 g/cm3 2. balsa wood 0.12 g/cm3 4. aluminum 2.7 g/cm3 3. cooking oil 0.82 g/cm3 Buoyancy 10 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. ethyl alcohol 0.798 g/cm3 Consider the following statements. Buoyancy 07 A. An object is said to be neutrally buoyant 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. when the weight of the object is less than the buoyant force. The strength of the buoyant force acting on B. Bernoulli’s principle states that increas- an object in a ﬂuid depends on the object’s ing the speed of a ﬂuid increases the pressure of the ﬂuid. 1. volume. C. If the same force is spread out over a larger area, the pressure will increase. 2. mass. Which one(s) is/are true? 3. surface area. 1. None is true. 4. weight. 2. A and B only. Buoyancy 08 3. A and C only. 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Chapter 3, section 8, Fluid Forces and Pressure 208 4. B and C only. Conversion 142 03:08, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 5. A only. A guy who makes neon signs needs to make 6. B only. sure that the neon pressure in the tube is about 4000 pascals. 7. C only. What would this pressure be in atmo- spheres? ( 101300 pascals = 1 atm ) 8. All three are true. Conversion 143 Car Tire Pressure 03:08, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 03:08, basic, numeric, > 1 min, ﬁxed. The radio reported this morning that the A car tire gauge is used to ﬁll a tire to a pressure outside was 25 torr which is equal to gauge pressure of 42.5 lb/in 2 on a cold morn- ? . ing when the temperature is -16◦ C. What would the tire gauge read (in lb/in2 ) when Density 03 the tire has been heated up to 44.2◦ C? Ignore 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. the expansion of the rubber. Atmospheric pressure is 14.7 lb/in2 , 0◦ C = 273.15K. is the mass of a substance divided by its volume. 1. 55.8908 lb/in 2 1. Density 2. 45.6546 lb/in 2 2. Pressure 3. 48.2543 lb/in 2 3. Inertia 4. 53.9873 lb/in 2 4. Weight 5. 60.2384 lb/in 2 Fluids 02 6. 51.4355 lb/in 2 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 7. 65.0087 lb/in 2 Fluids are 8. 70.2523 lb/in 2 1. either liquids or gases. 9. 73.3468 lb/in 2 2. liquids. 10. 75.2718 lb/in 2 3. either solids or gases. Conversion 141 4. liquids, gases, and solids. 03:08, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Hewitt CP9 04 E37 On a hot sunny day in August, the weath- 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. erman reports that the barometric pressure is 40 atmospheres. A parachutist, after opening the chute, How many pascals is this? ﬁnds herself gently ﬂoating downward, no Chapter 3, section 8, Fluid Forces and Pressure 209 longer gaining speed. She feels the upward 3. They hit the ground at the same time. pull of the harness, while gravity pulls her down. 4. The ball of wood. How much is the pull of the harness? 5. All are wrong. 1. Equal to the gravity Hewitt CP9 04 P08 2. Smaller than the gravity 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- mal. 3. Greater than the gravity What will be the acceleration of a skydiver 4. Half of the gravity when air resistance builds up to be 50% of her weight? (g = 10 m/s2 ). 5. All above are wrong. Hewitt CP9 12 E05 Hewitt CP9 04 E39 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. In a deep dive, a whale is appreciably com- Upon which will air resistance be the great- pressed by the pressure of the surrounding est: a sheet of paper, the same paper wadded water. into a ball, or the same paper folded? They What happens to the whale’s density? fall at diﬀerent terminal speeds. 1. It cannot be determined. 1. The ﬁrst one 2. Its density remains the same as before. 2. The second one 3. Its density decreases. 3. The third one 4. Its density increases. 4. All forces are the same. Holt SF 09B 01 5. All are wrong. 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Hewitt CP9 04 E47 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Part 1 of 2 In a car lift, compressed air exerts a force When Galileo dropped two balls from the on a piston with a radius of 5.00 cm. This top of the Leaning Tower of Pisa, air resis- pressure is transmitted to a second piston tance was not really negligible. with a radius of 15.0 cm. Assuming both balls were the same size, a) How large a force must the compressed one made of wood and one of metal, which air exert to lift a 1.33 × 104 N car? ball struck the ground ﬁrst? Part 2 of 2 1. The ball of metal, but only by a short b) What pressure produces this force? Ne- time upon. glect the weight of the pistons. 2. The ball of metal, by half the time as the Holt SF 09B 02 ball of wood. 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Chapter 3, section 8, Fluid Forces and Pressure 210 a) What is the pressure at the surface of the A 1.5 m wide by 2.5 m long water bed water? weighs 1025 N. Find the pressure that the water bed exerts Part 2 of 2 on the ﬂoor. Assume that the entire lower b) What is the absolute pressure at the bot- surface of the bed makes contact with the tom of the container? ﬂoor. Holt SF 09C 03 Holt SF 09B 03 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. wording-variable. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Part 1 of 2 A beaker containing mercury is placed in- A person rides up a lift to a mountain top, side a vacuum chamber in a laboratory. The but the person’s ears fail to ”pop”; that is, pressure at the bottom of the beaker is the pressure of the inner ear does not equalize 2.7 × 104 Pa. with the outside atmosphere. The radius of What is the height of the mercury in the each eardrum is 0.40 cm. The pressure of the beaker? atmosphere drops from 1.010 × 105 Pa at the bottom of the lift to 0.998 × 105 Pa at the top. Holt SF 09C 04 a) What is the net pressure on the inner ear 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. at the top of the mountain? Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Part 2 of 2 Calculate the depth in the ocean at which b) What is the magnitude of the net force on the pressure is three times atmospheric pres- each eardrum? sure. Holt SF 09C 01 Holt SF 09Rev 16 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . The Mariana Trench, in the Paciﬁc Ocean, The four tires of an automobile are inﬂated is about 11.0 km deep. to an absolute pressure of 2.000 × 105 Pa. If atmospheric pressure at sea level is Each tire has an area of 0.02400 m2 in contact 1.01 × 105 Pa and the density of sea water is with the ground. 1.025 × 103 kg/m3 , how much pressure would Determine the weight of the automobile. a submarine need to be able to withstand to reach this depth? Holt SF 09Rev 17 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Holt SF 09C 02 wording-variable. 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. A pipe contains water at 5.00×105 Pa above atmospheric pressure. Part 1 of 2 If you patch a 4.00 mm diameter hole in the Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . pipe with a piece of bubble gum, how much A container is ﬁlled with water to a depth force must the gum be able to withstand? of 20.0 cm. On top of the water ﬂoats a 30.0 cm thick layer of oil with a density of Holt SF 09Rev 18 0.70 × 103 kg/m3 . 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Chapter 3, section 8, Fluid Forces and Pressure 211 wording-variable. atmosphere, what is the speed of the water as it leaves the hole? A piston A has a diameter of 0.64 cm, as shown. A second piston B has a diameter of Holt SF 09Rev 24 3.8 cm. 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. 500 N F The hypodermic syringe shown in the ﬁgure B contains a medicine with the same density as water. The barrel of the syringe has a cross- A sectional area of 2.50 × 10−5 m2 . The cross- sectional area of the needle is 1.00 × 10−8 m2 . In the absence of a force on the plunger, the pressure everywhere is atmospheric pressure. A 2.00 N force is exerted on the plunger, In the absence of friction, determine the making medicine squirt from the needle. force F necessary to support the 500.0 N A1 weight. P2 F v2 Holt SF 09Rev 19 P1 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, A2 wording-variable. Part 1 of 2 Determine the speed of the emerging ﬂuid. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Assume that the pressure in the needle re- A submarine is at an ocean depth of 250 m. mains at atmospheric pressure, that the sy- Assume that the density of sea water is 1.025× ringe is horizontal, and that the speed of the 103 kg/m3 and the atmospheric pressure is emerging ﬂuid is the same as the speed of the 1.01 × 105 Pa. ﬂuid in the needle. a) Calculate the absolute pressure at this depth. Holt SF 09Rev 31 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 2 of 2 wording-variable. b) Calculate the magnitude of the force ex- erted by the water at this depth on a cir- Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . cular submarine window with a diameter of An engineer weighs a sample of mercury 30.0 cm. (ρ = 13.6 × 103 kg/m3 ) and ﬁnds that the weight of the sample is 4.5 N. Holt SF 09Rev 23 What is the sample’s volume? 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Holt SF 09Rev 32 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . wording-variable. A dairy farmer notices that a circular water trough near the barn has become rusty and How much force does the atmosphere exert now has a hole near the base. The hole is on 1.00 km2 of land at sea level? 0.30 m below the level of the water that is in the tank. Holt SF 09Rev 33 If the top of the trough is open to the 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Chapter 3, section 8, Fluid Forces and Pressure 212 wording-variable. ing a 1.00 min interval. If the bearings each have a mass of 8.0 g Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . and the area of the tested material is 0.75 m2 , A 70.0 kg man sits in a 5.0 kg chair so what pressure is exerted on the material? that his weight is evenly distributed on the legs of the chair. Assume that each leg makes Pressure 01 contact with the ﬂoor over a circular area with 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. a radius of 1.0 cm. What is the pressure exerted on the ﬂoor To ﬁnd pressure, you must know by each leg? 1. force and area. Holt SF 09Rev 37 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 2. mass and area. wording-variable. 3. force and mass. Part 1 of 2 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . 4. weight and volume. A circular swimming pool at sea level has a ﬂat bottom and a 6.00 m diameter. It is ﬁlled Pressure 02 with water to a depth of 1.50 m. 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. a) What is the absolute pressure at the bottom? One reason air pressure increases at lower altitudes is because Part 2 of 2 Two people with a combined mass of 150 kg 1. there are more air particles in a given ﬂoat in the pool. area. b) What is the resulting increase in the average absolute pressure at the bottom? 2. the air particles have more mass. Holt SF 09Rev 55 3. the air particles have less mass. 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. 4. there are fewer air particles in a given area. In a time interval of 1.0 s, 5.0 × 1023 nitrogen molecules strike a wall area of Pressure 03 8.0 cm2 . The mass of one nitrogen molecule 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. is 4.68 × 10−26 kg. If the molecules move at 300.0 m/s and What is the pressure if a force of 200 N is strike the wall head-on in an elastic collision, applied over an area of 50 cm2 ? what is the pressure exerted on the wall? 1. 4 N/cm2 Holt SF 09Rev 67 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 2. 0.24 N/cm2 wording-variable. 3. 10000 N/cm2 In testing a new material for shielding spacecraft, 150 small ball bearings, each mov- 4. 150 N/cm2 ing at a supersonic speed of 400.0 m/s, collide head-on and elastically with the material dur- Pressure 04 Chapter 3, section 8, Fluid Forces and Pressure 213 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. velocity When you increase the area over which pressure is applied, 3. mass 1. the force on that area increases. 4. energy 2. the pressure increases. Pressure 08 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. the pressure ﬁrst increases and then de- creases. Consider the following statements: A. A siphon is a simple tube or hose that 4. the pressure decreases. operates by creating a diﬀerence in pressure. B. The pressure in a moving stream of ﬂuid Pressure 05 is more that the pressure in the surrounding 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. ﬂuid. C. Fluids exert pressure in all directions. The pressure in a moving stream of ﬂuid Which of the statements is/are true? 1. is less than the pressure in the surround- 1. A and C only ing ﬂuid. 2. B and C only 2. depends on the nature of the ﬂuid. 3. A and B only 3. depends on the volume of the ﬂuid. 4. A only 4. is greater than the pressure in the sur- rounding ﬂuid. 5. B only Pressure 06 6. C only 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 7. All three are true. Pressure is force divided by 8. None are true. 1. area. Pressure 09 2. volume. 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. velocity. Consider the following statements: A. When the air moving over the top of 4. energy. an airplane wing is going faster than the air moving under the wing, the airplane will rise. Pressure 07 B. The density of water is 1 g/cm3 . 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. C. Atmospheric pressure is measured with a device called a barometer. Due to the force of gravity, the of a Which of the statements is/are true? ﬂuid increases as depth increases. 1. All three are true. 1. pressure Chapter 3, section 8, Fluid Forces and Pressure 214 2. A and B only 03:08, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 3. B and C only The pressure exerted by the atmosphere is about 100000 Pa. Convert this to kPa. 4. A and C only Running Out of Gas 5. A only 03:08, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 6. B only One morning Don’s car ran out of gasoline in a deserted area. He hiked to the nearest gas 7. C only station, reaching it during the hottest part of the day. Upon reaching the station, he ﬁlled 8. None are true. up a 1 gallon container with gasoline and started his walk back. By the time he reached Pressure 10 his car in the evening, the temperature had 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. dropped 25 ◦ F. Note: The volume expansion of gasoline The equivalent unit for N/m2 is is β = 0.00096 ◦ C−1 . Neglect the change in volume of the container. 1. Pascal. How many gallons of gasoline did Don have when he reached his car? 2. Newton. Speciﬁc Gravity 50 3. Joule. 03:08, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. None of these. Assume that you have the same volume of each of the following substances (speciﬁc Pressure 11 gravities in parentheses): magnesium (1.74), 03:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. table salt (2.16), ethyl alcohol (0.789) and water (1.00). Atmospheric pressure is caused by Which substance has the LEAST weight? 1. the weight of air above a particular loca- 1. magnesium tion. 2. table salt 2. clouds. 3. ehtyl alcohol 3. the altitude above sea level. 4. water 4. air currents. Speciﬁc Gravity 51 Pressure Change 03:08, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 03:08, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Assume that you have the same mass of A container of air at 25◦ C is sealed oﬀ. If it each of the following substances (speciﬁc grav- is heated to 100◦ C, what is the ﬁnal pressure ities in parentheses): iron (7.86), copper in the container? (8.92), aluminum (2.70) and table salt (2.16). Which one has the LEAST volume? Pressure Conversion Chapter 3, section 8, Fluid Forces and Pressure 215 1. iron 2. copper 3. aluminum 4. table salt Spiked Heels 03:08, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. A 50 kg woman balances on one heel of a pair of high-heeled shoes. If the heel is circular with radius 0.5 cm, what pressure does she exert on the ﬂoor? Tilted Chair 03:08, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. A 70 kg man in a 5 kg chair tilts back so that all the weight is balanced on two legs of the chair. Assume that each leg makes contact with the ﬂoor over a circular area with a radius of 1 cm. Find the pressure exerted on the ﬂoor by each leg. Chapter 3, section 9, Hydraulic Devices 216 Engine on a Lift Part 2 of 2 03:09, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. b) Calculate the pressure in the smaller sec- tion. Part 1 of 2 In a machine shop, a hydraulic lift is used to Holt SF 09D 03 raise heavy equipment for repairs. The system 03:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, has a small piston with a cross-sectional area wording-variable. of 0.07 m2 and a large piston with a cross- sectional area of 0.21 m2 . An engine weighing When a person inhales, air moves down the 2700 N rests on the large piston. windpipe at 15 cm/s. The average ﬂow speed What force must be applied to the small of the air doubles when passing through a piston in order to lift the engine? constriction in the bronchus. Assuming incompressible ﬂow, determine Part 2 of 2 the pressure drop in the constriction. If the engine rises 0.2 m, how far does the smaller piston move? Holt SF 09Rev 38 03:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Holt SF 09D 01 wording-variable. 03:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 1 of 2 The wind blows with a speed of 30.0 m/s Part 1 of 2 over the roof of your house. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . a) Assuming the air inside the house is rel- A large storage tank, open to the atmo- atively stagnant, what is the pressure diﬀer- sphere at the top and ﬁlled with water, devel- ence at the roof between the inside air and the ops a small hole in its side at a point 16 m outside air? below the water level. The rate of ﬂow of water from the leak is 2.5 × 10−3 m3 /min. Part 2 of 2 a) Determine the speed at which the water b) What net force does this pressure diﬀerence leaves the hole. produce on a roof having an area of 175 m2 ? Part 2 of 2 Holt SF 09Rev 39 b) Determine the diameter of the hole. 03:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Holt SF 09D 02 03:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . wording-variable. A bag of blood with a density of 1050 kg/m3 is raised 1.00 m higher than the level of a Part 1 of 2 patient’s arm. A liquid with a density of 1.65 × 103 kg/m3 How much greater is the blood pressure ﬂows through two horizontal sections of tub- at the patient’s arm than it would be if the ing joined end to end. In the ﬁrst section, the bag were at the same height as the arm? cross-sectional area is 10.0 cm2 , the ﬂow speed Assume there is no change in drip speed at is 275 cm/s, and the pressure is 1.20 × 105 Pa. the diﬀerent heights. In the second section, the cross-sectional area is 2.50 cm2 . Holt SF 09Rev 50 a) Calculate the ﬂow speed in the smaller 03:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, section. wording-variable. Chapter 3, section 9, Hydraulic Devices 217 imum height attained by the water stream A hydraulic brake system is shown. The coming out of the right side of the tank? As- area of the piston in the master cylinder is sume that the cross-sectional area at A is very 6.40 cm2 , and the area of the piston in the large compared with that at B. brake cylinder is 1.75 cm2 . The coeﬃcient of kinetic friction between the brake shoe and Holt SF 09Rev 58 the wheel drum is 0.500. 03:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Wheel drum Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Pedal Brake shoe Water ﬂows through a 0.300 m radius pipe at the rate of 0.200 m3 /s. The pressure in the pipe is atmospheric. The pipe slants downhill and feeds into a second pipe with a radius of Brake cylinder 0.150 m, positioned 0.600 m lower. Master cylinder µk = 0.5 What is the gauge pressure in the lower pipe? How large is the frictional force between the brake shoe and the wheel drum when a force Holt SF 09Rev 60 of 44 N is exerted on the pedal? 03:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Holt SF 09Rev 51 03:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 1 of 2 wording-variable. The aorta in an average adult has a cross- sectional area of 2.0 cm2 . A natural-gas pipeline with a diameter of a) Calculate the ﬂow rate (in grams per 0.250 m delivers 1.55 m3 of gas per second. second) of blood (ρ = 1.0 g/cm3 ) in the aorta What is the the ﬂow speed of the gas? if the ﬂow speed is 42 cm/s. Holt SF 09Rev 56 Part 2 of 2 03:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Assume that the aorta branches to form a wording-variable. large number of capillaries with a combined cross-sectional area of 3.0 × 103 cm2 . Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . b) What is the ﬂow speed in the capillar- A water tank with a valve at the bottom is ies? shown. Holt SF 09Rev 61 03:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, A wording-variable. The approximate inside diameter of the 10 m aorta is 1.6 cm, and that of a capillary is Valve B 1.0 × 10−6 m. The average ﬂow speed is about 2m 30◦ 1.0 m/s in the aorta and 1.0 cm/s in the cap- illaries. If all the blood in the aorta eventually ﬂows through the capillaries, estimate the number of capillaries in the circulatory system. If this valve is opened, what is the max- Chapter 3, section 9, Hydraulic Devices 218 Holt SF 09Rev 62 03:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. A cowboy at a ranch ﬁlls a water trough that is 1.5 m long, 65 cm wide, and 45 cm deep. He uses a hose having a diameter of 2.0 cm, and the water emerges from the hose at 1.5 m/s. How long does it take the cowboy to ﬁll the trough? Hydraulic Lift 03:09, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. The small piston of a hydraulic lift has a cross-sectional area of A1 = 3 cm2 and the large piston has an area of A2 = 200 cm2 , as in the ﬁgure below. F1 A1 A2 F2 What force must be applied to the small pis- ton to raise a load of 15 kN? (In service sta- tions this is usually accomplished with com- pressed air.) Hydraulics 01 03:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. The brake system on a car is an example of a(n) 1. hydraulic device. 2. simple machine. 3. lever. 4. inclined plane. Chapter 3, section 10, Collisions 219 Holt SF 06E 01 Part 1 of 2 03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, A 47.4 kg student runs down the sidewalk wording-variable. and jumps with a horizontal speed of 4.20 m/s onto a stationary skateboard. The student A 1500 kg car traveling at 15.0 m/s to the and skateboard move down the sidewalk with south collides with a 4500 kg truck that is a speed of 3.95 m/s. initially at rest at a stoplight. The car and a) Find the mass of the skateboard. truck stick together and move together after the collision. Part 2 of 2 What is the ﬁnal velocity of the two-vehicle b) How fast would the student have to jump mass? to have a ﬁnal speed of 5.00 m/s? Holt SF 06E 02 Holt SF 06F 01 03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. wording-variable. A grocery shopper tosses a(n) 9.0 kg bag Part 1 of 2 of rice into a stationary 18.0 kg grocery cart. A 0.25 kg arrow with a velocity of 12 m/s The bag hits the cart with a horizontal speed to the west strikes and pierces the center of a of 5.5 m/s toward the front of the cart. 6.8 kg target. What is the ﬁnal speed of the cart and a) What is the ﬁnal velocity of the combined bag? mass? Holt SF 06E 03 Part 2 of 2 03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, b) What is the decrease in kinetic energy wording-variable. during the collision? A 1.50 × 104 kg railroad car moving at 7.00 Holt SF 06F 02 m/s to the north collides with and sticks to 03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, another railroad car of the same mass that is wording-variable. moving in the same direction at 1.50 m/s. What is the velocity of the joined cars after Part 1 of 2 the collision? During practice, a student kicks a 0.40 kg soccer ball with a velocity of 8.5 m/s to the Holt SF 06E 04 south into a 0.15 kg bucket lying on its side. 03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, The bucket travels with the ball after the wording-variable. collision. a) What is the ﬁnal velocity of the combined A dry cleaner throws a 22 kg bag of laundry mass? onto a stationary 9.0 kg cart. The cart and laundry bag begin moving at 3.0 m/s to the Part 2 of 2 right. b) What is the decrease in kinetic energy Find the velocity of the laundry bag before during the collision? the collision. Holt SF 06F 03 Holt SF 06E 05 03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. wording-variable. Chapter 3, section 10, Collisions 220 Part 1 of 2 Part 2 of 3 A 56 kg ice skater traveling at 4.0 m/s to b) What is the total kinetic energy before the the north suddenly grabs the hand of a 65 kg collision? skater traveling at 12.0 m/s in the opposite direction as they pass. Without rotating, the Part 3 of 3 two skaters continue skating together with c) What is the total kinetic energy after the joined hands. collision? a) What is the ﬁnal velocity of the two skaters? Holt SF 06G 03 03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 2 of 2 wording-variable. b) What is the decrease in kinetic energy during the collision? Part 1 of 3 A 4.0 kg bowling ball sliding to the right at Holt SF 06G 01 8.00 m/s has an elastic head-on collision with 03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, another 4.0 kg bowling ball initially at rest. wording-variable. The ﬁrst ball stops after the collision. a) Find the velocity of the second ball after Part 1 of 3 the collision. A 0.015 kg marble sliding to the right at 22.5 cm/s on a frictionless surface makes an Part 2 of 3 elastic head-on collision with a 0.015 kg mar- b) What is the total kinetic energy before the ble moving to the left at 18.0 cm/s. After the collision? collision, the ﬁrst marble moves to the left at 18.0 cm/s. Part 3 of 3 a) Find the velocity of the second marble c) What is the total kinetic energy after the after the collision. collision? Part 2 of 3 Holt SF 06G 04 b) What is the total kinetic energy before the 03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, collision? wording-variable. Part 3 of 3 Part 1 of 3 c) What is the total kinetic energy after the A 25.0 kg bumper car moving to the right collision? at 5.00 m/s overtakes and collides elastically with a 35.0 kg bumper car moving to the Holt SF 06G 02 right. After the collision, the 25.0 kg bumper 03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, car slows to 1.50 m/s to the right, and the wording-variable. 35.0 kg car moves at 4.50 m/s to the right. a) Find the velocity of the 35.0 kg bumper Part 1 of 3 car before the collision. A 16.0 kg canoe moving to the left at 12 m/s makes an elastic head-on collision with a 4.0 Part 2 of 3 kg raft moving to the right at 6.0 m/s. After b) What is the total kinetic energy before the the collision, the raft moves to the left at 22.7 collision? m/s. Disregard any eﬀects of the water. a) Find the velocity of the canoe after the Part 3 of 3 collision. c) What is the total kinetic energy after the Chapter 3, section 10, Collisions 221 collision? Part 2 of 2 b) What is the decrease in kinetic energy Holt SF 06Rev 31 during the collision? 03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Holt SF 06Rev 35 03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Two carts with masses of 4.0 kg and 3.0 wording-variable. kg move toward each other on a frictionless track with speeds of 5.0 m/s and 4.0 m/s, Part 1 of 2 respectively. The carts stick together after An 88 kg fullback moving east with a speed colliding head-on. of 5.0 m/s is tackled by a 97 kg opponent Find their ﬁnal speed. running west at 3.0 m/s, and the collision is perfectly inelastic. Holt SF 06Rev 32 a) What is the velocity of the players im- 03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, mediately after the tackle? wording-variable. Part 2 of 2 A 1.20 kg skateboard is coasting along the b) What is the decrease in kinetic energy pavement at a speed of 5.00 m/s when a 0.800 during the collision? kg cat drops from a tree vertically downward onto the skateboard. Holt SF 06Rev 36 What is the speed of the skateboard-cat 03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, combination? wording-variable. Holt SF 06Rev 33 Part 1 of 2 03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, A 5.0 g coin sliding to the right at 25.0 wording-variable. cm/s makes an elastic head-on collision with a 15.0 g coin that is initially at rest. After the Two carts with masses of 10.0 kg and 2.5 kg collision, the 5.0 g coin moves to the left at move in opposite directions on a frictionless 12.5 cm/s. horizontal track with speeds of 6.0 m/s and a) Find the ﬁnal velocity of the other coin. 3.0 m/s, respectively. The carts stick together after colliding head-on. Part 2 of 2 Find their ﬁnal speed. b) How much kinetic energy is transferred to the 15.0 g coin? Holt SF 06Rev 34 03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Holt SF 06Rev 37 wording-variable. 03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 1 of 2 A railroad car with a mass of 2.00 × 104 A billiard ball traveling at 4.0 m/s has an kg moving at 3.00 m/s collides and joins with elastic head-on collision with a billiard ball of two railroad cars already joined together, each equal mass that is initially at rest. The ﬁrst with the same mass as the single car and ball is at rest after the collision. initially moving in the same direction at 1.20 What is the speed of the second ball after m/s. the collision? a) What is the ﬁnal speed of the three joined cars after the collision? Holt SF 06Rev 38 03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Chapter 3, section 10, Collisions 222 wording-variable. wording-variable. A 25.0 g marble sliding to the right at 20.0 A 5.5 g experimental dart is ﬁred into a cm/s overtakes and collides elastically with a block of wood with a mass of 22.6 g. The 10.0 g marble moving in the same direction wood block is initially at rest on a 1.5 m tall at 15.0 cm/s. After the collision, the 10.0 g post. After the collision, the wood block and marble moves to the right at 22.1 cm/s. dart land 2.5 m from the base of the post. Find the velocity of the 25.0 g marble after Find the initial speed of the dart. the collision. Holt SF 06Rev 46 Holt SF 06Rev 39 03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- wording-variable. mal. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A 15 g toy car moving to the right at A 730 N student stands in the middle of a 20 cm/s has a head-on nearly elastic collision frozen pond having a radius of 5.0 m. He is with a 20 g toy car moving in the opposite di- unable to get to the other side because of a rection at 30 cm/s. After colliding, the 15 g lack of friction between his shoes and the ice. car moves with a velocity of 37 cm/s to the To overcome this diﬃculty, he throws his 2.6 left. kg physics textbook horizontally toward the Find the speed of the second car after the north shore at a speed of 5.0 m/s. collision. How long does it take him to reach the south shore? Holt SF 06Rev 40 03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Holt SF 06Rev 48 wording-variable. 03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Two shuﬄeboard disks of equal mass, one orange and the other yellow, are involved in A 1550 kg car moving south at 10.0 m/s an elastic collision. The yellow disk is initially collides with a 2550 kg car moving north. The at rest and is struck by the orange disk moving cars stick together and move as a unit after initially to the right at 5.00 m/s. After the the collision at a velocity of 5.22 m/s to the collision, the orange disk is at rest. north. What is the velocity of the yellow disk after Find the velocity of the 2550 kg car before the collision? the collision. Holt SF 06Rev 44 Holt SF 06Rev 49 03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. wording-variable. A 3.00 kg mud ball has a perfectly inelastic Part 1 of 2 collision with a second mud ball that is ini- A 2150 kg car moving east at 10.0 m/s tially at rest. The composite system moves collides with a 3250 kg car moving east. The with a speed equal to one-third the original cars stick together and move east as a unit speed of the 3.00 kg mud ball. after the collision at a velocity of 5.22 m/s. What is the mass of the second mud ball? a) What is the velocity of the 3250 kg car before the collision? Holt SF 06Rev 45 03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 2 of 2 Chapter 3, section 10, Collisions 223 b) What is the decrease in kinetic energy Part 2 of 2 during the collision? b) Find the velocity of the billiard ball ini- tially moving to the left immediately after the Holt SF 06Rev 50 collision. 03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Holt SF 06Rev 59 03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, A 0.400 kg bead slides on a straight fric- wording-variable. tionless wire with a velocity of 3.50 cm/s to the right, as shown. The bead collides elas- Part 1 of 2 tically with a larger 0.600 kg bead initially An unstable nucleus with a mass of 17.0 × at rest. After the collision, the smaller bead 10−27 kg initially at rest disintegrates into moves to the left with a velocity of 0.70 cm/s. three particles. One of the particles, of mass 3.5 cm/s 5.0 × 10−27 kg, moves along the positive y- 0.6 kg axis with a speed of 6.0 × 106 m/s. Another particle, of mass 8.4 × 10−27 kg, moves along 0.4 kg the positive x-axis with a speed of 4.0 × 106 Find the distance the larger bead moves m/s. along the wire in the ﬁrst 5.0 s following the a) Find the speed of the third particle. collision. Part 2 of 2 Holt SF 06Rev 54 b) At what angle does the third particle move? 03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. 1. 41.7603◦ below the negative x-axis Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . 2. 41.7603◦ above the negative x-axis A 2250 kg car traveling at 10.0 m/s collides with a 2750 kg car that is initially at rest 3. 41.7603◦ below the positive x-axis at a stoplight. The cars stick together and move 2.50 m before friction causes them to 4. 41.7603◦ above the positive x-axis stop. Assume that the negative acceleration is constant and that all wheels on both cars 5. 20.8801◦ below the negative x-axis lock at the time of impact. Determine the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction 6. 20.8801◦ above the negative x-axis between the cars and the road. 7. 20.8801◦ below the positive x-axis Holt SF 06Rev 58 03:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- 8. 20.8801◦ above the positive x-axis mal. 9. None of these Part 1 of 2 Two billiard balls with identical masses and sliding in opposite directions have an elastic head-on collision. Before the collision, each ball had a speed of 22 cm/s. a) Find the velocity of the billiard ball ini- tially moving to the right immediately after the collision. Chapter 3, section 11, Buoyancy and Fluid Flow 224 acting on the balloon? Holt SF 09A 01 03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Holt SF 09Rev 08 wording-variable. 03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 1 of 2 A piece of metal weighs 50.0 N in air, 36.0 Part 1 of 2 N in water, and 41.0 N in an unknown liquid. An object weighs 315 N in air. When tied a) Find the density of the metal. to a string, connected to a balance, and im- mersed in water, it weighs 265 N. When it is Part 2 of 2 immersed in oil, it weighs 269 N. b) Find the density of the unknown liquid. a) Find the density of the object. Holt SF 09A 02 Part 2 of 2 03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, b) Find the density of the oil. wording-variable. Holt SF 09Rev 09 A 2.8 kg rectangular air mattress is 2.00 m 03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, long, 0.500 m wide, and 0.100 m thick. wording-variable. What mass can it support in water before sinking? A sample of an unknown material weighs 300.0 N in air and 200.0 N when submerged Holt SF 09A 03 in an alcohol solution with a density of 0.700× 03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 103 kg/m3 . wording-variable. What is the density of the material? Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Holt SF 09Rev 36 A ferry boat is 4.0 m wide and 6.0 m long. 03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- When a truck pulls onto it, the boat sinks 4.00 mal. cm in the water. What is the combined weight of the truck A frog in a hemispherical bowl, as shown, and the ferry? just ﬂoats in a ﬂuid with a density of 1350 kg/m3 . Holt SF 09A 04 03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. ¡ Part 1 of 2 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . An empty rubber balloon has a mass of 0.0120 kg. The balloon is ﬁlled with helium If the bowl has a radius of 6 cm and negli- at 0◦ C, 1 atm pressure, and a density of 0.179 gible mass, what is the mass of the frog? kg/m3 . The ﬁlled balloon has a radius of 0.500 m. Holt SF 09Rev 41 a) What is the magnitude of the buoyant 03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, force acting on the balloon? wording-variable. Part 2 of 2 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . b) What is the magnitude of the net force When a load of 1.0 × 106 N is placed on a Chapter 3, section 11, Buoyancy and Fluid Flow 225 battleship, the ship sinks only 2.5 cm in sea bottom of the raft is 5.7 m2 , and the volume water. of the raft is 0.600 m3 . Estimate the cross-sectional area of the ship When the raft is placed in fresh water hav- at water level. ing a density of 1.0 × 103 kg/m3 , how deep is the bottom of the raft below water level? Holt SF 09Rev 43 03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Holt SF 09Rev 47 wording-variable. 03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 1 of 2 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Part 1 of 3 A 1.0 kg beaker containing 2.0 kg of oil Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . with a density of 916 kg/m3 rests on a scale. A physics book has a height of 26 cm, a A 2.00 kg block of iron is suspended from a width of 21 cm, and a thickness of 3.5 cm. spring scale and completely submerged in the a) What is the density of the physics book oil, as shown. if it weighs 19 N? Part 2 of 3 b) Find the pressure that the physics book exerts on a desktop when the book lies face up. Part 3 of 3 c) Find the pressure that the physics book exerts on the surface of a desktop when the book is balanced on its spine. 2.0 kg Holt SF 09Rev 48 03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. A jet of water squirts horizontally from a hole near the bottom of the tank as shown. a) Find the equilibrium reading of the spring scale. Part 2 of 2 b) Find the equilibrium reading of the lower scale. Holt SF 09Rev 44 03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. A raft is constructed of wood having a den- sity of 600.0 kg/m3 . The surface area of the Chapter 3, section 11, Buoyancy and Fluid Flow 226 wording-variable. Oil having a density of 930 kg/m3 ﬂoats on water. A rectangular block of wood 4.00 cm high and with a density of 960 kg/m3 ﬂoats partly in the oil and partly in the water. The oil completely covers the block. h How far below the interface between the two liquids is the bottom of the block? 1m Holt SF 09Rev 54 03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. 0.6 m A block of wood weighs 50.0 N in air. A sinker is hanging from the block, and the weight of the wood-sinker combination is 200.0 N when the sinker alone is immersed If the hole has a diameter of 3.50 mm and in water. When the wood-sinker combination the top of the tank is open, what is the height is completely immersed, the weight is 140.0 N. of the water in the tank? Find the density of the block. Holt SF 09Rev 49 Holt SF 09Rev 59 03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. wording-variable. A water tank open to the atmosphere at Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . the top has two holes punched in its side, one A light spring with a spring constant of above the other. The holes are 5.00 cm and 90.0 N/m rests vertically on a table, as shown. 12.0 cm above the ground. A 2.00 g balloon is ﬁlled with helium (0 ◦C and What is the height of the water in the tank 1 atm pressure) to a volume of 5.00 m3 and if the two streams of water hit the ground at connected to the spring, causing the spring to the same place? stretch. The magnitude of the force within the spring that pulls it back toward its un- stretched position is equal to k∆x. Holt SF 09Rev 52 03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. A 2.0 cm thick bar of soap is ﬂoating in water, with 1.900 cm of the bar underwater. Bath oil with a density of 899.0 kg/m3 is ∆x added and ﬂoats on top of the water. What is the depth of the oil layer when the top of the soap is just level with the upper surface of the oil? (a) (b) Holt SF 09Rev 53 How much does the spring stretch when the 03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, system is in equilibrium? Chapter 3, section 11, Buoyancy and Fluid Flow 227 Part 2 of 2 Holt SF 09Rev 63 b) How long will it take for the top of the shell 03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. to reach the surface? Disregard frictional eﬀects. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A light balloon is ﬁlled with helium at Holt SF 09Rev 69 0.0 ◦ C and 1.0 atm and then released from 03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, the ground. wording-variable. Determine its initial acceleration. Disre- gard the air resistance on the balloon. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A light spring with a spring constant of Holt SF 09Rev 64 16.0 N/m rests vertically on the bottom of a 03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, large beaker of water, as shown in (a). wording-variable. A 5.00 × 10−3 kg block of wood with a density of 650.0 kg/m3 is connected to the Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . spring, and the mass-spring system is allowed A 1.0 kg hollow ball with a radius of 0.10 m to come to static equilibrium, as shown in (b). is ﬁlled with air and is released from rest at The magnitude of the force pulling the spring the bottom of a 2.0 m deep pool of water. back to its unstretched position equals k∆x. How high above the water does the ball rise? Disregard friction and the ball’s motion when it is only partially submerged. m Holt SF 09Rev 65 ∆x 03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, k wording-variable. k A small ball 0.6 times as dense as water is dropped from a height of 10 m m above the (a) (b) surface of a smooth lake. Determine the maximum depth to which How much does the spring stretch? the ball will sink. Disregard any energy trans- ferred to the water during impact and sink- ing. Holt SF 09Rev 68 03:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 1 of 2 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A thin, rigid, spherical shell with a mass of 4.00 kg and diameter of 0.200 m is ﬁlled with helium at 0 ◦ C and 1 atm pressure. It is then released from rest on the bottom of a pool of water that is 4.00 m deep. a) Determine the upward acceleration of the shell. Chapter 3, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 03 228 B. The force exerted by a ﬂuid on a surface Fluids 01 is called pressure. 03:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. C. The force that keeps a plane in the air is called lift. Which of the following is not a ﬂuid? Which one(s) are true? 1. sugar 1. All three are true. 2. air 2. A and B only. 3. water 3. A and C only. 4. oil 4. B and C only. Forces 16 5. A only. 03:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 6. B only. Consider the following statements. A. When you push an object, you transfer 7. C only. energy to the object. B. The force needed to overcome sliding 8. None is true. friction is greater than the force needed to overcome rolling friction. Hewitt CP9 12 E06 C. When the forces on an object are bal- 03:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. anced, motion occurs. Which one(s) are true? The uranium atom is the heaviest and most massive atom among the naturally occurring 1. A and B only. elements. Why then, isn’t a solid bar of uranium the 2. A and C only. densest metal? 3. B and C only. 1. There are a lot oxygen in a uranium solid bar. 4. A only. 2. The uranium atoms lose most of their 5. B only. neutrons when combined into a solid bar. 6. C only. 3. Density has not only to do with the mass of the atoms that make up a material, but 7. All three are true. with the spacing between the atoms as well. 8. None is true. 4. There are a lot of dangling bonds inside a solid bar of uranium. Forces 17 03:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Hewitt CP9 12 E07 03:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Consider the following statements. A. Propellers and jet engines produce a Which has more volume–a kilogram of gold force that is called thrust. or a kilogram of aluminum? Chapter 3, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 03 229 2. in the middle 1. A kilogram of gold 3. in the bottom 2. A kilogram of aluminum 4. It cannot be determined. 3. They have same volumes. Hewitt CP9 12 E18 4. It cannot be determined. 03:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Hewitt CP9 12 E08 Consider two bridges that are exact repli- 03:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. cas of each other except that every dimen- sion in the larger is exactly twice that of the Which has more weight–a liter of ice or a other; that is, twice as long, structural ele- liter of water? ments twice as thick, etc. Which bridge is more likely to collapse un- 1. A liter of ice. der its own weight? 2. A liter of water. 1. the smaller one 3. They have same weights. 2. the larger one 4. It cannot be determined. 3. They have the same strength. Hewitt CP9 12 E11 4. It cannot be determined. 03:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Holt SF 01Rev 45 A thick rope is stronger than a thin rope of 03:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, the same material. wording-variable. Is a long rope stronger than a short rope? Part 1 of 2 1. Yes. The radius of the planet Saturn is 5.85×107 m, and its mass is 5.68 × 1026 kg. 2. No. a) Find the average density of Saturn (its mass divided by its volume) if the volume of 3. They are the same. 4 a sphere is given by πr3 . 3 4. It cannot be determined. Part 2 of 2 b) Find the surface area of Saturn if the sur- Hewitt CP9 12 E13 face area of a sphere is given by 4πr 2 . 03:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Motion 16 Suppose you’re making a balcony that ex- 03:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. tends beyond the main frame of your house. In a concrete overhanging slab, should steel Consider the following statements: reinforcing rods be embedded in the top, mid- A. The motion of an object looks diﬀerent dle, or bottom of the slab? to observers in the same frame of reference. B. Two cars moving at the same velocity 1. in the top have diﬀerent amounts of kinetic energy if Chapter 3, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 03 230 one car has more mass than the other car. C. The energy stored in food is one kind of PS 303 7 10 potential energy. 03:99, basic, numeric, < 1 min, normal. Which of the statements are true? A mother and daughter are on a seesaw in 1. A only. the park. How far from the center must the 120 lb 2. B only. mother sit in order to balance the 50 lb daugh- ter sitting 7 ft from the center? 3. C only. PS 303 7 9 4. A and B only. 03:99, basic, numeric, < 1 min, normal. 5. A and C only. It is speciﬁed that a certain nut be tight- ened to a torque of 40 N · m. 6. B and C only. If the mechanic is using a 40 cm long wrench, how much force must he apply to 7. None are true. the end of the wrench to meet specs? 8. All are true. Motion 17 03:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Consider the following statements: A. A moving object is accelerating if its speed or direction varies. B. The diﬀerence between speed and veloc- ity is that speed indicates an object’s direction of motion. C. A moving object does not accelerate if its velocity remains constant. Which of the statements are true? 1. A only. 2. B only. 3. C only. 4. A and B only. 5. A and C only. 6. B and C only. 7. None are true. 8. All are true. Chapter 4, section 1, Work 231 Bucket in a Well 3. motion. 04:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 4. chemical reactions. A man lifts a(n) 20 kg bucket from a well and does 6 kJ of work. Energy 03 How deep is the well? Assume the man lifts 04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. the bucket at constant speed. Heat energy is associated with Cheerleader Lift 04:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 1. the internal motion of particles of mat- ter. A cheerleader lifts his 50 kg partner straight up oﬀ the ground a distance of 0.6 m before 2. motion. releasing her. If he does this 20 times, how much work has 3. position or shape. he done? 4. holding together the nuclei of atoms. Conversion 144 04:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Energy 04 04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Convert 54.5 calories to joules. Chemical energy is Conversion 145 04:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 1. energy that bonds atoms or ions to- gether. Convert 1305 joules to calories. 2. contained in the nuclei of atoms. Energy 01 04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. a result of the motion of electric charges. Mechanical energy is associated with 4. a result of the internal motion of particles of matter. 1. motion. Energy 05 2. chemical reactions. 04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. the nuclei of atoms. Nuclear energy is 4. the motion of electric charges. 1. contained in the nuclei of atoms. Energy 02 2. a result of the motion of electric charges. 04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. a result of the internal motion of particles Electromagnetic energy is associated with of matter. 1. the motion of electric charges. 4. energy that bonds atoms or ions to- gether. 2. the nuclei of atoms. Chapter 4, section 1, Work 232 Energy 06 Holt SF 05A 03 04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. An example of stored chemical energy is A shopper in a supermarket pushes a cart 1. gasoline in an automobile. with a force of 35 N directed at an angle of 25◦ downward from the horizontal. 2. an electric motor. Find the work done by the shopper on the cart as the shopper moves along a 50.0 m 3. the sun’s energy. length of aisle. 4. light. Holt SF 05A 04 04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Energy 07 wording-variable. 04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. If 2.0 J of work is done in raising a 180 g Potential energy and kinetic energy are apple, how far is it lifted? forms of energy. Holt SF 05Rev 07 1. mechanical 04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. 2. chemical Part 1 of 2 3. heat Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A person lifts a 4.5 kg cement block a ver- 4. electromagnetic tical distance of 1.2 m and then carries the block horizontally a distance of 7.3 m. 5. nuclear a) Determine the work done by the person in the process. Holt SF 05A 01 04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 2 of 2 wording-variable. b) Determine the work done by the force of gravity in the process. A tugboat pulls a ship with a constant net horizontal force of 5.00 × 103 N and causes the Holt SF 05Rev 08 ship to move through a harbor. 04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, How much work does the tugboat do on the wording-variable. ship if each moves a distance of 3.00 km ? A plane designed for vertical takeoﬀ has a Holt SF 05A 02 mass of 8.0 × 103 kg. 04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Find the net work done on the plane as wording-variable. it accelerates upward at 1.0 m/s2 through a distance of 30.0 m after starting from rest. A weight lifter lifts a set of weights a vertical distance of 2.00 m. Holt SF 05Rev 09 If a constant net force of 350 N is exerted 04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, on the weights, how much net work is done on wording-variable. the weights? A catcher “gives” with a baseball when Chapter 4, section 1, Work 233 catching it. The amount of work done by two boys who If the baseball exerts a force of 475 N on apply 200 N of force in an unsuccessful at- the glove such that the glove is displaced 10.0 tempt to move a stalled car is cm, how much work is done by the ball? 1. 0. Holt SF 05Rev 10 04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 2. 400 N-m. wording-variable. 3. 400 N. Part 1 of 3 A ﬂight attendant pulls her 70.0 N ﬂight 4. 200 N-m. bag a distance of 253 m along a level airport ﬂoor at a constant velocity. The force she 5. 200 N. exerts is 40.0 N at an angle of 52.0◦ above the horizontal. Work 04 a) Find the work she does on the ﬂight bag. 04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Part 2 of 3 If you exert a force of 10 N to lift a box b) Find the work done by the force of friction a distance of 0.75 m, how much work do you on the ﬂight bag. do? Part 3 of 3 1. 7.5 J c) Find the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction be- tween the ﬂight bag and the ﬂoor. 2. 75 J Lifting Yourself 3. 9.75 J 04:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 4. 10.75 J Stan does 176 J of work lifting himself 0.3 m. Work 05 What is Stan’s mass? 04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Work 01 A force acting on an object does no work if 04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. the force is not in the direction of the A force exerted over a distance to move an object’s motion. object is 2. the force is greater than the force of fric- 1. work. tion. 2. momentum. 3. the object accelerates. 3. velocity. 4. a machine is used to move the object. 4. measured in Newtons. Work 50 04:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Work 02 04:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Which of the following does not involve work? Chapter 4, section 1, Work 234 1. A golf ball is struck. 2. A child is pushed on a swing. 3. A runner stretches by pushing against a wall. 4. A weight lifter does military presses (lift- ing weights over head.) 5. A professor picks up a piece of chalk from the ﬂoor. Work on a Block 04:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Lee pushes horizontally with a force of 80 N on a 20 kg mass for 10 m across a ﬂoor. Calculate the amount of work Lee did. Work on a Raindrop 04:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Part 1 of 2 −5 A 3.35 × 10 kg raindrop falls vertically at constant speed under the inﬂuence of gravity and air resistance. After the drop has fallen 100 m, what is the work done by gravity? Part 2 of 2 What is the work done by air resistance? Chapter 4, section 2, Power 235 Climbing a Rope 01 2. 87.5 W 04:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 3. 560 W A 700 N marine in basic training climbs a 10 m vertical rope in 10 s at a constant speed. 4. 875 W How much power does he exert during the climb? 5. 5,600 W Electric Power 50 Holt SF 05F 01 04:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 04:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. How long would a 100 watt light bulb have to be on to use the amount of energy in a 160 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Calorie Tootsie Roll? A 1.0 × 103 kg elevator carries a maximum load of 800.0 kg. A constant frictional force 1. about 6,700 seconds of 4.0 × 103 N retards the elevator’s motion upward. 2. about 670,000 seconds What minimum power must the motor de- liver to lift the fully loaded elevator at a con- 3. about 670 seconds stant speed 3.00 m/s? 4. about 67 seconds Holt SF 05F 02 04:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 5. about 6.7 seconds wording-variable. Energy 50 A car with a mass of 1.50 × 103 kg starts 04:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. from rest and accelerates to a speed of 18.0 m/s in 12.0 s. Assume that the force of How much energy will a stock tank heater resistance remains constant at 400.0 N during rated at 1500 watts use in a 24 hour period? this time. What is the average power developed by 1. 1500 Joules the car’s engine? 2. 1500 × 24 × 60 Joules Holt SF 05F 03 04:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 3. 1500 × 3600 Joules wording-variable. 4. 1500 × 24 × 3600 Joules Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A rain cloud contains 2.66 × 107 kg of water Free Fall 03 vapor. 04:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. How long would it take for a 2.00 kW pump to raise the same amount of water to the A student weighing 700 N climbs at con- cloud’s altitude of 2.00 km? stant speed to the top of an 8 m vertical rope in 10 s. The average power expended by the Holt SF 05F 04 student to overcome gravity is most nearly 04:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. 1. 1.1 W Chapter 4, section 2, Power 236 How long does it take a 19 kW steam engine 4. force to do 6.8 × 107 J of work? 5. none of the others Holt SF 05F 05 04:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Power 01 wording-variable. 04:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Part 1 of 2 Power equals work A 1.50 × 103 kg car accelerates uniformly from rest to 10.0 m/s in 3.00 s. 1. divided by time. a) What is the work done on the car in this time interval? 2. divided by weight. Part 2 of 2 3. divided by distance. b) What is the power delivered by the engine in this time interval? 4. times distance. Holt SF 05Rev 35 Power 02 04:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 04:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. wording-variable. The unit of power is the Note: One horsepower is equal to 746 watts. An automobile engine delivers 50.0 hp. 1. Watt. How much time will it take for the engine to do 6.40 × 105 J of work? 2. Joule. Holt SF 05Rev 36 3. Coulomb. 04:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. 4. Newton. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Power 03 Water ﬂows over a section of Niagara Falls 04:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. at the rate of 1.2 × 106 kg/s and falls 50.0 m. How much power is generated by the falling The rate at which work is done is called water? 1. power. Physical Quantity 04:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. force. A commonly used unit is the kilowatt hour. 3. resistance. The physical quantity measured in kilowatt hours is 4. energy. 1. current Power 04 04:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. power If you exert a force of 50 N to walk 4 m up a 3. work ﬂight of stairs in 4 seconds, how much power do you use? Chapter 4, section 2, Power 237 mass 30 m horizontally in 3 s. 1. 50 W Calculate the work done on the mass. 2. 800 W Part 2 of 2 Calculate the power. 3. 3.13 W Pushing a Wheelbarrow 4. 58 W 04:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Power 05 Part 1 of 2 04:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Robin pushes a wheelbarrow by exerting a 145 N force horizontally. Robin moves it 60 m A student weighing 700 N climbs at con- at a constant speed for 25 s. stant speed to the top of an 8 m vertical rope What power does Robin develop? in 10 s. The average power expended by the student to overcome gravity is most nearly Part 2 of 2 If Robin moves the wheelbarrow 2 times as 1. 1.1 W fast, how much power is developed? 2. 87.5 W Running Up Stairs 04:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 3. 560 W A student, late for class, ran up some stairs 4. 875 W between landings. The landings are 8 m apart. The student has a mass of 50 kg and it took 5. 5,600 W 4 s to do the run. What is the minimum power that the stu- Power of Nature dent was generating during the run? 04:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Units 02 A rain cloud contains 2.6 × 107 kg of water 04:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. vapor. How long would it take for a 2 kW pump to 12 kilowatts is equal to lift the same amount of water to an altitude of 20000 m? 1. 12000 watts. Power of Niagra Falls 2. 1200 watts. 04:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 3. 12 watts. Water ﬂows over a section of Niagara Falls at a rate of 1.2 × 106 kg/s and falls 50 m. 4. 1200 Joules. How many 50 W bulbs can be lit with this power? Units 73 04:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Pushing a Mass 04:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. A watt is Part 1 of 2 1. 1 s/joule A force of 300 N is used to push a 145 kg Chapter 4, section 2, Power 238 2. 1 cal/s 3. 1 joule/s 4. 1 s/cal Work 03 04:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. A Newton-meter is a measure of work also known as the 1. Joule. 2. Watt. 3. Coulomb. 4. None of these Chapter 4, section 3, Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy 239 Bobsled Run A car is lifted a vertical distance in a service 04:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. station and therefore has potential energy rel- ative to the ﬂoor. If it were lifted twice as A bobsled slides down an ice track start- high, how much potential energy would it ing (at zero initial speed) from the top of a(n) have? 90 m high hill. Neglect friction and air re- sistance and determine the bobsled’s speed at 1. Same the bottom of the hill. 2. Twice Climbing a Rope 02 04:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 3. One half Tim, with mass 60 kg, climbs a gymnasium 4. Cannot decide rope a distance of 3.5 m. How much potential energy does Tim gain? Hewitt CP9 07 R10 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Energy 08 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Two cars are lifted to the same elevation in a service station. If one car is twice as massive The total amount of mass and in the as the other, how do their potential energies universe is constant. compare? 1. energy 1. They have the same potential energy since they are lifted to the same elevation. 2. momentum 2. The car which is twice as massive as the 3. power other will have twice potential energy than the other car. 4. work 3. The car which is twice as massive as the Energy 51 other will have one half potential energy than 04:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. the other car. A truck at the top of a hill has higher 4. Cannot decide since we don’t know how gravitational potential energy than when it is the cars were lifted. at the bottom of the hill. Why does it roll downhill? Hewitt CP9 07 R14 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. To lower its potential energy. A moving car has kinetic energy. If it speeds 2. To increase the entropy of the universe. up until it is going four times faster than before, how much kinetic energy does it have 3. To decrease the entropy of the universe. in comparison? 4. To increase its kinetic energy. 1. Four times bigger than before Hewitt CP9 07 R09 2. Four times smaller than before 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Chapter 4, section 3, Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy 240 3. Sixteen times bigger than before 6. Cannot decide. 4. Sixteen times smaller than before Holt SF 05B 01 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 5. Same wording-variable. 6. Cannot decide since the mass of the car is Calculate the speed of an 8.0 × 104 kg air- unknown. liner with a kinetic energy of 1.1 × 109 J. Hewitt CP9 07 R32 Holt SF 05B 02 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Can momenta cancel? Can kinetic energies cancel? What is the speed of a 0.145 kg baseball if its kinetic energy is 109 J ? 1. They both can cancel. Holt SF 05B 03 2. Momenta can cancel since they are vec- 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, tors. Kinetic energies cannot cancel since wording-variable. they are positive scalars. Part 1 of 3 3. They both cannot cancel since they are Two bullets have masses of 3.0 g and 6.0 g, always positive. respectively. Each is ﬁred with a speed of 40.0 m/s. 4. Momenta cannot cancel but kinetic ener- a) What is the kinetic energy of the ﬁrst gies can cancel. bullet? Hewitt CP9 07 R33 Part 2 of 3 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. b) What is the kinetic energy of the second bullet? If a moving object doubles its speed, how much more momentum does it have? How Part 3 of 3 much more kinetic energy? KE2 c) What is the ratio of their kinetic KE1 1. Momentum doubles. Kinetic energy dou- energies? bles. Holt SF 05B 04 2. Momentum won’t change. Kinetic energy 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, doubles. wording-variable. 3. Momentum doubles. Kinetic energy will Part 1 of 3 increase by four times. Two 3.0 g bullets are ﬁred with speeds of 40.0 m/s and 80.4 m/s, respectively. 4. Momentum doubles. Kinetic energy a) What is the kinetic energy of the ﬁrst won’t change. bullet? 5. Both momentum and kinetic energy will Part 2 of 3 remain the same. b) What is the kinetic energy of the second bullet? Chapter 4, section 3, Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy 241 What is the length of the driveway? Part 3 of 3 KE2 Holt SF 05C 04 c) What is the ratio of their kinetic KE1 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, energies? wording-variable. Holt SF 05B 05 A 75 kg bobsled is pushed along a horizon- 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, tal surface by two athletes. After the bobsled wording-variable. is pushed a distance of 4.5 starting from rest, its speed is 6.0 m/s. A car has a kinetic energy of 4.32 × 105 J Find the magnitude of the net force on the when traveling at a speed of 23 m/s. bobsled. What is its mass? Holt SF 05C 05 Holt SF 05C 01 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- wording-variable. mal. Part 1 of 5 A student wearing frictionless in-line skates Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . on a horizontal surface is pushed by a friend A 10.0 kg crate is pulled up a rough incline with a constant force of 45 N. with an initial speed of 1.5 m/s. The pulling How far must the student be pushed, start- force is 100.0 N parallel to the incline, which ing from rest, so that her ﬁnal kinetic energy makes an angle of 15.0◦ with the horizontal. is 352 J ? The coeﬃcient of kinetic friction is 0.40 and the crate is pulled a distance of 7.5 m. Holt SF 05C 02 a) Find the work done by Earth’s gravity 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, on the crate. wording-variable. Part 2 of 5 A 2.0 × 103 kg car accelerates from rest b) Find the work done by the force of friction under the action of two forces. One is a on the crate. forward force of 1140 N provided by traction between the wheels and the road. The other is Part 3 of 5 a 950 N resistive force due to various frictional c) Find the work done by the puller on the forces. crate. How far must the car travel for its speed to reach 2.0 m/s? Part 4 of 5 d) Find the change in kinetic energy of the Holt SF 05C 03 crate. 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 5 of 5 e) Find the speed of the crate after it is pulled Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . 7.5 m. A 2.1 × 103 kg car accelerates from rest at the top of a driveway that is sloped at an angle of 20.0◦ with the horizontal. An average Holt SF 05D 01 frictional force of 4.0×103 N impedes the car’s 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, motion so that the car’s speed at the bottom wording-variable. of the driveway is 3.8 m/s. A spring with a force constant of 5.2 N/m Chapter 4, section 3, Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy 242 has a relaxed length of 2.45 m. When a 0.550 g need in order to have the same kinetic mass is attached to the end of the spring and energy as the automobile? allowed to come to rest, the vertical length of the spring is 3.57 m. Holt SF 05Rev 21 Calculate the elastic potential energy 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- stored in the spring. mal. Holt SF 05D 02 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, A 50 kg diver steps oﬀ a diving board and wording-variable. drops straight down into the water. The water provides an average net force of resistance of The staples inside a stapler are kept in place 1500 N to the diver’s fall. by a spring with a relaxed length of 0.115 m. If the diver comes to rest 5 m below the If the spring constant is 51.0 N/m, how water’s surface, what is the total distance be- much elastic potential energy is stored in the tween the diving board and the diver’s stop- spring when its length is 0.150 m? ping point underwater? Holt SF 05D 03 Holt SF 05Rev 22 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. wording-variable. Part 1 of 3 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . In a circus performance, a monkey on a sled A 40.0 kg child is in a swing that is attached is given an initial speed of 4.0 m/s up a 25◦ to ropes 2.00 m long. incline. The combined mass of the monkey Find the gravitational potential energy as- and the sled is 20.0 kg, and the coeﬃcient sociated with the child relative to the child’s of kinetic friction between the sled and the lowest position under the following condi- incline is 0.20. tions: How far up the incline does the sled move? a) when the ropes are horizontal. Holt SF 05Rev 23 Part 2 of 3 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, b) when the ropes make a 30.0◦ angle with wording-variable. the vertical. Part 1 of 3 Part 3 of 3 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . c) at the bottom of the circular arc. A 55 kg skier is at the top of a slope, as in the ﬁgure. At the initial point A, the skier is Holt SF 05Rev 19 20 10.0 m vertically above the ﬁnal point B. 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 1 of 2 10 m a) What is the kinetic energy of an auto- mobile with a mass of 1250 kg traveling at a speed of 11 m/s? a) Find the diﬀerence in gravitational po- Part 2 of 2 tential energy associated with the skier at the b) What speed would a ﬂy with a mass of points A and B if the zero level for gravita- Chapter 4, section 3, Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy 243 tional potential energy is at point B. wording-variable. Part 2 of 3 Part 1 of 2 b) Find the diﬀerence in potential energy if Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . the zero level is at point A. Tarzan swings on a 30.0 m long vine ini- tially inclined at an angle of 37.0 ◦ with the Part 3 of 3 vertical. c) Find the diﬀerence in potential energy if What is his speed at the bottom of the the zero level is midway down the slope, at a swing if he height of 5.00 m. a) starts from rest? Holt SF 05Rev 24 Part 2 of 2 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, b) pushes oﬀ with a speed of 4.00 m/s? wording-variable. Holt SF 05Rev 38 Part 1 of 3 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . wording-variable. A 2.00 kg ball is attached to a ceiling by a 1.00 m long string. The height of the room is Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . 3.00 m. A person doing a chin-up weighs 700.0 N, What is the gravitational potential energy disregarding the weight of the arms. During associated with the ball relative to the ﬁrst 25.0 cm of the lift, each arm exerts a) the ceiling? an upward force of 355 N on the torso. If the upward movement starts from rest, Part 2 of 3 what is the person’s speed at this point? b) the ﬂoor? Holt SF 05Rev 40 Part 3 of 3 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, c) a point at the same elevation as the ball? wording-variable. Holt SF 05Rev 25 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, An 80.0 N box of clothes is pulled 20.0 m up wording-variable. a 30.0◦ ramp by a force of 115 N that points along the ramp. Part 1 of 3 If the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction between A spring has a force constant of 500.0 N/m. the box and ramp is 0.22, calculate the change Find the potential energy stored in the in the box’s kinetic energy. spring when the spring is a) stretched 4.00 cm from equilibrium. Holt SF 05Rev 41 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 2 of 3 wording-variable. b) compressed 3.00 cm from equilibrium. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Part 3 of 3 A 98.0 N grocery cart is pushed 12.0 m c) unstretched. along an aisle by a shopper who exerts a constant horizontal force of 40.0 N. Holt SF 05Rev 34 If all frictional forces are neglected and the 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, cart starts from rest, what is the grocery cart’s ﬁnal speed? Chapter 4, section 3, Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy 244 Holt SF 05Rev 45 Holt SF 05Rev 53 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. wording-variable. Part 1 of 3 Part 1 of 3 A 0.60 kg rubber ball has a speed of 2.0 m/s Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . at point A and kinetic energy 7.5 J at point The ﬁgure is a graph of the gravitational B. Find potential energy and kinetic energy of a 75 g a) the ball’s kinetic energy at A. yo-yo as it moves up and down on its string. Potential energy Part 2 of 3 b) the ball’s speed at B. Kinetic energy Mechanical energy Energy (mJ) 600 Part 3 of 3 c) the total work done on the ball as it moves 400 from A to B. 200 Holt SF 05Rev 49 0 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 wording-variable. Time (s) a) By what amount does the mechanical Part 1 of 2 energy of the yo-yo change after 6.0 s? A 5.00 g bullet moving at 600.0 m/s pene- trates a tree trunk to a depth of 4.00 cm. a) Use work and energy considerations to Part 2 of 3 ﬁnd the magnitude of the force that stops the b) What is the speed of the yo-yo after 1.5 s? bullet. Part 3 of 3 Part 2 of 2 c) What is the maximum height of the yo- b) Assuming that the frictional force is con- yo? stant, determine how much time elapses be- tween the moment the bullet enters the tree Holt SF 05Rev 54 and the moment the bullets stops moving. 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Holt SF 05Rev 51 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . wording-variable. A skier starts from rest at the top of a hill that is inclined at 10.5◦ with the horizontal. Part 1 of 2 The hillside is 200.0 m long, and the coef- 3 A 2.50 × 10 kg car requires 5.0 kJ of work ﬁcient of friction between the snow and the to move from rest to some ﬁnal speed. During skis is 0.075. At the bottom of the hill, the this time, the car moves 25.0 m. snow is level and the coeﬃcient of friction is Neglecting friction, ﬁnd unchanged. a) the ﬁnal speed. How far does the skier move along the hor- izontal portion of the snow before coming to rest? Part 2 of 2 b) the net horizontal force exerted on the car. Holt SF 05Rev 56 Chapter 4, section 3, Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy 245 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 4 of 4 wording-variable. d) If the speed of the child at the lowest position is 2.00 m/s, what is the change in Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . mechanical energy due to friction? An egg is dropped from a third-ﬂoor win- dow and lands on a foam-rubber pad without Holt SF 05Rev 62 breaking. 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- If a 56.0 g egg falls 12.0 m from rest and the mal. 5.00 cm thick foam pad stops it in 6.25 ms, by how much is the pad compressed? Assume Part 1 of 3 constant upward acceleration as the egg com- Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . presses the foam-rubber pad. (Assume that A block starts at rest and slides down a the potential energy that the egg gains while frictionless track. the pad is being compressed is negligible.) It leaves the track horizontally, striking the ground (as shown in the ﬁgure above). Holt SF 05Rev 59 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 522 g wording-variable. 9.81 m/s2 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . h A light horizontal spring has a spring con- 2.5 m stant of 105 N/m. A 2.00 kg block is pressed against one end of the spring, compressing the spring 0.100 m. After the block is released, 4.6 m the block moves 0.250 m to the right before a) At what height h above the ground is the coming to rest. block released? What is the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction be- tween the horizontal surface and the block? Part 2 of 3 b) What is the speed of the block when it Holt SF 05Rev 61 leaves the track? 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 3 of 3 c) What is the speed of the block when it hits Part 1 of 4 the ground? Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A 25 kg child on a 2.0 m long swing is released from rest when the swing supports Holt SF 12Rev 53 make an angle of 30.0◦ with the vertical. 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, a) What is the maximum potential energy wording-variable. associated with the child? Part 1 of 2 A mass-spring system oscillates with an Part 2 of 4 amplitude of 3.5 cm. The spring constant b) Disregarding friction, ﬁnd the child’s speed is 250 N/m and the mass is 0.500 kg. at the lowest position. a) Calculate the mechanical energy of the mass-spring system. Part 3 of 4 c) What is the child’s total mechanical en- Part 2 of 2 ergy? b) Calculate the maximum acceleration of the Chapter 4, section 3, Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy 246 mass-spring system. ∆d 5. KE = ∆t Holt SF 12Rev 56 Kinetic Energy 03 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. wording-variable. The factor that has the greatest eﬀect on Part 1 of 2 kinetic energy is A 0.40 kg mass is attached to a spring with a spring constant of 160 N/m so that the mass 1. velocity. is allowed to move on a horizontal frictionless surface. The mass is released from rest when 2. mass. the spring is compressed 0.15 m. a) Find the force on the mass at the instant 3. height. the spring is released. 4. gravity. Part 2 of 2 b) Find the acceleration of the mass at the Kinetic Energy 04 instant the spring is released. 04:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Kinetic Energy 01 Consider a compact car that is being driven 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. at 100 km/h. From what height would the car have to be dropped to have the same kinetic The amount of kinetic energy an object has energy? depends on its Kinetic Energy 05 1. mass and speed. 04:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 2. mass and height from the ground. A 7 kg bowling ball moves at 3 m/s . How fast must a(n)46 g golf ball move so 3. only its height from the ground. that the two balls have the same kinetic en- ergy? 4. only its speed. Kinetic Energy 06 5. only its mass. 04:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Kinetic Energy 02 Part 1 of 3 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. A(n) 0.6 kg particle has a speed of 2 m/s at point A and kinetic energy of 7.5 J at B. The formula for kinetic energy is What is its kinetic energy at A? 1 1. KE = mv 2 Part 2 of 3 2 What is the particle’s speed at B? 2. KE = mgh Part 3 of 3 3. KE = mv What is the total work done on the particle as ∆v it moves from point A to B? 4. KE = ∆t Kinetic Energy 07 Chapter 4, section 3, Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy 247 04:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Playground Swing Part 1 of 2 04:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Suppose an automobile has a kinetic energy of 2000 J. Part 1 of 2 When it moves with twice the speed, what Betty weighs 420 N and she is sitting on will be its kinetic energy? a playground swing seat that hangs 0.4 m above the ground. Tom pulls the swing back Part 2 of 2 and releases it when the seat is 1 m above the Three times the speed? ground. How fast is Betty moving when the swing Kinetic Energy 08 passes through its lowest position? 04:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Part 2 of 2 Part 1 of 3 If Betty moves through the lowest point at Sally has a mass of 45 kg and is moving 1 m/s, what is the magnitude of the work with a speed of 10 m/s. done on the swing by friction? Find Sally’s kinetic energy. Potential Energy 01 Part 2 of 3 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Sally’s speed changes to 5 m/s. Now what is her kinetic energy? The amount of potential energy an object has depends on its Part 3 of 3 What is the ratio of the ﬁrst kinetic energy to 1. mass and height from the ground. the second one? 2. mass and speed. 2 v1 1. 2 v2 3. only its height from the ground. v1 2. v2 4. only its speed. v2 3. 22 5. only its mass. v1 v2 4. Potential Energy 02 v1 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Kinetic Energy 09 04:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. The formula for potential energy is A(n) 1600 kg car travels at a speed of 1. P E = mgh 12.5 m/s. What is its kinetic energy? 2. P E = mv Lifting a Bowling Ball ∆v 3. P E = 04:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. ∆t ∆d 4. P E = A 6.4 kg bowling ball is lifted 2.1 m into ∆t a storage rack. Calculate the increase in the 1 2 ball’s potential energy. 5. P E = mv 2 Chapter 4, section 3, Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy 248 Potential Energy 03 1. potential energy. 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. kinetic energy. Which of the following is not an example of an object with potential energy? 3. chemical energy. 1. a ball rolling on the ﬂoor. 4. electrical energy. 2. a car battery. Potential Energy 07 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. a diver prepared to jump oﬀ a diving board. A stretched spring has 4. a wrecking ball. 1. potential energy. Potential Energy 04 2. kinetic energy. 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. chemical energy. Which of the following has the least amount of potential energy? 4. electrical energy. 1. A car traveling at 80 km/h. Potential Energy 08 04:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 2. A bird landing on a branch. A carpenter places a board weighing 10 lb 3. A rock at the top of a mountain. on the edge of the roof 10 ft above the ground. How much potential energy does the board 4. A leaf about to fall. have in relationship to the ground? Potential Energy 05 Potential Energy Change 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 04:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Which of the following has the greatest Mary weighs 500 N and she walks down amount of potential energy? a ﬂight of stairs to a level 5.5 m below her starting point. 1. A 0.5 kg book at the top of a 100 m hill. What is the change in Mary’s potential en- ergy? 2. A 5 kg rock raised 5 m oﬀ the ﬂoor. Rock on the Edge 3. A 2 kg boulder at the top of a 10 m hill. 04:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 4. A 2 g penny in an airplane at 1000 m Part 1 of 3 above the earth. A(n) 20 kg rock is on the edge of a(n) 100 m cliﬀ. What potential energy does the Potential Energy 06 rock possess relative to the base of the cliﬀ? 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Part 2 of 3 Energy of position is called The rock falls from the cliﬀ. What is its ki- Chapter 4, section 3, Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy 249 netic energy just before it strikes the ground? Part 3 of 3 What speed does the rock have as it strikes the ground? Sack of Grain 04:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Part 1 of 3 A 98 N sack of grain is hoisted to a storage room 50 m above the ground ﬂoor of a grain elevator. How much work was required? Part 2 of 3 What is the potential energy of the sack of grain at this height? Part 3 of 3 The rope being used to lift the sack of grain breaks just as the sack reaches the storage room. What kinetic energy does the sack have just before it strikes the ground ﬂoor? Units 01 04:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. A joule is a measure of 1. energy. 2. distance. 3. density. 4. volume. 5. momentum. Vertical Leap 04:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. A 70 kg high jumper leaves the ground with a vertical velocity of 6 m/s. How high can he jump? Chapter 4, section 4, Conservation of Energy 250 tial height such that the speed of the bob at Holt SF 05E 01 the bottom of the swing is 1.9 m/s. 04:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, What is the initial height of the bob? wording-variable. Holt SF 05Rev 33 2 Given: g = 9.81 m/s . 04:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, A bird is ﬂying with a speed of 18.0 m/s wording-variable. over water when it accidentally drops a 2.00 kg ﬁsh. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . If the altitude of the bird is 5.40 m and air A child and sled with a combined mass of resistance is disregarded, what is the speed of 50.0 kg slide down a frictionless hill that is the ﬁsh when it hits the water? 7.34 m high. If the sled starts from rest, what is its speed Holt SF 05E 02 03 at the bottom of the hill? 04:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Holt SF 05Rev 37 04:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 1 of 3 wording-variable. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A 755 N diver drops from a board 10.0 m Part 1 of 5 above the water’s surface. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . a) Find the diver’s speed 5.00 m above the A 215 g particle is released from rest at water’s surface. point A inside a smooth hemispherical bowl of radius 30.0 cm, as shown in the ﬁgure Part 2 of 3 b) Find the diver’s speed just before striking the water. Part 3 of 3 A C c) If the diver leaves the board with an initial upward speed of 2.00 m/s, ﬁnd the diver’s R 2 speed when striking the water. R 3 B Holt SF 05E 04 04:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Calculate wording-variable. a) the gravitational potential energy at A relative to B. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . An Olympic runner leaps over a hurdle. Part 2 of 5 If the runner’s initial vertical speed is 2.2 b) the particle’s kinetic energy at B. m/s, how much will the runner’s center of mass be raised during the jump? Part 3 of 5 c) the particle’s speed at B. Holt SF 05E 05 04:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 4 of 5 wording-variable. d) the potential energy at C. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Part 5 of 5 A pendulum bob is released from some ini- Chapter 4, section 4, Conservation of Energy 251 e) the kinetic energy at C. 60.0 m up a 35◦ slope (assumed to be friction- less) at a constant speed of 2.0 m/s? Holt SF 05Rev 39 04:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Holt SF 05Rev 52 wording-variable. 04:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A 50.0 kg pole vaulter running at 10.0 m/s Part 1 of 2 vaults over the bar. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . If the vaulter’s horizontal component of ve- An acrobat on skis starts from rest 50.0 locity over the bar is 1.0 m/s and air resistance m above the ground on a frictionless track is disregarded, how high is the jump? and ﬂies oﬀ the track at a 45.0◦ angle above the horizontal and at a height of 10.0 m. Holt SF 05Rev 42 Disregard air resistance. 04:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, a) What is the skier’s speed when leaving wording-variable. the track? Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Part 2 of 2 Tarzan and Jane, whose total mass is 130.0 b) What is the maximum height attained? kg, start their swing on a 5.0 m long vine when the vine is at an angle 30.0◦ with the Holt SF 05Rev 57 horizontal. At the bottom of the arc, Jane, 04:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, whose mass is 50.0 kg, releases the vine. wording-variable. What is the maximum height at which Tarzan can land on a branch after his swing Part 1 of 2 continues? (Hint: Treat Tarzan’s and Jane’s Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . energies as separate quantities.) A 75 kg man jumps from a window 1.0 m above a sidewalk. Holt SF 05Rev 43 a) What is his speed just before his feet 04:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, strike the pavement? wording-variable. Part 2 of 2 2 Given: g = 9.81 m/s . b) If the man jumps with his knees and an- A 0.250 kg block on a vertical spring with a kles locked, the only cushion for his fall is spring constant of 5.00 × 103 N/m is pushed approximately 0.50 cm in the pads of his feet. downward, compressing the spring 0.100 m. Calculate the magnitude of the average When released, the block leaves the spring force exerted on him by the ground in this and travels upward vertically. situation. How high does it rise above the point of release? Holt SF 05Rev 58 04:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Holt SF 05Rev 50 wording-variable. 04:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 1 of 3 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A projectile of mass 5.0 kg is shot horizon- A skier of mass 70.0 kg is pulled up a slope tally with an initial speed of 17 m/s from a by a motor-driven cable. height of 25.0 m above a ﬂat desert surface. How much work is required to pull the skier a) For the instant before the projectile hits Chapter 4, section 4, Conservation of Energy 252 the surface, ﬁnd the work done on the projec- tile by gravity. Part 2 of 3 b) Find the change in kinetic energy since the projectile was ﬁred. Part 3 of 3 c) Find the ﬁnal kinetic energy of the projec- tile. Semicircular Track 04:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. The ﬁgure below shows a rough semicir- cular track whose ends are at a vertical height h. A block placed at point P at one end of the track is released from rest and slides past the bottom of the track. P h Which of the following is true of the height to which the block rises on the other side of the track? h 1. It is equal to 2π h 2. It is equal to 4 h 3. It is equal to 2 4. It is equal to h 5. It is between zero and h; the exact height depends on how much energy is lost to fric- tion. Chapter 4, section 5, Forms and Sources of Energy 253 Energy 52 6. None of these. 04:05, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. The energy that an object has because of its motion is 1. Kinetic energy 2. Potential energy 3. Electrical energy 4. Stored energy Hewitt CP9 07 R21 04:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. A friend says the energy of oil and coal is actually a form of solar energy. Is your friend correct,or mistaken? 1. He is correct. Since these materials are the result of photosynthesis, a biological pro- cess that incorporates the sun’s radiant en- ergy into plant tissue. 2. He is mistaken since the energy is actually from nuclear energy. 3. He is mistaken since the energy is actually from geothermal power. Hewitt CP9 07 R35 04:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. What is the ultimate source of energies for the burning of fossil fuels,dams,and wind- mills? 1. The Sun 2. Nuclear energy 3. Geothermal power 4. Water 5. Rain Chapter 4, section 6, Simple and Compound Machines 254 1. ﬁrst Levers 01 04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. second A fulcrum is 3. third 1. the place where a lever is supported. 4. None of these 2. measured in Newton-meters. Machines 01 04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. measured in Joules. An example of a compound machine is a 4. a support for an inclined plane. 1. typewriter. Levers 02 04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. pair of scissors. Which of the following is not a third-class 3. pair of pliers. lever? 4. hammer. 1. scissors Machines 02 2. broom 04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. baseball bat A simple machine that is a straight slanted surface is a(n) 4. shovel 1. inclined plane. Levers 03 04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. lever. The advantage of using a third-class lever 3. pulley. is that it 4. wedge. 1. multiplies distance. 5. screw. 2. decreases distance. 6. wheel and axle. 3. multiplies eﬀort force. Machines 03 4. makes the resistance force smaller. 04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Levers 04 A doorknob is a simple machine called a(n) 04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. wheel and axle. The fulcrum of a(n) -class lever is al- ways between the eﬀort force and the resis- 2. lever. tance force. 3. pulley. Chapter 4, section 6, Simple and Compound Machines 255 1. Only A is true. 4. wedge. 2. A, B, and C are true. 5. screw. 3. Only B is true. 6. inclined plane. 4. Only C is true. Machines 04 04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 5. Only A and B are true. The of a machine compares its work 5. Only A and C are true. output with its work input. 5. Only B and C are true. 1. mechanical eﬃciency Machines 07 2. mechanical advantage 04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. ideal mechanical advantage Consider the following statements. A. Windmills can be used to change me- 4. energy chanical energy into electric energy. B. Work relates force and simple machines. Machines 05 C. Power is the rate at which work is done. 04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Which statement(s) is/are true? A machine with a(n) of two doubles 1. Only A and C are true. the force applied to the machine. 2. Only A is true. 1. mechanical advantage 3. A, B, and C are true. 2. mechanical eﬃciency 4. Only B is true. 3. ideal mechanical advantage 5. Only C is true. 4. energy 6. Only A and B are true. Machines 06 04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 7. Only B and C are true. Consider the following statements. Machines 08 A. A third-class lever requires a larger eﬀort 04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. force for a given resistance force. B. If the eﬀort force is less than the resis- Consider the following statements. tance force, the mechanical advantage is less A. The mechanical eﬃciency of a machine than 1. is always less than 100 percent. C. The mechanical eﬃciency of a machine B. A machine that works with one move- is decreased by reducing friction within the ment is a simple machine. machine. C. A combination of complex machines is a Which statement(s) is/are true? compound machine. Which statement(s) is/are true? Chapter 4, section 6, Simple and Compound Machines 256 Machines 11 1. Only A and B are true. 04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. Only A is true. An inclined plane reduces the eﬀort force by 3. A, B, and C are true. 1. applying the force over a greater dis- 4. Only B is true. tance. 5. Only C is true. 2. reducing the work. 6. Only A and C are true. 3. increasing the work. 7. Only B and C are true. 4. reducing the eﬀort distance. Machines 09 Machines 12 04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. A screwdriver being used to pry open a can How does an inclined plane diﬀer from other of paint is an example of which type of simple simple machines? machine? 1. It has no moving parts. 1. lever 2. It is not a lever. 2. wheel and axle 3. It uses gears. 3. pulley 4. It is free of friction. 4. inclined plane Mechanical Advantage 01 5. wedge 04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 6. screw The mechanical advantage of a machine is the number of times it Machines 10 04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. multiplies the eﬀort force. If you have to apply 30 N of force on a crow- 2. changes the direction of the eﬀort force. bar to lift an object that weighs 330 N, what is the mechanical advantage of the crowbar? 3. changes the direction of the resistance force. 1. 11 4. multiplies the resistance force. 2. 0.09 Pulleys 01 3. 9900 04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. 0.36 The mechanical advantage of a pulley sys- tem is equal to the Chapter 4, section 6, Simple and Compound Machines 257 1. number of rope segments pulling up on the load. 2. distance the load has to be moved. 3. weight of the object being lifted. 4. length of the rope. Pulleys 02 04:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. A moveable pulley can 1. multiply force. 2. multiply distance. 3. have a mechanical advantage of less than one. 4. change the direction of the force. Chapter 4, section 7, Non-conservative Energy 258 Holt SF 05Rev 46 Part 2 of 3 04:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, b) Find the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction be- wording-variable. tween the suitcase and the ﬂoor. Part 1 of 3 Part 3 of 3 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . c) Find the change in mechanical energy due Starting from rest, a 5.0 kg block slides 2.5 to friction. m down a rough 30.0◦ incline in 2.0 s. Find Holt SF 05Rev 60 a) the work done by the force of gravity. 04:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 2 of 3 b) the change in mechanical energy due to Part 1 of 3 friction. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A 5.0 kg block is pushed 3.0 m at a con- Part 3 of 3 stant velocity up a vertical wall by a constant c) the work done by the normal force between force applied at an angle of 30.0◦ with the the block and the incline. horizontal, as shown in the ﬁgure. Holt SF 05Rev 48 F 04:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 30◦ wording-variable. Part 1 of 2 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . 3m A horizontal force of 150 N is used to push 5 kg a 40.0 kg packing crate a distance of 6.00 m on a rough horizontal surface. Drawing not to scale. If the crate moves with constant velocity, If the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction between calculate the block and the wall is 0.30, ﬁnd a) the work done by the force. a) the work done by the force on the block. Part 2 of 2 Part 2 of 3 b) the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction. b) the work done by gravity on the block. Holt SF 05Rev 55 Part 3 of 3 04:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, c) the magnitude of the normal force between wording-variable. the block and the wall. Part 1 of 3 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Starting from rest, a 10.0 kg suitcase slides 3.00 m down a frictionless ramp inclined at 30.0◦ from the ﬂoor. The suitcase then slides an additional 5.00 m along the ﬂoor before coming to a stop. a) Find the speed of the suitcase at the bottom of the ramp. Chapter 4, section 9, Torque 259 R FT Holt SF 08A 01 04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 53◦ wording-variable. 1.5 m 545 N 315 N Find the magnitude of the torque produced by a 3.0 N force applied to a door at a perpen- 5m dicular distance of 0.25 m from the hinge. Note: Figure is not drawn to scale. a) Assuming that the axis of rotation passes Holt SF 08A 02 through the beam’s center of mass, ﬁnd the 04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, force FT in the cable. wording-variable. Part 2 of 2 Part 1 of 2 b) Find the magnitude of the force R exerted Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . on the beam by the wall if the beam is in A simple pendulum consists of a 3.0 kg equilibrium. point mass hanging at the end of a 2.0 m long light string that is connected to a pivot point. Holt SF 08B 02 a) Calculate the magnitude of the torque 04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, (due to the force of gravity) around this pivot wording-variable. point when the string makes a 5.0◦ angle with the vertical. Part 1 of 2 A uniform bridge 20.0 m long and weighing Part 2 of 2 4.00×105 N is supported by two pillars located b) Repeat this calculation for an angle of 3.00 m from each end. A 1.96 × 104 N car is 15.0◦ . parked 8.00 m from one end of the bridge. a) How much force does the pillar closer to Holt SF 08A 03 the car exert? 04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 2 of 2 b) How much force does the pillar farther from If the torque required to loosen a nut on the the car exert? wheel of a car has a magnitude of 40.0 N · m, what minimum force must be exerted by a Holt SF 08B 03 mechanic at the end of a 30.0 cm wrench to 04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, loosen the nut? wording-variable. Holt SF 08B 01 Part 1 of 2 04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, A 700.0 N window washer is standing on a wording-variable. uniform scaﬀold supported by a vertical rope at each end. The scaﬀold weighs 200.0 N and Part 1 of 2 is 3.00 m long. Assume the window washer A uniform 5.00 m long horizontal beam that stands 1.00 m from one end. weighs 315 N is attached to a wall by a pin a) What is the force on the farther rope? connection that allows the beam to rotate. Its far end is supported by a cable that makes an Part 2 of 2 angle of 53◦ with the horizontal, and a 545 N b) What is the force on the closer rope? person is standing 1.50 m from the pin. Chapter 4, section 9, Torque 260 Holt SF 08B 04 around a solid cylindrical spool with a ra- 04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, dius of 0.0750 m and a mass of 0.500 kg. A wording-variable. 5.00 kg mass is then attached to the free end of the string, causing the string to unwind Part 1 of 2 from the spool. A 400.0 N child and a 300.0 N child sit on a) What is the angular acceleration of the either end of a 2.0 m long seesaw. spool? a) How far from the 400.0 N child should the pivot be placed to ensure rotational equi- Part 2 of 2 librium? Disregard the mass of the seesaw. b) How fast will the spool be rotating after all of the string has unwound? Part 2 of 2 b) Suppose a 225 N child sits 0.200 m from Holt SF 08Rev 09 the 400.0 N child. 04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, How far from the pivot must a 325 N child wording-variable. sit to maintain rotational equilibrium? Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Holt SF 08C 01 A bucket ﬁlled with water has a mass of 54 04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, kg and is hanging from a rope that is wound wording-variable. around a 0.050 m radius stationary cylinder. If the cylinder does not rotate and the Part 1 of 2 bucket hangs straight down, what is the mag- A potter’s wheel of radius 0.50 m and mass nitude of the torque the bucket produces 100.0 kg is freely rotating at 50.0 rev/min. around the center of the cylinder? The potter can stop the wheel in 6.0 s by pressing a wet rag against the rim. Holt SF 08Rev 10 a) What is the angular acceleration of the 04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wheel? wording-variable. Part 2 of 2 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . b) How much torque does the potter apply to A mechanic jacks up a car to an angle of the wheel? 8.0◦ with the horizontal in order to change the front tires. The car is 3.05 m long and has a Holt SF 08C 02 mass of 1130 kg. Its center of mass is located 04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 1.12 m from the front end. The rear wheels wording-variable. are 0.400 m from the back end. Calculate the torque exerted by the car A bicycle tire of radius 0.33 m and mass 1.5 around the back wheels. kg is rotating at 98.7 rad/s. What torque is necessary to stop the tire in Holt SF 08Rev 11 2.0 s? 04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Holt SF 08C 03 04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 1 of 2 wording-variable. The arm of a crane at a construction site is 15.0 m long, and it makes an angle of 20.0◦ Part 1 of 2 with the horizontal. Assume that the max- Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . imum load the crane can handle is limited A light string 4.00 m long is wrapped by the amount of torque the load produces Chapter 4, section 9, Torque 261 around the base of the arm. Note: Figure is not drawn to scale a) What is the magnitude of the maximum a) Find the force FT provided by the cable. torque the crane can withstand if the maxi- mum load the crane can handle is 450 N? Part 2 of 3 b) Find the horizontal force exerted on the Part 2 of 2 beam by the pole. b) What is the maximum load for this crane at an angle of 40.0◦ with the horizontal? Part 3 of 3 c) Find the vertical force exerted on the beam Holt SF 08Rev 20 by the pole. 04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Holt SF 08Rev 22 04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 1 of 2 wording-variable. A window washer is standing on a scaﬀold supported by a vertical rope at each end. The Part 1 of 3 scaﬀold weighs 205 N and is 3.00 m long. A 1200.0 N uniform boom of length is Assume the 675 N worker stands 1.00 m from supported by a cable, as shown. The boom is one end of the scaﬀold. pivoted at the bottom, the cable is attached a) What is the force on the rope farther 3 a distance from the pivot, and a 2000.0 N from the worker? 4 weight hangs from the boom’s top. Part 2 of 2 b) What is the force on the closer rope? Holt SF 08Rev 21 04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 25◦ wording-variable. Part 1 of 3 2000 N Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . 65◦ A ﬂoodlight with a mass of 20.0 kg is used to illuminate the parking lot in front of a library. Note: Figure is not drawn to scale The ﬂoodlight is supported at the end of a a) Find the force FT applied by the sup- horizontal beam that is hinged to a vertical porting cable. pole, as shown. A cable that makes an angle of 30.0◦ with the beam is attached to the pole to Part 2 of 3 help support the ﬂoodlight. Assume the mass b) Find the horizontal component of the reac- of the beam is negligible when compared with tion force on the bottom of the boom. the mass of the ﬂoodlight. Part 3 of 3 c) Find the vertical component of the reaction force on the bottom of the boom. Holt SF 08Rev 23 30◦ 04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. 20 kg Part 1 of 3 Chapter 4, section 9, Torque 262 A uniform 10.0 N picture frame is sup- 04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ported as shown. wording-variable. FT,1 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . FT,2 A wooden bucket ﬁlled with water has a 30 cm 50◦ mass of 75 kg and is attached to a rope that is wound around a cylinder with a radius of 15 cm 0.075 m. A crank with a turning radius of F 0.25 m is attached to the end of the cylinder. P What minimum force directed perpendicu- larly to the crank handle is required to raise 10 N the bucket? Note: Figure is not drawn to scale a) Find the force FT,1 in the cord that is required to hold the frame in this position. Holt SF 08Rev 46 04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 2 of 3 wording-variable. b) Find the force FT,2 in the cord that is required to hold the frame in this position. If the torque required to loosen a nut that holds a wheel on a car has a magnitude of Part 3 of 3 58 N · m, what force must be exerted at the c) Find the magnitude of the horizontal force end of a 0.35 m lug wrench to loosen the nut at P that is required to hold the frame in this when the angle is 56◦ ? position. Holt SF 08Rev 48 Holt SF 08Rev 27 04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. wording-variable. A 23.0 cm screwdriver is used to pry open A 30.0 kg uniform solid cylinder has a ra- a can of paint. dius of 0.180 m. If the axis of rotation is 2.00 cm from the If the cylinder accelerates at 2.30 × end of the screwdriver blade and a force of 84.3 10−2 rad/s2 as it rotates about an axis N is exerted at the end of the screwdriver’s through its center, how large is the torque handle, what force is applied to the lid? acting on the cylinder? Holt SF 08Rev 50 Holt SF 08Rev 28 04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. wording-variable. Part 1 of 2 A 350 kg merry-go-round in the shape of a Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . horizontal disk with a radius of 1.5 m is set in A 0.100 kg meterstick is supported at its motion by wrapping a rope about the rim of 40.0 cm mark by a string attached to the ceil- the disk and pulling on the rope. ing. A 0.700 kg mass hangs vertically from the How large a torque would have to be ex- 5.00 cm mark. A mass is attached somewhere erted to bring the merry-go-round from rest on the meterstick to keep it horizontal and in to an angular speed of 3.14 rad/s in 2.00 s? both rotational and translational equilibrium. The force applied by the string attaching the meterstick to the ceiling is 19.6 N. Holt SF 08Rev 45 a) Find the value of the unknown mass. Chapter 4, section 9, Torque 263 kg and a radius of 4.0 cm. A friction clutch in Part 2 of 2 the reel exerts a restraining torque of 1.3 N · m b) Find the point where the mass attaches to if a ﬁsh pulls on the line. The ﬁsherman gets the stick. a bite, and the reel begins to spin with an angular acceleration of 66 rad/s2 . Holt SF 08Rev 51 a) Find the force of the ﬁsh on the line. 04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 2 of 2 b) Find the amount of line that unwinds from A uniform ladder 8.00 m long and weighing the reel in 0.50 s. 200.0 N rests against a smooth wall. The coeﬃcient of static friction between the ladder Holt SF 08Rev 57 and the ground is 0.600, and the ladder makes 04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, a 50.0◦ angle with the ground. wording-variable. How far up the ladder can an 800.0 N person climb before the ladder begins to slip? Part 1 of 3 The combination of an applied force and a Holt SF 08Rev 55 frictional force produces a constant torque of 04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 36 N · m on a wheel rotating about a ﬁxed wording-variable. axis. The applied force acts for 6.0 s, during which time the angular speed of the wheel Part 1 of 2 increases from 0 to 12 rad/s. A person is standing on tiptoe, and the per- a) What is the moment of inertia of the son’s total weight is supported by the force on wheel? the toe. A mechanical model for the situation is shown, where T is the force in the Achilles Part 2 of 3 tendon and R is the force on the foot due to The applied force is then removed, and the the tibia. Assume the total weight is 700.0 N. wheel comes to rest in 65 s. ◦ 21.2 b) What is the frictional torque? ◦ 15 R T Part 3 of 3 c) How many revolutions does the wheel make during the entire 71 s interval? 18 cm Holt SF 08Rev 61 Fn 25 cm 04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Note: Figure is not drawn to scale a) Find the value of T . Part 1 of 2 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Part 2 of 2 Hint: At 3:00 o’clock, the hour hand is not b) Find the value of R. precisely at 90◦ from vertical. Assume: The clock hands can be modeled Holt SF 08Rev 56 as thin rods. 04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, The hands of the clock in the famous Par- wording-variable. liament Clock Tower in London are 2.7 m and 4.5 m long and have masses of 60.0 kg and Part 1 of 2 100.0 kg, respectively. A cylindrical ﬁshing reel has a mass of 0.85 Calculate the magnitude of the torque Chapter 4, section 9, Torque 264 around the center of the clock due to the and the ground? weight of these hands at 5 : 20 o’clock. Part 2 of 2 The torque is 1. clockwise. 2. counter-clockwise. 3. Can not be determined from given infor- mation. Holt SF 08Rev 76 04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. A uniform 6.0 m tall aluminum ladder is leaning against a frictionless vertical wall. The ladder has a weight of 250 N. The lad- der slips when it makes a 60.0◦ angle with the horizontal ﬂoor. Determine the coeﬃcient of static friction between the ladder and the ﬂoor. Holt SF 08Rev 77 04:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 1 of 3 A ladder with a length of 15.0 m and a weight of 520.0 N rests against a frictionless wall, making an angle of 60.0◦ with the hori- zontal. a) Find the horizontal force exerted on the base of the ladder by Earth when an 800.0 N ﬁreﬁghter is 4.00 m from the bottom of the ladder. Part 2 of 3 b) Find the vertical force exerted on the base of the ladder by Earth when an 800.0 N ﬁre- ﬁghter is 4.00 m from the bottom of the lad- der. Part 3 of 3 c) If the ladder is just on the verge of slipping when the ﬁreﬁghter is 9.00 m up, what is the coeﬃcient of static friction between the ladder Chapter 4, section 10, Rolling Motion 265 m rolls 6.0 m down a ramp that is inclined at Holt SF 08Rev 35 37◦ with the horizontal. 04:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, If the ball starts from rest at the top of the wording-variable. ramp, what is the angular speed of the ball at the bottom of the ramp? A 15.0 kg turntable with a radius of 25 cm is covered with a uniform layer of dry Holt SF 08Rev 44 ice that has a mass of 9.00 kg. The angular 04:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. speed of the turntable and dry ice is initially 0.75 rad/s, but it increases as the dry ice Two spheres look identical and have the evaporates. same mass. One is hollow and the other is What is the angular speed of the turntable solid. once all the dry ice has evaporated? Which method would determine which is which? Holt SF 08Rev 36 04:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 1. Roll them down an incline. wording-variable. 2. Drop them from the same height. A 65 kg woman stands at the rim of a horizontal turntable with a moment of inertia 3. Weigh them on a scale. of 1.5 × 103 kg · m2 and a radius of 2.0 m. The system is initially at rest, and the turntable is 4. None of these free to rotate about a frictionless vertical axle through its center. The woman then starts Holt SF 08Rev 47 walking clockwise (when viewed from above) 04:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, around the rim at a constant speed of 0.75 wording-variable. rad/s relative to Earth. With what angular speed does the In a canyon between two mountains, a turntable rotate? spherical boulder with a radius of 1.4 m is just set in motion by a force of 1600 N. The Holt SF 08Rev 37 force is applied at an angle of 53.5◦ measured 04:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, with respect to the radius of the boulder. wording-variable. What is the magnitude of the torque on the boulder? Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A 35 kg bowling ball with a radius of 13 cm Holt SF 08Rev 66 starts from rest at the top of an incline 3.5 m 04:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. in height. Find the translational speed of the bowling Part 1 of 2 ball after it has rolled to the bottom of the a) Calculate the angular momentum of incline. (Assume that the ball is a uniform Earth that arises from its spinning motion solid sphere.) 2 on its axis IE = 0.331ME RE . Holt SF 08Rev 38 Part 2 of 2 04:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, b) Calculate the average angular momentum wording-variable. of Earth that arises from its orbital motion about the sun. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A solid 240 N ball with a radius of 0.200 Holt SF 08Rev 70 Chapter 4, section 10, Rolling Motion 266 04:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 1 of 2 A car is designed to get its energy from a rotating ﬂywheel with a radius of 2.00 m and a mass of 500.0 kg. Before a trip, the disk-shaped ﬂywheel is attached to an electric motor, which brings the ﬂywheel’s rotational speed up to 1000.0 rev/min. a) Find the kinetic energy stored in the ﬂywheel. Part 2 of 2 b) If the ﬂywheel is to supply as much energy to the car as a 7457 W motor would, ﬁnd the length of time the car can run before the ﬂywheel has to be brought back up to speed again. Holt SF 08Rev 71 04:10, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. The ﬁgure shows a system of point masses that rotates at an angular speed of 2.0 rev/s. The masses are connected by light, ﬂexible spokes that can be lengthened or shortened. y m 1.0 m m x m 1.0 m m Note: Figure is not drawn to scale What is the new angular speed if the spokes are shortened to 0.50 m? (An eﬀect similar to this ocurred in the early stages of the for- mation of our galaxy. As the massive cloud of gas and dust contracted, an initially small rotation increased with time.) Chapter 4, section 11, Simple Harmonic Motion 267 system is set in motion. Holt SF 12C 01 a) What is its period for a mass of 2.3 kg? 04:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 2 of 6 b) What is its frequency? A mass of 0.30 kg is attached to a spring and is set into vibration with a period of 0.24 Part 3 of 6 s. c) What is the period for a mass of 15 g? What is the spring constant of the spring? Part 4 of 6 Holt SF 12C 02 d) What is its frequency? 04:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 5 of 6 e) What is the period for a mass of 1.9 kg? When a mass of 25 g is attached to a certain spring, it makes 20 complete vibrations in 4.0 Part 6 of 6 s. f) What is its frequency? What is the spring constant of the spring? Holt SF 12Rev 22 Holt SF 12C 03 04:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 04:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. wording-variable. Part 1 of 2 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A spring with a spring constant of 1.8 × 102 A 125 N object vibrates with a period of N/m is attached to a 1.5 kg mass and then set 3.56 s when hanging from a spring. in motion. What is the spring constant of the spring? a) What is the period of the mass-spring system? Holt SF 12C 04 04:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 2 of 2 wording-variable. a) What is the frequency of the vibration? The body of a 1275 kg car is supported on a frame by four springs. The spring con- stant of a single spring is 2.00 × 104 N/m. Four people riding in the car have a combined mass of 255 kg. When driven over a pothole in the road, the frame vibrates and for the ﬁrst few seconds the vibration approximates simple harmonic motion. What is the period of vibration of the car? Holt SF 12C 05 04:11, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 1 of 6 A spring with a spring constant of 30.0 N/m is attached to diﬀerent masses, and the Chapter 4, section 12, Pendulum 268 Part 5 of 6 Holt SF 12B 01 e) What is its period in Jakarta, Indonesia, 04:12, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, where g = 9.782 m/s2 ? wording-variable. Part 6 of 6 2 Given: g = 9.81 m/s . f) What is its frequency? You need to know the height of a tower, but darkness obscures the ceiling. You note that Holt SF 12Rev 19 a pendulum extending from the ceiling almost 04:12, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, touches the ﬂoor and that its period is 24 s. wording-variable. How tall is the tower? Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Holt SF 12B 02 Find the length of a pendulum that oscil- 04:12, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. lates with a frequency of 0.16 Hz. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Holt SF 12Rev 20 You are designing a pendulum clock to have 04:12, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, a period of 1.0 s. wording-variable. How long should the pendulum be? Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Holt SF 12B 03 A visitor to a lighthouse wishes to deter- 04:12, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, mine the height of the tower. The visitor ties wording-variable. a spool of thread to a small rock to make a simple pendulum, then hangs the pendulum Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . down a spiral staircase in the center of the A trapeze artist swings in simple harmonic tower. The period of oscillation is 9.49 s. motion with a period of 3.8 s. What is the height of the tower? Calculate the length of the cables support- ing the trapeze. Holt SF 12Rev 21 04:12, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Holt SF 12B 04 wording-variable. 04:12, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 1 of 3 A pendulum that moves through its equilib- Part 1 of 6 rium position once every 1.000 s is sometimes Consider a pendulum of length 3.500 m. called a “seconds pendulum.” a) What is its period at the North Pole, a) What is the period of any seconds pen- where g = 9.832 m/s2 ? dulum? Part 2 of 6 1. 2.000 s b) What is its frequency? 2. 1.000 s Part 3 of 6 c) What is its period in Chicago, where g = 3. 4.000 s 9.803 m/s2 ? 4. 0.500 s Part 4 of 6 d) What is its frequency? 5. 0.250 s Chapter 4, section 12, Pendulum 269 6. None of these Given: g = 9.8 m/s2 . Part 2 of 3 A simple 2.00 m long pendulum oscillates In Cambridge, England, a seconds pendulum in a location where g = 9.80 m/s2 . is 0.9942 m long. How many complete oscilations does this b) What is the free-fall acceleration in Cam- pendulum make in 5.00 min? bridge? Holt SF 12Rev 58 1. 9.81236 m/s2 04:12, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. 2. 9.79756 m/s2 Part 1 of 3 3. 9.81341 m/s2 Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A certain pendulum clock that works per- 4. 9.79651 m/s2 fectly on Earth is taken to the moon, where g = 1.63 m/s2 . 5. 9.81 m/s2 The clock is started at 12:00:00 A.M. and runs for 24 h. 6. None of these a) What will be the reading for the hours? Part 3 of 3 Part 2 of 3 In Tokyo, Japan, a seconds pendulum is b) What will be the reading for the minutes? 0.9927 m long. c) What is the free-fall acceleration in Part 3 of 3 Tokyo? c) What will be the reading for the seconds? 1. 9.79756 m/s2 Pendulum 01 04:12, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. 9.81236 m/s2 If you increase the length of a pendulum 3. 9.81341 m/s2 by a factor of 9 the period T 4. 9.79651 m/s2 1. increases by a factor of 3. √ 5. 9.81 m/s2 2. increases by a factor of 3. 6. None of these 3. increases by a factor of 9. Holt SF 12Rev 52 4. increases by a factor of 6. 04:12, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. 5. remains the same. What is the free-fall acceleration in a lo- Pendulum cation where the period of a 0.850 m long 04:12, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, pendulum is 1.86 s? wording-variable. Holt SF 12Rev 54 The period T of the pendulum depends on 04:12, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, I) the length of the pendulum; wording-variable. II) the mass m of the pendulum; Chapter 4, section 12, Pendulum 270 III) the amplitude A or the angle θ. 1. I only 2. II only 3. III only 4. I and II only 5. I and III only 6. II and III only 7. I, II and III 8. None of these Chapter 4, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 04 271 12.0 s. Energy 09 Through how many revolutions does the 04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. tub turn? Assume constant angular acceler- ation while the machine is starting and stop- Consider the following statements. ping. A. Chemical energy is released when the nucleus of an atom breaks apart. Holt SF 08E 01 B. Energy can be converted from one form 04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, to another. wording-variable. C. When an object warms up, it gains chemical energy. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Which statement(s) is/are true? A solid cylinder with a mass of 4.10 kg and a radius of 0.050 m starts from rest at a 1. Only B is true. height of 2.00 m and rolls down a 30.0◦ slope, as shown. 2. Only A and B are true. What is the translational speed of the cylin- der when it leaves the incline? 3. Only A is true. Holt SF 08E 01ball 4. A, B, and C are true. 04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. 5. Only C is true. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . 6. Only A and C are true. A solid ball with a mass of 4.10 kg and a radius of 0.050 m starts from rest at a height 7. Only B and C are true. of 2.00 m and rolls down a 30.0◦ slope, as shown. Energy 53 What is the translational speed of the ball 04:99, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. when it leaves the incline? The capacity to do work is called Holt SF 08E 02 04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 1. Energy wording-variable. 2. Potential energy Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A 1.5 kg bicycle tire of radius 0.33 m starts 3. Kinetic energy from rest and rolls down from the top of a hill that is 14.8 m high. 4. Mechanical energy What is the translational speed of the tire when it reaches the bottom of the hill? (As- Holt SF 07Rev 42 sume that the tire is a hoop with I = mr 2 .) 04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Holt SF 08E 03 04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, The tub within a washer goes into its spin wording-variable. cycle, starting from rest and reaching an an- gular speed of 11 π rad/s in 8.0 s. At this Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . point, the lid is opened, and a safety switch A regulation basketball has a 25 cm di- turns oﬀ the washer. The tub slows to rest in ameter and may be approximated as a thin Chapter 4, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 04 272 spherical shell. cm, as shown. The acceleration of the mass How long will it take a basketball starting down the frictionless incline is measured to be from rest to roll without slipping 4.0 m down 2.0 m/s2 . Assume the axle of the wheel to be an incline that makes an angle of 30.0◦ with frictionless. the horizontal? 10 cm 2 /s Holt SF 08Rev 49 2m 04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, kg 12 wording-variable. 37 ◦ The net work done in accelerating a pro- Note: Figure is not drawn to scale peller from rest to an angular speed of 220 a) Find the force in the rope. rad/s is 3000.0 J. What is the moment of inertia of the pro- Part 2 of 3 peller? b) Find the moment of inertia of the wheel. Holt SF 08Rev 52 Part 3 of 3 04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, c) Find the angular speed of the wheel 2.0 s wording-variable. after it begins rotating, starting from rest. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Holt SF 08Rev 59 A 0.0200 m diameter coin rolls up a 15.0◦ 04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, inclined plane. The coin starts with an initial wording-variable. angular speed of 45.0 rad/s and rolls in a straight line without slipping. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . How much vertical distance does it gain As part of a kinetic sculpture, a 5.0 kg hoop before it stops rolling? with a radius of 3.0 m rolls without slipping. If the hoop is given an angular speed of Holt SF 08Rev 53 3.0 rad/s while rolling on the horizontal and 04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, then rolls up a ramp inclined at 20.0◦ with the wording-variable. horizontal, how far does the hoop roll along the incline? Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . In a circus performance, a large 4.0 kg hoop Holt SF 08Rev 62 with a radius of 2.0 m rolls without slipping. 04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, If the hoop is given an angular speed of wording-variable. 6.0 rad/s while rolling on the horizontal and is allowed to roll up a ramp inclined at 15◦ Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . with the horizontal, how far (measured along A coin with a diameter of 4.37 cm rolls up a the incline) does the hoop roll? 30.0◦ inclined plane. The coin starts with an initial angular speed of 60.0 rad/s and rolls in Holt SF 08Rev 54 a straight line without slipping. 04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, How far does it roll up the inclined plane? wording-variable. Holt SF 08Rev 63 Part 1 of 3 04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A 12 kg mass is attached to a cord that is A solid sphere rolls along a horizontal, wrapped around a wheel with a radius of 10.0 smooth surface at a constant linear speed Chapter 4, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 04 273 without slipping. Holt SF 08Rev 73 What is the ratio between the rotational 04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, kinetic energy about the center of the sphere wording-variable. and the sphere’s total kinetic energy? A crate is pulled 2.0 m at constant velocity 2 along a 15◦ incline. The coeﬃcient of kinetic 1. 5 friction between the crate and the plane is 3 0.160. 2. 5 Calculate the eﬃciency of this procedure. 2 3. 7 Holt SF 08Rev 74 3 04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 4. wording-variable. 7 5 5. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . 3 A pulley system has an eﬃciency of 87.5 7 6. percent. 2 How much of the rope must be pulled in if 7. None of these a force of 648 N is needed to lift a 150 kg desk 2.46 m? Holt SF 08Rev 67 04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Holt SF 08Rev 75 wording-variable. 04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 1 of 2 A skater spins with an angular speed of Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . 12.0 rad/s with his arms outstretched. He A pulley system is used to lift a piano 3.0 lowers his arms, decreasing his moment of m. inertia from 41 kg · m2 to 36 kg · m2 . If a force of 2200 N is applied to the rope a) Calculate his initial rotational kinetic as the rope is pulled in 14 m, what is the energy. eﬃciency of the machine? Assume the mass of the piano is 750 kg. Part 2 of 2 b) Calculate his ﬁnal rotational kinetic en- ergy. Holt SF 08Rev 72 04:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . The eﬃciency of a pulley system is 64 per- cent. The pulleys are used to raise a mass of 78 kg to a height of 4.0 m. What force is exerted on the rope of the pulley system if the rope is pulled for 24 m in order to raise the mass to the required height? Chapter 5, section 1, Temperature 274 Conversion 148 Boil Liquid Nitrogen 05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 20◦ C is approximately equal to: Part 1 of 2 Liquid nitrogen has a boiling point of 1. 60◦ F −195.81 ◦ C at atmospheric pressure. Express this temperature in degrees 2. 70◦ F Fahrenheit. 3. 80◦ F Part 2 of 2 Express this temperature in Kelvin. 4. 90◦ F Boil Water 5. 100◦ F 05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Conversion 149 ◦ 05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. The boiling point of water is 212 F. Express this in Kelvin. On the Kelvin scale, a temperature of 43◦ C Conversion 146 is ? . 05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. 43 K ◦ What is −40 C in K? 2. 230 K 1. 44K 3. 273 K 2. 233K 4. 316 K 3. 25K Conversion 150 4. 298K 05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 5. 789K Convert a temperature of 270 ◦ C into de- grees Kelvin. Conversion 147 05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Conversion 151 05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 25◦ C is approximately equal to Convert 5.1 gallons into the equivalent 1. 60◦ F number of milliliters. 2. 80◦ F Conversion 152 05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 3. 100◦ F How many milligrams are there in 4. 32◦ F 5.1 slugs? 5. 0◦ F Conversion 153 05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Chapter 5, section 1, Temperature 275 2. 3.0 liters A stone is an old english unit of weight and it is equal to 14 slug. 3. 12 liters How many kilograms are there in 5 stones? 4. 9 liters Gas Laws 50 Gas Laws 53 05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. A gas has a volume of 2 liters at a pressure A gas has a volume of 9.0 liters at a pressure of 3 atm. of 1520 torr. What will be the volume of the gas if the If the pressure is decreased to 380 torr, what pressure is increased to 6 atm? will be its new volume? (Assume temperature remains constant) 1. 4 liters 1. 36 liters 2. 3 liters 2. 0.28 liters 3. 2 liters 3. 2.3 liters 4. 1 liter 4. 4.6 liters Gas Laws 51 05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Gas Laws 54 05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. A gas has a volume of 2.00 liters at a tem- perature of 127◦ C. A gas occupies 1.62 L at 810 torr and 15◦ C. What will be the volume of the gas if the What volume, in liters, will it ﬁll if the temperature is increased to 327◦ C. (Assume pressure is changed to 750 torr and the tem- the pressure remains constant) perature is raised to 42◦ C? 1. 4.00 liters 1. 1.91 L 2. 6.00 liters 2. 4.90 L 3. 2.00 liters 3. 1.37 L 4. 3.00 liters 4. 1.60 L Gas Laws 52 Gas Laws 55 05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. A gas has a volume of 6.0 liters at a pressure A gas occupies 21.0 L at 1.00 atm pressure of 380 torr. and 298 K. If the pressure is increased to 760 torr, what What temperature is necessary to increase will be its new volume? the volume to 56.1 L if the pressure remains constant? 1. 6.0 liters 1. 796 K Chapter 5, section 1, Temperature 276 2. 400◦ C 3. goes to 1/2 the original volume 3. 896 K 4. increases by a factor of 100 4. 697 K 5. none of these 5. 359 K Gas Laws 59 05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Gas Laws 56 05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. A sample of nitrogen occupies 11.2 liters under a pressure of 580 torr at 32◦ C. If the temperature of a ﬁxed amount of gas What volume would it occupy at 32◦ C if is decreased at constant pressure its volume the pressure were increased to 800 torr? will Gas Laws 61 1. increase 05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 2. decrease A 30 liter tank contains a gas under a pres- sure of 450 atmospheres. 3. remain the same What volume would the gas occupy at the same temperature at 700 torr of pressure? 4. insuﬃcient data to answer this question Gas Laws 62 Gas Laws 57 05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Suppose that a sample of gas occupies If the temperature of a ﬁxed amount of gas 125 mL of volume at 25◦ C and a pressure is increased at constant pressure, its volume of 250 torr. will What would be the volume of this sample if the pressure were changed to 550 torr at 1. increase 25◦ C? 2. decrease Gas Laws 63 05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 3. remain the same At 50 ◦ C and 250 torr, a sample of gas 4. insuﬃcient data to answer the question occupies 450 mL. If the pressure remains constant, what vol- Gas Laws 58 ume will the gas occupy when heated to 05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 150 ◦ C? If the temperature of an ideal gas is raised Gas Laws 64 from 100◦ C to 200◦ C, while the pressure re- 05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. mains constant, the volume A 200 mL sample of a gas at 30 ◦ C and 1. doubles 900 torr is heated to 70 ◦ C and the pressure allowed to drop to 500 torr. 2. remains the same What volume will the gas occupy at these Chapter 5, section 1, Temperature 277 new conditions? Heat 12 05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Gas Laws 65 05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. How would the average body temperature of a healthy human, which is 37◦ C, be repre- Suppose that a sample of gas occupies sented in Kelvin? 125 mL of volume at 298 K and a pressure of 250 torr. 1. 310 K What would be the volume (expressed of this sample if the pressure were changed to 2. 37 K 550 torr at 298 K? 3. 0 K Gas Laws 66 05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 4. 236 K A 4.20 L sample of gas has its pressure Hewitt CP9 15 E01 decreased from 3.5 atm to 1.5 atm. 05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. What does the volume of the gas become? In your room there are things such as tables, Gas Laws 67 chairs, other people, and so forth. 05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Which of these things has a temperature greater than the temperature of the air? An aerosol can contains 450 mL of com- pressed gas at 5.20 atm pressure. When the 1. People gas is sprayed into a large plastic bag, the bag inﬂates to a volume of 2.14 L. 2. Tables What is the pressure of gas inside the plas- tic bag? 3. Chairs Gas Laws 68 4. Tables, chairs and other people 05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 5. All above are wrong To what temperature must 450 mL of gas at 22 ◦ C be cooled, at constant pressure, so that Hewitt CP9 15 E07 the volume of the gas is reduced to 1.5 mL? 05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Heat 11 How much is the temperature of a ther- 05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. mometer outdoors on a sunny days compared with the temperature of the air? Temperature is a measure of average 1. A little higher than the temperature of 1. kinetic energy. the air. 2. amount of calories. 2. A little lower than the temperature of the air. 3. amount of work. 3. The same as the temperature of the air. 4. heat of fusion. 4. Much lower than the temperature of the Chapter 5, section 1, Temperature 278 air. 3. A piece of solid iron sink in a container of 5. All above are wrong. molten iron. Hewitt CP9 15 E09 4. A piece of solid aluminum sink in a con- 05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. tainer of molten aluminum. Which of the following is wrong? 5. In the solid state the structure of wa- ter is open-spaced, and ice is less dense than 1. There is no minimum temperature. water. 2. There is no maximum temperature. Hewitt CP9 15 E45 05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. When no more energy can be extracted from a material, it is at absolute zero. Which of the following is correct? 4. There is no limit to how much energy can 1. The density of the water is the highest at be added to a material. 4 ◦ C. 5. The kinetic energy has a minimum, zero, 2. The density of the water is the highest at but no maximum. 100◦ C. Hewitt CP9 15 E41 3. The density of the water is the highest at ◦ 05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 0 C. What is the precise temperature at the bot- 4. The density of the water is the highest at tom of Lake Superior at 12 AM on October 5◦ C. 31, 1894? 5. The density of the water is the highest at 1. 4 C◦ 22◦ C. 2. 0 ◦ C Hewitt CP9 15 E47 05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. 100 ◦ C Which of the following is wrong? ◦ 4. 6 C 1. When the temperature below freezing, 5. All above are wrong. the water contract. Hewitt CP9 15 E43 2. It is important to protect water pipes so 05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. they don’t freeze. Which of the following is wrong? 3. When the temperature below freezing, the water expands. 1. A piece of ice sink in a container of molten water. 4. When the temperature below freezing, the pipe contract. 2. A piece of ice not sink in a container of molten water. 5. The pipe (if metal) will fracture if water Chapter 5, section 1, Temperature 279 in them freezes. Part 2 of 2 Hewitt CP9 16 E01 b) What is this temperature on the Kelvin 05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. scale? Wrap a fur coat around a thermometer. Holt SF 10A 02 How will the temperature change? 05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- mal. 1. Doesn’t change. Part 1 of 4 2. Rise. The temperatures of one northeastern state range from 105◦ F in the summer to −25◦ F in 3. Decrease. winter. a) What is the lower temperature on the 4. Rise at ﬁrst, then drop. Celsius scale? 5. It depends on the material of the ther- Part 2 of 4 mometer. b) What is the lower temperature on the Kelvin scale? Hewitt CP9 16 E03 05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Part 3 of 4 c) What is the higher temperature on the At what common temperature will a block Celsius scale? of wood and a block of metal both feel neither hot nor cold to the touch? Part 4 of 4 d) What is the higher temperature on the 1. When the temperature of the blocks are Kelvin scale? the same as the temperature of your hand. Holt SF 10A 03 2. At room temperature. 05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- mal. 3. At freezing point. Part 1 of 2 4. When the temperature of the blocks The normal human body temperature is are higher than as the temperature of your 98.6◦ F. A person with a fever may record hand. 102◦ F. a) What is the lower temperature on the 5. When the temperature of the blocks are Celsius scale? lower than as the temperature of your hand. Part 2 of 2 Holt SF 10A 01 b) What is the higher temperature on the 05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Celsius scale? Part 1 of 2 Holt SF 10A 04 The lowest outdoor temperature ever 05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- recorded on Earth is −128.6◦ F, recorded at mal. Vostok Station, Antarctica, in 1983. a) What is this temperature on the Celsius Part 1 of 2 scale? A pan of water is heated from 23◦ C to 78◦ C. Chapter 5, section 1, Temperature 280 a) What is the change in temperature on 05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. the Kelvin scale? Part 1 of 2 Part 2 of 2 Absolute zero on the Rankine temperature b) What is the change in temperature on the scale is TR = 0◦ R, and the scale’s unit is the Fahrenheit scale? same size as the Fahrenheit degree. a) Write a formula that relates the Rankine Holt SF 10A 05 scale to the Fahrenheit scale. 05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. TF = TR − 459.67 Part 1 of 2 Liquid nitrogen is used to cool substances 2. TF = TF − 459.67 to very low temperatures. The boiling point of liquid nitrogen (at 1 atm of pressure) is 3. TF = TR + 459.67 77.34 K. a) What is this temperature on the Celsius 4. TF = TR + 20 scale? 5. None of these Part 2 of 2 b) What is this temperature on the Fahrenheit Part 2 of 2 scale? b) Write a formula that relates the Rankine scale to the Kelvin scale. Holt SF 10Rev 09 9 05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. TR = T 5 Part 1 of 2 9 2. TR = TF The highest recorded temperature on Earth 5 was 136◦ F, at Azizia, Libya, in 1922. 3. None of these a) What is this temperature on the Celsius scale? 5 4. TR = TF 9 Part 2 of 2 5 5. TR = T b) What is this temperature on the Kelvin 9 scale? Holt SF 10Rev 43 05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Holt SF 10Rev 10 wording-variable. 05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Part 1 of 4 The boiling point of liquid hydrogen is Part 1 of 2 −252.87◦ C. The melting point of gold is 1947◦ F. a) What is this temperature in degrees a) What is this temperature on the Celsius Fahrenheit? scale? Part 2 of 4 Part 2 of 2 b) What is this temperature in kelvins? b) What is this temperature on the Kelvin scale? Part 3 of 4 Consider the temperature of a room at Holt SF 10Rev 41 Chapter 5, section 1, Temperature 281 20.5◦ C. cally equal? c) What is this temperature in degrees Fahrenheit? Temperature 50 05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Part 4 of 4 d) What is this temperature in kelvins? A temperature of 113◦ C is equal to ? ◦ F? Holt SF 10Rev 44 05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 1. 71.6 wording-variable. 2. 66.2 Part 1 of 2 The freezing and boiling points of water on 3. 134.6 the imaginary “Too Hot” temperature scale f reezing are selected to be exactly TT H = 51◦ TH 4. 235.4 boiling and TT H = 197◦ TH. a) Derive an equation relating the Too Hot 5. 163.4 scale to the Celsius scale. Temperature 51 50 05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. TC = (TT H − 51) 73 50 A temperature of 34◦ F is equal to ? ◦ C? 2. TC = TT H + 51 73 73 1. 1.1 3. TC = (TT H − 51) 50 73 2. 2 4. TC = TT H + 51 50 3. 66 5. TC = TT H + 51 4. 76 6. TC = TT H − 51 Temperature 52 7. None of these 05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Part 2 of 2 A temperature of 57◦ F is equal to ? ◦ C? b) Calculate absolute zero in degrees TH. 1. 13.9 Holt SF 10Rev 45 05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. 65.4 At what Fahrenheit temperature are the 3. 2 Celsius and Fahrenheit temperatures numeri- cally equal? 4. 25 Holt SF 10Rev 48 Temperature 53 05:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. At what Fahrenheit temperature are the A temperature of 73◦ C is equal to ? ◦ F Kelvin and Fahrenheit temperatures numeri- ? Chapter 5, section 1, Temperature 282 1. 71.6 1. 2 2. 66.2 2. 275 3. 134.6 3. 463 4. 235.4 4. 12.1 5. 163.4 Temperature 57 05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Temperature 54 05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Copper melts at 1083◦ C. What is its melting temperature in ◦ F? A temperature of 97◦ F is equal to ? ◦ C? 1. 1949◦ F 1. 36.1 2. 583◦ F 2. 129.0 3. 602◦ F 3. 65.0 4. 634◦ F 4. 68.1 5. 1981◦ F Temperature 55 05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Temperature 58 05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. At room temperature a beaker of liquid measures 26◦ C. How cold does it have to get to be twice as What is its temperature measured in cold as 0 ◦ C? Kelvin? 1. −136.5◦ C ◦ 1. 26 C since they are both the same scale. 2. 0◦ C 2. 299 K since they are the same scale, but oﬀset by 273◦ . 3. Cannot be determined 3. −247 K 4. −2◦ C 4. It is not possible to convert from ◦ C to Temperature 59 K. 05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 5. None of these The boiling point of liquid oxygen (LOX) is 54.4 K. Temperature 56 What is its boiling point on the Fahrenheit 05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. scale? Convert 275 K to degree Celsius. (273 K = 1. −361.5◦ F ◦ 0 C) Chapter 5, section 1, Temperature 283 2. −336.2◦ F 3. speciﬁc heat 3. −451.4◦ F 4. Joule 4. −425.8◦ F Temperature 63 05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 5. −139.3◦ F How does the size of one degree Celsius Temperature 60 compare with that of one degree Fahrenheit 05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. and one degree Kelvin? The freezing point of Hg is 0.35◦ C. 1. Celsius and Kelvin degrees are the same What is the temperature in ◦ F below which size and Fahrenheit degrees are smaller. a mercury thermometer would not be usable because the mercury would freeze? 2. Celsius and Kelvin degrees are the same size and Fahrenheit degrees are larger. 1. 32 3. Kelvin degrees are larger than Celsius 2. −63 degrees, which are larger than Fahrenheit de- grees. 3. −31 4. Kelvin degrees are smaller than Celsius 4. 63 degrees, which are smaller than Fahrenheit degrees. Temperature 61 05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 5. Temperature intervals are the same on all three scales. A temperature of 50◦ C is what temperature on the absolute scale? Temperature Change 01 05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 1. 323 K Part 1 of 2 2. 223 K A pan of water is heated from 25◦ C to 80◦ C. a) What is the change in its temperature 3. 273 K on the Kelvin scale? 4. 373 K Part 2 of 2 b) What is the change in its temperature on 5. 419 K the Fahrenheit scale? Temperature 62 Temperature Change 02 05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. A unit of temperature is a ? The melting point of gold is 1064 ◦ C, and the boiling point is 2660◦ C. 1. calorie Compute the diﬀerence between these tem- peratures in Kelvin. 2. degree Kelvin Temperature Change 03 Chapter 5, section 1, Temperature 284 05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. Calorie. A temperature diﬀerence of 5 K is equal to 3. C. 1. a diﬀerence of 2.8 on the Celsius scale. 4. joule. 2. a diﬀerence of 9 on the Celsius scale. 5. F. 3. a diﬀerence of 2.8 on the Rankin scale. 4. a diﬀerence of 0.5 on the Fahrenheit scale. 5. a diﬀerence of 9 on the Fahrenheit scale. Temperature Conversion 05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Part 1 of 2 a) On a day when the temperature reaches 50 ◦ F, what is the temperature in degrees Celsius? Part 2 of 2 b) What is the temperature in Kelvin? Temperature Extremes 05:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Part 1 of 2 The highest recorded temperature on Earth was 136 ◦ F, at Azizia, Libya, in 1992. The lowest recorded temperature was −127◦ F, at Vostok Station, Antarctica, in 1960. a) Express the low temperature extreme in degrees Celsius. Part 2 of 2 b) Express the high temperature extreme in degrees Celsius. Units 74 05:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. The SI unit for temperature is 1. Kelvin. Chapter 5, section 2, Heat 285 3. temperature. Conversion 155 05:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. work. How many calories of energy correspond to Heat Energy 50 251 J? 05:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. 60.0 cal Find the speciﬁc heat capacity of iron if 6.1 J of energy are needed to warm 1.50 g of iron 2. .0600 cal from 20.00◦ C to 29.00◦ C 3. 60 cal 1. 0.45 J/g◦ C 4. 59.990 cal 2. 2.2 J/g◦ C Conversion 156 3. 37 J/g◦ C 05:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. 1.0 J/g◦ C If 1.000 cal = 4.184 joule, how many joules are in 41.841 cal? Heat Energy 51 05:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. 10 The speciﬁc heat of ice is about 2 J/g◦ C 2. 100 while for liquid water the speciﬁc heat is about 4 J/g◦ C. 3. 175.1 The energy required to raise the tempera- ture of 10 g of ice from −5 to −4◦ C is ? 4. 0.1 the energy required to raise the temperature of 10 g of liquid water from +4 to +5◦ C. Conversion 157 05:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 1. the same as Convert 800000 cal to kilojoules. 2. greater than Conversion 158 3. less than 05:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Heat Energy 52 Convert 3.5 × 106 J to calories. 05:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Heat 09 Calculate the amount of energy required to 05:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. heat 175 g of water from 22.3◦ C to 75.0◦ C. James Joule investigated the relationship Heat Energy 53 between heat and 05:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 1. motion. The speciﬁc heat capacity of silver is 0.54 J/g◦ C. 2. radiation. Express this in terms of calories per gram per Celsius degree. Chapter 5, section 2, Heat 286 05:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Heat Energy 54 05:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. You have 50 g of aluminum (with speciﬁc heat 903 J/kg ◦ C) at 25 ◦ C. A 23 g sample of metal X requires 530 J of How much heat must be added to raise its energy to heat it from 10.0◦ C to 92.0◦ C. temperature to 125 ◦ C? Calculate the speciﬁc heat capacity of X. Heating a Metal Heat Energy 55 05:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 05:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. A 500 g block of metal absorbs 5016 J of The speciﬁc heat capacity of Hg( ) = 0.139 heat when its temperature changes from 20 ◦ C J/g◦ C. to 30 ◦ C. Calculate the energy to heat 12 g of mer- Calculate the speciﬁc heat of the metal. cury from 37.0◦ C to 42.0◦ C. Heating Copper Heat Energy 56 05:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 05:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. A 50 g sample of copper (with speciﬁc heat 4000 joules of heat are added to 42.5 grams 387 J/kg◦ C) is at 25◦ C. of water originally at 24.5◦ C. If 1200 J of heat energy is added to the What is the ﬁnal temperature of the wa- copper, what is its ﬁnal temperature? ter? Heating Water Heat Energy 57 05:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 05:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. You need to raise the temperature of 50 g A 50 gram sample of an unknown metal of water from 4.5 ◦ C to 83 ◦ C. requires 750 joules of energy to heat it from How much heat is needed to accomplish 30.5◦ C to 95◦ C. this? What is the speciﬁc heat capacity of this metal? Mixing Water 05:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Heat Energy 58 05:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. A 600 g sample of water at 90 ◦ C is mixed with 400 g of water at 22◦ C. Assume no heat The speciﬁc heat of iron is 0.444 J/g-◦ C. loss to the surroundings. Calculate the amount of heat required to What is the ﬁnal temperature of the mix- raise the temperature of 105 grams of iron ture? from 40◦ C to 135◦ C. Speciﬁc Heat 50 Heat Energy 59 05:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 05:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Consider the following speciﬁc heats: ◦ When 20 grams of a sample cools from 50 C copper, 0.384 J/g·◦ C; to 27.5◦ C it loses 27.5 joules of heat. lead, 0.159 J/g·◦ C; What is the speciﬁc heat of the sample? water, 4.18 J/g·◦ C; glass, 0.502 J/g·◦ C. Heating Aluminum Assuming that they all have the same ini- Chapter 5, section 2, Heat 287 tial temperature and that same amount of heat is added to identical masses of each of these substances, which substance attains the highest temperature? 1. copper 2. lead 3. water 4. glass Chapter 5, section 3, Speciﬁc Heat and Latent Heat 288 Climate 50 Heat 13 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. The climate modifying property of lakes Which of the following would require the and oceans is because of the water’s greatest number of calories? 1. high heat of vaporization. 1. heating 100 g of water from 10◦ C to 50◦ C 2. density. 2. heating 1000 g of water from 10◦ C to 12◦ C 3. surface tension. 3. heating 1 g of water from 10◦ C to 80◦ C 4. boiling point. 4. heating 10 g of water from 10◦ C to 40◦ C Condensing Steam 05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Heat 14 05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. You have 60 g of steam at 100 ◦ C. How much heat must be removed to change it to If a 10.0 g piece of metal required 100 cal 60 g of water at 20 ◦ C? to raise its temperature by 20◦ C, what would you report as its speciﬁc heat? Heat 100 05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 1. 0.5 cal/g·◦ C Consider an insulated system of 0.50 liters 2. 2 cal/g·◦ C of water at 25◦ C. Adding 1280 grams of ice at −10◦ C will re- 3. 10 cal/g·◦ C sult in equilibrium conditions with how many grams of ice at 0.0◦ C? 4. 200 cal/g·◦ C Heat 101 Heat 50 05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Consider an insulated system with How many calories are required to heat 15.0 545 milliliters of water at 25◦ C. g of ice at −10◦ C to 15.0 g of liquid water at Determine the amount of ice at −10◦ C that 25◦ C? must be added to the system to result in the equilibrium conditions T = 0.0◦ C, with no 1. 1275 liquid remaining. 2. 375 Heat 102 05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 3. 75 How much heat is required to heat 28 g 4. 1650 of solid silver from 120 ◦ C to liquid silver at 961◦ C? The speciﬁc heat of solid silver is 5. 8550 0.237 J/g ·◦ C, and the heat of fusion of silver at its melting point of 961◦ C is 11 J/g. Heat 51 Chapter 5, section 3, Speciﬁc Heat and Latent Heat 289 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. The energy needed to change an amount of If 8000 calories of heat are added to 200 g of a substance from a solid to a liquid is the water at 20◦ C, what is the ﬁnal temperature of the water? 1. temperature. 1. 60◦ C 2. Kelvin. 2. 40◦ C 3. heat of fusion. 3. 20◦ C 4. melting point. 4. 80◦ C Heat 55 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Heat 52 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. The energy needed to change an amount of a substance from a liquid to a gas is called the If the heat of vaporization for liquid zinc is 1.76 kJ/g, how much heat is needed to boil 1. temperature 11.2 g of liquid zinc already at its boiling point? 2. Kelvin 1. 19.7 kJ 3. heat of vaporization 2. 19,700 J 4. boiling point 3. 4.71 kcal Heat 56 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. all answers are correct The heat of vaporization of gold is over 4 Heat 53 times greater than that of the heat of fusion 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. of gold. This means that it is easier to The amount of energy required to convert one gram of a liquid to a gas at its boiling 1. boil gold than to melt it. point is 2. melt gold than to boil it. 1. ∆Hf usion 3. heat gold than to cool it down. 2. ∆Hf ormation 4. purify gold by physical methods. 3. ∆Hvaporization Heat 57 4. Heat of combustion 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 5. Speciﬁc heat of the liquid The number of calories needed to raise the temperature of 200 g of water from 20◦ C to Heat 54 50◦ C is ? . 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Chapter 5, section 3, Speciﬁc Heat and Latent Heat 290 1. 6000 3. 239 J 2. 4000 4. 2.39 × 103 J 3. 10000 5. none of these 4. 14000 Heat 61 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Heat 58 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. The speciﬁc heat capacity of silver is 0.24 J/g◦ C. The number of calories needed to raise the How many joules of energy are needed to temperature of 50 g of water from 20◦ C to warm 0.500 g of silver from 25.0◦ C to 27.5◦ C? 40◦ C is ? . 1. .30 J 1. 100 2. .3 J 2. 200 3. 5.21 J 3. 500 4. .48 J 4. 1000 Heat 62 Heat 59 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. The speciﬁc heat of liquid water is 4.184 The heat needed to raise the temperature J/g◦ C; the speciﬁc heat of steam is 2.0 J/g◦ C. of 500 g of water from 20◦ C to 60◦ C is ? . The heat of vaporization of water is 2.26 kJ/g and the boiling point of water is 100◦ C. 1. 5 kcal What is the total heat ﬂow if 18 grams of water( ), at 12◦ C, are heated to become steam 2. 10 kcal at 109◦ C? 3. 20 kcal 1. 48 kJ 4. 40 kcal 2. 41 kJ Heat 60 3. 170 kJ 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. 7.0 kJ The speciﬁc heat capacity of liquid water is 4.184 J/g ◦ C. Heat 63 Calculate the energy required to heat 10.0 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. g of water from 26.5◦ C to 83.7◦ C. The speciﬁc heat capacity of gold is 0.131 1. 837 J J/g◦ C. How much energy is required to heat 1.3 g 2. 572 J of gold from 25◦ C to 46◦ C? Chapter 5, section 3, Speciﬁc Heat and Latent Heat 291 1. .85 cal had a great fall... All the king’s horses and all the king’s men, couldn’t put Humpty back 2. 3.6 cal together again. Poor Humpty Dumpty has fallen prey to a 3. 15 cal particular law of nature know as ? . 4. −3.6 cal 1. the 1st Law of Thermodynamics Heat 64 2. the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. conservation of momentum When a pan containing liquid and solid water (ice water) is put on a stove and stirred 4. catch-22 vigorously ? . 5. Murphy’s Law 1. the temperature starts to rise immedi- ately Heat 67 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. the temperature rises slowly at ﬁrst then more and more rapidly Which of the following are the two factors that aﬀect the amount of heat in a sample? 3. the temperature rises but only after the ice melts 1. Calories and temperature of the sample. Heat 65 2. Bond energies and activation energy of 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. the sample. A friend is into heavy metal. 3. Temperature and size of the sample. On that note, if he supplied 3900 joules of heat to a 100 gram chunk of LEAD (a rather 4. Eﬃciency and mechanical energy of the heavy metal with a density of 11.34 g/cm 3 ) sample. at 25◦ C, and the temperature rose to 325◦ C, what is the speciﬁc heat of lead? 5. Biomass and exothermic potential of the sample. 1. 0.130 J/g ◦ C Heat 68 2. 0.120 J/g ◦ C 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. 1.47 J/g ◦ C The speciﬁc heat of water is 1.00 cal/g-◦ C, the heat of vaporization of water is 540 cal/g, 4. 0.444 J/g ◦ C and the heat of fusion of water is 80 cal/g. How much heat would be required to con- 5. 0.068 J/g ◦ C vert 10 grams of ice at 0◦ C to 10 grams of water at 75◦ C? Heat 66 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. 1.55 Kcal Consider the following classic: Humpty 2. 155 cal Dumpty sat on a wall... Humpty Dumpty Chapter 5, section 3, Speciﬁc Heat and Latent Heat 292 3. 15.5 cal Heat 72 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. 61.5 Kcal The speciﬁc heats and densities of several 5. 6150 cal materials are given below: Brick: 0.220 cal/g◦ C, 2.0 g/cm3 Heat 69 Concrete: 0.270 cal/g◦ C, 2.7 g/cm3 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Steel: 0.118 cal/g◦ C, 7. g/cm3 9 Water: 1.00 cal/g◦ C, 1.00 g/cm3 Calculate the heat released when a 40 g Calculate the temperature change pro- sample of water is frozen at 0◦ C. duced in 100 g of steel by the addition of 1 kcal of heat. 1. 20 calories 1. 84.75 ◦ C 2. 400 calories 2. 169.50 ◦ C 3. 3200 calories 3. 42.37 ◦ C 4. 1600 calories 4. 30.0 ◦ C Heat 70 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Heat 73 05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Calculate the heat when a 250 g sample of water is heated from 15◦ C to 100◦ C. The speciﬁc heats and densities of several materials are given below: 1. 44455 Joules Brick: 0.220 cal/g◦ C, 2.0 g/cm3 Concrete: 0.270 cal/g◦ C, 2.7 g/cm3 2. 250 Joules Steel: 0.118 cal/g◦ C, 7. g/cm3 9 Water: 1.00 cal/g◦ C, 1.00 g/cm3 3. 88910 Joules Which substance would store energy most eﬃciently based on mass? 4. 1100 Joules 1. water Heat 71 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. brick Calculate the quantity of heat lost by the 3. concrete body through the evaporation of 10 lbs of water as perspiration. 4. steel 1. 12436 kiloJoules Heat 74 05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. 10257.5 kiloJoules The speciﬁc heats and densities of several 3. 6218 kiloJoules materials are given below: Brick: 0.220 cal/g◦ C, 2.0 g/cm3 4. 20515.0 kiloJoules Concrete: 0.270 cal/g◦ C, 2.7 g/cm3 Steel: 0.118 cal/g◦ C, 7. g/cm3 9 Chapter 5, section 3, Speciﬁc Heat and Latent Heat 293 Water: 1.00 cal/g◦ C, 1.00 g/cm3 3 g of iodine at 144◦ C? Which substance would store energy most eﬃciently based on volume? Heat 78 05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 1. steel The molar heat of vaporization of carbon 2. water disulﬁde, CS2 , is 28.4 kJ/mol at its normal boiling point of 46◦ C. 3. brick How much energy (heat) is required to va- porize 5 g of CS2 at 46◦ C? 4. concrete Heat 79 Heat 75 05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. The heat of fusion of a metal is Heat of vaporization is the amount of heat 7.35 joules/gram at its freezing point of 450◦ F. required to How much of this metal can be melted if 5500 joules of energy are available? 1. evaporate a liquid. Heat 80 2. to condense a vapor. 05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 3. to melt a solid. The heat of fusion of a metal is 7.35 joules/gram at its freezing point of 450◦ F. 4. to evaporate a solid. How much energy is required to melt 530 grams of this metal? Heat 76 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Heat 81 05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point The heat of vaporization of a substance is to freeze it with no change in temperature is 4900 joules/gram at its boiling point of 220◦ C. called the How much of this substance can be vapor- ized if 51000 joules of energy are available? 1. None of these Heat 82 2. heat of fusion. 05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 3. heat of vaporization. The heat of vaporization of a substance is 4900 joules/gram at its boiling point of 220◦ C. 4. heat of solution. How many joules of energy would be re- quired to evaporate 51000 grams of this sub- Heat 77 stance? 05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Heat 83 The molar heat of fusion of elemental iodine 05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, ﬁxed. is 16.7 kJ/mol at its normal melting point of 144◦ C. How much heat is required to take 4 kg of What quantity of heat is required to melt water from 20◦ C to near boiling at 99◦ C? Chapter 5, section 3, Speciﬁc Heat and Latent Heat 294 Given: The speciﬁc heat of water is 4.18 Heat 84 J/g-◦ C. 05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Calculate the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 105 grams of water How much heat in Joules is required to heat from 25 degrees C to 70 ◦ C. the water in a hot water heater (200 L) from 18◦ C to 60◦ C? Heat 91 05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Heat 85 05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Given: Speciﬁc heat of H2 O is 4.184 J / g-◦ C, speciﬁc heat of Fe is .444 J / g-◦ C. How much energe is required to heat 25 g 87.5 g of H2 O at 95◦ C is poured over 500 g of ice at −15◦ C to water at 25◦ C? Fe at 5◦ C in an insulated vessel. What is the ﬁnal temperature? Heat 86 05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Heat 92 05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, ﬁxed. The heat capacity of ice is 0.50 cal/g-◦ C. How much energy is required to heat Benzene is a hydrocarbon that is commonly 105 grams of ice at −15.5 ◦ C to water at used as a commercial solvent. However, it is 50◦ C? carcinogenic, i.e., accumulations in the body can cause cancer. The normal boiling point Heat 87 of benzene is 80.0◦ C and its molar heat of 05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. vaporization is 30.8 kJ/mol. What is the vapor pressure of benzene at How much heat would be required to con- 25.0◦ C (about room temperature)? vert 105 grams of ice at 0◦ C to steam at 100◦ C? Heat 93 05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Heat 88 05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Calculate the amount of heat required to convert 90 g of water at 52.5 ◦ C to steam at Liquid Freon, CCl2 F2 , has a heat of vapor- 127.5 ◦ C. ization of 38.6 cal/g. Used as a refrigerant, it is circulated in the cooling coils of a refrigera- Heat 94 tor and absorbs heat as it vaporizes. 05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. How much heat could be removed if 1500 g of Freon vaporizes inside the coils? If 140 grams of liquid water at 80 ◦ C and 140 grams of water at 30 ◦ C are mixed in Heat 89 an insulated container, what will the ﬁnal 05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. temperature of the mixture be? If the speciﬁc heat of liquid water is 1 cal/g- Heat 95 ◦ C, calculate the amount of heat to heat 45 g 05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. of water from 5◦ C to 17.5◦ C. What would be the ﬁnal temperature of the Heat 90 system if 20 g of lead at 120 ◦ C are dropped 05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. into 20 g of water at 17.5 ◦ C in an insulated container? Chapter 5, section 3, Speciﬁc Heat and Latent Heat 295 10.0◦ C. Heat 96 If the speciﬁc heat capacity of tin is 05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 230 J/kg ·◦ C, what is the ﬁnal equilibrium temperature of the tin-water mixture? Calculate the amount of heat required to convert 55 grams of ice at −25◦ C to steam at Holt SF 10C 03 127.5◦ C. 05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Heat 97 05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Milk with a mass of 0.032 kg and a temper- ature of 11◦ C is added to 0.16 kg of coﬀee at The molar heat of fusion of H2 O at its 91◦ C. standard melting point of 273.15 K is 6.012 What is the ﬁnal temperature? Assume the kJ/mole. speciﬁc heat capacities of the two liquids are How much heat is needed to melt the same as water, and disregard any energy 2.55 grams of ice at this temperature? transfer to the liquids’ surroundings. Heat 98 Holt SF 10C 04 05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Given: 1 kcal = 4.184 kJ. How much heat will it take to convert A cup is made of an experimental material 545 grams of ice at −10◦ C into steam at that can hold hot liquids without signiﬁcantly +110◦ C? increasing its own temperature. The 0.75 kg cup has an initial temperature of 36.5◦ C when Heat 99 it is submerged in 1.25 kg of water with an 05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. initial temperature of 20.0◦ C. What is the cup’s speciﬁc heat capacity if Consider an insulated system containing the ﬁnal temperature is 24.4◦ C? 500 grams of water at 25.0◦ C. What will be the equilibrium temperature Holt SF 10C 05 of the system after adding 75 grams of ice at 05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, −10.0◦ C? wording-variable. Holt SF 10C 01 Brass is an alloy made from copper and 05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, zinc. A 0.59 kg brass sample at 98.0◦ C is wording-variable. dropped into 2.80 kg of water at 5.0◦ C. If the equilibrium temperature is 6.8◦ C, A 3.0 kg gold bar at 99 ◦ C is dropped into what is the speciﬁc heat capacity of brass? 0.22 kg of water at 25◦ C. What is the ﬁnal temperature? Assume the Holt SF 10C 06 speciﬁc heat of gold is 129 J/kg ·◦ C. 05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Holt SF 10C 02 05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, The air temperature above coastal areas wording-variable. is profoundly inﬂuenced by the large speciﬁc heat capacity of water. A 0.225 kg sample of tin initially at 97.5◦ C How large of a volume of air can be cooled is dropped into 0.115 kg of water initially at by 1.0◦ C if energy is transferred as heat from Chapter 5, section 3, Speciﬁc Heat and Latent Heat 296 the air to the water, thus increasing the tem- latent heat and the melting point of lead are perature of 1.0 kg of water by 1.0◦ C? The 128 J/kg ·◦ C, 2.45 × 104 J/kg and 327.3 ◦ C speciﬁc heat capacity of air is approximately respectively. 1000.0 J/kg·◦ C, and the density of air is ap- proximately 1.29 kg/m3 . Holt SF 10D 04 05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Holt SF 10C 07 wording-variable. 05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. You have collected exactly 1000 aluminum cans for recycling, each with a mass of 14.0 g. A hot, just-minted copper coin is placed in How much energy is needed to melt them if 101 g of water to cool. The water temperature their initial temperature is 26.4◦ C? Assume changes by 8.39◦ C and the temperature of the the speciﬁc heat, the latent heat and the coin changes by 83.8◦ C. melting point of aluminum are 899 J/kg ·◦ C, What is the mass of the coin? Disregard 3.97 × 105 J/kg and 660.4 ◦ C respectively. any energy transfer to the water’s surround- ings and assume the speciﬁc heat of copper is Holt SF 10D 05 387 J/kg ·◦ C. 05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Holt SF 10D 01 05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- A 0.011 kg cube of ice at 0.0◦ C is added to mal. 0.450 kg of soup at 80.0◦ C. Assuming that the soup has the same spe- How much energy is required to change a ciﬁc heat capacity as water, ﬁnd the ﬁnal tem- 42 g ice cube from ice at −11 ◦ C to steam at perature of the soup after the ice has melted. 111◦ C? Holt SF 10D 06 Holt SF 10D 02 05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- 05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, mal. wording-variable. At a foundry, 25 kg of molten aluminum Liquid nitrogen, which has a boiling point with a temperature of 660.4◦ C is poured into of 77 K, is commonly used to cool substances a mold. to low temperatures. If this is carried out in a room containing How much energy must be removed from 130 kg of air at 25◦ C, what is the temperature 1.0 kg of gaseous nitrogen at 77 K for it to of the air after the aluminum is completely completely liquefy? Assume the latent heat solidiﬁed? Assume that the speciﬁc heat ca- of liquid nitrogen is 2.01 × 105 J/kg pacity of air is 1.0 × 103 J/kg ·◦ C. Holt SF 10D 03 Holt SF 10Rev 30 05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. wording-variable. A sample of lead used to make a lead sinker A 25.5 g silver ring (cp = 2.34 × 102 J/kg·◦ for ﬁshing has an initial temperature of 27.3◦ C C) is heated to a temperature of 84.0 ◦ C and and is poured into a mold immediately after then placed in a calorimeter containing 5.00 × it has melted. 10−2 kg of water at 24.0 ◦ C. The calorimeter is How much energy is needed to melt 0.225 not perfectly insulated, however, and 0.140 kJ kg of lead? Assume the speciﬁc heat, the of energy is transferred to the surroundings Chapter 5, section 3, Speciﬁc Heat and Latent Heat 297 before a ﬁnal temperature is reached. is 550 W/m2 , how long will it take to increase What is the ﬁnal temperature? the temperature of 1.0 m3 of water from 21◦ C to 61◦ C? Holt SF 10Rev 31 05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Holt SF 10Rev 47 wording-variable. 05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- mal. When a driver brakes an automobile, fric- tion between the brake disks and the brake A student drops two metallic objects into a pads converts part of the car’s translational 120 g steel container holding 150 g of water kinetic energy to internal energy. at 25◦ C. One object is a 253 g cube of copper If a 1500 kg automobile traveling at 32 m/s that is initially at 85 ◦ C, and the other is a comes to a halt after its brakes are applied, chunk of aluminum that is initially at 5 ◦ C. how much can the temperature rise in each To the students’s surprise, the water reaches of the four 3.5 kg steel brake disks? Assume a ﬁnal temperature of 25 ◦ C, precisely where the disks are made of iron (cp = 448 J/kg ·◦ C) it started. and that all of the kinetic energy is distributed What is the mass of the aluminum chunk? in equal parts to the internal energy of the Assume the speciﬁc heat of copper and alu- brakes. minum are 387 J/kg ·◦ C and 899 J/kg ·◦ C. Holt SF 10Rev 32 Holt SF 10Rev 49 05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- 05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- mal. mal. A plastic-foam container used as a picnic A 250 g aluminum cup holds and is in ther- cooler contains a block of ice at 0.0◦ C. mal equilibrium with 850 g of water at 83◦ C. If 225 g of ice melts, how much heat The combination of cup and water is cooled passes through the walls of the container? uniformly so that the temperature decreases Assume the latent heat of plastic-foam is by 1.5◦ C/min. 333000 J/kg. At what rate is energy being removed? Assume the speciﬁc heat of aluminum is Holt SF 10Rev 33 899 J/kg ·◦ C. 05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Holt SF 10Rev 50 05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- The largest of the Great Lakes, Lake Supe- mal. rior, contains about 1.20 × 1016 kg of water. If the lake had a temperature of 12.0◦ C, A jar of tea is placed in sunlight until it how much energy would have to be removed reaches an equilibrium temperature of 32 ◦ C. to freeze the whole lake at 0◦ C? In an attempt to cool the liquid, which has a mass of 180 g, 112 g of ice at 0.0◦ C is added. Holt SF 10Rev 46 At the time at which the temperature of the 05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, tea is 15◦ C, ﬁnd the mass of the remaining ice wording-variable. in the jar. Assume the speciﬁc heat capacity of the tea to be that of pure liquid water. A hot-water heater is operated by solar power. Holt SF 11Rev 40 If the solar collector has an area of 05:03, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- 6.0 m2 and the power delivered by sunlight mal. Chapter 5, section 3, Speciﬁc Heat and Latent Heat 298 solid in a capillary tube. You heat this tube The lid of a pressure cooker forms a nearly and note the temperature at which the solid airtight seal. Steam builds up pressure and becomes a liquid. increases temperature within the pressure What does the experiment illustrate? cooker so that food cooks faster than it does in an ordinary pot. The system is deﬁned as 1. boiling point the pressure cooker and the water and steam within it. 2. chemical change If 2.0 g of water is sealed in a pressure cooker and then vaporized by heating, and 3. density 5175 J must be added as heat to completely vaporize the water, what is the change in the 4. melting point system’s internal energy? 5. relative weight Matter 50 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. States 50 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Which of the following cannot be used to identify a type of matter? The temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid is called the 1. density 1. melting point. 2. color 2. boiling point. 3. temperature 3. condensation point. 4. melting point 4. decomposition point. Matter 51 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. States 51 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. A solid carbon dioxide sample transforms to the gaseous state at room temperature. The temperature at which a liquid becomes As a result the sample would undergo ? . a gas is called the 1. a change in density 1. boiling point. 2. a change in mass 2. melting point. 3. a change in chemical properties 3. condensation point. 4. no change in physical properties 4. decomposition point. 5. no change in energy content States 52 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Matter 52 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. The process by which a liquid is converted to a gas is called You do an experiment in which you place a Chapter 5, section 3, Speciﬁc Heat and Latent Heat 299 1. vaporization. Vaporizing Water 05:03, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 2. condensation. 1 kg of ice at 0◦ C is converted to steam of 3. ionization. 100◦ C. How much heat is needed? 4. liquefaction. States 53 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. The process by which a gas is converted to a liquid is called 1. condensation. 2. ionization. 3. sublimation. 4. vaporization. States 54 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. The process by which a liquid is converted to a solid is called 1. freezing. 2. condensation. 3. liquefaction. 4. vaporization. Temperature 64 05:03, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. The freezing point of water is 1. 273 K. 2. −273 K. 3. −32 K. 4. 32 K. Chapter 5, section 4, Thermodynamics 300 to the vessel’s interior.) Heat Pump 50 05:04, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Holt SF 10B 02 05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, The fact that a heat pump requires energy wording-variable. to move heat from a colder object (the outside of a house) to a hotter object (the inside of A worker drives a 0.500 kg spike into a the house) is a real life observation of which rail tie with a 2.50 kg sledgehammer. The thermodynamic law? hammer hits the spike with a speed of 65.0 m/s. 1. the ﬁrst law If one third of the hammer’s kinetic en- ergy is converted to the internal energy of the 2. the second law hammer and spike, how much does the total internal energy increase? 3. the third law Holt SF 10B 03 4. the fourth law 05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Hewitt CP9 11 E02 05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A 3.0 × 10−3 kg copper penny drops a dis- When a container of gas is heated, what tance of 50.0 m to the ground. happens to the average speed of its molecules? If 65 percent of the initial potential energy goes into increasing the internal energy of the 1. increases penny, ﬁnd the magnitude of that increase. 2. decreases Holt SF 10B 04 05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 3. not to change wording-variable. 4. not to be determined A 2.5 kg block of ice at a temperature of 0.0◦ C and an initial speed of 5.7 m/s slides Holt SF 10B 01 across a level ﬂoor. 05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, If 3.3 × 105 J are required to melt 1.0 kg wording-variable. of ice, how much ice melts, assuming that the initial kinetic energy of the ice block is entirely Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . converted to the ice’s internal energy? A vessel contains water. Paddles that are propelled by falling masses turn in the wa- Holt SF 10B 05 ter, causing the water’s internal energy to in- 05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, crease. The temperature of the water is then wording-variable. measured, giving an indication of the water’s internal energy increase. The amount of internal energy needed to If a total mass of 11.5 kg falls 6.69 m and raise the temperature of 0.25 kg of water by all of the mechanical energy is converted to 0.2◦ C is 209.3 J. internal energy, by how much will the internal How fast must a 0.25 kg baseball travel energy of the water increase? (Assume no in order for its kinetic energy to equal this energy is transferred as heat out of the vessel internal energy? to the surroundings or from the surroundings Chapter 5, section 4, Thermodynamics 301 Holt SF 10Rev 19 10−4 m3 to 2.523 × 10−4 m3 . 05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, How much work is done? wording-variable. Holt SF 11A 03 A force of 315 N is applied horizontally to 05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, a wooden crate in order to displace it 35.0 m wording-variable. across a level ﬂoor at a constant velocity. As a result of this work the crate’s internal energy A toy balloon is inﬂated with helium at a is increased by an amount equal to 14 percent constant pressure that is 4.3×105 Pa in excess of the crate’s initial internal energy. of atmospheric pressure. Calculate the initial internal energy of the If the balloon inﬂates from a volume of crate. 1.8×10−4 m3 to 9.5×10−4 m3 , how much work is done by the balloon on the surrounding Holt SF 10Rev 20 air? 05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Holt SF 11A 04 05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, A 0.75 kg spike is hammered into a railroad wording-variable. tie. The initial speed of the spike is equal to 3.0 m/s. Steam moves into the cylinder of a steam If the tie and spike together absorb 85 per- engine at a constant pressure and does 0.84 cent of the spike’s initial kinetic energy as J of work on a piston. The diameter of the internal energy, calculate the increase in in- piston is 1.6 cm, and the piston travels 2.1 cm ternal energy of the tie and spike. in one stroke. What is the pressure of the steam? Holt SF 11A 01 05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Holt SF 11B 01 wording-variable. 05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- mal. Part 1 of 2 Gas in a container is at a pressure of 1.6 × A system’s initial internal energy is 27 J. 105 Pa and a volume of 4.0 m3 . Then heat is added to the system. a) What is the work done by the gas if If the ﬁnal internal energy is 34 J and the it expands at constant pressure to twice its system does 26 J of work, how much heat is initial volume? added to the system? Part 2 of 2 Holt SF 11B 02 b) What is the work done by the gas if it 05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, is compressed at constant pressure to one- wording-variable. quarter of its initial volume? The internal energy of the gas in a gasoline Holt SF 11A 02 engine’s cylinder decreases by 195 J. 05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, If 52.0 J of work is done by the gas, how wording-variable. much energy is transferred as heat? A gas is enclosed in a container ﬁtted with a Holt SF 11B 03 piston. The applied pressure is maintained at 05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 599.5 kPa as the piston moves inward, which wording-variable. changes the volume of the gas from 5.317 × Chapter 5, section 4, Thermodynamics 302 A 2.0 kg quantity of water is held at con- stant volume in a pressure cooker and heated Helium in a toy balloon does work on its by a range element. The system’s internal en- surroundings as it expands with a constant ergy increases by 8.0 × 103 J. However, the pressure of 2.52 × 105 Pa in excess of atmo- pressure cooker is not well insulated, and spheric pressure. The balloon’s initial vol- 2.0 × 103 J of energy is transferred to the ume is 1.1 × 10−4 m3 , and its ﬁnal volume is surrounding air. 1.50 × 10−3 m3 . How much energy is transferred from the Find the amount of work done by the gas range element to the pressure cooker as in the balloon. heat? Holt SF 11Rev 39 Holt SF 11B 04 05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- 05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- mal. mal. Part 1 of 2 Part 1 of 2 A gas expands when 606 J of energy is The internal energy of a gas decreases by added to it by heat. The expanding gas does 344 J. 418 J of work on its surroundings. a) If the process is adiabatic, how much a) What is the overall change in the internal energy is transferred as heat? energy of the gas? Part 2 of 2 Part 2 of 2 b) How much work is done on or by the gas? b) If the work done by the gas equals 1212 J, how much energy must have been added as Holt SF 11B 05 heat in order for the change in internal energy 05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, at the end of the process to equal the initial wording-variable. change in internal energy? A steam engine’s boiler completely converts Work Oﬀ a Meal 01 155 kg of water to steam. This process in- 05:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. volves the transfer of 3.50 × 108 J as heat. If steam escaping through a safety valve A student eats a dinner rated at does 1.76 × 108 of work expanding against the 2000 (food) Calories. He wishes to do an outside atmosphere, what is the net change equivalent amount of work in the gymnasium in the internal energy of the water-steam sys- by lifting a 50 kg mass. tem? How many times must he raise the mass to expend this amount of energy? Assume that Holt SF 11Rev 10 he raises it a distance of 2 m each time and 05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- that he regains no energy when it is dropped mal. to the ﬂoor. How much work is done when a tire’s vol- Work Oﬀ a Meal 02 ume increases from 0.03525 m3 to 0.03947 m3 05:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. at a pressure of 255000 Pa in excess of atmo- spheric pressure? An 80 kg weight watcher wishes to climb a mountain to work oﬀ the equivalent of a large Holt SF 11Rev 11 piece of chocolate cake rated at 700 kcal (1 05:04, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, kcal = 1000 cal). How high must the person wording-variable. climb? Chapter 5, section 4, Thermodynamics 303 Work Oﬀ a Meal 03 05:04, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. A 100 kg student eats a 200 Calorie dough- nut. To ”burn it oﬀ”, he decides to climb the steps of a tall building. How high would he have to climb to expend an equivalent amount of work? (1 food Calorie = 10 3 Calories.) Chapter 5, section 5, Heat Transfer 304 heat does the cup absorb? Assume the mass Brass and Water of the dishwater is large enough so its temper- 05:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. ature doesn’t change appreciably. A 200 g sample of brass at 100 ◦ C is placed Heat 10 in a calorimeter cup that contains 261 g of 05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. water at 20 ◦ C. If you disregard the absorption of heat by the cup, what will be the ﬁnal Which of the following is most likely to be temperature? an insulator? Coﬀee Temperatures 1. plastic 05:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 2. gold Assume the heat capacities of milk and cof- fee are the same as that of water, and neglect 3. silver the heat capacity of the container. What is the ﬁnal equilibrium temperature when 10 g 4. copper of milk at 10 ◦ C is added to 160 g of coﬀee at 90 ◦ C? Heat 17 05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Cooling a Car Engine 05:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. A device used to measure energy changes is called a A 250 kg cast-iron car engine contains wa- ter as a coolant. Suppose the engine’s tem- 1. calorimeter. perature is 35◦ C when it is shut oﬀ. The air temperature is 10 ◦ C. The heat given oﬀ by 2. Kelvin scale. the engine and water in it as they cool to air temperature is 4.4 × 106 J. What mass of 3. bimetallic strip. water is used to cool the engine? 4. thermostat. Cooling a Hot Ingot 05:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Heat 34 05:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. A 0.05 kg ingot of metal is heated to 200 ◦ C and then is dropped into a beaker Part 1 of 4 containing 0.4 kg of water initially at 20 ◦ C. You have 100 g of water in a(n) 40 g If the ﬁnal equilibrium state of the mixed calorimeter cup at a temperature of 20 ◦ C. system is 22.4 ◦ C, ﬁnd the speciﬁc heat of The speciﬁc heat of the water is 1 cal/g ·◦ C the metal. The speciﬁc heat of water is and that of the calorimeter is 0.2 cal/g ·◦ C. 4186 J/(kg · ◦ C). You drop a(n) 300 g piece of metal at a tem- perature of 100 ◦ C into the calorimeter cup Cup and Dishwasher and the temperature stabilizes at 50 ◦ C. 05:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. a) How much heat did the calorimeter cup absorb? A 400 g glass coﬀee cup is at room tem- perature, 20 ◦ C. It is then plunged into hot Part 2 of 4 dishwater, 80 ◦ C. If the temperature of the b) How much heat did the water absorb? cup reaches that of the dishwater, how much Chapter 5, section 5, Heat Transfer 305 Part 3 of 4 A B c) How much heat did the metal lose? Room 40 g Temperature 20 g 50°C 25°C 75°C Part 4 of 4 d) What was the speciﬁc heat of the metal? Which cup had more heat energy trans- Heat and Temperature 01 ferred to it? 05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. Not enough information is given to deter- Part 1 of 4 mine the answer. The following 4 questions refer to two cups, A and B, each of which contains wa- 2. Cup B had more heat energy trans- ter which was initially at room temperature ferred. (25◦ C). Each question describes the quanti- ties of water and the manner in which they 3. Both cups had the same heat energy are heated. Cup A above contains 40 grams transferred. of water and cup B contains 20 grams of water. The water in both cups was ini- 4. Cup A had more heat energy trans- tially at room temperature (25◦ C). Both cups ferred. were heated to a ﬁnal temperature of 50◦ C. Part 3 of 4 A B Room Cup A above contains 40 grams of water and 40 g Temperature 20 g cup B contains 20 grams of water. The water 50°C 25°C 50°C in both cups was initially at room temper- ature (25◦ C), and then cup A was heated Which cup had more heat energy trans- to 45◦ C and cup B was heated to 90◦ C. ferred to it? A B Room 40 g Temperature 20 g 1. Cup B had more heat energy trans- 45°C 25°C 90°C ferred. 2. Cup A had more heat energy trans- Which cup had more heat energy trans- ferred. ferred to it? 3. Both cups had the same heat energy 1. Cup B had more heat energy trans- transferred. ferred. 4. Not enough information is given to deter- 2. Cup A had more heat energy trans- mine the answer. ferred. Part 2 of 4 3. Both cups had the same heat energy Cup A above contains 40 grams of water and transferred. cup B contains 20 grams of water. The water in both cups was initially at room temper- 4. Not enough information is given to deter- ature (25◦ C), and then cup A was heated mine the answer. to 50◦ C and cup B was heated to 75◦ C. Part 4 of 4 Cup A above contains 25 grams of water and cup B contains 20 grams of water. The water Chapter 5, section 5, Heat Transfer 306 in both cups was initially at room temper- C and cup B contains 200 grams of water at ature (25◦ C), and then cup A was heated 50◦ C. The contents of the two cups are mixed to 45◦ C and cup B was heated to 50◦ C. together in an insulated container (no heat A B can leak in or out). The ﬁnal temperature of Room the water in the container is 25 g Temperature 20 g 45°C 25°C 50°C 1. Lower than 0◦ C. Which cup had more heat energy trans- 2. Between 0◦ C and 25◦ C. ferred to it? 3. Between 25◦ C and 50◦ C. 1. Not enough information is given to deter- mine the answer. 4. 25◦ C. 2. Cup B had more heat energy trans- 5. 50◦ C. ferred. 6. Higher than 50◦ C. 3. Both cups had the same heat energy transferred. Heat and Temperature 04 05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. Cup A had more heat energy trans- ferred. Part 1 of 4 Three objects are kept outside for a long Heat and Temperature 02 time on a cold day: a piece of cotton, a piece 05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. of wood, and a piece of metal. Which object feels the coldest when you touch it? Cup A contains 100 grams of water at 0◦ C and cup B contains 100 grams of water at 1. The cotton piece. 50◦ C. The contents of the two cups are mixed together in an insulated container (no heat 2. They all feel the same. can leak in or out). The ﬁnal temperature of the water in the container is 3. The wood piece. 1. Lower than 0◦ C. 4. The metal piece. 2. Between 0◦ C and 25◦ C. Part 2 of 4 Which object has the lowest temperature? 3. 25◦ C. 1. The cotton piece. 4. Between 25◦ C and 50◦ C. 2. They all have the same temperature. 5. 50◦ C. 3. The wood piece. 6. Higher than 50◦ C. 4. The metal piece. Heat and Temperature 03 05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Part 3 of 4 The objects are all placed in an oven heated to Cup A contains 100 grams of water at 0◦ 90◦ C and left for a long time. Which object Chapter 5, section 5, Heat Transfer 307 will feel the warmest? A B Room 100 g Temperature 100 g 1. The cotton piece. 55°C 25°C 55°C 2. They all feel the same. Covered Covered Shiny Styrofoam Cup Metal Cup 3. The wood piece. Which of the cups above will cool down at a faster rate? 4. The metal piece. 1. Cup A will cool faster than cup B. Part 4 of 4 After they are heated for a long time, which 2. Both cups will cool at the same rate. object has the highest temperature? 3. Cup B will cool faster than cup A. 1. The cotton piece. 4. Not enough information is given to deter- 2. They all have the same temperature. mine the answer. 3. The wood piece. Part 2 of 2 A B 4. The metal piece. Room 100 g Temperature 100 g 55°C 25°C 55°C Heat and Temperature 05 05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Covered Shiny Covered Dull Metal Cup Black Cup You have three pots of boiling water on the Which of the cups above will cool down at a stove. Which one has the lowest temperature? faster rate? 1. The one that is boiling water vigorously. 1. Cup B will cool faster than cup A. 2. They all have the same temperature. 2. Cup A will cool faster than cup B. 3. The one which is just barely boiling. 3. Both cups will cool at the same rate. 4. The one that has been boiling the longest 4. Not enough information is given to deter- time. mine the answer. Heat and Temperature 06 Heat and Temperature 07 05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Part 1 of 2 Two cups are initially at the same temper- The following 2 questions each re- ature. Identical ﬂoodlights shine on them. fer to two diﬀerent covered cups con- A B taining the same amount of hot wa- 100 g Room Temperature 100 g 55°C 25°C 55°C ter, initially at the same temperature. Covered Shiny Covered Dull Metal Cup Black Cup Which cup will heat up at a faster rate? Chapter 5, section 5, Heat Transfer 308 1. Cup A will heat faster than cup B. 5. With the same expansions a bimetallic strop would not bend when heated. 2. Cup B will heat faster than cup A. Hewitt CP9 15 E25 3. Both cups will heat at the same rate. 05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. Neither will heat up. A method for breaking boulders used to be putting them in a hot ﬁre, then dousing them 5. Not enough information is given to deter- with cold water. mine the answer. Which of the following is correct? Hewitt CP9 12 E04 1. When doused, the outer part of the boul- 05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. ders cooled while the insides were still hot. When water freezes, it expands. 2. This method will not work. What does this say about the density of ice relative to the density of water? 3. When douse, the inner part of the boul- ders cooled while The outsides were still hot. 1. Ice is less dense than water. 4. The contraction of the inner parts and 2. Ice is denser than water. the outer parts are the same. 3. Ice is as dense as water. 5. It’s not the contraction that fractured the boulder. 4. Ice is harder than water. Hewitt CP9 15 E27 5. Ice is bigger than water. 05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 6. Ice is lighter than water. Which of the following is correct? 1. A grandfather pendulum colock run Hewitt CP9 15 E23 faster on a hot day. 05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. A grandfather pendulum colock run slower on a hot day. For a bimetallic strip, 3. On a hot day the pendulum lengthens which of the following is wrong? slightly, which increases its period. 4. On a hot day the pendulum shortens 1. The two metal have the same rate of slightly, which increases its period. expansion. 5. On a hot day the pendulum lengthens slightly, which decreases its period. 2. The two metal have diﬀerent rate of ex- pansion. 1. 1,3 3. The diﬀerent expansions are what bends 2. 2,3 the strip or coil. 3. 1,4 4. Without the diﬀerent expansions a bimetallic strip would not bend when 4. 1,5 heated. 5. 2,4 Chapter 5, section 5, Heat Transfer 309 1. When the ball is heated, it will not pass Hewitt CP9 15 E29 through the ring. 05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. When the ball is heated, it will still pass An old remedy for a pair of nested drinking through the ring. glasses that stick together is to run water into the inner glass and over the surface of the 3. When the ring is heated, the size of the outer glass. hole does not change. Which of the following is best? 4. When the ring is heated, the size of the 1. Cool the inner glass and heat the outer hole decrease. glass. 5. When the ring is cooled, the size of the 2. Cool the inner and the outer glass. hole increase. 3. Heat the inner and the outer glass. Hewitt CP9 15 E35 05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. Heat the inner glass and cool the outer glass. Suppose you cut a small gap in a metal ring. Which of the follow is correct? 5. Heat only the outer glass. 1. The gap in the ring will become wider Hewitt CP9 15 E31 when the ring is heated. 05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. The gap in the ring will become narrower Which of the following is correct? when the ring is heated. 1. The rocker will be slightly tipped toward 3. The gap in the ring will not change when the end in summer. the ring is heated. 2. The rocker will be slightly tipped toward 4. The gap in the ring will become wider the middle in summer. when the ring is cooled. 3. The rocker will be slightly tipped toward 5. The gap in the ring will not change when the end in winter. the ring is cooled. 4. The rocker does not change its position in Hewitt CP9 15 E37 winter. 05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 5. The rocker does not change its position in Which of the following is wrong? summer. 1. When the air inside a house is heated, the Hewitt CP9 15 E33 volume of the air does not change. 05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. When a gas is heated, it expands. A metal ball is just able to pass through a metal ring. 3. One can heat the air without increasing Which of the following is correct? the volume of the house. Chapter 5, section 5, Heat Transfer 310 4. When air is heated inside a house, some of the air leaks to the outside. 4. Your ﬁnger is more sensitive when it is wet. 5. When you cool the house, air is drawn in fron outside. Hewitt CP9 17 E02 05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Hewitt CP9 15 E39 05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. When you step out of a swimming pool on a hot, dry day in the southwest, you feel quite One of the reasons the ﬁrst light bulbs were chilly. Why? expensive was that the electrical lead wires into the bulb were made of platumum. 1. The temperature outside the swimming Which of the following is wrong? pool is much lower. 1. It is important that the metal leads and 2. The temperature drop dramatically when the glass have the same coeﬃcient of expan- you ﬁnish swimming. sion. 3. The water evaporates rapidly in the dry 2. The platumum expands at about the same air, gaining its energy from your skin, which rate as glass when heated. is cooled. 3. It is important that the metal leads and 4. The temperature doesn’t change at all. It the glass have the same coeﬃcient of resis- is only because of you mind. tance. Hewitt CP9 17 E07 4. If the metal leads expand more than glass, 05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. the glass may crack. If all the molecules in a liquid had the 5. If the metal expands less than glass upon same speed, and some were able to evapo- being heated, air will leak in through the rate, would the remaining liquid be cooled? resulting gaps. 1. Evaporation would not cool the remaining Hewitt CP9 17 E01 liquid because the energy of exiting molecules 05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. would be no diﬀerent than the energy of molecules left behind. You can determine wind direction by wet- ting your ﬁnger and holding it up in the air. 2. Yes, the remaining liquid will be cooled Explain. because there is lower energy left. 1. Your wet ﬁnger will stop wind from blow- 3. Yes, the remaining liquid will be cooled ing. because evaporation can reduce the speed of the remaining molecules. 2. When a wet ﬁnger is held to the wind, evaporation is greater on the windy side, 4. Evaporation would not cool the remaining which feels cool. The cool side of your ﬁn- liquid because of energy conservation of the ger is windward. whole system. 3. Your wet ﬁnger will produce gas to change Hewitt CP9 17 E13 the direction of wind. 05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Chapter 5, section 5, Heat Transfer 311 Double-pane windows have nitrogen gas or very dry air between the panes. Why is ordinary air a poor idea? 1. There are a great number of oxygen molecules that would have chemical reaction with the window. 2. Ordinary air contains a lot of harmful particles. 3. Ordinary air is not physically stable. 4. Visibility of the windows is impaired if there is any condensation of water between the panes of glass. Holt SF 10Rev 42 05:05, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A 3.0 kg rock is initially at rest at the top of a cliﬀ. Assume that the rock falls into the sea at the foot of the cliﬀ and that its kinetic energy is transferred entirely to the water. How high is the cliﬀ if the temperature of 1.0 kg of water is raised 0.10 ◦ C? Water Temperature 05:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. A 300 g glass thermometer initially at 25 ◦ C is put into 200 cm3 of hot water at 95 ◦ C. Find the ﬁnal temperature of the thermometer, assuming no heat ﬂows to the surroundings. (The speciﬁc heat of glass is 0.2 cal/(g ·◦ C).) Zinc and Water 05:05, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. A 10 kg piece of zinc at 71 ◦ C is placed in a container of water. The water has a mass of 20 kg and has a temperature of 10 ◦ C before the zinc is added. What is the ﬁnal temperature of water and zinc? Chapter 5, section 6, Phases of Matter 312 Creating Snow 1. A gas can be compressed into a very small 05:06, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. volume. The freezing of atmospheric moisture into 2. The particles of a gas are held together snow has a tendency to the temper- by strong attractive forces. ature of the surrounding air. 3. A gas exerts pressure continuously and in 1. increase all directions on the walls of a vessel in which it is contained. 2. decrease 4. The particles of a gas tend to perme- 3. not change ate the entire volume into which they are released. Freezing Water 05:06, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Heat 15 05:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. When water freezes: Which of the following does not happen 1. The temperature of the water decreases. during the phase change from solid to liquid? 2. Heat is absorbed from the surroundings. 1. The temperature rises. 3. There is no heat exchange with the sur- 2. Melting occurs. roundings. 3. Molecules move faster. 4. The temperature of the water increases. 4. Heat is absorbed. 5. Heat is given oﬀ to the surroundings. Heat 16 Gases 50 05:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 05:06, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. The following constants can be used for Which of the following is NOT a true state- water: ment about gases? Cw = 1 cal/g◦ C Lv = 540 cal/g 1. They have no deﬁnite shape. Lf = 80 cal/g How much heat is needed to vaporize 100 g 2. They have no deﬁnite volume. of water at 100◦ C? 3. They are not compressible. 1. 54000 cal 4. Their volume decreases with increasing 2. 100 cal pressure. 3. 80 cal Gases 51 05:06, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. 800 cal Which of the following is not true of a gas? 5. 10000 cal Chapter 5, section 6, Phases of Matter 313 ter. 6. 5400000 cal 3. Enormous thermal energy is released as 7. None of these molecular potential energy is transformed to molecular kinetic energy in condensation. Heat 18 05:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. Thermal energy is released because some of the water molecules lose their energies. Which of the following does not happen as the temperature of a gas increases? Hewitt CP9 17 E20 05:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. Kinetic energy decreases. Why does the temperature of boiling water 2. Molecules move faster. remain the same as long as the heating and boiling continue? 3. Molecules have more collisions. 1. The water and the stove have the same 4. Kinetic energy increases. temperature. Heat 21 2. When water is boiling, it is being cooled 05:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. by the boiling process as fast as it is being heated by the stove. When steam condenses 3. The stove stops working when the water 1. All of these occur. is boiling. 2. it changes from the gas phase to the liquid 4. The cold air around the water takes away phase. the heat given by the stove. 3. it gives oﬀ heat. Matter 53 05:06, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. molecules move closer together. Which state of matter is characterized by 5. None of these occur. having molecules close together, but moving randomly? Hewitt CP9 17 E19 05:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. liquid A great amount of water vapor changes 2. gas phase to become water in the clouds that form a thunderstorm. 3. solid Does this release thermal energy or absorb it? 4. All of these 1. This will absorb thermal energy because Matter 54 water is heavier than water vapor. 05:06, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. This will absorb thermal energy because Which state of matter is characterized by it gets cooler when water vapor becomes wa- having molecules far apart and moving ran- Chapter 5, section 6, Phases of Matter 314 domly? 3. Solids have no deﬁnite volume. 1. gas 4. Solids are easily compressible. 2. solid States 55 3. liquid 05:06, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. All of these Which physical state is most highly or- dered? Matter 55 05:06, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. solid Which state of matter is characterized by 2. gas having molecules close together and conﬁned in their movement? 3. liquid 1. solid 4. all are the same 2. gas States 56 05:06, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. liquid Matter is more likely to exist in the ? 4. All of these state as the temperature is raised and/or the pressure is reduced. Phase Changes 50 05:06, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. gas Sublimation describes which of the follow- 2. solid ing instances/ 3. liquid 1. gas → solid 4. elemental 2. solid → gas States 57 3. liquid → gas 05:06, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. solid → liquid Which of the following ranks the three states of matter from MOST to LEAST or- Solids 50 dered? 05:06, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. solid > liquid > gas Which of the following is a true statement about solids? 2. gas > liquid > solid 1. The melting point of a solid is aﬀected by 3. gas > solid > liquid atmospheric pressure. 4. solid > gas > liquid 2. Solids have deﬁnite shape. Chapter 5, section 6, Phases of Matter 315 States 58 05:06, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Temp D E 80° Which physical state is most highly disor- dered? C B 15° A 1. gas Heat 2. liquid Identify the following: a) Freezing point. 3. solid 1. A 4. All are the same. 2. B States 59 05:06, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. C If a substance is a liquid 4. D 1. it has a deﬁnite volume but no deﬁnite 5. E shape. 6. 15◦ 2. it has a deﬁnite volume and a deﬁnite shape. 7. 80◦ 3. it has a deﬁnite shape but no deﬁnite 8. A, C, and E volume. 9. B and D 4. it is readily compressible. 10. None of these States 60 05:06, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Part 2 of 6 b) Condensation. Ice is ? liquid water. 1. D 1. less dense than 2. B 2. more dense than 3. C 3. as dense as 4. A Temperature vs Heat 01 05:06, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 5. E Part 1 of 6 6. 15◦ Consider the ﬁgure. 7. 80◦ Chapter 5, section 6, Phases of Matter 316 8. A, C, and E 10. None of these 9. B and D Part 5 of 6 10. None of these e) Liquid. Part 3 of 6 1. C c) Phase change(s). 2. B 1. B and D 3. A 2. A 4. D 3. B 5. E 4. C 6. 15◦ 5. D 7. 80◦ 6. E 8. B and D ◦ 7. 15 9. A, C, and E ◦ 8. 80 10. None of these 9. A, C, and E Part 6 of 6 10. None of these f) Solid. Part 4 of 6 1. A d) Temperature change(s). 2. B 1. A, C, and E 3. C 2. A 4. D 3. B 5. E 4. C 6. 15◦ 5. D 7. 80◦ 6. E 8. B and D 7. 15◦ 9. A, C, and E 8. 80◦ 10. None of these 9. B and D Chapter 5, section 6, Phases of Matter 317 Water 50 05:06, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Unlike most other liquids, water ? when it freezes. 1. becomes more dense 2. becomes colder 3. becomes hotter 4. becomes less dense Chapter 5, section 7, The Gas Laws and Kinetic Theory 318 Gas Laws 69 4. .042 mm Hg 05:07, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Gas Laws 72 For a given amount of gas at a constant tem- 05:07, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. perature, the volume of gas varies inversely with its pressure is a statement of ? Law. The statement that the volume of a ﬁxed amount of a gas at a constant pressure is 1. Boyle’s directly proportional to its absolute tempera- ture is known as ? Law. 2. Charles’ 1. Charles’ 3. Avogadro’s 2. Boyle’s 4. Curie’s 3. Gay-Lussac’s Gas Laws 70 05:07, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. Avogadro’s A gas is enclosed in a cylinder ﬁtted with Gas Laws 73 a piston. The volume of the gas is 2.00 L at 05:07, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 1.00 atm. pressure. The piston is moved to increase the volume to 6.00 L. A balloon is inﬂated outdoors on a cold day Which of the following is a reasonable value in North Dakota at a temperature of −40 C for the pressure of the gas at the greater vol- to a volume of 2.00 L. The pressure remains ume? constant. What is the volume of the balloon indoors 1. 0.333 atm at a temperature of 25 C? 2. 3.00 atm 1. 2.6 L 3. 6.00 atm 2. 1.6 L 4. 12.0 atm 3. 2.0 L Gas Laws 71 4. −3.2 L 05:07, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Gas Laws 74 A gas is enclosed in a 10.0 L tank at 1200 05:07, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. mm Hg pressure. Which of the following is a reasonable value A sample of a gas occupies 460 mL at for the pressure when the gas is pumped into 70.0◦ C and 1.00 atmosphere. a 5.00 L vessel? At what temperature would the gas occupy 650 mL at the same pressure? 1. 2400 mm Hg 1. 154◦ C 2. 600 mm Hg 2. −30.0◦ C 3. 24 mm Hg Chapter 5, section 7, The Gas Laws and Kinetic Theory 319 3. 212◦ C 1. 0.972 L 4. 101◦ C 2. 0.811 L 5. 188◦ C 3. 1.23 L Gas Laws 75 05:07, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 4. 1.02 L If at constant temperature the pressure on 5. 1.28 L a sample of ideal gas is doubled the volume will ? . Gas Laws 78 05:07, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. double A sample of ideal gas occupies 10.0 L at 2. be cut in half 25◦ C. If the temperature is increased to 125◦ C 3. remain the same while maintaining the same pressure, the vol- ume will be ? . 4. be decreased by a factor of 4 1. 1201 L Gas Laws 76 05:07, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. 13.4 L At 25◦ C a 4.0 L sample of H2 exerts a 3. 50 L pressure of 5.0 atm. What pressure would the same sample exert 4. 7.5 L in a 2.0 L container at 25◦ C? Gas Laws 80 1. 2.5 atm 05:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 2. 5.0 atm A sample of a gas occupies 1400 milliliters at 250◦ C and 740 torr. 3. 10. atm What volume would it occupy at the same pressure and 250◦ C? 4. 15. atm Gas Laws 81 5. 20. atm 05:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Gas Laws 77 A sample of a gas occupies 1400 milliliters 05:07, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. at 250 ◦ C and 740 torr. At what temperature would it occupy Suppose you inhaled 1.00 liter of air at 1251.5 milliliters if the pressure is kept con- −30.0◦ C (−22◦ F), and held this air long stant? enough to heat it to body temperature, 37.0◦ C. Gas Laws 82 What would be the new volume of the air 05:07, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. in the lungs assuming the pressure remained constant? A sample of nitrogen occupies 11.2 liters Chapter 5, section 7, The Gas Laws and Kinetic Theory 320 under a pressure of 580 torr at 32◦ C. Holt SF 09Rev 30 What volume would it occupy at 32◦ C if 05:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, the pressure were increased to 800 torr? wording-variable. Holt SF 09E 01 The pressure in a constant-volume gas ther- 05:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, mometer is 7.09 × 104 Pa at 100.0 ◦C and wording-variable. 5.19 × 104 Pa at 0.0 ◦C. What is the temperature when the pressure A cylinder with a movable piston contains is 4.05 × 103 Pa? gas at a temperature of 27 ◦C, with a volume of 15 m3 and a pressure of 0.200 × 105 Pa. Holt SF 09Rev 34 What will be the ﬁnal temperature of the 05:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, gas if it is compressed to 0.700 m3 and its wording-variable. pressure is increased to 0.800 × 105 Pa? Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Holt SF 09E 02 A swimmer has 8.20 × 10−4 m3 of air in his 05:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, lungs when he dives into a lake. wording-variable. Assuming the pressure of the air is 95 per- cent of the external pressure at all times, what Gas is conﬁned in a tank at a pressure of is the volume of the air at a depth of 10.0 m? 1.00 × 108 Pa and a temperature of 15.0◦ C. Assume that the atmospheric pressure at the Half of the gas is withdrawn and the temper- surface is 1.013 × 105 Pa, the density of the ature is raised to 65.0◦ C. lake water is 1.00 × 103 kg/m3 , and the tem- Find the new pressure in the tank. perature is constant. Holt SF 09E 03 Holt SF 09Rev 35 05:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 05:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. wording-variable. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A gas bubble with a volume of 0.10 cm3 An air bubble has a volume of 1.50 cm3 is formed at the bottom of a 10.0 cm deep when it is released by a submarine 100.0 m container of mercury. The temperature is below the surface of the sea. 27 ◦C at the bottom of the container and 37 ◦C What is the volume of the bubble when it at the top of the container. reaches the surface? Assume that the temper- What is the volume of the bubble just be- ature of the air in the bubble remains constant neath the surface of the mercury? Assume during ascent. that the surface is at atmospheric pressure. Holt SF 09Rev 40 Holt SF 09Rev 29 05:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 05:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. wording-variable. The density of helium gas at 0.0 ◦C is An ideal gas is contained in a vessel of 0.179 kg/m3 . The temperature is then raised ﬁxed volume at a temperature of 325 K and a to 100.0 ◦C, but the pressure is kept constant. pressure of 1.22 × 105 Pa. Assuming that helium is an ideal gas, cal- If the pressure is increased to 1.78 × 105 Pa, culate the new density of the gas. what is the ﬁnal temperature of the gas? Holt SF 09Rev 42 Chapter 5, section 7, The Gas Laws and Kinetic Theory 321 05:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Holt SF 09Rev 57 05:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, A weather balloon is designed to expand wording-variable. to a maximum radius of 20.0 m when the air pressure is 3.0 × 103 Pa and the temperature Part 1 of 2 of the air surrounding it is 200.0 K. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . If the balloon is ﬁlled at a pressure of 1.01 × An air bubble originating from a deep-sea 105 Pa and 300.0 K, what is the radius of the diver has a radius of 2.0 mm at the depth balloon at the time of liftoﬀ? of the diver. When the bubble reaches the surface of the water, it has a radius of 3.0 mm. Holt SF 09Rev 45 Assume that the temperature of the air in the 05:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, bubble remains constant. wording-variable. a) Determine the depth of the diver. Part 1 of 2 Part 2 of 2 Before beginning a long trip on a hot day, b) Determine the absolute pressure at this a driver inﬂates an automobile tire to a gauge depth. pressure of 1.8 atm at 293 K. At the end of the trip, the gauge pressure in the tire has Holt SF 09Rev 66 increased to 2.1 atm. 05:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, a) Assuming the volume of the air inside wording-variable. the tire has remained constant, what is its temperature at the end of the trip? A sealed glass bottle at 27◦ C contains air at a pressure of 1.01 × 105 Pa and has a volume Part 2 of 2 of 30.0 cm3 . The bottle is tossed into an open Air is released from the tire during a short ﬁre. time interval, so that the temperature remains When the temperature of the air in the at the value found in part a). Assume that bottle reaches 225◦ C, what is the pressure the amount of air released is small enough for inside the bottle? Assume the volume of the the tire’s volume to be treated as constant. bottle is constant. b) What quantity of air (as a fraction of the initial number of particles, Ni ) must be released from the tire so that the pressure returns to its initial value? Holt SF 09Rev 46 05:07, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . A cylindrical diving bell 3.0 m in diame- ter and 4.0 m tall with an open bottom is submerged to a depth of 220 m in the ocean. The temperature of the air at the surface is 25◦ C, and the air’s temperature 220 m down is 5.0◦ C. The density of sea water is 1025 kg/m3 . How high does the sea water rise in the bell when the bell is submerged? Chapter 5, section 8, Heating and Cooling Systems 322 Freon 50 4. solar collector. 05:08, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. Heat 24 Freon is actually a trademark of what com- 05:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. pany? In a radiant electric system, heat is pro- 1. Dow duced from 2. DuPont 1. electric resistance in cables or wires. 3. Phillips 2. thermostats. 4. Exxon 3. heat pumps. 5. Goodyear 4. packed ﬁberglass. Freon 51 Heat 25 05:08, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. 05:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Which of the following processes describes Weatherstripping prevents heat loss by the way in which freons are used to cool things (or, what is going on in your refrigerator and 1. reducing convection and conduction. freezer compartment)? 2. preventing condensation. 1. Freon is undergoing evaporation. 3. increasing radiation. 2. Freon is undergoing condensation. 4. lessening evaporation. 3. Freon is undergoing freezing. Heat 26 4. Cold freon is being circulated with no 05:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. evaporation or condensation. Which of the following is not part of a 5. Freon is removing heat by changing its cooling system? chemical structure. 1. cooling tower Heat 23 05:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. storage tank In a solar heating system, heat is trans- 3. refrigerant ferred to water in a storage tank by means of a 4. compressor 1. heat exchanger. Heat 27 05:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. radiator. In which stroke of a four-stroke engine does 3. cooling tower. a spark plug ignite the gas? Chapter 5, section 8, Heating and Cooling Systems 323 Heat 31 1. compression 05:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 2. power Consider the following statements. A. A central heating system generates heat 3. exhaust for an entire building from one central source. B. The source of heat for a heat pump 4. intake system is electricity. C. Glass is a poor conductor of heat. Heat 28 Which statement(s) is/are true? 05:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. Only A and C are true. A diesel engine 2. Only B is true. 1. uses only air during the intake stroke. 3. A, B, and C are true. 2. is an external-combustion engine. 4. Only A is true. 3. uses a spark plug to ignite fuel. 5. Only C is true. 4. uses Freon. 6. Only A and B are true. Heat 29 05:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 7. Only B and C are true. A cooling tower 8. None are true. 1. cools water as it ﬂows through pipes. 2. causes thermal pollution. 3. cools water through insolution. 4. is controlled by a thermostat. Heat 30 05:08, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. In passive solar heating, 1. buildings are heated directly by the sun. 2. a solar collector absorbs sunlight. 3. buildings have pipes to circulate hot wa- ter. 4. a heat exchaner is needed. Chapter 5, section 9, Thermal Pollution 324 Heat 22 05:09, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. The greenhouse eﬀect occurs when 1. radiated heat from the Earth is absorbed by the atmosphere. 2. steam heating systems are used. 3. ultraviolet light is absorbed by the atmo- sphere. 4. cooling towers malfunction. Chapter 5, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 05 325 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Heat 01 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Which of the following substances conducts heat well? When steam condenses 1. glass 1. it changes from the gas phase to the liquid phase. 2. plastic 2. it gives oﬀ heat. 3. wood 3. molecules move closer together. 4. metal 4. all of these occur. Heat 05 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 5. only one of these occurs. The speciﬁc heat of copper is 385 J/kg◦ C. 6. only two of these occur. Which equation would you use to calculate the amount of heat needed to raise the tem- Heat 02 perature of 0.75 kg of copper from 10◦ C to 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 25◦ C? The boiling point of ether is 35◦ C. 1. heat = 385 J/kg◦ C (25◦ C) What is the boiling point of ether on the Kelvin scale? 2. heat = 385 J/kg◦ C (15◦ C) 1. 208 K 3. heat = 0.75 kg (385 J/kg◦ C) (25◦ C) 2. 308 K 4. heat = 0.75 kg (385 J/kg◦ C) (15◦ C) 3. −238 K 5. heat = 0.75 kg + 385 J/kg◦ C + 25◦ C 4. 35 K 6. heat = 0.75 kg + 385 J/kg◦ C + 15◦ C Heat 03 Heat 06 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Heat energy from the sun reaches the earth When a substance has just reached its freez- by ing point, 1. radiation. 1. its molecules have no kinetic energy. 2. convection. 2. it has a temperature at or below 0 K. 3. conduction. 3. it is at its melting point. 4. thermal expansion. 4. it is at its boiling point. Heat 04 Heat 07 Chapter 5, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 05 326 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 6. Only A and B are true. The measurement of the average kinetic 7. Only B and C are true. energy of the molecules in a substance is called 8. None are true. 1. temperature. Heat 20 2. internal energy. 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. convection. Consider the following statements. A. During the phase change called melting, 4. conduction. the temperature remains constant. B. Ice is more dense than water. Heat 08 C. Adding heat to a substance increases the 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. motion of the molecules. Which statement(s) is/are true? The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of a substance by 1 ◦ C is 1. Only B is true. its 2. Only A and C are true. 1. temperature. 3. A, B, and C are true. 2. speciﬁc heat. 4. Only A is true. 3. internal energy. 5. Only C is true. 4. calories. 6. Only A and B are true. Heat 19 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 7. Only B and C are true. Consider the following statements. 8. None are true. A. The amount of heat in a substance de- pends on the motion of the molecules. Heat 32 B. Cold is the absence of temperature. 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. C. A calorimeter is used to measure tem- perature. Consider the following statements. Which statement(s) is/are true? A. The process of combustion is involved in the operation of all heat engines. 1. Only A is true. B. A cooling tower helps lessen the eﬀects of thermal pollution. 2. Only A and C are true. C. In the greenhouse eﬀect, infrared rays are trapped in the atmosphere. 3. A, B, and C are true. Which statement(s) is/are true? 4. Only B is true. 1. A, B, and C are true. 5. Only C is true. 2. Only A and C are true. Chapter 5, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 05 327 3. Only B is true. 3. The kinetic energy of gas molecules don’t 4. Only A is true. change. 5. Only C is true. 4. Temperature has to do with random speeds. 6. Only A and B are true. 5. It would be statistically possible for any 7. Only B and C are true. large number of molecules to have the same speed. 8. None are true. Hewitt CP9 15 E05 Heat 33 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Which of the following has the greatest Consider the following statements. amount of internal energy. A. The process of convection is involved in the operation of cooling systems to remove 1. An iceberg heat energy. B. Steam engines are internal-combustion 2. A cup of hot coﬀee engines. C. In the intake stroke of a four-stroke en- 3. A cup of water gine, gasoline is mixed with air. Which statement(s) is/are true? 4. A pencil 1. Only C is true. 5. A laptop 2. A, B, and C are true. Hewitt CP9 15 E11 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 3. Only A and C are true. What do you say about the temperature of 4. Only B is true. water at the bottom of Niagara Falls to be slightly higher than the temperature at the 5. Only A is true. top of the fall? 6. Only A and B are true. 1. A little higher than the temperature at the top 7. Only B and C are true. 2. A little lower than the temperature at the 8. None are true. top Hewitt CP9 15 E03 3. Much lower than the temperature at the 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. top Which of the following is correct? 4. The same as the temperature as the tem- perature at the top 1. Gas molecules move at random speed. 5. All are wrong. 2. Gas molecules move at the same speed. Chapter 5, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 05 328 Hewitt CP9 15 E13 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Hewitt CP9 15 E17 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Which of the following is wrong? Iceland, so named to discourage conquest 1. Adding the same amount of heat to two by expanding empires, is not at all ice-covered diﬀerent objects necessarily produce the same like Greenland and parts of Siberia, even increase in temperature. though it is close to the Arctic Circle. The average winter temperature of Iceland is con- 2. Diﬀerent substances have diﬀerent ther- siderably higher than regions at the same lati- mal properties due to diﬀerences in the way tude in eastern Greenland and central Sibetia. energy is stored internally in the substances. Which of the following is correct? 3. When the same amount of hert produces 1. The climate of Iceland is moderated by diﬀerent changes in temperature in two sub- the surrounding water. stances of the same mass, we say that they have diﬀerent speciﬁc heat capacities. 2. The height of Iceland is higher. 4. Each substance has its own characteristic 3. The height of Iceland is lower. speciﬁc heat capacity. 4. The Iceland is covered with ice. 5. Temperature measures the average ki- netic energy of random motion, but not other 5. All above are wrong. kinds of energy. Hewitt CP9 15 E19 Hewitt CP9 15 E15 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. If the winds at the latitude of San Fran- Which of the following is wrong? cisco and Washington D.C. were from the east rather than from the west, 1. Water has a low speciﬁc heat capacity. which of the following is wrong? 2. A watermelon stay cool for a longer time 1. The climate of San Francisco will be than sandwiches when both are removed from warmer and the climate of Washington D.C. a cooler on a hot day. will be cooler. 3. Water has a high speciﬁc heat capacity, 2. San Francisco might be able to grow only which is to say, it normally takes a long time cherry trees and Washington D.C. only palm to heat up, or cool down. trees. 4. The water in the watermelon resists 3. As the ocean oﬀ the coast of Washington changes in temperature, so once cooled it D.C. cools in the winter, the heat it loses will stay cool longer than sandwiches or other warms the atmosphere it comes in contact non-watery substances under the same condi- with. tions. 4. The climate of San Francisco would be 5. The watermelon stay cool for a longer chilled by winter winds from dry and cold time because it has a high speciﬁc heat capac- Nevada. ity. Chapter 5, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 05 329 5. The climate would be reversed in Wash- 5. If water had a higher speciﬁc heat, ponds ington D.C., because air warmed by the cool- would be less likely to freeze. ing of the Atlantic Ocean would blow over Washington D.C. and produce a warmer cli- Hewitt CP9 16 E05 mate in winter there. 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Hewitt CP9 15 E21 There is a layer of copper and aluminum on 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. the bottom of stainless steel cookware. Which of the following is the reason? Desert sand is very hot in the day and very cool at night. 1. Copper and aluminum are better conduc- Which of the following is wrong? tors than stainless steel. 1. Sand has a high speciﬁc heat compared 2. Stainless steel are better conductors than with air. copper and aluminum. 2. Sand has a low speciﬁc heat compared 3. Stainless steel more quickly transfer heat with air. to the cookwares’s interior. 3. Sand has a relatively large temperature 4. Copper is better conductors than stainless changes for small changes in internal energy. steel and aluminum. 4. A substance with a high speciﬁc heat must 5. All above are wrong. absorb or give oﬀ large amount of internal energy for comparable temperature changes. Hewitt CP9 16 E07 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 5. A substance with a low speciﬁc heat must absorb or give oﬀ small amount of internal Many tongues have been injured by licking energy for comparable temperature changes. a piece of metal on a very cold day. Which of the following is wrong? Hewitt CP9 15 E49 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. 1. The tongues are injured because of the cold weather. Which of the following is wrong? 2. In touching tongue to very cold metal, 1. If water had a lower speciﬁc heat, ponds enough heat can be quickly conducted away would be less likely to freeze. from the tongue. 2. If water had a lower speciﬁc heat, ponds 3. No harm result if a piece of wood were would be more likely to freeze. licked on the same day. 3. If water had a lower speciﬁc heat, the 4. In the case of wood, much less heat is con- temperature would decrease more when watr ducted from the tongue and freezing doesn’t give up energy. take place fast. 4. If water had a lower speciﬁc heat, wa- 5. When the saliva is brought to sub-zero ter would readily be cooled to the freezing temperature where it freezes, locking the point. tongue to the metal. Chapter 5, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 05 330 Holt SF 11C 01 heat? 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. Holt SF 11C 06 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, If a steam engine takes in 2.254 × 104 kJ wording-variable. from the boiler and gives up 1.915 × 104 kJ in exhaust during one cycle, what is the engine’s If the energy removed from an engine as eﬃciency? heat during one cycle is 6.0 × 102 J, how much energy must be added to the engine during Holt SF 11C 02 one cycle in order for it to operate at 31 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- percent eﬃciency? mal. Holt SF 11Rev 19 A test model for an experimental gasoline 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, engine does 45 J of work in one cycle and gives wording-variable. up 31 J as heat. What is the engine’s eﬃciency? A power plant has a power output of 1055 MW and operates with an eﬃciency of Holt SF 11C 03 33.0 percent. Excess energy is carried away 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, as heat from the plant to a nearby river that wording-variable. has a ﬂow rate of 1.1 × 106 kg/s. How much energy is transferred as heat to Part 1 of 2 the river each second? A steam engine absorbs 1.98 × 105 J and expels 1.49 × 105 J in each cycle. Assume that Holt SF 11Rev 20 all of the remaining energy is used to do work. 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, a) What is the engine’s eﬃciency? wording-variable. Part 2 of 2 Heat is added to an open pan of water b) How much work is done in each cycle? at 100.0◦ C, vaporizing the water. The ex- panding steam that results does 43.0 kJ of Holt SF 11C 04 work, and the internal energy of the system 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- increases by 604 kJ. mal. How much energy is transferred to the sys- tem as heat? If a gasoline engine has an eﬃciency of 21 percent and loses 780 J to the cooling system Holt SF 11Rev 21 and exhaust during each cycle, how much 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, work is done by the engine? wording-variable. Holt SF 11C 05 Part 1 of 3 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Given: g = 9.81 m/s2 . wording-variable. A 150 kg steel rod in a building under con- struction supports a load of 6050 kg. During A certain diesel engine performs 372 J of the day the rod’s temperature increases from work in each cycle with an eﬃciency of 33.0 22 ◦ C to 47 ◦ C, causing the rod to thermally percent. expand and raise the load 5.5 mm. How much energy is transferred from the a) Find the energy transferred as heat to engine to the exhaust and cooling system as or from the rod. (Assume the speciﬁc heat Chapter 5, section 99, Associated problems in Chapter 05 331 capacity of steel is the same as for iron.) Part 2 of 3 b) Find the work done by or on the rod in this process. Part 3 of 3 c) How great is the change in the rod’s internal energy? Holt SF 11Rev 28 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, nor- mal. In one cycle, an engine burning a mixture of air and methanol (methyl alcohol) absorbs 525 J and expels 415 J. What is the engine’s eﬃciency? Holt SF 11Rev 29 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. The energy provided each hour by heat to the turbine in an electric power plant is 9.5 × 1012 J. If 6.5 × 1012 J of energy is exhausted each hour from the engine as heat, what is the eﬃciency of this heat engine? Holt SF 11Rev 30 05:99, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. A heat engine absorbs 850 J of energy per cycle from a high-temperature source. The engine does 3.5 × 102 J of work during each cycle, expelling 5.0 × 102 J as heat. What is the engine’s eﬃciency? Chapter 6, section 1, Wave Properties 332 of sound in air is 340 m/s. Beach Waves 06:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Part 2 of 2 b) Find the minimum wavelength in air at- 4 waves crash onto a beach every 30 s. tained by this instrument. What is their frequency? Holt SF 12D 02 Chirp of a Bat 01 06:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 06:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. wording-variable. The sound emitted by bats has a wave- Part 1 of 3 length of 3.5 mm. The speed of all electromagnetic waves in What is the frequency in air? empty space is 3.00 × 108 m/s. a) What is the wavelength of radio waves Chirp of a Bat 02 emitted at 88.0 MHz? 06:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Part 2 of 3 A bat can detect small objects such as an b) What is the wavelength of visible light insect whose size is approximately equal to emitted at 6.0 × 108 MHz? one wavelength of the sound the bat makes. Assume: Bats emit a chirp at a frequency Part 3 of 3 of 60 kHz, and that the speed of sound in air c) What is the wavelength of X rays emitted is 340 m/s. at 3.0 × 1012 MHz? What is the smallest insect a bat can de- tect? Holt SF 12D 03 06:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Frequency of a Wave 06:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. The red light emitted by a He-Ne laser has a wavelength of 633 nm in air and travels at Part 1 of 2 3.00 × 108 m/s. A wave has a wavelength of 4×10−7 m and a Find the frequency of the laser light. speed of 2.5×108 m/s in a particular material. What is its frequency in this material? Holt SF 12D 04 06:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, Part 2 of 2 wording-variable. The frequency of a wave does not change as the wave moves from one material to another. Part 1 of 2 Find the wavelength of this wave in vacuum. A tuning fork produces a sound with a fre- quency of 256 Hz and a wavelength in air of Holt SF 12D 01 1.35 m. 06:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, a) What value does this give for the speed wording-variable. of sound in air? Part 1 of 2 Part 2 of 2 A piano emits frequencies that range from b) What would be the wavelength of the wave a low of about 28 Hz to a high of about 4200 produced by this tuning fork in water in which Hz. sound travels at 1500 m/s? a) Find the maximum wavelength in air attained by this instrument when the speed Chapter 6, section 1, Wave Properties 333 Holt SF 12Rev 36 Holt SF 12Rev 51 06:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 06:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, wording-variable. wording-variable. Microwaves travel at the speed of light, Part 1 of 2 3.00 × 108 m/s. The notes produced by a violin range in When the frequency of microwaves is 9.00× frequency from approximately 196 Hz to 2637 9 10 Hz, what is their wavelength? Hz. a) Find the maximum wavelength in air Holt SF 12Rev 48 produced by this instrument when the speed 06:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. of sound in air is 340 m/s. Part 1 of 2 Part 2 of 2 Green light has a wavelength of 5.20 × 10−7 b) Find the minimum wavelength produced m and travels through the air at a speed of by this instrument. 3.00 × 108 m/s. a) Calculate the frequency of green light Holt SF 12Rev 55 waves with this wavelength. 06:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Part 2 of 2 Yellow light travels through a certain glass b) Calculate the period of green light waves block at a speed of 1.97 × 108 m/s. The with this wavelength. wavelength of the light in this particular type of glass is 3.81 × 10−7 m (381 nm). Holt SF 12Rev 49 What is the frequency of the yellow light in 06:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, the glass block? wording-variable. Holt SF 12Rev 57 Part 1 of 3 06:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, You dip your ﬁnger into a pan of water twice wording-variable. each second, producing waves with crests that are separated by 0.15 m. The distance between two successive crests a) Determine the frequency of these water of a certain transverse wave is 1.20 m. Eight waves. crests pass a given point along the direction of travel every 12.0 s. Part 2 of 3 Calculate the wave speed. b) Determine the period of these water waves. Holt SF 12Rev 59 Part 3 of 3 06:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, c) Determine the speed of these water waves. wording-variable. Holt SF 12Rev 50 A harmonic wave is traveling along a rope. 06:01, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, The oscillator that generates the wave com- wording-variable. pletes 40.0 vibrations in 30.0 s. A given crest of the wave travels 425 cm along the rope in a A sound wave traveling at 343 m/s is emit- time period of 10.0 s. ted by the foghorn of a tugboat. An echo is What is the wavelength? heard 2.60 s later. How far away is the reﬂecting object? Lightening Strike 06:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Chapter 6, section 1, Wave Properties 334 through steel. A wavelength of 11.66 m is The speed of the lightwaves in air is measured. 3 × 108 m/s. The speed of sound waves in What is the speed of the sound in steel? air is 333 m/s. What is the time lapse be- tween seeing a lightening strike and hearing Sound in Water the thunder if the lightening ﬂash is 1 km 06:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. away? The wavelength of a 440 Hz sound in fresh Ocean Waves 01 water is 3.3 m. What is the speed of the sound 06:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. in water? An ocean wave has a length of 10 m. A Swaying Building wave passes a ﬁxed location every 2 s. What 06:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. is the speed of the wave? The Sears Building in Chicago sways back Ocean Waves 02 and forth with a frequency of about 0.1 Hz. 06:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. What is its period of vibration? An ocean wave travels 10 m in 5 s. The Units 75 distance between the two nearest wave crests 06:01, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. is 3 m. What is the frequency f of the wave? FREQ is measured in Hertz and has the Sound in Air 01 units ? . 06:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 1. sec−1 Part 1 of 3 A sound wave of wavelength 0.7 m and 2. meters velocity 330 m/s is produced for 0.5 s. What is the frequency of the wave? 3. Joules × sec Part 2 of 3 4. meter/sec How many complete waves are emitted in this time interval? Water Wave 06:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Part 3 of 3 After 0.5 s, how far is the front wave from the Part 1 of 3 source of the sound? The time needed for a water wave to change from the equilibrium level to the crest is 0.18 s. Sound in Air 02 What fraction of a wavelength is this? 06:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Part 2 of 3 A sound having a frequency of 200 Hz trav- What is the period of the wave? els through air at 300 m/s. What is the wavelength of the sound? Part 3 of 3 What is the frequency of the wave? Sound in Steel 06:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Waves in a Pond 06:01, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Sound with a frequency of 442 Hz travels Chapter 6, section 1, Wave Properties 335 A rock dropped into a pond produces a wave that takes 10 s to reach the opposite shore, 20 m away. The distance between consecutive crests of the wave is 2 m. What is the frequency of the wave? Chapter 6, section 2, Electromagnetic Waves 336 AM Radio Signals 06:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, ﬁxed. closest I0 distance Part 1 of 4 I Earth AM radio signals are broadcast at frequen- J Jupiter E S E Sun cies between 550 kHz and 1600 kHz(kilohertz) and travel 2.99792 × 108 m/s. What is the farthest distance shortest AM wavelength? Part 2 of 4 What is the longest AM wavelength? Figure 1: A schematic of the Sun, Earth, Jupiter, and the eclipse of Io. Part 3 of 4 The variation, 15 seconds, in the period of FM frequencies range between 88 MHz and Io was hard to determine accurately and was 108 MHz(megahertz) and travel at the same o not necessarily used in Ole R¨mer’s determi- speed. What is the shortest FM wavelength? nation of the speed of light. This variation is most pronounced as the Earth moved from Part 4 of 4 a point in its orbit where its motion is to- What is the longest FM wavelength? ward Jupiter to a diametrically opposite point where it moves away from Jupiter, see Fig. 2. Earth Sun Distance 06:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. 14 s Observed Period sine function o As a result of his observations, R¨mer con- 42 h 28 m 16 s cluded that the time interval between eclipses time interval between eclipse of Io by Jupiter increased by 22 min dur- ∆T ing a 6 month period as the Earth moved closest distance farthest distance from a point in its orbit where its motion is toward Jupiter to a diametrically opposite 1 year point where it moves away from Jupiter. The Figure 2: A simpliﬁed version of presently accepted value of the speed of light o the measurement made by R¨mer. in vacuum is 2.998 × 108 m/s. The large errors in the data points Find an average value for the distance be- are not shown. tween the Earth and the Sun. Calculate the speed of light from these data. Eclipses of Io by Jupiter 06:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. Fizeau Apparatus 06:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. o As a result of his observations, Ole R¨mer concluded that the time interval between In an experiment to measure the eclipses of Io by Jupiter increased and de- speed of light using the apparatus creased by ∆T = 22 min (within a few per- of Fizeau (see ﬁgure), the distance cent) during a six month period, see Fig. 1. between the light source and mirror sun Assume: Rearth = 1.5 × 108 km was 11.45 km and the wheel had is the accepted value, at that 720 notches. The experimentally deter- time, for the average radius of mined value of c was 2.998 × 108 m/s. the Earth’s orbit around the Sun. Chapter 6, section 2, Electromagnetic Waves 337 d Part 4 of 4 Find the second-lowest speed of rotation for Part 3. FM Radio Wave A C 06:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. B Part 1 of 2 The frequency of oscillation of the wave emitted by an FM radio station is 88 MHz. Toothed Mirror Use 3 × 108 m/s as the speed of the wave. wheel Find the wave’s period of vibration. Fizeau’s method for measuring the speed of light using a rotating toothed wheel. Part 2 of 2 The speed of rotation of the wheel con- Find its wavelength. (Radio waves travel at trols what an observer sees. For example, the speed of light.) if the light passing the opening at point A should return at the instant that tooth B Frequency 50 had rotated into position to cover the re- 06:02, basic, multiple choice, > 1 min, ﬁxed. turn path, the light would not reach the observer. At a faster rate of rotation, the Which has the greater frequency, a 300 nm opening at point C could move into posi- photon or a 500 nm photon? tion to allow the reﬂected beam to reach the observer. 1. the 300 nm photon Calculate the minimum angular speed of the wheel for this experiment. 2. the 500 nm photon Fizeau Experiment 3. they have the same frequency because c 06:02, basic, numeric, > 1 min, normal. is constant Part 1 of 4 Hewitt CP9 26 R21 The Fizeau experiment is performed such 06:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. that the round-trip distance for the light is 40 m. How does the average speed of light in glass Given: The wheel has 360 teeth/rev and compare with its speed in a vacuum? the speed of light is 2.99792 × 108 m/s. Find the lowest speed of rotation that allow 1. The speed of light in glass is higher. the light to pass through a notch between the teeth of the wheel. 2. The speed of light in glass is lower. Part 2 of 4 3. For light speed,there is no diﬀerence be- Find the second-lowest speed of rotation that tween in glass and in vacuum. allow the light to pass through a notch. 4. It cannot be judged because we don’t Part 3 of 4 know what kind of glass it is. Repeat the calculation in Part 1 for a round- trip distance of 4000 m. 5. For colorless glass,the light speed in it is higher than in vacuum; for colored glass, the Chapter 6, section 2, Electromagnetic Waves 338 light speed in it is lower than in vacuum. MHz and 29.7 MHz. a) What is the wavelength at 3.50 MHz ? Hewitt CP9 27 R29 06:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, ﬁxed. Part 2 of 2 b) What is the wavelength at 29.7 MHz ? What part of the electromagnetic spectrum is most absorbed by water? Holt SF 14A 04 06:02, basic, multiple choice, < 1 min, 1. Infrared part.