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									The French Revolution

     The Revolution
 that changed the world
        Basics 4 Vocab
 Three estates – France’s 3 social classes: the clergy (1st),
  the nobility (2nd), and everyone else (3rd)
 Bourgeoisie – the middle class and highest level of the 3rd
 Estates-General – France’s legislative, law-making, body
  in which each estate had one vote
 National Assembly – Revolutionary legislature formed
  when the 1st & 2nd estates locked the 3rd estate out of the
 Tennis Court Oath – Oath taken by the National Assembly
  to not leave until there was a new French Constitution
        More Basics 4 Vocab
 Bastille – Parisian prison that was destroyed July 14th 1789
  as crowds searched for weapons and gunpowder to protect
  themselves from the French Army
 Sans-culottes – working class revolutionaries who pushed
  for a republic and wanted to end the monarchy
 Jacobins – middle class lawyers and intellectuals who were
  in favor of a republic
 Émigré – clergy and nobles who fled France and
  revolutionaries with tales of mob violence that frightened
  many European monarchs
       Last slide of Basics 4 Vocab
 Suffrage – the right to vote
 Robespierre – leader of the Committee of Public
  Safety, a Jacobin, he took control of the French
  Revolution and began the Reign of Terror
 Reign of Terror – September 1793 – July 1794
  which tried about 300,000 individuals and executed
  17,000 “enemies of the revolution”
 Nationalism – feelings of pride and love for one’s
 French Society: divided into three estates
First Estate:             Second Estate:

                Third Estate               :
                                                     % of Land
       % of Pop.
                                         70%                     10%

First Estate       Second Estate         First Estate    Second Estate
Third Estate                             Third Estate

                    Level                       0%

               First Estate     Second Estate
               Third Estate
Third Estate
 Divided into three sub classes:
 1. Merchants and artisans
   – Rich and well educated (liberal ideologies)
 2.Working Class (cooks, servants, and
     Poor wage earners
     Price of bread was very important to them
 3. Farmers (80% of people)
     Heavily taxed, had to work for nobles/
     clergy for free
France’s National Problems
1. Crop failures led to grain shortages
2. Large debt due to Wars
(in the Americas)
  – Bankers refused to lend
  more money
3. Weak leader
King and Queen of France
 Louis XVI-
  – Great Grandson of Louis
  – Not very focused on his
     • Wanted to have fun (hunt,
       play with locks, etc)
 Marie Antoinette-
  – Daughter of Austrian
    Maria Theresa
  – big spender
     Louis is forced to call the
    Estates-General (May 1789)
 meeting of all 3 estates
 first time in 175 yrs.
 Each estate gets 1 vote
  – (clergy had one, nobles had one)
 3rd Estate was always
  outvoted by the other two estates
Estates-General of May 1789
 Estates-General called at request of 1st & 2nd
   – Goal: To limit the powers of the monarchy
       • Similar to England’s Glorious Revolution
 1st and 2nd Estate
   – feared losing money from Louis’ big
      spending…wanted to control him
 3rd Estate
   – complained about unequal voting rights.
   – Estates-General refused to listen to them and the 3rd
     Estate was locked out.
Tennis Court Oath (June 1789)

 Third Estate met separately
 New name=National Assembly
 Declared that the Assembly, not the king, were the voice
  of the people
Louis was so disconnected from
his people…

 Louis was so disconnected from the
 people that he wrote in journal (on the
 day of the Storming of the Bastille)
 “Rein” or “nothing happened”
 referring to his afternoon hunt
Palace of Versailles (where King Louis is living)
The Great Fear (July 20th – August 5th 1789)
Declaration of the Rights of Man
  – Issued August 26, 1789
  – “Men are born and remain free and equal in
     • Women were not included
     • Right to liberty, property, security, and resistance to
     • Sets up a Constitutional Monarchy
Slogan of Revolution

 “Liberty, Equality,
    and Fraternity
Women’s Bread Riot, October 5th 1789
 Price of bread (and other necessities) rise
 Thousands of women took up arms and marched 12
  miles to Versailles (King’s palace)
 Killed two guards
 Forced the king and his family to move to Paris
Louis tries to escape France (June 1791)

 On his way to Austria
  – Stopped by townsmen and guards
 Many argue that the King is not to be trusted
           Political Spectrum:
        Left                    Right
                           Conservative, wants
     Liberal, wants
    extreme change          to go back to old
      France’s Radical Groups:
 Sans-culottes:          Émigrés:
 “those without knee     nobles and clergy
  breeches”                who fled France
 mobs wage earners of    Far right supporters
  the cities
 far left supporters
Europe turns against the Revolution
 Austria (Marie’s Homeland) feared that the
  revolution against nobility would spread to
  other nations.
  – Austria declared war on France in 1792, later
    joined by Prussia, Holland, Spain, and England..
  – French Émigrés joined with the foreigners.
  – Austrian and Prussian forces near Paris and
    threatened to destroy Paris if the Royal family
    was harmed
  – Outraged Parisian mob kills the King’s Swiss
    guards and imprisons the royal family in a tower.
                 The Last Straw:
         the September Massacre (1792)
 The Sans-culottes hear that
  they are losing power and kill
  over a 1,000 noble, clergy &
  other prisoners

 Power is transferred to the Left
  Radicals called the Jacobins

   – No longer interested in allowing a
     Monarch to govern: now they
     want a new form of government
King No More
         The
          defeat the
          invading armies
         The Jacobins
          establish a
         Louis is
          beheaded by the
          Guillotine (Jan.

Decapitation was punishment for
nobility=now equal
       New Leader:
   Maximilien Robespierre
Revolution goes past politics
 Slavery is outlawed
 Death penalty is outlawed (predict: why is this ironic?)
 Religious Freedom for Jews and Protestants
 Playing cards—no jacks, queens and kings
 Calendar was changed to 12 months 30 days
   – 10 day week, no Sundays
   (religion seen as old fashion)
 All churches were closed
 Bread prices were controlled
Committee of Public Safety (July
     1793 to July 1794)
 Led by Robespierre
 Ordered to root out
  traitors of the
 No one was safe
 Neighbor turned on
 Reign of Terror
 Run by the
  Committee of Public
 Killed:
  – Marie Antoinette
  – early leaders of the
  – fellow Jacobins
  – Robespierre was killed
    (July 1794)
  – About 40,000 people
    had been killed,
                The Directory
 Five Moderates
   – Next and final leaders of
     the revolution
      • Corrupt and relatively
      • Could not provide stability
      • Bread prices increase again
      • New movement to restore
        the Monarch
      • Not ideal, but compared to
        the Terror it was breath of
        fresh air to the weary
        French people
        Napoleon Bonaparte
 …ends the Revolution
 but that’s another

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