SNC2D Final Exam Review 2011 by 0rwGs6gk


									                                      Mrs. Hunter’s SNC2D Final Exam Review

Unit 1: Biology
    Cell Theory – What is the cell theory? What are the major differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
    Cell Organelles – structures and functions of all the organelles. Label a diagram of an animal or a plant cell.
    Cell Cycle
            o Know why cells divide
            o What is the difference between osmosis and diffusion? Give examples.
            o Know stages of mitosis (interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase) and cytokinesis. Be able
                to sketch diagrams of each phase
            o What is Cancer? What causes all cancers? What stage of mitosis occurs quickly in cancer cells? How
                can cancer be prevented? What are screening methods? How is cancer treated?
    Hierarchy of organization of livings things (from organelles  organisms)
    Cell Specialization
            o What are specialized cells? Be able to compare the structure and function of muscle cells, fat cells, nerve
                cells, red blood cells and white blood cells
            o What is cellular differentiation?
            o What is a stem cell? What is the difference between an embryonic stem cell and an adult stem cell?
                What are practical applications of stem cell research? Why is it a controversial topic?
    Digestive system
            o Know the function of all organs involved in digestion (mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large
                intestines, rectum, anus, liver, pancreas, gal bladder)
            o Be able to label a diagram of the digestive system
    Circulatory System
            o What is the purpose of this system? How is it related to the digestive system? To the respiratory system?
            o Know the components (heart, blood and blood vessels)
            o What are the different components of blood?
            o What are the major differences between arteries, veins and capillaries?
            o What is Coronary heart disease and what are some symptoms of a heart attack?
    Respiratory System
            o What is the major function of this system? How is it related to the circulatory system? How is it related
                to the digestive system?
            o Know the function of all organs involved (nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles,
                alveoli, lungs as well as the role of the diaphragm)
            o What is the difference between breathing and cellular respiration?
    Musculoskeletal system
            o Know the function of this system. Know the 3 major components (ligaments, muscles and bones)
            o Know how muscles move bone (role of tendons)
            o What is osteoporosis? What causes it?
    Nervous System
            o Label a neuron. Describe the function of a neuron.
            o What is the difference between the Central Nervous system and the Peripheral Nervous System?
            o Know the basic mechanism of how you can sense a change in the environment and react
    Reproductive System of Males and Females
            o Know ALL structures and functions for both male and female systems. Be able to label diagrams

p. 66-67. Multiple Choice #1-4, True/False #5-7, fill in blank #8-9, matching #10, short answer # 11-17, 22
p. 118 – 119 Multiple Choice #1-4, True/False #5-6, fill in blank #7-8, matching #9, short answer # 11-14, 16, 18
p. 158 – 160 Multiple Choice #1-11, True/False #12-20, fill in blank #21-28, short answer # 30-36, 42, 45, 46, 62
Unit 2: Chemistry

       Give 3 examples of chemical properties and 3 examples of physical properties of a substance.
             o Know the difference between a physical and a chemical change.
             o What are 5 pieces of evidence of a chemical change?
       Periodic Table – know the chemical families and where they are located on the periodic table.
                      o What is the charge, mass and location of the subatomic particles (protons, neutrons, electrons)?
                      o Bohr Diagrams for atoms and ions (first 20 elements)
                      o Lewis dot symbols for atoms and ions (first 20 elements)
       What is an ionic compound?
             o What types of elements make up ionic compounds?
             o Be able to name ionic compounds (monovalent metals, multivalent metals and polyatomic ions).
             o What are the general properties of ionic compounds?
       What is a molecular compound?
             o What types of elements make up molecular compounds?
             o Be able to name molecular compounds.
             o What are the general properties of molecular compounds?
       What is a chemical reaction? Know the difference between reactants and products.
       What is an endothermic reaction? What is an exothermic reaction?
       What is the law of conservation of mass?
       What are the four types of chemical reactions? Be able to identify the four types by looking at an equation.
             o Be able to predict the products of a reaction based on the type of reaction
                       Example: Na2SO4 + HBr                                      type of reaction:_________________
                       Be able to convert a word equation into a balanced chemical equation and vice versa
                               Ex: copper + silver nitrate  silver and copper (II) nitrate
       Know how to balance a chemical equation. ______ Al(OH)3 + _____ H2SO4  _____ Al2(SO4)3 + _____ HOH
       We have learned several ways to test the properties of unknown substances. We learned how to determine if the
        substance was ionic or covalent, we determined pH in several ways and we did tests to test for the presence of
        oxygen, hydogen and carbon dioxide. You will want to be familiar with these tests for the exam. Make a list of
        all the lab tests we did and as a class we will review them.
       What is HOFBrINCl used for?
       What is an acid? What is a base?
             o Be able to identify an acid or a base by their chemical formula. (ex: NaOH, HCl, H3PO4, Ca(OH)2
             o Give characteristics of: a) acids and bases         b) strong acids and weak acids
             o How does the concentration of H+ ions change as pH increases?
             o List and describe the ways that you learned to measure pH.
             o What is a neutralization equation? What 2 things are produced when an acid neutralizes a base?

p. 216-217. Multiple Choice #1-4, short answer # 5-12, 14, 15
p. 258-259 Short Answer # 1-9, 10, 11, 17a
p. 296 – 297 multiple choice #1-4, True/False #6-7, Fill in Blanks #8-9, Matching #10, Short answer #11-18
p. 302 – 305 multiple choice#1-9, T/F#10-23, Fill in Blanks#24-35, Short answer#36, 39, 42, 43, 44, 45, 47, 48, 53, 54
Unit 3: Climate Change

      What is the difference between weather and climate?
      What is climate change? What types of weather events are we experiencing globally as a result of climate
      What is meant by the term “greenhouse gas?” List 5 greenhouse gases and for each, explain how they are
       commonly released into our atmosphere.
       Explain the greenhouse effect. Use a diagram to help explain the role of solar radiation and the greenhouse gases.
      Compare the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere in 1750 and in 2010. Why the major change?
       What concentration of carbon dioxide in the air would support a sustainable climate for the future?
      List the 4 greatest contributors of greenhouse gases in Canada?
      List and explain at least 5 effects of climate change.
      How can we reduce greenhouse gas pollution? (at home, work and other)
      What is the Kyoto Protocol? What did Canada commit to in terms of greenhouse gas emissions? How are we
       doing compared to other developed countries? Why do you think Canada’s success with reducing emissions is
      What are 5 ways that climate change is expected to directly affect Canadians?

   p. 364 # 1a, 2, 4, 5, 13, 14, 18, 24
   p. 400-401 # 2, 4, 6, 8, 12
   p. 438-438 # 1,2,4, 10
Unit 4: Light and Geometric Optics

       What is light? What is the visible spectrum and how does it relate to white light? Know where visible light is
        located on the electromagnetic spectrum (relative to other forms of energy waves.
       Know uses of electromagnetic waves in society (p. 466)
       What is the difference between luminous and non-luminous. Is the sun luminous? Is the moon luminous?
       Know how light is produced from each of the following: incandescence, electric discharge, phosphorescence,
        fluorescence, chemiluminescence, bioluminescence, triboluminescene and a light emitting diode (LED).
       How is light from a laser beam different than light radiating from a light bulb? How is it similar?
       What is the difference between a transparent, translucent and opaque object. How is light reflected or absorbed
        by each?
       Flat mirrors
            o Terminology for reflection
            o Laws of reflection
            o Diffuse vs. specular reflection
            o Image in plane mirrors – know the 4 characteristics (S.A.L.T)
            o Be able to draw an image in a plane mirror using normal, as well as using 2 different incident rays. Know
                how to use your ruler and protractor properly to measure the angle of incidence and angle of reflection
                from the normal!
       Curved Mirrors
            o Concave vs. Convex
            o Know terminology of concave mirrors
            o Know how to locate the image in a concave (converging) mirror
            o Know how the 4 characteristics of the image (S.A.L.T) change as the distance of the object from the
                vertex changes.
       What is refraction?
            o What causes refraction? Know the conditions that must be present for refraction to take place.
            o Know the 2 rules of refraction
            o What is the index of refraction?
            o Know how light will “bend” if travelling through 2 different media with different indexes of refraction
                (calculations involving n = c/v or n = sin<i/sin<r and snells law.
                      A ray of light is travelling from air (n=1.33) into glass (n=1.52) with an angle of incidence of 35
                         degrees. Calculate the angle of refraction. Will the refracted ray bend towards or away from the
            o What is total internal reflection? What 2 conditions must be met for total internal reflection to take place?
            o Phenomenon related to refraction (mirage, shimmering, apparent depth, rainbow…)
       Converging Lenses (whatever we cover:)

p. 508-509 Multiple choice #1-4, T/F #5-6, fill in blanks #7-8, matching #9, short answer #10-18
p. 542-543 # 12,3,4,5,8, 9, 10, 15, 16, 20.
p. 544 multiple choice #1-4, t/F #5-7 short answer #14

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