The Rise Of Indian Nationalism by 259wUL

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									THE RISE OF INDIAN
NATIONALISM
 CAUSES OF THE NATIONALISM

 Indians lacked equal job
  opportunities

 Were not allowed to advance to
 high positions in government
 service or officers in the army
         SEPOY MUTINY

 Sepoy- indian natives

 Rebellion of the Indians against
 the policies of the British

 The start of the rising of the
 nationalism
  INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS

 Also known as the congress party
 Formed in 1885
 Founded by Indian lawyers and
  professionals
 A major political party in India

 Aim is to debate about political and
  economic reforms and ways for
 Indians to achieve equal status for
 the British
   ALL INDIA MUSLIM LEAGUE
 Sought to give the Muslims a
  voice in political affairs
 basically established to protect
  and advance the Muslim interests
  and to combat the growing
  influence of the Indian National
  Congress.
 Established by
       MORLEY-MINTO REFORMS
 Established by Lord Morley and Lord
  Minto
 Aimed to stop the violence by
  enlarging the viceroy’s executive
  council to include an Indian
 Allowed Indians to elect
  representatives to the provincial
  legislative councils
          ROWLATT ACTS

 Passed by the British to control
  the protests in India
 Attempted to restrict the political
  liberties and rights of Indians
       ARMITSAR MASSACRE

 Massacre of unarmed supporters of
  Indian self-government by British
  troops in the city of Amritsar, Punjab
 Killed 400 people and wounded about
  1,200
 Turning point for the Indians
MONTAGUE-CHELMSFORD REFORMS

 Passed in late 1919 but went into full
  effect in 1921
 Increased the powers of the provincial
  legislative councils
 The central legislative council was
  replaced by a legislature with most of
  its members elected
         MOHANDAS GANDHI
 Father of Indian independence
 Leader of India’s struggle for freedom
 Called “Mahatma” – great soul for his
  saintly virtues
 Strategy of non- violent non-
  cooperation
   aimed at bringing the government to a
   stand still, by withdrawing every support
   to administration
   surrender of titles, resignation from nominated
    seats in local government bodies, boycott of
    government educational institutions, law courts
    and foreign goods.
 Was jailed during World War II by the British
  to stop protests
 Was assassinated by an Indian nationalist
  because he thought that he was betraying
  the Hindus
     INDIAN INDEPENDENCE

 Aug. 14, 1947- declaration of
  Pakistan as a separate nation
 Aug. 15, 1947- India became an
  independent nation.
 Granted by Clement Atlee of the
 British government after World
 War II
      Indian Independence act 1947

 Two independent dominions, India and Pakistan
  shall be set up in India .
 The date of setting up of dominions was fixed as
  fifteenth of August 1947.
 The responsibility as well as suzerainty of the
  government of United Kingdom shall cease on
  fifteenth of August 1947.
 That all Indian princely states shall be released from
  their official commitments and treaty relationships
  with the British Empire, and will be free to join
  either dominion.
 Both Dominions will be completely self-governing in
  their internal affairs, foreign affairs and national
  security, but the British monarch will continue to be
  their head of state, represented by the Governor-
  General of India and a new Governor-General of
  Pakistan. Both Dominions shall convene their
  Constituent Assemblies and write their respective
  constitutions.
 Both Dominions will be members of the British
  Commonwealth, but free to leave whenever
  they please.
 The British monarch shall be permitted to
  remove the title of Emperor of India from the
  Royal Style and Titles. King George VI
  subsequently removed the title by Order in
  council on June 22, 1948.
          INDO-PAKISTAN WARS
 First Indo-Pakistan war
   Cause by the territorial dispute over
    Kashmir
   Stopped when the united nations peace
    negotiations brought a ceasefire and called
    for a plebiscite to give the local people the
    right to decide whether to join India or
    Pakistan
   India occupied two thirds and Pakistan
    occupied one third
 Second Indo-Pakistan war
  Started when Pakistan renewed its claim to
   Kashmir
  Both India and Pakistan sent troops to that
   started the fighting
  Stopped when the United Nations ordered
   ceasefire and led to the signing of the
   Tashkent declaration
    Tashkent declaration- declares that both India
     and Pakistan should evacuate their forces in
     Kashmir
 Third Indo-Pakistan war
  Lasted from Dec. 3-16, 1971
  Caused by India's support of the
   revolution of the Bengali people of
   East Pakistan against west Pakistan
  Resulted in the creation of Bangladesh
   in east Pakistan
        INDIAN REPUBLIC

 India became a parliamentary
  democracy
 Has a president as the ceremonial
  head of state
 a prime minister as the real head
 of the government
                     RULERS
 Jawaharlal Nehru
  First and longest prime minister of India
  Chose a neutral or non aligned foreign policy
  Helped to establish the Afro-Asian
   Conference of Non-Aligned Nations
  One of the champions of decolonization
    Recovered French enclaves from France such as
     Pondicherry and Goa from Portugal
  Died on May 27, 1964
 Mrs. Indira Gandhi

  Talented daughter of Nehru
  First woman prime minister of India
  Ruled India for 14 years interrupted by
   three year rule of Morarji Desai
  Her style of leadership was dictatorial
 Began the mass sterilization of males
  to solve the population problem in
  India
 Failed to bring peace among the Sikhs
  and Hindus
 Assassinated by two of her
  bodyguards who were Sikhs fanatics
 Rajiv Gandhi

  Succeeded his mother as a prime
   minister
  Dictatorial style of leadership
  Achievements:
    Brought india into a new information age
     through the development of technologies
    Offered Pakistan ‘s President Zia an
     agreement not to attack each other’s
     territory which was accepted by
     Pakistan
    Made an agreement with Sri Lankan
     president Junius Jayewardene to end
     the Tamil separatist movement
 Downfall:
  Assassinated during an election
   campaign
PAKISTAN
 Geography
    Capital: Islamabad
    Largest city: Karachi
    Cultural center: Lahore
    Area: 803, 943 sq. km.
    Lies halfway between India and the middle east
    Mountain ranges: Himalayas, Karakorams, and Hindu Kash
    Exports: cotton, rice, wheat and corn, textiles, oil, and
    chromite
   Has one of the world’s largest irrigation system
 People
   Islamic government
   President must be a Muslim
   85% Muslim and the rest Hindus, Parsees, etc.
  HISTORY
 Independence
  Aug. 14, 1947
  Became an Islamic republic and follows
   Muslim(Sharah) laws
  The idea of its separation from India was
   originally from the post-philosopher Sir
   Mohammed Iqbal that was adopted by the
   Muslim league led by Mohammed Ali
   Jinnah (father of Paklistan Independence)
 Reasons for a separate Muslim
 state:

 The Muslims were outnumbered by
  India, hence they needed a state of their
  own
 The Muslims must have their own
  country where they can develop, live in
  peace, and worship Allah
  RULERS
 Ayub Khan
  Declared a martial law and declared himself as
   the preisdent
    Achievements:
     Restored peace and order
     Dismissed corrupt officials
     Introduced land reforms and “basic democracies”
  Downfall:
    Bloody anti government riots led to his
     resignation
 Zulfikar Ali Bhutto

  Leader of west Pakistan
  Chairman of Pakistan People’s Party
  Achievements:
    Negotiated peace with India and
     got back the lost territories during
     the Indo-Pakistan war of 1971
   Successfully negotiated the
    repatriation of 90,000 prisoners from
    India
   Rehabilitated the economy
 Downfall:
   Widespread of riots
   Arrested during the coup d’etat and
    was jailed and charged for killing the
    father of his opponent that led to his
    sentence to death
 Zia-ul-Haq
  Declared himself as president on Sept.
   16, 1978
  Achievements:
    Restored partial democracy
    Lifted martial law
  Downfall:
    Return of Bhutto’s daughter
    Death in a plane crash
 Benazir Bhutto
   Only woman head of state of a Muslim
    Country
   Made the agreement with Gandhi of India
    to not attack each others country
   Became a prime minister during the 90’s
   Downfall:
     Was exiled due to the violent strikes and
      racial clashes
 Replaced by general Pervez Musharraf
BANGLADESH
 Geography
  Formerly east pakistan
  Capital: Dacca
  Area: 143,998 sq. km.
  One of the poorest countries
 People
  Population: 125 million
  90%muslims the rest are Hindus, Buddhists
   an pagan tribes
    History
 Independence
   Differences from west Pakistan that led to the
    separation:
     Geographical Disunity
     Cultural Differences
     Economic grievances
 Totally separated from Pakistan through the third
  Indo Pakistan war
Sheik Mujibar Rahman

 First prime minister of The Republic of
  Bangladesh
 Father of Bangladesh Independence
 Assassinated in a military coup d‘etat by
  young army officers

								
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