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CRANIAL NERVES

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CRANIAL NERVES Powered By Docstoc
					CRANIAL NERVES

 DR VINIT K ASHOK
 ADJUNCT FACULTY
                CRANIAL NERVES
•   NERVES COMING OUT/ GOING INTO THE     •   I – OLFACTORY
    BRAIN                                 •   II- OPTIC
•   TOTAL -12 NUMBERED IN ROMAN           •   III-OCCULOMOTOR
    NUMERICALS( I-XII)                    •   IV-TROCHLEAR
•   CARRY IMPULSES TO AND FROM THE        •   V-TRIGEMINAL( 3 DIVISIONS)
    BRAIN
                                          •   VI –ABDUCENS
•   EXIT OR ENTER THE SKULL THROUGH
    OPENINGS IN THE SKULL                 •   VII-FACIAL
•   I AND 11 ARE ATTACHED TO THE          •   VIII-VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR
    FOREBRAIN                             •   IX-GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL
•   III TO XII ARE ATTACHED TO THE BAIN   •   X-VAGUS
    STEM                                  •   XI-ACCESSORY
•   ALL SUPPLY THE STRUCTURES OF THE      •   XII-HYPOGLOSSAL
    HAED AND NECK EXCEPT THE X(           •   “OH OH OH TO TOUCH AND FEELVERY
    VAGUS) ----VAGABOND -----WANDERS          GOOD VELVET AH
    TO THE ABDOMEN
FORAMINA /OPENINGS FOR THE
     CRANIAL NERVES
•    I –OLFACTORY FORAMINA
•    II-OPTIC FORAMEN
•    III- SUPERIOR ORBITAL FISSURE
•    IV-SUPERIOR ORBITAL FISSURE
•    V- 3 DIVISIONS
  A) OPTHALMIC- SUPERIOR ORBITAL FISSURE
  B) MAXIALLRY-FORAMEN ROTUNDUM
  C) MANDIBULAR- FORAMEN OVALE
•    VI-INFERIOR ORBITAL FISSURE
•    VII- ENTERS THE INT ACCOUSTIC MEATUS---- EXITS THE SKULL THROUGH THE
     STYLOMASTOID FORAMEN
•    VIII- INT ACCOUSTIC MEATUS
•    IX-JUGULAR FORAMEN
•    X-JUGULAR FORAMEN
•    XI- JUGULR FORAMEN
•    XII-HYPOGLOSSAL CANAL
•   I-OLFACTORY NERVE-SENSORY NERVES OF SMELL
•   II - OPTIC NERVE-SENSORY NERVE OF VISION
•   III- OCCULOMOTOR-( EYE MOVER)-INNERVATES 4 EXTRINSIC MUSCLES OF THE
    EYEBALL
•   1V- TROCLEAR NERVE- ( MEANS PULLEY) –SUPPLIES THE SUPERIOR OBLIQUE MUSCLE
    OF THE EYEBALL
•   V-TRIGEMINAL ( 3 FOLD) –THIS NERVE HAS 3 BRANCHES. SENSORY INNERVATION TO
    THE FACE AND MOTOR TO MUSCLES THAT HELP US CHEW( MASTICATE)
•   VI-ABDUCENS NERVE- IT SUPPLIES THE MUSCLE OF THE EYEBALL THAT ABDUCTS THE
    EYE( LATERAL RECTUS)
•   VII-FACIAL NERVE-INNERVATES MUSCLES OF FACIAL EXPRESSION
•   VIII-VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR-SENSORY NERVE OF HEARING AND EQUILIBRIUM
•   IX-GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE-( MEANS TONGUE AND PHARYNX), STRUCTURES THIS
    NERVE INNERVATES
•   X-VAGUS ( WANDERER)-INNERVATES THE STRUCTURES IN THE THORAX AND
    ABDOMEN
•   XI-ACCESSORY- ( ACCESSORY TO THE VAGUS)-SUPPLIES THE TRAPEZIUS AND
    STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID
•   XII-HYPOGLOSSAL( BELOW THE TONGUE)-RUNS INFERIOR TO THE TONGUE AND
    SUPPLIES THE TONGUE MUSCLES
    SENSORY/MOTOR NERVE
• CRANIAL NERVES --- PURELY
  SENSORY / MOTOR / MIXED
 SENSORY NERVE- RECEPTORS----
  GENARAL SENSATIONS( TOUCH,
  PAIN TEMP,PRESSURE,) SPECIAL --
  - SMELL,VISION, HEARING,
  EQUILIBRIUM.---CRANIAL NERVE—
  BRAIN.( I, II AND VIII) ( AFFERENT
  IMPULSES)
 MOTOR NERVE-IMPULSE FROM
  THE BRAIN----CRANIAL NERVE ----
  ACTION----( MUSCLE/GLAND)----
  EFFERENT IMPULSES( III,IV,VI,XI
  AND XII)
 MIXED ( BOTH TYPE OF FIBRES)
                     NERVES
•   MOTOR ( TYPES)            •    SENSORY
•   1. VISCERAL MOTOR         1.VISCERAL SENSORY
-   ( MOTOR NERVE SUPPLY TO   A) SPECIAL—TASTE
    THE VISCERA AND GLANDS)   B) GENERAL---VISCERA—
2. BRANCHIAL MOTOR                 PAIN,TOUCH,PRESSURE,
MOTOR NERVE SUPPLY OF THE          TEMP
    BRANCHIAL ARCH            2.SOMATIC SENSORY
    MUSCULATURE               A) SPECIAL- SMELL, VISION
3. SOMATIC MOTOR                   HEARING
MOTOR SUPPLY TO ALL OTHER     B) GENERAL—TOCH ,PAIN
    SKELETAL MUSCLES               PRESSURE FROM THE
                                   LIMBS, BODY WALL
     CRANIAL NERVES WITH
   PARASYMPATHETIC FIBRES
•     III- OCCULOMOTOR
-1. CONTRICTOR PUPILLAE
2. CILIARIS- CHANGES THE SHAPE OF THE LENS

•    VII- FACIAL
1.   TEAR , NASAL AND PALTINE GLANDS
2.   SUBMANDIBULAR AND SUBLINGUAL GLANDS
•    IX- GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL
1.   PAROTID GLAND
 X- VAGUS
1. THORACIC AND ABDOMINAL VISCERA
               SPECIAL SENSES
                   VISION
•    ORGAN- EYE
•    1/6 TH SEEN OUTSIDE REST
     INSIDE---ORBITAL CAVITY(
     FAT)
•    ACCESSORY STRUCTURES
1.   Eyebrows
2.   EYELIDS
3.   CONJUNCTIVA
4.   LACRIMAL APPARATUS
5.   EXTRINSIC MUSCLES
EXTERNAL ANATOMY
         CLINICAL CONDITIONS
•   CHALAZION-INFECTION OF THE
    TARSAL GALNDS( MEBOMIAN )
•   STY- INFECTION OF THE CIALIARY
    GLANDS
•   CONJUNCTIVITIS- ( PINK EYE) ---
    INFLAMMANTION OF ?
LACRIMAL APPARATUS
EXTRINSIC MUSCLES OF THE
           EYE
EXTRINSIC MUSCLES
    ANATOMY OF THE EYEBALL
•    FUNCTIONS
•    A) PROTECTS AND SUPPORTS THE
     DELICATE PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS
•    B)GATHERS,FOCUSES AND
                                                       TUNICS
     PROCESSES LIGHT INTO PRECISE
     IMAGES
PARTS
                                         FIBROUS            VASCULAR       SENSORY
1.    ANTERIOR POLE
2.    POSTERIOR POLE
3.    TUNICS( EXTERNAL WALL)        SCLERA            CHORIOD              RETINA
4.    HUMORS( FLUID ) INSIDE
5.    LENS
                                             CORNEA         CILIARY BODY



                                                                       IRIS
• FIBROUS TUNIC(OUTERMOST)
• - DENSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE( PROTECTION, MUSCLES
    INSERTED)
•   POSTERIOR 5/6TH ( SCLERA) –WHITE OF THE EYE
•   ANTERIOR 1/6TH TRANSPARENT –CORNEA( AVASCULAR)
•   LIMBUS
•   SCLERAL VENOUS SINUS( DRAINS AQUEOUS HUMOR)
• VASCULAR TUNIC( MIDDLE)
• CHOROID, CILIARY BODT AND IRIS
• CHOROID--- VASCULAR , PIGMENTED( LIGHT IS NOT
  SCATTERED)
• CILIARY BODY---CILIARY MUSCLE----CIRIARY PROCESSES
• IRIS---( COLOR OF THE EYE)----CENTRAL OPENING ---PUPIL
INTERNAL ANATOMY
 SAGITTAL SECTION
INTERNAL ANATOMY
                         RETINA
                                 • SENSORY(
                         LIGHT
                                 • INNERMOST)
                                 •   RETINA( MOST IMPORTANT)
       PHOTORECEPTOR             •   OUTER ---PIGMENTED(
                                     PREVENTS LIGHT
                                     SCATTERING)
         BIPOLAR CELLS
                                 •   INNER---NEURAL ( LIGHT
                                     SENSITIVE PHOTORECEPTOR
        GANGLION CELLS               CELLS, BIPOLAR AND GANLION
                                     CELLS
OPTIC NERVE                      •   PHOTORECTORS----RODS/
                                     CONES
         BRAIN
OPTIC NERVE
                   EAR
                    •   RECEPTOR ORGAN FOR
                        HEARING AND EQUILIBRIUM
                    •   OUTER/ MIDDLE EAR------
     SOUND WAVES        HEARING
                    •   INNER EAR----
                        HEARING/EQUILIBRIUM
EAR DRUM
                    •   OUTER EAR
                    •   PINNA---AURICLE( ELASTIC
OSSICLES                CARTILGE,EXCEPT—LOBULE)
                    •   EXT ACOUSTIC MEATUS—
                        2.5MM TUBE---AURICLE----EAR
INNER EAR
                        DRUM( EAR WAX)
                    •   EAR DRUM---TYMPANIC
                        MEMBRANE---BOUNDARY
                        BETWEEN OUTER AND MIDDLE
                        EAR
              MIDDLE EAR
• ALSO CALLED TYMPANIC CAVITY
• AIR FILLED / INSIDE THE PETROUS TEMPORAL
• LATERAL BOUNDARY—TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, MEDIAL
   BOUNDARY—BONE SEPERATING IT FROM THE MIDDLE EAR
SUPERIOR BOUNDARY-PETROUS TEMPORAL
POSTERIOR WALL—MASTOIOID ANTRUM
INFERIOR BOUNDARY----BONE/IJV
ANTERIOR BOUNDARY-BEHIND ICA
• MEDIAL WALL---OVAL AND ROUND WINDOW
• PHARYNGOTYMPANIC TUBE CONNECTS IT TO THE
   NASOPHARYNX
• OSSICLE ARE PRESENT
• 2 MUSCLES- STAPEDIUS/ TENSOR TYMPANI
                   INNER EAR
•   ALSO CALLED LABYRINTH(
    MAZE LIKE)
•   BONY                                 SEMICIRCULAR CANALS
    LABYRINTH/MEMBRANOUS
    LABYRINTH
                                   VESTIBULE         SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS
•   BONY---PETROUS TEMPORAL--
    --SEMICIRCULAR CANALS,
    VESTIBULE AND COCHLEA----   UTRICLE/SACCULE
    PERILYMPH
•   MEMBRANOUS –SMICIRCULAR
                                  EQUILIBRIUM
    DUCTS,UTRICLE, SACCULE,
    COCHLEAR DUCT
            HEARING


  COCHLEA


COCHLEAR DUCT

				
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