Internet Searching

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       Technology Training at
   LaCrescent/Hokah School District




              Lois A. Cox, M.Ed.

   Integration Specialist, La Crescent High School
Adjunct Faculty, Western Wisconsin Technical College
                                 Internet Searching

Brief History

1957 -The USSR launches Sputnik, the first artificial earth satellite. In response, the United
States forms the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) within the Department of Defense
(DoD) to establish US lead in science and technology applicable to the military.

1972 - E-mail was adapted for ARPANET by Ray Tomlinson of BBN in 1972. He picked the @
symbol from the available symbols on his teletype to link the username and address. The
Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was renamed The Defense Advanced Research
Projects Agency (or DARPA). ARPANET was currently using the Network Control Protocol or
NCP to transfer data. This allowed communications between hosts running on the same network.

The Internet matured in the 70's as a result of the TCP/IP (Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol.) architecture first proposed by Bob Kahn at BBN and further
developed by Kahn and Vint Cerf at Stanford and others throughout the 70's.

1981 - National Science Foundation created backbone called CSNET 56 Kbps network for
institutions without access to ARPANET. Vinton Cerf proposed a plan for an inter-network
connection between CSNET and the ARPANET.

1985 - The National Science Foundation began deploying its new T1 lines, which would be
finished by 1988.

1996 - Most Internet traffic is carried by backbones of independent ISPs, including MCI, AT&T,
Sprint, UUnet, BBN planet, ANS, and more.

1993 - The development of the graphical browser Mosaic by Marc Andreessen and his team at
the National Center For Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) gave the protocol its big boost.
Later, Andreessen moved to become the brains behind Netscape Corp., which produced the most
successful graphical type of browser and server until Microsoft declared war and developed its
Microsoft Internet Explorer.

Such a brief place in history for such an enormous change in our daily lives and information
availability. Here are some interesting facts from www.nua.com/surveys:
    Americans turn to Web for news on war -Apr 03 2003: New research from Pew Internet &
    American Life indicates that 77 percent of online Americans have used the Net in
    connection with the war in Iraq.
    More high-speed Net subscribers in US -Apr 02 2003: America’s leading cable and DSL
    providers added a combined 6.4 million high-speed Internet subscribers during 2002,
    according to new data from Leichtman Research Group.
    Worldwide B2B revenues to pass one trillion - Apr 01 2003: eMarketer predicts that
    worldwide B2B ecommerce revenues will surpass USD1.4 trillion by the end of 2003.


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    Paid content market set to grow - Mar 26 2003: Consumer spending on paid Internet content
    will reach USD2 billion in 2003, reports InternetNews.
    Email becoming an important political tool -Mar 25 2003: Email has become an increasingly
    popular and potent tool for political communication in America, according to new research
    from Pew Internet and American Life.
    American mothers get online - May 08 2002: eMarketer reports that American mothers
    spend longer online each week than teenagers.
    Teens prefer Internet to telephone - Jan 31 2002: CyberAtlas reports on a new survey from
    AOL which has found that the Internet is now the primary communication tool for US
    teenagers.


How the Internet works

The INTER-NET is a network of INTERconnected NETworks.




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The diagram above shows a simplified, "tree-structured", non-redundant, multi-level network. In
other words, a network of networks of networks of networks. As we'll see in a moment, the
actual Internet is much more complex, but let's take it one step at a time.

The topmost top thick level is commonly called the Internet "Backbone". It is the main
highest-traffic network that interconnects the routers of the second level.

Internet Routers — shown as round black "nodes" in this diagram — examine the destinations
of individual Internet data packets to determine the best route to use in forwarding the data to its
final destination.

The second level is generally composed of large "Tier-1" service providers. They purchase
"backbone" bandwidth from the major communications carriers and resell it to smaller service
providers, universities, and corporations.

The third level is generally composed of smaller (non-Tier-1) service providers, universities,
and corporations. They typically purchase bandwidth from Tier-1 providers and interconnect the
individual machines within their organizations into a "Local Area Network" (LAN).

The bottom level is composed of the connections to individual machines. This is often called the
"Last Mile" of the Internet and ranges from dial-up modems, to ISDN, to DSL, to Cable Modem,
to local Ethernet segments.

The most significant aspect of this system is that through the multi-level networking of
networks, every machine can potentially be connected to every other.1


Services on the Internet

The Internet is a network infrastructure over which information flows, but you must use a
specific service to send and receive information. A service is essentially a system of servers that
sends and receives data over the Internet to programs on user computers. Here are some
Internet services:

    Electronic mail (email)
    World Wide Web (Web)
    File transfer Protocol (FTP)
    Newsgroups (Usenet) including Blogs

There are now many ways of connecting to the network at home:
   Dial-Up Modems send digital data over a phone line. The term modem is a contraction of
   the words modulate and demodulate. Here is how it works. The modem modulates data into
   a signal that is compatible with the phone line, and the modem on the receiving computer

1
 The Escalating Threat of Denial of Internet Service, Steve Gibson, May 23, 2005, Gibson Research Corporation.
January 2006. <http://grc.com/dos/theinternet.htm>


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   demodulates the signal back into digital data. Most newer computers are equipped with a 56
   Kbps (short for56 kilobits per second) modem.

   Cable Modem not only bring cable television to homes but also can provide high-speed
   Internet connection. The television cable carries the television programming but has extra
   bandwidth for other purposes such as connecting to the Internet. A cable modem transmits
   easily at more than 1 Mbps (million bits per second) or 20 times faster. One of the
   advantages is that you are always connected so your computer is always online. However,
   this may pose a security threat of hackers if you do not have a very good security system.

   Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a digital telephone service allowing you to
   simultaneously send and receive voice, video, or data transmissions of as high as 128 Kbps
   for a typical home computer installation. Call your phone company for information for this
   service.

   Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) is a high-speed telephone connection and an attractive
   option because of its connection speed and the fact you can be online without tying up your
   phone line. Using a router available from office-supply stores, you can network several home
   computers so they can all be online at the same time.

   Wireless is a good alternative to provide a maximum bandwidth of 11 Mbps. An Internet
   signal is broadcast from a tower to individual home receivers. You need a special modem to
   get the signal at home.

   Internet TV also called Web TV or MSN® TV is a service that displays the Internet on
   your television instead of a computer system and allows you to visit Web sites and send and
   receive email.

Measuring Bandwidth – This is the speed at which an Internet connection sends and receives
data is the bandwidth. The greater the bandwidth, the faster data can be sent. It is measured in
bits and bytes. This table will help you understand the terms used.

Term              Description                                       Example
Bit               A single on-off switch in a computer circuit      0 or 1
Byte              A single character of data composed of eight      A, B, C, $, @, {, \
                  bit strung together
Kilobyte (KB)     Approximately one thousand bytes of data          About one single-spaced
                                                                    typed page of text
Megabyte          Approximately one million bytes of data           About three average-length
(MB)                                                                novels
Gigabyte (GB)     Approximately one billion bytes of data           3,000 novels worth of text or
                                                                    about 1,500 large color
                                                                    pictures




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Understanding Web Addresses

Anyone can post a Web page on the Internet. All you need is a set of information designed with a
Web authoring tool or Web scripting program and an Internet server. A Web page is based on a
set of instructions, coded in a Web scripting language, such as html, JavaScript, or Java. Each
Web page has a unique Internet address, called a Uniform Resource Locator (URL),
comprising a string of characters. Here is an example of a URL and its meaning:

http://www.intel.com/pressroom/index.asp
Protocol       Host computer address          Folder name    page name
                  (domain)

The access method, or protocol, listed as http:// in the address, tells your communication
software how to access that particular page. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a type of
communication protocol that uses hyperlinks, images or text on a Web page, that you can click to
move to other Web locations.

The domain name, next, is the address of the Internet server on which the Web page resides.
The domain name will always have at least two parts, separated by a dot. Next is a slash and the
directory which refers to a folder on the host computer. The page in the illustration is found in
the pressroom folder. And the specific filename of the page requested is last followed by an
extension.

The top-level domain name, the “com” in the example, represents the purpose of the
organization.

Meaning of the suffixes attached to URLs

.edu          Educational institutions
.com          Commercial businesses
.gov          Government agencies
.mil          Military
.org          Nonprofit organization
.net          Network organizations
.ca           Canada
.us           United States
.jp           An organization in Japan
.au           Australia
.uk           United Kingdom
.it           Italy




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Understanding Browsers

                                      This is an illustration from the www.learnthenet.com site,
                                      an online tutorial on how to use the Web.

                                      A browser is the software that enables you to access the
                                      World Wide Web. It is your window to the Internet. The
                                      two dominant browsers are Netscape Communicator and
                                      Internet Explorer however Mozilla Firefox is moving to
                                      the list of most-used browsers.




Learn to Use the Browser Window—The Menu Bar

The browser is much like any other software window in the tools available to use.


The offers many choices. Here are some of the things on the File menu.

                                        New will give you another copy of the browser window.
                                        It makes searching and working with other documents
                                        much easier when you have more than one copy of the
                                        browser window open.
                                        Open will either open a URL address you need to
                                        access or a document saved on your computer
                                        somewhere. This can be helpful when adding
                                        information from the net to an existing document.

                                        Edit with Microsoft Word (not available on all
                                        browsers) will indeed open the Website in Word.
                                        However, you need to be very adept at manipulating the
                                        various formats that come with a Website.

                                      Page Setup will let you turn the paper landscape to be
       able to accommodate for the wider screen width than portrait paper.

       Print Preview will save a lot of wasted paper in letting you see how many pages you are
       about to print. If you click Print without checking, you could be printing 35 pages rather




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       than the one you wanted.

       Send will open your ISP so you may send the current page or a link to the page to
       someone.

       Import and Export is used to save Favorites or Cookies in another file on your
       computers.

       Work Offline allows you to view the current page offline if you do not want to stay
       connected.

Under the View menu, you will find these
options:

   Toolbars list toolbars available to turn on.
   The list is small but if someone has turned
   them off, you are limited in your searching.
   The toolbars can vary depending on what is
   inserted on your browser.

   The Status Bar will show you the progress of
   opening a new URL address and when it is
   done.

   The Explorer Bar has repeats of items on the
   toolbar except for the Folders option. It will show you available folders on your computer.

   Text Size gives the option for larger text for ease of reading.

   Encoding allows changing to other language codes.

   Source will show you the html code behind the page.

   Privacy has to do with allowing cookies—the dialog box will be shown under Tools.

Tools has some useful features.

                           Mail and News can be used if you use Outlook or Outlook Express
                           for your ISP. The News will take you to online news.

                           Manage Add-ons lets you keep or delete some of the many things
                           that get added to your browser window.

                           Synchronize has to do with working off line and having data
                           synchronized between on and off line.




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   Sun Java Console has to do with the Java code.

   Internet Options is explained in several different dialog boxes below.

   Under the General Tab, the Home page can be
   changed to whichever home page you would
   prefer to always see when you log in.

   Temporary Internet files are those files that
   are downloaded every time you log onto the
   Internet. The Delete Cookies will delete those
   files helpful in identifying you when you return
   to a Website. These are not bad files but it is
   certainly okay to delete them from time to time.

    The Delete Files are the temporary files
   downloaded with each visit to a site. These
   should be deleted from time to time because of
   the space they take up on your hard drive. These
   files have nothing to do with the files needed to
   run programs or the files you have created.

   The Settings command button will allow you to decide how often Web pages will be cached
   on your computer. Cached (pronounced "cashed) means a version is stored and you can
   decide how often they are refreshed to the newest page. Opening a previously cached page
   will make surfing quicker. Clicking the Refresh button will also bring up the most current
   version. The Setting also allows you to set a limit on the space used by temporary files.

   History lets you save a list of Web sites visited recently—up to as many days as you have set
   here.

   The Colors, Fonts, Languages, and Accessibility allow you to change ways you view
   things.
                                               The Privacy tab gives you the ability to
                                               block sites you do not wish to have viewed on
                                               your computer. This would be useful on your
                                               home computer as the site firewall here is
                                               very adequate.




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   The Content tab of Internet Options will
   let you set some levels of the language, sex,
   nudity, and violence that are let through.
   This is available when you click Enable.
   Going into the Enable section opens up
   many more choices for limiting certain
   viewing privileges for anyone using the
   computer.

   The Certificates is a method of proving
   who a company is by way of a digital
   certificate. Read some of the information
   through clicking the question mark and
   clicking on an item.

   AutoComplete can be turned off but stores
   addresses recently visited. My Profile stores
   information you are willing to have shared
   via sites.




The Tool Bar




   The Back button returns you the previous page you've visited. You can also click the down
   arrow beside the Back button to quickly return to a page more than just one back.
   Use the Forward button to return to the page you just came from. Use the down arrow the
   same as with the Back button above.
   Home takes you to whichever home page you've chosen. (If you haven't selected one, it will
   return you to the default home page, usually the Microsoft or Netscape Website.)
   Reload or Refresh does just that, loads the Web page again. Why would you want to do
   this? Sometimes all of the elements of a Web page haven't loaded the first time, because the
   file transfer was interrupted. Also when you download a Web page, the data is cached. The
   next time you want that page, instead of requesting the file from the Web server, your Web
   browser accesses it from the cache. But if a Web page is updated frequently, as may be the
   case with news, sports scores or financial data, you won't get the most current information.
   By reloading the page, this timely data is updated from the Web server.
   Print lets you make a hard copy of the current page loaded in your browser.
   The Stop button stops the browser from loading the current page.
   Search connects to directories and search tools on the Microsoft or Netscape Web sites.
   Bookmarks or Favorites lets you can record the addresses of Web sites you want to revisit.
   Once you add a URL to your list, you can return to that Web page simply by clicking on the


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   link in your list, instead of retyping the entire address.

   You can save your Favorites on your home directory so that if you computer is reimaged or
   you get a new computer, you will not lose them. To do this, go to My Computer, C Drive,
   Documents and Settings, Username (find yours), Favorites. When you find this, copy the
   entire folder. Then go to your home directory and paste it. You will be asked if you want to
   replace the existing folder. Click “yes.”




   Just under the toolbar, you will see a box labeled "Location," "Go To," or "Address." This is
   where you type the address or URL of a Website you want to visit. After you enter it, press
   the Return or Enter key to access the site or click on the "Go" button to the right of the
   address box.
   By clicking the small triangle to the
   right of the Location box, you will get
   a drop-down list of the most recent
   Web sites you've visited. To revisit a
   site, just click on the address.
   Another feature of the Address Bar is
   the AutoComplete. This keeps track
   of all the Web sites you have visited
   recently. As you begin to type the
   address of a site recently visited,
   AutoComplete displays addresses
   similar to what you are typing.



Internet Search Engines

All search engines maintain some type of database of Web pages and their content. When you
do a search, the search engine uses its database to show everything meeting your search criteria.
There are three primary categories of search engines.

   Full text – Search engines using this index every word of every Web page they come across.
   The Hotbot.com is this type of search engine.

   Computer generated index – These search engines review the first page, or part of the first
   page of a Web site and use programming to assign specific search key words. Google.com is
   this type of search engine. This database of Internet files collected by a compute program is
   sometimes called a spider, worm, or crawler.

   Human indexers – A few search engines use humans to keep their databases current. Every
   page listed has been reviewed by a staff person. The Google.com directory search is a



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   human-indexed search engine.

   There are also Metasearch engines. A metasearch engine sends your search to several search
   engines and other resources with a single command. You are taking advantage of the
   strengths of several search engines simultaneously. Profusion.com is an example of this.

Other than search engines, there are subject directories as another type of search service. Two
of the popular subject directories are Yahoo! (www.yahoo.com) and LookSmart
(www.looksmart.com). These are best used when you have a broad topic or idea to research such
as World War II. Search engines are useful when you have a narrow or obscure topic to research
or when you want to search full pages of text.


Search Methods

There are three methods of searching the Web sites databases to find the best information for
you.

   Standard search – You simply enter one or more words or a phrase to conduct a search. The
   results are reported as list of Web pages (hits) with a short summary of each page. Here’s
   how you interpret the results you will get.

 A link to a Google
 sponsor’s site (that
 paid to have their      The Web page title               The Web page URL
 link listed first.




 A previously                                       Additional links to
 stored version of         Perform a new            Google sponsored
 the Web page.             search for pages         Web sites (that
                           similar to this one.     also pay to be
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Internet Searching                                                                   Page 12




Here is another handy feature about the search page. If you find a site you would like to check
out in the search hit lists, right click on it. This will give you a menu to open the Web page in a
new window saving these results to come back to if that is not the page you want.




Ever tried the I’m Feeling Lucky button in Google? This takes you to the first search result in a
search.




   Advanced Search allows you to limit the search in specific ways. Here are a quick reference
   for the syntax (rules and conventions) for searching an Internet search engine.

Rule                                                                       Examples
Use capital letters only when typing proper nouns. If you type more        Robin Williams, Grand
than one proper name in a search, separate each name with a comma.         Canyon
If you wish to search for an exact phrase, enclose the phrase in           ”global warming trends”
quotation marks.

   An Advanced Search narrows your search as you add more terms to the search to reduce the
   number of hits. Here are some tips to define your search using Boolean operators.

   1. AND. To search for two or more terms on the same page, type the word AND between
      the terms (example: sea AND kayak). Or put a plus sign right before the second term
      (example: sea + kayak).
   2. OR. To search for either of two (or more) terms on the same page: Type the word OR
      between the terms (example: kayak OR canoe).
   3. AND NOT. To search for pages that include the first term and not the second: Type the
      words AND NOT between the terms (example: kayak AND NOT whitewater). Or put a
      minus sign right before the second term (example: kayak –whitewater).
   4. To search for an exact phrase: Enclose the phrase in quotation marks (example: “Sea
      ”kayak rental”).
   5. To group parts of your search: Enclose them in parentheses. For example, type kayak
      AND (gear OR equipment). This returns pages with both the words kayak and gear or
      both the words kayak and equipment.


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   6. To search for various forms of a word: Add an asterisk to the end of the word (example:
      kayak*). This returns pages with the words kayak, kayaks, kayaked, kayaking, and so on.

   Search Directory – Some search engines offer a hierarchical directory of indexed Web
                                                     pages. These are created by humans, not
                                                     computers. One advantage of using a
                                                     search directory is that you can learn a
                                                     great deal about a topic just by looking
                                                     over how it’s organized. You will find
                                                     the directory in Google above the search
                                                     keyword box.

                                                     Click “more” and then you will find
                                                     Directory in the list of the various other
                                                     services offered through Google.




Play around with this one.


Virus Protection

Here are some free software programs recommended by an instructor at WWTC, Jim Craig, who
offers a class called Deal With Cyber Attacks.

   AVG – This is a free anti-virus program. It seems especially good at hitting Trojan horse
   viruses. If you leave your computer on overnight, it will do a full system scan at 1 a.m. If you
   want to purchase the full version of AVG, go to www.grisoft.com. Cannot use with Norton.

   ZoneAlarm – This is a free firewall program. It will block hacker attempts to get into your
   computer, and it will stop Trojan house viruses from downloading without your permission
   and from reaching out to the Internet without your permission. If you want to purchase the
   full version of ZoneAlarm, go to www.zonelabs.com.

   Ad-Aware – This is a free adware/spyware removal program. It also will remove several
   Trojan horse viruses. If you want to purchase the full version of Ad-Aware, go to
   www.lavasoftusa.com

   BHOdemon – This program stops known BHO’s from installing on your computer. BHOs,
   short for Browser Helper Objects, were originally created to assist the user with surfing the
   Internet. Virus creators have learned how to exploit the BHO format for their devious virus


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      programs. BHOdemon is totally free, but if you would like to support the organization that
      created it and maintains it, go to www.definitivesolutions.com/bhodemon.htm.

      SpywareBlaster – This program stops known viruses from installing into the registry of your
      computer. The registry is a sensitive part of your computer, the deep inner workings of your
      computer. SypwareBlaster is totally free, but if you would like to support the organization
      that created it and maintains it, go to www.javacoolsofttware.com/s;lywareblaster.html.

How do you know if you have a virus? Here are some symptoms:
  Programs take longer to load than normal.
  Your computer’s hard drive constantly runs out of free space.
  The floppy disk drive or hard drive runs when you are not using it.
  New files appear on the system and you don’t know where they came from.
  Strange sounds or beeping noises come from the computer or keyboard.
  Files have strange names that you don’t recognize.
  Program sizes change unexpectedly.
  Programs act erratically.



Glossary

Blog - A Blog is a Web Log or an online diary. These look like a Web page but are incredibly
simple to create and update by posting text, photos, or links to other sites. Because they’re free
and easy to use, blogs have skyrocketed in popularity in recently. The Blogosphere is doubling in
size every five months.2 Blogs are out there about every subject you want to read about or post
about.

Bluetooth - A short-range radio technology aimed at simplifying communications among Internet
devices and between devices and the Internet. It also aims to simplify data synchronization
between Internet devices and other computers. The system is named after a Danish king Harald
Blåtand (Harold I of Denmark in English), King of Denmark and Norway from 935 and 936
respectively, to 940 known for his unification of previously warring tribes from Denmark
(including Skåne, present-day Sweden, where the Bluetooth technology was invented) and
Norway.

Cookies – A monitoring tool for Web sites. Cookies allow a site to track visitors to its site by
posting information on your PC. It acts as a site management tool confirming to the sites which
of their pages are most popular.

Parasites – Virus –containing packages of code attached to a software package.

Pharming - Similar in nature to e-mail phishing, pharming seeks to obtain personal or private
(usually financial related) information through domain spoofing. Rather than being spammed

2
    Robert Moritz, Share Your World, Parade, July 3, 2005, page 17.


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with malicious and mischievous e-mail requests for you to visit spoof Web sites which appear
legitimate, pharming 'poisons' a DNS server by infusing false information into the DNS server,
resulting in a user's request being redirected elsewhere. Your browser, however will show you
are at the correct Web site, which makes pharming a bit more serious and more difficult to
detect. Phishing attempts to scam people one at a time with an e-mail while pharming allows the
scammers to target large groups of people at one time through domain spoofing.

Phishing - The act of sending an e-mail to a user falsely claiming to be an established legitimate
enterprise in an attempt to scam the user into surrendering private information that will be used
for identity theft. The e-mail directs the user to visit a Web site where they are asked to update
personal information, such as passwords and credit card, social security, and bank account
numbers, that the legitimate organization already has. The Web site, however, is bogus and set
up only to steal the user’s information. Phishing is also referred to as brand spoofing or carding.

Spam - Electronic junk mail or junk newsgroup postings. Some people define spam even more
generally as any unsolicited e-mail. However, if a long-lost brother finds your e-mail address and
sends you a message, this could hardly be called spam, even though it's unsolicited. Real spam is
generally e-mail advertising for some product sent to a mailing list or newsgroup. There is some
debate about the source of the term, but the generally accepted version is that it comes from the
Monty Python song, "Spam spam spam spam, spam spam spam spam, lovely spam, wonderful
spam…" Like the song, spam is an endless repetition of worthless text.

Spim - Also spelled as spIM, spam over instant messaging (IM). Spim is perpetuated by bots that
harvest IM screen names off of the Internet and simulate a human user by sending spam to the
screen names via an instant message. The spim typically contains a link to a Web site that the
spimmer is trying to market.

Trojan Horse – A software program attached to another program, activated innocently by
computer-user activity.

Web Bug – Code embedded in a message which may send unauthorized information to a remote
site.

Wiki - A collaborative Web site comprises the perpetual collective work of many authors.
Similar to a blog in structure and logic, a wiki allows anyone to edit, delete or modify content
that has been placed on the Web site using a browser interface, including the work of previous
authors. In contrast, a blog, typically authored by an individual, does not allow visitors to change
the original posted material, only add comments to the original content. The term wiki refers to
either the Web site or the software used to create the site. Wiki wiki means “quick” in Hawaiian.
The first wiki was created by Ward Cunnigham in 1995.

Worm – A virus that moves deeper into the inner workings of a computer.

Zombies – Sleeper virus that lies quietly until triggered by user activity.




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