Animal Farmbooklet by 7qLLJv


									 Animal Farm
By George Orwell

Study Pack S4

 Hazlehead Academy English Department

                Unit Aims and Contents
Unit Aims:

   To become confident readers
   To develop vocabulary
   To develop understanding of literary
     techniques such as plot, character,
     theme, language/imagery and turning
   To discuss reactions and thoughts on
     the techniques
   To develop critical thinking skills
   To improve critical essay writing skills/exam skills


   Background/context of the novel – The Russian Revolution.
   Notes on the author, George Orwell.
   Summary of plot and characters.
   Work for each chapter – Keeping up with the plot.
   Character sheets for analysis of major characters.
                        Language worksheets/tasks from the
                        The turning point, its importance and how
                          it affects the outcome of the novel.
                        Thematic study and discussion points.
                        Vocabulary/glossary notes
   Critical essay questions and hints
   Useful websites for study and notes.

                  Background and Context

                 The Russian Revolution
 The Russian Revolution of 1917 centres around two primary events: the February
   Revolution and the October Revolution.
 The February Revolution, which removed Tsar Nicholas II from power.
 The October Revolution (also called the Bolshevik Revolution) overturned the
   interim provisional government and established the Soviet Union.
 The Bolsheviks declared themselves the representatives of a dictatorship of
   the proletariat. In response, the Russian Civil War broke out in the summer of
   that year and would last well into 1920.

                 Important People during the War
 Nicholas II - the last Russian tsar, who ruled from 1894 until 1917.
 Vladimir Lenin (a.k.a. Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov) -The founder of the Bolshevik
   Party, organizer of the October Revolution, and the first leader of the Soviet
 Joseph Stalin (a.k.a. Joseph Dzhugashvili) - after the revolution, Stalin became
   increasingly powerful and eventually succeeded Lenin as leader of the Soviet
   Union upon Lenin‘s death in 1924.
 Leon Trotsky (a.k.a. Leon Bronstein) – a Bolshevik leader and one of the most
   prominent figures of the October Revolution. Trotsky, who was in exile abroad
   during the February Revolution, returned to Russia in May 1917, closely aligned
   himself with Lenin, and joined the Bolshevik Party during the summer.

                 Links to Characters in the Novel
 The animals in the novel represent the four men in last slide and the Russian
 The characters of Old Major, Snowball, Farmer Jones and Napoleon represent
   each of the four men.

               The Author and Plot Summary

                George Orwell 1903 - 1950

 George Orwell, born Eric Blair, was a political
 He was born in India to British colonists and
   spent his childhood attending private schools
   including the elite Eton.
 Orwell became a socialist as a young man.
 He did not agree with the then Russian socialism.
 The Tsars were overthrown by Stalin and Russian communism was born.

                       Plot Summary
 The novel opens with disgruntled animals aiming to take over the farm and
   scare Farmer Jones (Nicholas Tsar) away.
 They succeed and agree to live like socialists.
 However, this does not last long as some of the animals become more
   powerful and their shared vision of equality turns into communism,
   bullying and exploitation of the farm animals with alarming consequences.

 Socialism is term used for economic and political theory advocating public
   or common ownership and cooperative management of the means of
   production and allocation of resources.

 Communism a socio-political movement that aims for a classless and
   stateless society structured upon communal ownership of property.

                              Reading the Novel

Whilst reading the novel, it is important that you keep up with the plot and who
each character is and what role they play in the story.

Chapters 1 – 4

A. Using the text answer the questions on Chapter 4 – find short and snappy quotes to support
your answers – don‘t copy out chucks of text.

1.   How did Napoleon and Snowball spread the news of the rebellion to the animals on
     neighbouring farms?
2. What are Napoleon‘s ideas about education?
3. Did Pilkington and Frederick offer to help Jones at first?
4. How did they react to their own animals singing ―Beasts of England‖?
5. What name was given to the battle in which Jones and his friends tried to retake Animal
6. Where was Mollie during the battle?
7. What was Snowball‘s part in the battle?
8. Where did Snowball learn his battle techniques?
9. Why did Snowball give the sound for retreat?
10. What makes Boxer seem particularly human and lovable?
11. What does Napoleon tell Boxer that shows him to be ruthless?
12. Name two human rituals (traditions) that the animals used to celebrate their victory.

B.    Summarise the four chapters so far        –   What are the key events? How has life
changed on the farm? What are the main principles of Animalism?

Chapter 5

 Read from: ‗Silent and terrified, the animals crept back into the barn.‘ to: ‗Then
 the sheep broke out into a tremendous bleating of ―Four legs good, two legs bad!‖
 which went on for nearly a quarter of an hour and put an end to any chance of

  1. What is your opinion of the way Napoleon behaves in this extract? You should

   how the animals are feeling

   the way Napoleon uses the dogs

   the words and phrases Orwell uses.

  2. How do you feel about the way in which Napoleon uses the dogs and the sheep to
     keep power over the other animals?

     Remember to support your views with details from other parts of the novel.

  3. How does Orwell show the shift in power to Napoleon in this extract?

  4. How does Orwell show the way in which the pigs, under Napoleon, become the
     new ruling class in Animal Farm? Remember to support your ideas with details
     from the novel.

  5. Outline the key events from when the milk disappeared up to this extract

  6. Explain how the writer presents the theme of corrupt power in this extract. Use
     evidence from the extract to support your answer.

  7. From this extract what do you learn about the character of Napoleon? Use
     evidence from the extract to support your answer.

  8. Napoleon makes use of the dogs and the sheep to silence the animals. Explain
     how Napoleon makes use of the dogs and the sheep later on in the novel. Use
     examples of the writer’s language to support your answer.

  9. Explain how the author presents the character of Napoleon in this extract. Use
     evidence from the extract to support your answer.

Comment on how the language in the extract is used to show Napoleon’s attitude to
the other animals. Use evidence from the extract to support your answer.

Explore the importance of the way power corrupts in this extract. Use evidence from
the extract to support your answer.

Explore the importance of the corruption of power in one other part of the novel. Use
examples of the writer‘s language to support your answer.


                    All animals are equal.

             Four legs good, two legs bad.
  The Pigs:

                                           A young boar pig.
                                           ―He was a large, rather fierce looking
                                           Berkshire boar, the only Berkshire on
                                           the farm, not much of a talker but
                                           with a reputation for getting his own


                                           ―A more vivacious pig than Napoleon,
                                           quicker in speech and more inventive,
                                           but he was not thought to have the
                                           same depth of character.‖

                                   ―A small, fat pig with very round cheeks,
          twinkling eyes, nimble movements and a shrill voice. He was a
             brilliant talker, and when he was arguing some difficult point he
               had a way of skipping from side to side and whisking his tail,
              which was somehow very persuasive.”

 Old Major                           ―He was twelve years old and had lately
                                     grown rather stout but he was a
                                     majestic looking pig with a wise and
                                     benevolent appearance.‖

The horses:


                                     “Clover was a stout motherly mare
                                     approaching middle life. She had
                                     never quite got her figure back after
                                     her fourth foal”


                                     “An enormous beast, nearly eighteen
                                     hands high and as strong as any two
                                     ordinary horses put together. A white
                                     stripe down his nose gave him

                      somewhat stupid appearance but he
                      was universally respected for his
                      steadiness of character and
                      tremendous powers of work.”


                      A pretty, foolish mare who drew Mr
                      Jones’ trap. “She began flirting her
                      white mane hoping to draw attention
                      to the red ribbons it was plaited

Benjamin the donkey

                      “The oldest animal on the farm and
                      the worst tempered. He seldom
                      talked and when he did it was usually
                      to make some cynical remark.
                      Nevertheless, he was devoted to

Muriel the goat

                                   “Muriel, the goat, could read
                                   somewhat better than the dogs and
                                   sometimes used to read to the others

    Moses, a tame raven

                                   He was Mr Jones’ especial pet, was a
                                   spy and a tale bearer, but he was also
                                   a clever talker. The animals hated
                                   Moses because he told tales and did
                                   not work

The dogs:

Bluebell, Jessie and Pitcher   The farm dogs. Napoleon takes six of their
                               puppies and rears them secretly: “Though
                               not yet full-grown, they were huge dogs
                               and as fierce-looking as wolves. They kept
                               close to Napoleon. It was noticed theat
                               they wagged their tails to him …”

Napoleon - From the very beginning of the novella, Napoleon emerges as an
utterly corrupt opportunist. Though always present at the early meetings of the
new state, Napoleon never makes a single contribution to the revolution—not to
the formulation of its ideology, not to the bloody struggle that it necessitates,
not to the new society‘s initial attempts to establish itself. He never shows
interest in the strength of Animal Farm itself, only in the strength of his power
over it. Thus, the only project he undertakes with enthusiasm is the training of
a litter of puppies. He doesn‘t educate them for their own good or for the good
of all, however, but rather for his own good: they become his own private army
or secret police, a violent means by which he imposes his will on others.

Snowball - Orwell‘s stint in a Trotskyist battalion in the Spanish Civil War—
during which he first began plans for a critique of totalitarian communism—
influenced his relatively positive portrayal of Snowball. As a parallel for Leon
Trotsky, Snowball emerges as a fervent ideologue who throws himself heart and
soul into the attempt to spread Animalism worldwide and to improve Animal
Farm‘s infrastructure. His idealism, however, leads to his downfall. Relying only
on the force of his own logic and rhetorical skill to gain his influence, he proves
no match for Napoleon‘s show of brute force.

Boxer - The most sympathetically drawn character in the novel, Boxer
epitomizes all of the best qualities of the exploited working classes: dedication,
loyalty, and a huge capacity for labor. He also, however, suffers from what
Orwell saw as the working class‘s major weaknesses: a naïve trust in the good
intentions of the intelligentsia and an inability to recognize even the most
blatant forms of political corruption. Exploited by the pigs as much or more
than he had been by Mr. Jones, Boxer represents all of the invisible labor that
undergirds the political drama being carried out by the elites. Boxer‘s pitiful
death at a glue factory dramatically illustrates the extent of the pigs‘ betrayal.
It may also, however, speak to the specific significance of Boxer himself:
before being carted off, he serves as the force that holds Animal Farm

Squealer - Throughout his career, Orwell explored how politicians manipulate
language in an age of mass media. In Animal Farm, the silver-tongued pig
Squealer abuses language to justify Napoleon‘s actions and policies to the
proletariat by whatever means seem necessary. By radically simplifying
language—as when he teaches the sheep to bleat ―Four legs good, two legs
better!‖—he limits the terms of debate. By complicating language unnecessarily,
he confuses and intimidates the uneducated, as when he explains that pigs, who

are the ―brainworkers‖ of the farm, consume milk and apples not for pleasure,
but for the good of their comrades. In this latter strategy, he also employs
jargon (―tactics, tactics‖) as well as a baffling vocabulary of false and
impenetrable statistics, engendering in the other animals both self-doubt and a
sense of hopelessness about ever accessing the truth without the pigs‘
mediation. Squealer‘s lack of conscience and unwavering loyalty to his leader,
alongside his rhetorical skills, make him the perfect propagandist for any
tyranny. Squealer‘s name also fits him well: squealing, of course, refers to a pig‘s
typical form of vocalization, and Squealer‘s speech defines him. At the same
time, to squeal also means to betray, aptly evoking Squealer‘s behaviour with
regard to his fellow animals.

Old Major - As a democratic socialist, Orwell had a great deal of respect for
Karl Marx, the German political economist, and even for Vladimir Ilych Lenin,
the Russian revolutionary leader. His critique of Animal Farm has little to do
with the Marxist ideology underlying the Rebellion but rather with the
perversion of that ideology by later leaders. Major, who represents both Marx
and Lenin, serves as the source of the ideals that the animals continue to uphold
even after their pig leaders have betrayed them. Though his portrayal of Old
Major is largely positive, Orwell does include a few small ironies that allow the
reader to question the venerable pig‘s motives. For instance, in the midst of his
long litany of complaints about how the animals have been treated by human
beings, Old Major is forced to concede that his own life has been long, full, and
free from the terrors he has vividly sketched for his rapt audience. He seems
to have claimed a false brotherhood with the other animals in order to garner
their support for his vision.

Clover - A good-hearted female cart-horse and Boxer‘s close friend. Clover
often suspects the pigs of violating one or another of the Seven
Commandments, but she repeatedly blames herself for misremembering the

Moses - The tame raven who spreads stories of Sugarcandy Mountain, the
paradise to which animals supposedly go when they die. Moses plays only a small
role in Animal Farm, but Orwell uses him to explore how communism exploits
religion as something with which to pacify the oppressed.

Mollie - The vain, flighty mare who pulls Mr. Jones‘s carriage. Mollie craves the
attention of human beings and loves being groomed and pampered. She has a
difficult time with her new life on Animal Farm, as she misses wearing ribbons in
her mane and eating sugar cubes. She represents the petit bourgeoisie that fled
from Russia a few years after the Russian Revolution.

Benjamin - The long-lived donkey who refuses to feel inspired by the Rebellion.
Benjamin firmly believes that life will remain unpleasant no matter who is in
charge. Of all of the animals on the farm, he alone comprehends the changes
that take place, but he seems either unwilling or unable to oppose the pigs.

Muriel - The white goat who reads the Seven Commandments to Clover
whenever Clover suspects the pigs of violating their prohibitions.

Mr. Jones - The often drunk farmer who runs the Manor Farm before the
animals stage their Rebellion and establish Animal Farm. Mr. Jones is an unkind
master who indulges himself while his animals lack food; he thus represents
Tsar Nicholas II, whom the Russian Revolution ousted.
Mr. Frederick - The tough, shrewd operator of Pinchfield, a neighbouring farm.
Based on Adolf Hitler, the ruler of Nazi Germany in the 1930s and 1940s, Mr.
Frederick proves an untrustworthy neighbour.

Mr. Pilkington - The easygoing gentleman farmer who runs Foxwood, a
neighbouring farm. Mr. Frederick‘s bitter enemy, Mr. Pilkington represents the
capitalist governments of England and the United States.

Mr. Whymper - The human solicitor whom Napoleon hires to represent Animal
Farm in human society. Mr. Whymper‘s entry into the Animal Farm community
initiates contact between Animal Farm and human society, alarming the common

Jessie and Bluebell - Two dogs, each of whom gives birth early in the novel.
Napoleon takes the puppies in order to ―educate‖ them.

Minimus - The poet pig who writes verse about Napoleon and pens the banal
patriotic song ―Animal Farm, Animal Farm‖ to replace the earlier idealistic hymn
―Beasts of England,‖ which Old Major passes on to the others.

                           Themes and Images


Themes are the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a literary

    The Corruption of Socialist Ideals in the Soviet Union

    The Societal Tendency Toward Class Stratification

    The Danger of a Naïve Working Class

    The Abuse of Language as Instrumental to the Abuse of Power

Animal Farm is filled with songs, poems, and slogans, including Major‘s stirring ―Beasts of
England,‖ Minimus‘s ode to Napoleon, the sheep‘s chants, and Minimus‘s revised anthem, ―Animal
Farm, Animal Farm.‖ All of these songs serve as propaganda, one of the major conduits of social
control. By making the working-class animals speak the same words at the same time, the pigs
evoke an atmosphere of grandeur and nobility associated with the recited text‘s subject matter.
The songs also erode the animals‘ sense of individuality and keep them focused on the tasks by
which they will purportedly achieve freedom.

State Ritual

As Animal Farm shifts gears from its early revolutionary fervor to a phase of consolidation of
power in the hands of the few, national rituals become an ever more common part of the farm‘s
social life. Military awards, large parades, and new songs all proliferate as the state attempts to
reinforce the loyalty of the animals. The increasing frequency of the rituals bespeaks the
extent to which the working class in the novella becomes ever more reliant on the ruling class to
define their group identity and values.

Animal Farm

Animal Farm, known at the beginning and the end of the novel as the Manor Farm, symbolizes
Russia and the Soviet Union under Communist Party rule. But more generally, Animal Farm stands
for any human society, be it capitalist, socialist, fascist, or communist. It possesses the internal
structure of a nation, with a government (the pigs), a police force or army (the dogs), a working
class (the other animals), and state holidays and rituals. Its location amid a number of hostile
neighbouring farms supports its symbolism as a political entity with diplomatic concerns.

The Barn

The barn at Animal Farm, on whose outside walls the pigs paint the Seven Commandments and,
later, their revisions, represents the collective memory of a modern nation. The many scenes in
which the ruling-class pigs alter the principles of Animalism and in which the working-class
animals puzzle over but accept these changes represent the way an institution in power can
revise a community‘s concept of history to bolster its control. If the working class believes
history to lie on the side of their oppressors, they are less likely to question oppressive
practices. Moreover, the oppressors, by revising their nation‘s conception of its origins and
development, gain control of the nation‘s very identity, and the oppressed soon come to depend
upon the authorities for their communal sense of self.

The Windmill

The great windmill symbolizes the pigs‘ manipulation of the other animals for their own gain.
Despite the immediacy of the need for food and warmth, the pigs exploit Boxer and the other
common animals by making them undertake backbreaking labor to build the windmill, which will
ultimately earn the pigs more money and thus increase their power. The pigs‘ declaration that
Snowball is responsible for the windmill‘s first collapse constitutes psychological manipulation,
as it prevents the common animals from doubting the pigs‘ abilities and unites them against a
supposed enemy. The ultimate conversion of the windmill to commercial use is one more sign of
the pigs‘ betrayal of their fellow animals. From an allegorical point of view, the windmill
represents the enormous modernization projects undertaken in Soviet Russia after the Russian


Orwell is very good at portraying the kind of propaganda that rulers use to
answer criticisms. Read the extract from Chapter 3 below. It is Squealer‘s
explanation of why the milk and apples are being reserved for the pigs.

   ‗ ―Comrades!‖ he cried. ―You do not imagine, I hope, that we pigs are
   doing this in a spirit of selfishness and privilege? Many of us actually
   dislike milk and apples.   I dislike them myself.   Our sole object in
   taking these things is to preserve our health. Milk and apples (this has
   been proved by Science, comrades) contain substances absolutely
   necessary to the well-being of a pig. We pigs are brainworkers. The
   whole management and organisation of this farm depend on us. Day
   and night we are watching over your welfare. It is for YOUR sake
   that we drink that milk and eat those apples. Do you know what would
   happen if we pigs failed in our duty? Jones would come back! Yes,
   Jones would come back!      Surely, comrades,‖ cried Squealer almost
   pleadingly, skipping from side to side and whisking his tail, ―surely
   there is no one among you who wants to see Jones come back?‖ ‘

Work with a partner and answer the following:

  How does Squealer anticipate and deal with the accusation that the pigs
   are creating a privileged class?
  How does he use pseudo-scientific ‗facts‘ that apparently back him up?
  What reason does he give for the pigs needing milk and apples?
  How does he make the pigs sound selfless and dedicated?
  What threat does he finally use that he knows will clinch the argument?


       propaganda (prop-a-gan-da) n. The systematic spreading of information, especially in a
        biased or misleading way, in order to promote a political cause or point of view. The
        aim of propaganda is to persuade people to accept certain beliefs or facts without
       When wars are being fought it becomes important to keep up the spirits and morale of
        your own side/country and at the same time persuade the enemy that they are fighting a
        lost cause without any hope of victory.
       In Animal Farm, propaganda is used to trick and deceive. The propaganda extolled,
        becomes a twisted mass of lies and half-truths intended to hide the reality of the
        situation from the animals. It is used to confuse and bewilder them. And above all, to
        stop them thinking for themselves.
       Squealer is in charge of all the propaganda for Napoleon. Every time something happens
        which makes the animals question the way the revolution is progressing, Squealer uses
        his skills with language to persuade them that everything is for the best.

These seven techniques are called:

name calling, glittering generalities, transfer, testimonial, plain folks, card stacking, band wagon.


       Used to create fear and arouse prejudice by using negative words to create an
        unfavourable opinion or hatred against a group, beliefs, ideas or institutions.
       This method calls for a conclusion without examining the evidence.
       Name calling is used as a substitute for arguing the merits of an idea, belief, or
       It is often employed using sarcasm and ridicule the actual idea or proposal.

Glittering Generalities

       Glittering generalities are words that have different positive meanings for individual
        subjects, but are linked to highly valued concepts.
       When these words are used, they demand approval without thinking, simply because such
        an important concept is involved.
       For example, when a person is asked to do something in ‗defence of democracy‘ they are
        more likely to agree. The concept of democracy has a positive connotation to them
        because it is linked to a concept that they value.
       Words often used as glittering generalities are honour, glory, love of country, and


      Transfer is a technique used to carry over the authority and approval of something we
       respect and revere, to something the propagandist would have us accept.
      Propagandists often employ symbols (e.g. waving the flag) to stir our emotions and
       win our approval.


      Propagandists use this technique to associate a respected person or someone with
       experience to endorse a product or cause by giving it their stamp of approval hoping
       that the intended audience will follow their example.

Plain Folks

      Propagandists use this approach to convince the audience that the spokesperson is from
       humble origins, someone they can trust and who has their interests at heart.
      Propagandists have the speaker use ordinary language and mannerisms to reach the
       audience and identify with their point of view.

Card Stacking

      Selective omission.
      It involves only presenting information that is positive to an idea or proposal and
       omitting information contrary to it.
      Although the majority of information presented by the card stacking approach is true, it
       omits important information.

Band Wagon

      Bandwagon is an appeal to the subject to follow the crowd, to join in because others are
       doing so as well.
      Bandwagon propaganda is, essentially, trying to convince the subject that one side is the
       winning side, because more people have joined it.
      Subjects of bandwagon are compelled to join in because everyone else is doing so as well.
Lesser of Two Evils

      The ‗lesser of two evils‘ technique tries to convince us of an idea or proposal by
       presenting it as the least offensive option.
      This technique is often implemented to convince people of the need for sacrifices or to
       justify difficult decisions.
      This technique is often accompanied by adding blame on an enemy country or political
      One idea or proposal is often depicted as one of the only options or paths.


      Simplification reduces a complex situation to a clear-cut choice involving good and evil.
       This is similar to the ‗lesser of two evils‘ technique‘

Language and Style

Figurative Language – the fact that the novel represents a time in history
without using the historical story and the real people involved.

Writing is controlled and simple – the story is told in a simple way and is
understood by the reader. Orwell manipulates the reader into taking on his
political views and siding with the animals on the farm and feeling dislike for the

Simple Language – much like a children‘s fairytale, the narrator acts as a story-

Repetition – certain words and phrases are repeated throughout e.g. the animals
―worked like slaves‖

Political satire – where there is gain from laughing at politics e.g. the Russian
Government represented in the novel as pigs!

Comedy – e.g. the pigs getting drunk.

Allegory – means that something written has two meanings.

Important Quotations – a start!

 "Man is the only creature that consumes without producing. He does not give milk, he does not
lay eggs, he is too weak to pull the plough, he cannot run fast enough to catch rabbits. Yet he is
lord of all the animals. He sets them to work, he gives back to them the bare minimum that will
prevent them from starving, and the rest he keeps for himself."
- George Orwell, Animal Farm, Ch. 1

- George Orwell, Animal Farm, Ch. 1

1. Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.
2. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.
3. No animal shall wear clothes.
4. No animal shall sleep in a bed.
5. No animal shall drink alcohol.
6. No animal shall kill any other animal.
7. All animals are equal."
- George Orwell, Animal Farm, Ch. 2

food was an acute positive pleasure, now that it was truly their own food, produced by
themselves and for themselves, not doled out to them by a grudging master."
- George Orwell, Animal Farm, Ch. 3

- George Orwell, Animal Farm, Ch. 3

- George Orwell, Animal Farm, Ch. 3, pg. 29

                                                                              other with
red-hot horseshoes, and had their females in common. This was what came of rebelling against
the laws of Nature, Frederick and Pilkington said."
- George Orwell, Animal Farm, Ch. 4

                                                                Boxer, and his eyes were full of
- George Orwell, Animal Farm, Ch. 4

only too happy to let you make your decisions for yourselves. But sometimes you might make the

wrong decisions, comrades, and then where should we be?"
- George Orwell, Animal Farm, Ch. 5

- George Orwell, Animal Farm, Ch. 5

                                                                                    they grudged
no effort or sacrifice, well aware that everything they did was for the benefit of themselves
and those of their kind who would come after them, and not for a pack of idle, thieving human
- George Orwell, Animal Farm, Ch. 6

          man beings did not hate Animal Farm any less now that it was prospering; indeed, they
hated it more than ever."
- George Orwell, Animal Farm, Ch. 6

- George Orwell, Animal Farm, Ch. 7

                 was broken or a drain was blocked up, someone was certain to say that Snowball
had come in the night and done it, and when the key of the store-shed was lost, the whole farm
was convinced that Snowball had thrown it down the well. Curiously enough, they went on
believing this even after the mislaid key was found under a sack of meal."
- George Orwell, Animal Farm, Ch. 7

from hunger and the whip, all equal, each working according to his capacity, the strong
protecting the weak."
- George Orwell, Animal Farm, Ch. 7

           d come to a time when no one dared speak his mind, when fierce, growling dogs
roamed everywhere, and when you had to watch your comrades torn to pieces after confessing
to shocking crimes." Chapter 7

                                      --or thought they remembered--that the Sixth
Commandment decreed 'No animal shall kill any other animal.' And though no one cared to
mention it in the hearing of the pigs or the dogs, it was felt that the killings which had taken
place did not square with this."
- George Orwell, Animal Farm, Ch. 8

stroke of good fortune. You would often hear one hen remark to another, 'Under the guidance
of our Leader, Comrade Napoleon, I have laid five eggs in six days'; or two cows, enjoying a
drink at the pool, would exclaim, 'Thanks to the leadership of Comrade Napoleon, how excellent
this water tastes!'"
- George Orwell, Animal Farm, Ch. 8

                                                                              l that they had
more oats, more hay, more turnips than they had had in Jones's day, that they worked shorter
hours, that their drinking water was of better quality, that they lived longer, that a larger
proportion of their young ones survived infancy, and that they had more straw in their stalls and

suffered less from fleas."
- George Orwell, Animal Farm, Ch. 9

difference, as Squealer did not fail to point out."
- George Orwell, Animal Farm, Ch. 9

                                                                          sm. The truest
happiness, he said, lay in working hard and living frugally."
- George Orwell, Animal Farm, Ch. 10

things never had been, nor ever could be much better or much worse - hunger, hardship and
disappointment being, so he said, the unalterable law of life."
- George Orwell, Animal Farm, Ch. 10, pg. 109

- George Orwell, Animal Farm, Ch. 10

"No question now, what had happened to the faces of the pigs. The creatures outside looked
from pig to man, and from man to pig, and from pig to man again; but already it was impossible to
say which was which."
- George Orwell, Animal Farm, Ch. 10

You should continue to add to this list so that you have a bank of quotations to use for the

Study Questions

    1. Compare and contrast Napoleon and Snowball. What techniques do they use in their
       struggle for power? Does Snowball represent a morally legitimate political alternative to
       the corrupt leadership of Napoleon?
    2. Why do you think Orwell chose to use a fable in his condemnation of Soviet communism
       and totalitarianism? Fiction would seem a rather indirect method of political
       commentary; if Orwell had written an academic essay, he could have named names,
       pointed to details, and proven his case more systematically. What different
       opportunities of expression does a fable offer its author?
    3. From whose perspective is Animal Farm told? Why would Orwell have chosen such a

            Exam Questions (Intermediate 2)


Answers to questions in this section should refer to the text and to such relevant features as:
characterisation, setting, language, key incident(s), climax/turning point, plot, structure,
narrative technique, theme, ideas, description . . .

   1.   Choose a novel or short story in which two of the main characters have a disagreement
        which is important to the outcome of the novel or short story.
        Identify the reasons for the disagreement and go on to show how the effects of the
        disagreement have an impact on the rest of the novel or short story.

   2. Choose a novel or short story which has a turning point or moment of realisation for at
      least one of the characters. Briefly describe what has led up to the turning point or
      moment. Go on to show what impact this has on the character(s) and how it affects the
      outcome of the novel or story.

   3. Choose a novel or short story in which you feel sympathy with one of the main
      characters because of the difficulties or injustice or hardships she or he has to face.
      Describe the problems the character faces and show by what means you are made to
      feel sympathy for her or him.

   4. Choose a novel or a short story which deals with the effects of evil or war or deceit or a
      breakdown in society or a breakdown in relationship(s).
      Show how any of these negative pressures affects the main character in the novel or
      short story and go on to show whether or not she or he tackles it successfully.


You must have notes on character, setting, climax/turning point,
language and theme to answer an essay question appropriately.

How to use quotations:

       Put inverted commas at the beginning and end of the quotation

       Write the quotation exactly as it appears in the text

       Do not use a quotation which merely repeats what you have just written

       Use a quotation that fits into a sentence

       Keep the quotation as short as possible

Quotations should be used to develop the line of thought in your essays.

Questions for mini-responses/development

  1. Look at the two main characters. How does their relationship alter as the
       story progresses?

  2. What strategies do the pigs employ to suppress the other animals on the

  3. How human are the animals on the farm?

  4. How important is the issue of education in the novel?



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