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					                  STATES AND
                  EMPIRES IN
                MESOAMERICA &
               NORTH AMERICA
               (PRE-COLUMBIAN
SSWH8: The student will demonstrate an understanding
  of the development of ERA) in Central and South
                        societies
                       America.

a) Explain the rise and fall of the Olmec, Mayan, Aztec
                    and Inca empires.
   b)Compare the culture of the Americas including
   government, economy, religion and the arts of the
               Mayans, Aztecs and Incas.
                            STATES AND EMPIRES IN
                                MESOAMERICA
1)   Tlacopan, Mexico. In 1431, the Aztecs
        forged an alliance with this northern
      kingdom and Texcoco to the east. The
         Triple Alliance defeated the eastern
      kingdoms of Tlaxcala and Huejotzingo,
     making the Aztecs the dominant rulers of
                    central Mexico.
                        STATES AND EMPIRES IN
                            MESOAMERICA


  2) Texcoco, Mexico. This junior member of the Triple Alliance of 1431,
with the Aztecs and Tlacopan to the west, benefited from Aztec dominance in
   the region. But it was also one of the first kingdoms to feel the wrath of
     Cortez and his anti-Aztec allies, as the Spanish conquistador made his
              scorched-earth march toward Tenochtitlan in 1520.
                         STATES AND EMPIRES IN
                             MESOAMERICA


 3) Tenochtitlan, Mexico. The Aztecs founded their capital city on an island
in Lake Texacoco after seeing an eagle perched on a cactus. Today, the Venice-
     like city of canals, grand plazas, and temples is hidden by the modern
      construction of Mexico City, one of the world's largest settlements.
                     PEOPLE & SOCIETIES OF THE NORTH

                     Southwest United States
Descendants of the Anasazi and Hohokam lived in small groups in
                         the Southwest:
                   1) Zuni 2) Hopi            3) Pueblo
           These groups heavily dependant on corn.
  When men married, they joined the household of the bride’s
                             mother.
                              Work
 Men hunted, farmed, herded sheep, performed ceremonies and
                        made moccasins.
Women: take care of the house, crafted pottery and baskets, hauled
         water, helped men farm and construct houses.
  Kachina: Good Spirit that when boys turned 6 they joined the
                          kachina cult.
  The Navajo and the Apache will migrate to this region from
                   Northwest North America.
  The Conquest of Mexico:
  Military expeditions led by
  conquistadores led to the
creation of New Spain on the
mainland of North and South
           America.
Hernan Cortes vs Montezuma
  II (Aztecs) 1519 to 1522.
Mexico City, was built on the
   site of the Aztec capital
 Tenochtitlan, served as New
Spain’s principal headquarters.
                         INCA/PIZARRO


        South America:
Spanish army captain Francisco
Pizarro explores the west coast
 of South America and in 1526
he lands in Peru and encounters
       the Inca Empire.
  In 1532, the Inca Emperor,
 Atahualpa, was taken prisoner
 and eventually murdered after
   converting to Christianity.
  Pizarro ruled over the Inca
Empire, creating Lima, Peru as
           the capital.
REASONS FOR SPANISH SUCCESS:



           Horses
     Gunpowder weapons
   Divide &Conquer Tactics
     Smallpox & Measles
  GROUP                          CHARACTERISTICS



            built sites with pyramids, mounds, and ball courts
Olmec       created basalt sculptures
            used slash-and-burn agriculture techniques



           used a refined calendar
Mayan      possessed a number system
           complex writing and glyphs used



Aztec      created a trading society that conquered area Indians
           had strict class system


          created society based on conquest and expansion
Inca      built complex cities and roads
       AZTEC (MEXICA) RESEARCH
FOR HOMEWORK RESEARCH THE FOLLOWING:


         Montezuma I
     An Aztec High Priest
       An Eagle Warrior
       A peasant woman
        A Jaguar Warrior
         An Aztec boy
         An Aztec girl
      A Tlacopan Warrior
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