Chapter 3 Teacher Planning by 55jGs3D

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									Chapter 3 Teacher Planning

          EDUC 2300
    Introduction to Teaching
• Planning is vital to teaching.
• Teachers estimate they spend between
  10% and 20% of their working time each
  week on planning activities.
• Teacher planning is a major determinant
  of what is taught in schools. The
  curriculum as published is transformed
  and adapted in the planning process by
  additions, deletions, interpretations, and
  by teacher decisions about pace,
  sequence, and emphasis.
• The planning process in all fields,
  including education, has been described
  and studied by many researchers and
  theorists.
• The dominant perspective that guides
  most of the thinking and action on this
  topic has been referred to as the rational-
  linear-model.
This perspective puts the focus on goals and
 objectives as the first step in a sequential
 process.

     Rational-Linear Planning Model

   Goals         Actions       Outcomes
• The view that organizations and
  classrooms are goal driven has been
  challenged.
• Many observers have questioned whether
  the rational-linear-model accurately
  describes planning in the real world.
         Nonlinear Planning Model

 Actions       Outcomes        Goals
   Consequences of Planning
• Duchastel and Brown (1974) were
  interested in the effects of instructional
  objectives on student learning.
• After much research, Duchastel and
  Brown concluded that learning objectives
  have a focusing effect on students, which
  leads to the recommendation that teachers
  make students aware of the objectives
  they have for the lessons.
• On the other hand, the researchers caution
  teachers to be careful because the study also
  illustrated how focusing too much on objectives
  may limit other important student learning.
• John Zahorik (1970), working about the same
  time as Duchastel and Brown, was interested in
  the effects of planning on teacher behavior,
  particularly planning behaviors associated with
  identifying objectives, diagnosing student
  learning, and choosing instructional strategies.
• He wanted to find out if teachers who planned
  lessons were less sensitive to students in the
  classroom than teachers who did not plan.
• After his study with twelve fourth grade teachers,
  Dr. Zahorik found significant difference between
  teachers who had planned and those who had
  not planned.
• Teachers who planned were less sensitive to the
  student ideas and appeared to pursue their own
  goals regardless of what the students thought or
  were saying.
• Conversely, teachers who had not planned
  displayed a higher number of verbal
  behaviors that encouraged and developed
  student ideas.
• Zahorik concluded that goal-based
  planning may inhibit teachers from being
  sensitive to students as they could be.
• However, elimination of planning might
  “also bring about completely random and
  unproductive learning.”
• Both Duchastel and Brown and the
  Zahorik studies are interesting, because
  together they show the importance of goal-
  based planning; but they also warn that
  the type of planning can lead to
  unanticipated consequences that are not
  always desirable.
• To resolve this dilemma, Zahorik
  recommends that teachers establish goals
  that focus on their own behavior.
    Consequences of Clear Instructional
          Goals and Objectives
                      Instructional
                      Goals and
                      Objectives


                Provide focus                      Provide
                                      Result in
Provide         and                                means to
                                      smoothly
direction for   instructional                      assess
                                      running
instructional   intents to                         student
                                      classrooms
process         students                           learning
     Planning and the Beginning
              Teacher
• Housner and Griffey (1985) were
  interested in comparing differences in
  planning and decision making of
  experienced and inexperienced teachers.
  They studied sixteen physical education
  teacher candidates. Eight of the teachers
  had more than five years of experience.
  The other eight were pre-service teachers
  training to be Physical Education teachers.
• Housner and Griffey concluded:
  – Experience teachers planned ahead for more
    adaptations that might be needed in a lesson
    as it got underway and were more concerned
    than inexperienced teachers with establishing
    rules for activities and means for giving
    students feedback.
  – Inexperienced teachers devoted a larger
    percentage of their planning to verbal
    instruction.
• The experienced teachers were more
  attentive to student performance, whereas
  inexperienced teachers attended most
  often to student interest and were more
  interested in keeping the class on task.
• Unlike other acts of teaching, most teacher
  planning occurs in private places, such as
  the teacher’s home or office.
• By their very nature, planning and decision
  making are mental, non observable
  activities.
   Planning and the Instructional Cycle
• Teacher planning is a multifaceted and
  ongoing process that covers almost
  everything teachers do.
• Some aspects of planning precede
  instruction and , in turn, precede
  assessment of student learning.
• The whole planning process is cyclical.
 Planning and the Instructional
            Cycle


                           Planning
Assessing                   prior to
                          instruction


            Instructing
• Assessment information influences the
  teacher’s next set of plans, the instruction
  that follows, and so on.
• For example, choosing content can only
  be done after careful analysis and inquiry
  into students’ prior knowledge, the
  teacher’s understanding of the subject
  matter, and the nature of the subject itself.
  The Time Spans of Planning
• Robert Yinger (1980) conducted an
  interesting and important study that
  provides the most definitive study of one
  first and second-grade elementary school
  teacher in Michigan.
• Using participant observation methods, he
  spent forty full days over a five-month
  period observing and recording the
  teacher’s activities
• From this work, Yinger was able to identify
  the five time spans that characterized
  teacher planning:
  – Daily planning    (Level   1)
  – Weekly planning   (Level   2)
  – Unit planning     (Level   3)
  – Term planning     (Level   4)
  – Yearly planning   (Level   5)
    The Specifics of Planning
• Choosing Curriculum Content and Skills
  – The curriculum in most elementary and
    secondary schools is currently organized
    around the academic disciplines—history,
    biology, mathematics, and so forth—used by
    scholars to organize information about the
    social and physical world.
• Consequently, an important planning task
  for teachers will continue to be choosing
  the most appropriate content from the
  various subject matter areas for a
  particular group of students.
• This is no small feat, because there is
  already much more to teach on any topic
  than time allows, and new knowledge is
  being produced every day.
• Beginning teachers are often bewildered
  about where content comes from and the
  role teachers play in selecting it.
• In today’s schools, deciding what to teach
  is no longer done by teachers
  independently. Instead, what to teach
  decisions are influenced by many factors,
  some of which are described in the next
  figure.
             Learned
             society
             standards
                               State
Community
                               curriculum
values
                               frameworks and
                               standards

              What is taught
              in Schools


                                Local
Schoolwide                      curriculum
curriculum                      frameworks
agreements                      and guides
      The Role of Standards
• Until the past and two decades, the terms
  goals and objectives were used to specify
  what students were to learn. However,
  over the past two decades, the term
  standards has been more commonly
  accepted to express important learning
  outcomes.
• This change has been in response to the
  emergence of standards-based education,
  a response to the same set of beliefs as
  those that influenced the larger
  accountability movement, namely…
  – That student achievement has slipped from
    earlier times and that only by requiring (or
    encouraging) teachers to teach toward a
    required set of standards will the situation
    improve.
• The achievement gap and beliefs that
  teacher hold low expectations for
  particular low-income and minority
  students also have encouraged standards
  setting in the hopes that the result will be
  high expectations for all students
  (Landsman 2004).
• A standard is a statement about what
  students should know and be able to do.
  Normally they are written at a level of
  abstraction so they can be delineated
  more precisely into measurable terms.
• Standards come from nay sources, but
  those developed by learned societies and
  by state departments of education have
  been the standards that have been most
  prevalent and important.

								
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