Ch. 22.1– Pgs. 501 - 514 1. What was the ultimate task of all the explorations launched by the Europeans from the fourteenth century onward? 2. Describe the disappointments of the Europeans who arrived in Asia in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 3. Whose voyages of exploration opened the way for the Europeans to the Indies? 4. Despite their armaments, what factor convinced the Europeans that they could make little headway against the kingdoms of Asia? 5. What was the Portuguese lesson learned at Calicut? 6. What people had preceded the Portuguese in entering the markets of South and Southeast Asia? 7. Describe the items from the three main zones in the Asian sea trading network. 8. What was the significance of the mainland kingdoms and island states of Southeast Asia that surrounded the three great manufacturing zones of the Asian sea trading network? 9. What raw materials were most highly valued in the Asian sea trading network? 10. What was the nature of the sea routes in the Asian trading network? 11. Where were the crucial points in the Asian sea trading network where trade converged? 12. Describe mercantilism and why engaging in this economic system with Asia was unthinkable. 13. What was the initial Portuguese response to the encounter at Calicut? 14. Why did the Portuguese believe they could successfully enter the Asian sea trading by force? 15. The Portuguese won a major sea battle over a combined fleet of Egyptian and Indian vessels in 1509 at ______. 16. List the fortified trading ports established by the Portuguese in the early sixteenth century? 17. What trade did the Portuguese intend to monopolize within the Asian trading network? 18. Describe the reasons why the Portuguese monopoly failed by the end of the 16th century. 19. What two European countries would rise to challenge Portuguese trade in Asia? 20. Who succeeded the Portuguese as the most successful Europeans into the Asian sea trading network? 21. How did the Dutch commercial strategy within the Asian trade network differ from that of the Portuguese? 22. In what way did the Dutch participation within the Asian sea trading network change by the middle decades of the seventeenth century? 23. What treaty in 1757 reduced the Javanese princes to vassals of the Dutch East India Company? 24. Compare the European tribute regimes of the American Indians with that of Asian people in the early centuries of expansion. 25. Describe Portuguese and Spanish success in winning Christian converts in Asia. 26. Explain Robert di Nobili’s strategy to win converts among high-caste Hindus. 27. In what sense was the Spanish conversion of the Filipinos similar to their experience in the Americas? 28. List the European contributions to the Asian sea trading network? Ch. 22.2– Pgs. 514-528 1. Describe Ming China’s centralized bureaucracy. 2. What did the first Ming emperor declare (name) himself? 3. What reforms were introduced by Hongwu? 4. Describe the place where would be scholars would take their exams. 5. How often were imperial exams? 6. How did Hongwu deal with bureaucrats who were found guilty of corruption or incompetence? 7. What was the outcome of the peasantry after the Ming reforms. 8. Describe Ming society during the Ming period. 9. What accounts for the great boost in population in the Yangtze region? 10. Where were foreigners permitted to do business in China during the Ming era? 11. Explain how merchants would increase their wealth. 12. In terms of literature, what was the chief accomplishment of the Ming era? 13. During the reign of what Ming emperor did the Chinese launch commercial expeditions to Southeast Asia, Persia, and Africa? 14. Explain the motives behind the expeditions of Zhenghe during the Ming era. 15. What group successfully asserted its control over China following the collapse of the Ming dynasty? 16. What dynasty succeeded the Ming in China? 17. In what year was the Tokugawa Shogunate founded, marking the reestablishment of central government in Japan? 18. Why did the earliest of the Japanese military centralizers accept Christian missionaries? 19. What were the policies imposed as a result of Japanese isolation in the seventeenth century?
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