Gracie Ancient India

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					ANCIENT
 INDIA
 2500 B.C.
 Things You Need To Know
    About Ancient India
• About the river system and the physical
  setting
• About the Aryan invasions
• About Hinduism and Brahmanism
• About the caste system
• About Buddha
• About the Maurya empire
• About Emperor Asoka
   Ancient India Geography
India is a subcontinent, separated by the rest of the
  continent by the Himalayas. India can be divided in
  two, the northern plains, a flat low plain and the
  Deccan, a land with many hills. Up in northwest
  India is the Thar Desert. The Himalayas provided
  natural protection from northern invasions. The
  Indian Ocean and the Arabian Sea provided
  protection for the west and the east.
        The River System
The main river in Ancient India was the
 Indus River. The Indus River deposited
 fertile soil during annual flooding. The
 source of the Indus River is in the
 Himalayas.
       The Aryan Invasions
• At about 1500 BC the Aryans began to migrate
  into India from the dry plains near the black sea.
  Nobody really knew who they were, their name
  meant noble, but scientists believe that they were
  warriors and herders. They also do not know why
  they left their homeland, but it may have been
  because of overpopulation. They moved into
  Mesopotamia, then across Persia, and then decided
  to settle on the Punjab plain which is now in
  Pakistan. At first they were herders but over time
  they adapted into farmers and became more and
  more like the Indian people.
        The Maurya Empire
• Chandugragupta Maurya ordered land to be cleared
  and swamps drained to help out farmers, he improved
  the roads, and he did this by using taxes. This helped
  out the richer people but the common people suffered,
  because they could not pay them. He was very mean, but
  this helped him expand his empire, this made the
  overworked and overtaxed people thought of him as a
  cruel man. Knowing that people hated him, he feared he
  was in danger, and he was very cautious, he slept in
  different rooms each night, and he had his servants
  taste his food first for poison. He had a grandchild who
  became one of the greatest rulers of India, his name was
  Asoka.
          Emperor Asoka
• As a young ruler he was very cruel, but after he
  conquered Kalinga in 261 BC his life changed, he
  began to hate violence and he became a Buddhist.
  He then made Buddhism the state religion and
  built Buddhist temples and sent out missionaries.
  Asoka had commands carved into stone pillars and
  they were posted all across his empire. Some
  pillars still stand today.
       The Caste System
• The Aryan society was divided into four
  classes, or varnas. The highest are
  Brahmans, priests, second is Kshatriyas,
  warriors, third is Vaishyas, farmers,
  merchants, and craftsmen, fourth, the
  lowest is Shudras, they are servants or
  slaves.
                         1st BRAHMAN
                         2nd KSHATRIYAS
                         3rd VAISHYAS
                         4th SHUDRAS
     The Caste System cont.
The cast system determined many things about how
 people live, it determines their job, what they eat,
 what they wear, where they live, and who they
 marry. People are born into their caste, and have it
 for life. The Indian legend is that the castes
 emerged from body parts of Purusha the first
 human being.
 BRAHMANS: Head, they perform religious ceremonies, and offer
 sacrifices to the god. Passed down info through WORD.
 KSHATRYAS: Arms, took charge of the army and government.
 Use arms to FIGHT.
 VAISHYAS: Legs, merchants, farmers, and craftsmen. They
 traded, tended cattle, lent money, like a bank, and farmed. Much
 TRAVEL.
 SHUDRAS: Feet, very poor and uneducated. On their FEET
 begging.
              BRAHMA           SHIVA

                Hinduism
• Hinduism evolved from the Aryans beliefs and
  from those of the people of India. The most
  important deities, or gods, in Hinduism were
  Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. The most important
  thing in Hinduism is how you act to other living
  things and what you do. They believe that each
  living thing has a soul that is reincarnated into
  another thing. Dharma, religious duty, and
  Karma, actions, decide the new caste they are
  reincarnated into, if you do well at both
  you move up and not so good you move
  down.
                                       VISHNU
              Buddhism
• Buddhism was introduced Siddhartha
  Gautama, a prince who believed in Hinduism
  except if you are good and pure you no longer
  have to go through the cycle of reincarnation.
  These ideas eventually formed into Buddhism.
  One day Siddhartha went in the shade of a tree
  and meditated on the idea of suffering and once
  he found what he wanted, became Buddha.
            Buddhism cont.
• Buddha spread his teachings to northern India
  with followers becoming monks. Each monk
  meditated for multiple hours every day. The first
  written versions of Buddha’s teachings were made
  around 200 and 100 BC. Buddha’s teachings were
  centered around the Four Noble Truths. #1 said
  that suffering is part of life. #2 says that wanting
  things is the root of suffering. #3 says becoming
  wise and not wanting things takes away suffering.
  #4 is a guide to living with the eightfold path.
                Fun Facts!
• The city Harappa was rebuilt 6 times due to
  flooding
• The game chess began in India
• Ancient Indians invented the number system and
  zero
• They used anesthesia
• No slavery was known of
• They were the first ones to calculate pi
• It held the worlds first university
• They came up with navigation

				
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posted:2/9/2012
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