Circulatory System and Gas Exchange

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Circulatory System and Gas Exchange Powered By Docstoc
					By Derek, Eric, and Zack
Evolution of the Circulatory System
and gas exchange: early organisms
 No circulatory system
 Gas exchange through direct diffusion of gases with the
  environment
 Gastro Vascular Cavity
   increase surface area
Phylum:
 Protists
 Porifera
 Cnidarians
 Ctenophores
 Platyhelminthes
        Open circulatory system
Phylum:
 Arthropods
 Mollusks (except Cephalopods)


 Organs bathed in intercellular fluid rather than
  surrounded by vessels.
 Heart used to create a current
 Gas exchange through gills or air sacs
                 Echinoderms
Specialized circulatory system
 Water vascular system (opened or closed)
   Aids in the transport of food, gases, and waste
 Papulli : gills aiding in gas exchange
    Closed circulatory System
 Blood inside vessels
 A chambered heart pumps blood throughout the body
 Usually well developed organs for circulation and gas
 exchange

Phylum:
Annelids
Mollusks (Cephalopods)
Chordates
   Fish (2 chambered)
   Reptiles(3 chambered)
   Mammals and birds(4 chambers)
Humans Circulatory system and gas
      Exchange Overview
 Four chambered heart
 Double circulation
 Blood vessels
 Blood pressure
 Blood
 Lymphatic system
 Lungs (alveoli, diaphragm, trachea)
 Interdependence of circulatory system and gas
  exchange
 Homeostasis
 Diseases
                 Human Heart
 4 chambers (2 atria and 2 ventricles)
 Cardiac muscle tissue
Function:
  To pump blood around the body in vessels

Important parts:
 Sinoatrial node (pacemaker)
 Atrioventricular node
 Atruim (blood entering)
 Ventricle (blood exiting)
 Apex
 Septum
Double Circulation
Definition:
 Blood passes through the heart
  twice before completing a cycle
  around the body

Advantages:
 Maintain velocity of blood
 Increased blood pressure to
  organs
 One heart makes coordination
  easy
Blood vessels
 Transport blood around the body and contain it in a
  permeable wall (endothelium)
Types:
 Veins
 Arteries
 Capillaries


 Veins and arteries also have
  smooth muscles and connective
  tissues surrounding the vessel
  (main purpose is to maintain
  blood pressure)
   Blood Pressure
Fluids flow from high to low pressures and by
  contracting, the heart becomes the high forcing the
  blood away from the heart
 Aids in the support of the human body
 Aids in the delivery and return of blood back to the
  heart
 Blood pressure also caused by
  the contraction of smooth
  muscles and other nearby
  muscles
Blood
Plasma (55%): water mixed with ions, proteins,
  hormones, waste products, and cells
Cell types (45%):
 Erythrocytes (RBC)
 Leukocyte (WBC)
 Platelets


Hemoglobin bind O2 and
 transports it to cells. It
 also transfers CO2
Lymphatic system
 Due to high pressures in the vessels, blood leaks
  constantly from capillaries. Most of the blood is
  reabsorbed through osmotic pressure. The rest is
  collected by the lymphatic system
 The lymphatic system then directs the absorbed fluid,
  now lymph, to the heart where it reenters the
  circulatory system
Lungs and the respiratory system
Function: bring gas from the outside and aid in the exchange
  of gases from the environment with the ones produced by
  the body
Parts:
 Alveoli – increases surface area for gas exchange
 Diaphragm – muscle used for pulling in air
 Trachea – tube that leads air to and from the lungs


Other functions:
 Alter pH of blood through altering levels of CO2 in blood
 Filter out small clots and air bubbles in blood vessels
Interdependence of circulatory
system and respiratory system
 With out the circulation system, none of the cells
 inside the organism will get any oxygen and will die.
 By supplying them with and taking away gases, other
 cells can go about their functions that will overall help
 the body, either it be muscle cells for capturing and
 eating food, neurons used in thinking about science,
 or any of the other many tissue types in the human
 body, each with a specialized task.
Homeostasis
 The main purpose of the circulatory and respiratory
  system in to bring high levels of oxygen and other
  nutrients to cells that can not get it on their own while
  taking away waste products and gases that would be
  harmful if the concentrations increased
 By constantly moving blood through the body, cells
  can live happily and specialized with their needs being
  met and their garbage taken away.
 Analogy: the circulatory system is like servants who
  bring food and take away the leftovers for their lazy
  overlords
Diseases
 Rheumatic Fever
    Caused by a fever, a damaged heart valve at birth can
     become damaged further
 Heart attack/Stroke
    the blockage of a vein or artery from something, usually
     plaque or platelets, in the heart or the brain respectively
 Anemia
   Deficiency of hemoglobin in Red Blood Cells (RBC) or the
     deficiency of RBC
 Tuberculosis
    Infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that leads to
     increase mucus creation in trachea

				
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