What role do bacteria and fungi play in the ecosystem

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					Study Guide for Biology Final Exam                                                                                 Name:

What role do bacteria and fungi play in the ecosystem?       Decomposers

What role do bacteria play in the flow of nitrogen through   Bacteria supply a majority of the fixed nitrogen to
the environment?                                             the environment.
Which of the following is NOT recycled in the
                                                             Energy
environment? Organic matter, nitrogen, energy, or water
What process is responsible for the addition of carbon
                                                             Respiration
dioxide to the atmosphere?
                                                             Cardinals in a corn field
Name an example of a population.                             Mice in a house
                                                             Bacteria in a Petri dish

What niche does algae fulfill in an ecosystem?               Producer and autotroph

What are some factors that affect the rate of
                                                             Sunlight, temperature, pH, not Dissolved Oxygen
photosynthesis in plankton?
Write several examples of acidic values. What pH would
                                                             Below 7, e.g., 3.8
you expect acid rain to be?
                                                             Construction clears forests and ground cover
When new construction (houses, urbanization) occurs,
                                                             which can increase flooding, decrease species
what are some ecological results? What ecological
                                                             diversity, increase species extinction but will not
changes are unlikely to occur?
                                                             decrease erosion.
                                                             They make organic molecules called
Monosaccharides are building blocks of which organic
                                                             carbohydrates. Carbs are a source of energy and
compound?
                                                             cell walls
                                                             Molecules are more than one kind of atom
Name examples and nonexamples of molecules.                  (element). Examples: water, salt, sugar.
                                                             Nonexamples: carbon, oxygen, iron
Match each organic macromolecule to one or two correct
functions:
Macromolecule: Protein, carbohydrate, nucleic acid, lipid
Function: Genetic info, energy storage, enzyme function,
structural components
                                                             Cellular respiration takes place in all cells.
Write the substrates and products of cellular respiration.   Oxygen and glucose react, releasing energy
                                                             (ATP), and water and CO2 as wastes.
What is the main difference between aerobic and              Aerobic respiration uses oxygen but anaerobic
anaerobic respiration?                                       can occur with out oxygen.



                                                                                                                           Harvey, Fall 2004
Study Guide for Biology Final Exam                                                                                  Name:
                                                               The enzyme does not function at either pH 8 or 38
What does this graph indicate?                                 degrees C because it has not used up any
                                                               substrate.
                                                               The enzyme functions best at 40 degrees C
At which temperature does Enzyme Q function best? How
                                                               because it used up substrate faster at that temp
could you tell?
                                                               than at the other temp.
Most animal stomachs contain pepsin, a digestive
enzyme. If a squirrel eats several acorns and then             Because the temperature of the body is now
hibernates with a low body temperature, how will pepsin        lower, the reaction rate of pepsin will slow down.
likely be affected?
                                                               ATP  ADP + P + energy ATP loses a phosphate
How is energy released from ATP? (Write a reaction)            group and the energy that held the group onto the
                                                               molecule gets released and used by the cell
                                                               A: vision
                                                               C: healing, immunity
What is the main function of each vitamin below?
                                                               E: protects blood cells
A, D, E, C, K
                                                               D: bones
                                                               K: blood clotting
The venus fly traps, sundews, and pitcher plants in the
room are all obtain nitrogen from insects, rather than the     Proteins, more specifically enzymes, are used to
soil. What compounds do they likely use to break down          digest the insects.
the insects?
                                                               Proteins are made up of amino acids, so when
Nitrogen is an element common in amino acids. All
                                                               protein sources are broken down (by enzymes,
organisms need a source of nitrogen, and therefore,
                                                               which are also proteins!) the amino acid sub units
amino acids. What macromolecule provides amino acids?
                                                               are available for the cell to use.

What is the major role of carbohydrates in our diet?           They supply energy for the body.

                                                                                                                    If the experiment does not have
                                                                                                                    a control group, then you cannot
Scientists want to know the effects of eating broccoli on
                                                                                                                    conclude that a change
memory retention in older women. They feed broccoli to         The experimenters did not use a control group, a
                                                                                                                    observed was due to the
2000 women for six months and ask them to take a               group of women without any broccoli to which to
                                                                                                                    independent variable (broccoli,
memory test before and after the experiment. What is the       compare memory test results.
                                                                                                                    in this case). Other factors may
major flaw in the investigation?
                                                                                                                    have been at play. You have to
                                                                                                                    compare to a normal population.
What is the name for a group of cells that perform a similar   Tissue. Tissues that perform a similar function
function?                                                      are called an organ, and so on
You can see three organisms under a microscope at a                                                                 when magnification increases,
                                                               You would see 1 because 200 is one third of 600
power of 200x. How many organisms would you expect to                                                               the field of view gets smaller –
                                                               and one third of 3 is 1.
see at 600x?                                                                                                        you can’t see as many or as

                                                                                                                                        Harvey, Fall 2004
Study Guide for Biology Final Exam                                                                                  Name:
                                                                                                                    much as before.

                                                                                                                    Chromosome number is
                                                              Copy the genetic information in chromosomes;          maintained during mitosis, so
                                                              duplicate organelles; create more cell membrane;      that all body cells have the
What must a cell do when it divides into two new cells?
                                                              keep number of chromosomes the same (not in           genetic information from both
                                                              half)                                                 parents. During meiosis the
                                                                                                                    number halves.
                                                                                                                    Other membrane proteins
How does the body’s immune system distinguish between         Proteins in the cell membranes of bacteria must       include those that transport
its own cells and invading bacteria?                          match those in the body cells                         materials through (channels) and
                                                                                                                    those that transmit messages
                                                                                                                    We did an experiment with blue
                                                              The surface area for diffusion would decrease         dye to show diffusion IN is best
What would happen if a cell grew too large?                   relative to volume, so materials would not reach      in small cells, as well as salt
                                                              all parts of the cell quickly and efficiently         diffusion OUT of gel cells
                                                                                                                    happens faster from small cells
                                                              Gas and material exchange, protection, removal
What are the functions of the cell membrane of cells?                                                               Selectively permeable
                                                              of wastes by diffusion, osmosis, and transport
                                                                                                                    The water will move into the cell,
                                                                                                                    which has a low concentration of
What will likely happen to salt-water algae cells that are
                                                              They will likely burst                                water (compared to salt): the cell
placed in fresh water?
                                                                                                                    won’t be able to maintain
                                                                                                                    homeostasis
Many cells in organisms have special structures for certain   Nerve cells are long and wire-like for transmitting
functions. Give some examples:                                messages;
Colorblindness is a disorder on the X chromosome.
Normal vision is dominant. What are phenotypes and            A: father has to be colorblind, mother can also be
                                                                                                                    Know how to represent the
genotypes of parents of:                                      or carry
                                                                                                                    genotypes and complete a
a. A colorblind girl                                          B: cb father and carrier or normal mother
                                                                                                                    punnett square like normal
b. a carrier girl                                             C: father can be either, mother can be either
c. a normal boy
                                                              An extra chromosome from one gamete ends up
What event causes Down’s Syndrome?                            in another gamete, so 24 are passed on rather
                                                              than 23. the baby has 47 chromosomes
Which couple could have an O blood baby and why?                                                                    Required: each parent must
                                                              A: not, the AB parent cannot pass on an O allele
   A. O and AB                                                                                                      have at least one O allele, since
                                                              B: yes if both parents are heterozygous (AO, BO)
   B. A and B                                                                                                       O blood is recessive to A, B, and
                                                              C: yes if the B parent is heterozygous (BO)
   C. O and B                                                                                                       AB



                                                                                                                                       Harvey, Fall 2004
Study Guide for Biology Final Exam                                                                                   Name:
                                                                                                                     Translation is when the code
                                                             A part of DNA unzips; one strand of DNA serves
Describe the events of transcription                                                                                 carried by RNA is use to make a
                                                             as template for making mRNA
                                                                                                                     polypeptide chain
The numbers on the side of a gel electrophoresis gel                                                                 We used a similar numbering
                                                             The length of DNA fragments.
represent what?                                                                                                      system to make paper gels
                                                             During mitosis, in a cell just before it divides, and   This makes the gametes that
When, where, and why does crossing over occur?               because the ends of homologous chromosomes              form different from one another,
                                                             exchange segments                                       increasing genetic variation
                                                                                                                     Prokaryotic cells appeared first
What is the primary difference between prokaryotic cells     Eukaryotic cells have organelles (including the         on earth; some organelles in
and eukaryotic cells?                                        nucleus)                                                eukaryotes resemble prokaryotic
                                                                                                                     cells
Name several groups of organisms (classification levels)
                                                             Phylum>Class>Order>Family                               The video
that are more similar than kingdom.
                                                              It is any organism “behind” or below or back in
How do you identify an ancestor on a family tree diagram?
                                                             time
What is the amount of grams of carbon-14 in bones that
                                                             0.125
had 1 gram 17,000 years ago (half-life = 5,730 yrs)?
How do scientists summarize the evolutionary story of any    Organism structures changed to allow the
organism?                                                    organism to survive in the changing environment.
                                                                                                                     Young of two non-species
What must two organism be able to do if they are in the                                                              organisms will not be able to
                                                             Produce fertile offspring
same species?                                                                                                        make offspring due to
                                                                                                                     differences in chroms and genes
On a trip to West Virginia, you pass a rock wall with many
layers. You assume the bottom-most layer is oldest.          relative
What dating technique are you using?




                                                                                                                                       Harvey, Fall 2004

				
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