Classification of Matter 1 posted

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					CLASSIFICATION
      of
   MATTER

    Unit 2 -- Matter
      Chapter 3
     CHEMISTRY
SECTION 3.1 – Properties of Matter


                                     Matter
  • Anything that has both mass AND volume
     – MASS
          • A measure of the amount of matter contained in an object
      – VOLUME
          • A measure of the amount of space an object takes up


  • Substances
     – Matter that has a uniform and unchanging chemical
       composition
     – EX. Water (H2O); Table salt (NaCl)
SECTION 3.1 – Properties of Matter



  •
                                            of Matter
          Physical Properties or measured without
      A characteristic that can be observed
      changing the sample’s composition
      – Also used to describe pure substances




  • There are two types of physical properties
      – EXTENSIVE PROPERTIES
          • dependent on the amount of the substance present
      – INTENSIVE PROPERTIES
          • NOT dependent on the amount of the substance present
SECTION 3.1 – Properties of Matter


          Chemical Properties of Matter
    • Ability OR inability of a substance to
      combine with or change into one or more
      other substances
SECTION 3.1 – Properties of Matter


                    Identify Properties
    • Classify each of the properties below into
      either PHYSICAL or CHEMICAL
SECTION 3.1 – Properties of Matter


                       States of Matter
  • Solid
      – Form of matter that has its own
        definite shape and volume
      – Particles within a solid are
        tightly packed
          • When heated, it will expand only
            slightly
          • Cannot be compressed
          • Low Kinetic Energy (KE)
SECTION 3.1 – Properties of Matter


                       States of Matter
  • Liquid
      – Form of matter that flows,
        has a constant volume, and
        takes the shape of its
        container
          • Less tightly packed
              – When heated, it will expand
              – Is virtually incompressible
              – Moderate Kinetic Energy (KE)
SECTION 3.1 – Properties of Matter


• Gas                  States of Matter
    – Form of matter that flows to conform to the
      shape of its container and fills the entire
      volume of its container
        • Very loosely packed
            – When heated, it will expand and sometimes
              escape
            – Easily compressed
            – High Kinetic Energy (KE)
• Gas vs. Vapor
    – Gas = the state of matter
    – Vapor = gaseous state of a substance that
      is either a liquid or gas at room temperature
• BOTH liquids and gases are “fluids”
  because they flow
SECTION 3.2 – Properties of Matter


                    Physical Changes
    • Changes that DO NOT alter the
      composition of a substance
        – Physical changes are those that are causing a
          change in a physical property

        – Examples:
            • Cutting paper
            • Breaking a crystal
SECTION 3.2 – Properties of Matter


         Changes in States of Matter
    • Changes in the state of matter are all
      PHYSICAL CHANGES as they do NOT
      alter the arrangement of the substance




                        Deposition
SECTION 3.2 – Changes in Matter


                  Chemical Changes
    • Process that involves one or more substances
      changing into new substances
    • a.k.a. Chemical reaction
        – Reactants – Starting substances
        – Products – Resulting substances
    • Newly formed substances will have different
      compositions and properties than the original
      substances
SECTION 3.2 – Changes in Matter

                Four Indications of a
                 Chemical Change
    1.   release of a gas
    2.   release of heat, light or sparks
    3.   formation of a precipitate
    4.   color change
SECTION 3.2 – Changes in Matter


       Law of Conservation of Mass
  • Mass is neither created nor destroyed, it is only
    rearranged.
     – The total mass you have in the beginning of a
       reaction must be present at the end of the
       reaction

               Mercury + Oxygen  Mercury Oxide
  If there are 200g of mercury and 16g of oxygen, what mass of
                     mercury oxide is produced.
               Mercury + Oxygen  Mercury Oxide
            200g        16g             ?
                                      216g
      Observations leading to Atomic view of matter
Law of Conservation of Mass: Lavoisier
Total mass of substances doesn’t change during chemical
rxn. Matter can’t be created/destroyed.

        reactant 1     +       reactant 2         product


                     total mass              =    total mass

      calcium oxide        +    carbon dioxide   calcium carbonate


          CaO         +             CO2               CaCO
                                                      3
           56.08g          +      44.00g            100.08g
SECTION 3.1– Changes in Matter
       Conservation of Mass Problem Solutions
  1). What is the
mass of iron oxide
produced if 9.9g Iron (Fe) + Oxygen (O)  Iron oxide
of iron reacts with
 3.4g of oxygen?       9.9g
                             9.9g + 3.4g  _____13.3g
                         + 3.4g
                         13.3g



       2). 32.5g of      Mg + Zn(NO3)2  Mg(NO3)2 + Zn
  magnesium reacts
   with 27.8g of zinc     32.5g + 27.8g  43.8g + _____ 16.5g
   nitrate to produce                        32.5g
 43.8g of magnesium
                                           + 27.8g
nitrate and zinc. What
  is the mass of zinc                       =60.3g
        produced?                           -43.8g
                                             16.5g

				
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