Chapter 5 Infancy by ewghwehws

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									Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5




                Chapter 5: Infancy
                (First 24 Months)
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

• Chapter Objectives
  – To identify important milestones in the
    maturation of the sensory and motor systems,
    and to describe the interactions among these
    systems during the first two years of life
  – To define social attachment as the process
    through which infants develop strong
    emotional bonds with others, and to describe
    the dynamics of attachment formation during
    infancy
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

• Chapter Objectives (cont.)
  – To describe the development of sensorimotor
    intelligence, including an analysis of how
    infants organize experiences and
    conceptualize causality
  – To examine how infants understand the
    properties of objects, including the sense that
    objects are permanent, that they have unique
    properties and functions, and that they can be
    categorized.
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

• Chapter Objectives (cont.)
  – To examine the nature of emotional
    development, including emotional
    differentiation, the interpretation of emotions,
    and emotional regulation
  – To analyze the factors that contribute to the
    resolution of the psychosocial crisis of trust
    versus mistrust, including the achievement of
    mutuality with the caregiver and the
    attainment of a sense of hope or withdrawal
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

• Chapter Objectives (cont.)
  – To evaluate the critical role of
    parents/caregivers during infancy with special
    attention to issues of safety in the physical
    environment; optimizing cognitive, social, and
    emotional development; and the role of
    parents/caregivers as advocates for their
    infants with other agencies and systems
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

• Newborns
  – On average 7 to 7 ½ pounds and 20 inches
  – Low-birth-weight-babies: weigh 5 pounds 8
    ounces or less
  – Small for their gestational age: low weight for
    a given gestational age
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

• The Development of Sensory/Perceptual and
  Motor Functions
   – Infant sensory/perceptual competencies can
     be measured with infant gazing, heart rate,
     sucking, head turning, and habituation

    – Habituation: allows the infant to attend to new
      aspects of the environment
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

• Brain Development in Infancy
  – Infant brain is well-formed at birth with about
    100 billion interconnected neurons (brain
    cells)
  – Neural plasticity
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

• Sensory/Motor Development
  – Hearing
  – Vision
  – Taste and Smell
  – Touch
  – The sensory/perceptual capacities function as
    an interconnected system to provide a variety
    of sources of information about the
    environment at the same time
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

• Sensory/Motor Development (cont.)
  – Motor skills develop as a result of physical
    growth and maturation in the context of varied
    environmental opportunities

    – Motor skills begin as involuntary reflexes, and
      follow a general sequence of development
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

• Temperament
   – Relatively stable characteristics or response
     to the environment that can be observed
     during the first months of life
   – Significant source of individual differences – a
     result of genetic, environmental, and socially
     construed factors
   – Assessed by child’s positive or negative
     reaction to events and stability of this reaction
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

• Another View of Temperament
  – Reactivity or the child’s threshold for arousal,
    which could be evidenced at the
    physiological, emotional, or motor level
  – Self-regulation or behavioral inhibition that
    can be thought of as a continuum from bold or
    brazen to inhibited and cautious
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

• Case Study: The Cotton Family
  – Thought Questions
     • How would you describe Anna’s
       temperament? What problems might the
       Cotton family face if Anna had been a more
       passive, reserved, and inhibited child?
     • In what ways was Anna being expected to
       adapt to the Cotton family lifestyle?
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy
• Case Study: The Cotton Family (cont.)
     • What are some of the challenges Nancy
       and Paul faced as new parents? How did
       they cope with these challenges?
     • How would you describe Paul’s enactment
       of the father role?
     • How would you describe Nancy’s
       enactment of the mother role?
     • Anna seems to be influencing the well-
       being of her mother, father, and her
       grandmother. What impact does Anna
       have on each of these family members?
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

• Attachment
  – Process through which people develop
     specific, positive emotional bonds with others
  – Attachment Behavior System
      • Parenting or caregiving is the nurturing
        responses of the caregiver to the child
  – Synchrony, or interactions that are rhythmic,
     well-timed, and mutually rewarding establish
     attachments
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

• The Development of Attachment
   – Internal mental representations / internal
     working models
   – Goal-corrected partnerships
   – Stranger anxiety
   – Separation anxiety
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

• Formation of Attachments with Mother, Father,
  and Others
   – The amount of time the infant spends in the
     care of the person
   – The quality and responsiveness of the care
     provided by the person
   – The person’s emotional investment in the
     infant
   – The presence of the person in the infant’s life
     across time
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

• Measuring the Security of Attachment:
  The Strange Situation
   – A 20 minute period
   – Child is exposed to a sequence of periods of
     separations and reunions with the caregiver
   – How the child responds to these periods is
     used to assess their level of attachment to the
     caregiver
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

• Four Patterns of Quality of Attachment
   – Secure Attachment
   – Anxious-Avoidant Attachment
   – Anxious-Resistant Attachment
   – Disorganized Attachment
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

• Parental Sensitivity and the Quality of
  Attachment
  – Four factors come into play in producing
     sensitive parenting that underlies secure
     attachments
      • Cultural and subcultural pathways
      • The caregiver’s personal life story
      • Contemporary factors
      • Characteristics of the infant
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

• The Relevance of Attachment to Later
  Development
   – Attachment and internal working models
     influence:
      • expectations about the self, others, and the
        nature of relationships
      • the child’s ability to explore and engage the
        environment with confidence
      • the formation of later relationships
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

• The Relevance of Attachment to Later
  Development (cont.)
   – Clinical diagnoses and links to attachment
      • Reactive Attachment Disorder
      • Inhibited Type
      • Uninhibited Type
• Critique of the Attachment Paradigm
   – Attachment paradigm has limitations,
     especially when viewed from a cross-cultural
     or comparative cultural lens
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

• Sensorimotor Intelligence and Early Causal
  Schemes
  – Sensorimotor intelligence, or motor routine,
    that reflects organization
  – Sensorimotor adaptation is Piaget’s chief
    mechanism governing the growth of
    intelligence during infancy
  – Infants develop an understanding of causality
    based largely on sensory and motor
    experiences
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

• The Development of Causal Schemes
   – Infants form expectations about how objects
     function.
   – Development of causal schemes
      • Phase 1 – reflexes
      • Phase 2 – first habits
      • Phase 3 – circular reactions
      • Phase 4 – coordination of means and ends
      • Phase 5 – experimentation with new means
      • Phase 6 - insight
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

• Understanding the Nature of Objects and
  Creating Categories
  – Object permanence - objects in the
    environment are permanent and do not cease
    to exist when they are out of reach or view
  – One reason babies experience separation
    anxiety is that they are uncertain whether a
    person to whom they are attached will
    continue to exist once out of sight
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                        Chapter 5: Infancy




Video Segment: The Sensorimotor Stage: Absence of Object Permanence
 Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                         Chapter 5


                          Chapter 5: Infancy




Video Segment: The Sensorimotor Stage: Presence of Object Permanence
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

• The Prefrontal Cortex and Infant Intelligence
   – Prefrontal Cortex allows for the ability to
     derive abstract concepts, rules, and
     generalizations from sensory/motor
     experiences and apply them to new situations
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

• Emotions as a Key to Understanding Meaning
  – Provide a channel for determining the
    meaning the child is giving to a specific
    situation

• The Ability to Regulate Emotions
   – One of the most important elements in the
     development of emotional regulation is the
     way caregivers assist infants to manage their
     strong feelings
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

• Emotions as a Channel for Adult-Infant
  Communication
  – Emotions provide a two-way channel through
    which infants and their caregivers can
    establish intersubjectivity
  – Mechanism of social referencing
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

• The Psychosocial Crisis: Trust versus Mistrust
   – Trust - an appraisal of the availability,
     dependability, and sensitivity of another
     person; emerges as one person discovers
     those traits in another person
   – Mistrust - can arise, during infancy, from at
     least three sources: infant wariness, lack of
     confidence in the caregiver, and doubt in
     one’s own lovableness
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

• The Central Process for Resolving the Crisis:
  Mutuality with the Caregiver
   – Mutuality is a characteristic of a relationship
     that is initially built on the consistency with
     which the caregiver appropriately responds to
     the infant’s needs
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

• Coordination, Mismatch, and Repair of
  Interactions
   – Coordination refers to two related
     characteristics on interaction: matching and
     synchrony
   – Matching means that the infant and the
     caregiver are involved in similar behaviors or
     states at the same time
   – Synchrony means that the infant and
     caregiver move fluidly from one state to the
     next
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

• The Central Process for Resolving the Crisis:
  Mutuality with the Caregiver
• Establishing a Functional Rhythm in the Family
   – The match or mismatch between an infant’s
     rhythms and the family’s rhythms is an
     important factor in the overall adjustment of a
     family to a new baby
• Parents with Psychological Problems
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

• The Prime Adaptive Ego Quality and the Core
  Pathology
   – Hope - the first prime adaptive ego quality; an
     orientation that goals and dreams can be
     attained and events will turn out for the best
   – Withdrawal - a general orientation of wariness
     toward people and objects
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

• Applied Topic: The Role of Parents
  – Safety in the physical environment
  – Fostering emotional and cognitive
    development
  – Fathers’ and mothers’ parental behavior
  – Parents as advocates
  – The importance of social support
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Tenth Edition, Newman/Newman
                                                                        Chapter 5


                       Chapter 5: Infancy

								
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