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					From Government Alive! Power, Politics, and You




                  Chapter 13                      What qualities do modern presidents need                                                                                      Speaking of Politics
                                                  to fulfill their many roles?
                                                                                                                Chief                                                         reprieve

                                                                                                                Executives                                                    A postponement of punishment for a
                                                                                                                                                                              crime. A person convicted of a capital
                                                                                                                                                                              crime, for example, may receive a
                                                                                                                                                                              reprieve from execution.

                                                                                                                and                                                           pardon
                                                                                                                                                                              A decree that frees a person from


                                                                                                                Bureaucracies
                                                                                                                                                                              punishment for a crime. A pardon
                                                                                                                                                                              is often granted when a criminal
                                                                                                                                                                              sentence is considered unjust.

                                                                                                                                                                              cabinet
                                                                                                                                                                              The heads of the executive depart-
                                                                                                                                                                              ments. The president appoints mem-
                                                                                                                ■ 13.1 Introduction                                           bers of the cabinet.

                                                                                                                                                                              executive order
                                                                                                                April 28, 1975, was a day like many others for Presi-         A rule or regulation issued by a
                                                                                                                dent Gerald Ford. He rose early and had his break-            president or governor that has the
                                                                                                                fast. By 7:30 A.M., he was hard at work in the Oval           force of law.
                                                                                                                Office. He met with advisers and other officials that
                                                                                                                morning and later gave a speech at the annual meet-           bureaucracy
                                                                                                                ing of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce.                          A large, complex organization that
                                                                                                                    More appointments filled Ford’s afternoon                 functions under uniform rules and
                                                                                                                                                                              procedures. The many workers in a
                                                                                                                schedule, including a brief photo opportunity with            government bureaucracy carry out the
                                                                                                                Lisa Lyon, the Miss National Teenager of 1974–1975.           daily business of that government.
                                                                                                                Later the president attended a meeting on the
                                                                                                                economy and energy policy in the White House                  pocket veto
                                                                                                                Cabinet Room.                                                 The automatic killing of a bill by
                                                                                                                    But no day, however typical, is ordinary for the          refusing to either sign it or veto it.
                                                                                                                president of the United States. In the spring of 1975,        A pocket veto can occur only in the
                                                                                                                                                                              final days of a congressional session,
                                                                                                                the Vietnam War was entering its final days. The              as a president must normally act on a
                                                                                                                communist forces of North Vietnam were advancing              bill within 10 days or it becomes law.
                                                                                                                on Saigon, the capital of U.S.-backed South Vietnam.
                                                                                                                It was clear that South Vietnam could fall at any mo-         administration
                                                                                                                ment. When that happened, the remaining Ameri-                The president, along with his or
                                                                                                                cans in Saigon would have to evacuate the city.               her personal staff and advisers. The
                                                                                                                    Just after 7:00 P.M., President Ford learned that         term can also refer to a president’s
                                                                                                                                                                              time in office.
                                                                                                                the North Vietnamese were shelling the U.S. air base
                                                                                                                at Saigon, making evacuation by plane impossible.             whistle-blower
                                                                                                                He convened a meeting of the National Security                An employee or former employee
                                                                                                                Council to discuss the unfolding crisis.                      who exposes wrongdoing within an
                                                                                                                                                                              organization in the hope of stopping it.

                                                                                                                U.S. presidents as businessmen, diplomats, public speakers,
                                                                                                                and model citizens


       240                                                                                                                                                                                                         241

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       During the Vietnam                                                                                                                          Most state and local governments set less strin-        Since then, 29 more women have been elected to be
       evacuation crisis, President                                                                                                            gent requirements for their chief executives. In            the chief executives of their states or the Common-
       Gerald Ford met repeatedly
       with his close advisers.
                                                                                                                                               Kentucky, for example, candidates for governor              wealth of Puerto Rico. In 2007, a record 9 of the
       Here he is shown behind                                                                                                                 need only be 30 years old and must have lived in the        50 state governors were women. At the same time,
       his desk in the Oval Office                                                                                                              state for 6 years. California has no minimum age or         female mayors led approximately 16 percent of
       with Secretary of State                                                                                                                 residency requirements. In that state, candidates for       American cities with populations greater than 30,000.
       Henry Kissinger (left) and
                                                                                                                                               governor must simply be U.S. citizens and registered            Ethnic minorities have also had increasing suc-
       Vice President Nelson
       Rockefeller (center).                                                                                                                   voters. In contrast to presidential requirements, such      cess in gaining chief executive positions. Only two
                                                                                                                                               citizenship can be by birth or naturalization. That is      African Americans—Douglas Wilder of Virginia
                                                                                                                                               why Austrian-born Arnold Schwarzenegger was able            and Deval Patrick of Massachusetts—have served as
                                                                                                                                               to become the governor of California but cannot be          governor. But many other blacks have been elected
                                                                                                                                               president of the United States.                             mayor in large cities, such as New York, Philadel-
                                                                                                                                                   Requirements for mayors are even looser. Many           phia, Detroit, and Washington, D.C. Bill Richardson,
                                                                                                                                               towns and cities require only that mayors be legal          a Latino, has served as governor of New Mexico, and
                                                                                                                                               adults. Several high school seniors and college stu-        in 2005, Antonio Villaraigosa became the first Latino
                                                                                                                                               dents have served as mayors. For example, in 2005,          mayor of Los Angeles in more than a century. Gary
                                                                                                                                               Michael Sessions was elected mayor of Hillsdale,            Locke, an Asian American, served as governor of the
                                                                                                                                               Michigan, when he was just 18.                              state of Washington from 1997 to 2005.
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Religious affiliation can be another informal
                                                                                                                                               Informal Qualifications: Experience, Education,              qualification, especially for presidential candidates.
           By 11:30    the shelling had stopped. But there
                      P.M.,                                     ■ 13.2 Chief Executives: Mayors,                                               and Other Factors                                           Almost all U.S. presidents have been Protestant.
       was another problem, as Ford later wrote about in          Governors, and Presidents                                                    Like lawmakers, chief executives must also satisfy
       his autobiography:                                                                                                                      certain informal qualifications for office. These are
                                                                The president is the national government’s chief                               traits that voters expect in their political leaders. The
           Refugees were streaming out onto the airport’s
                                                                executive, the top elected official in charge of enforc-                       graph on this page indicates some of the things that          What Americans Want to Know About
           runways, and our planes couldn’t land. The
                                                                ing laws and carrying out government policy. State                             Americans wanted to know about their presidential             Presidential Candidates
           situation there was clearly out of control. The
                                                                and local governments also have chief executives. In                           candidates in 2004.
           only option left was to remove the remaining                                                                                                                                                      In 2004, the Pew Research Center asked Americans to rank
                                                                the states, this official is the governor. At the local                             Typically, chief executives have backgrounds
           Americans, and as many South Vietnamese as                                                                                                                                                        six things they wanted to know about their presidential
                                                                level, it is usually a mayor.                                                  in business, law, or public service. Most are well
           possible, by helicopter from the roof of the U.S.                                                                                                                                                 candidates. A candidate’s reputation for honesty ranked at
                                                                                                                                               educated. Nearly three-quarters of all presidents             the top, while military background came in last.
           embassy in Saigon. Choppers were standing by
                                                                Formal Qualifications: Age, Citizenship,                                        have earned college degrees. Most have worked
           on the decks of U.S. Navy ships steaming off the                                                                                                                                                  Percentage who say it is very important
                                                                and Residency                                                                  their way up the political ladder by holding other
           coast, and just before midnight I ordered the                                                                                                                                                     to know a candidate’s . . .
                                                                Adlai Stevenson, who ran for president twice in the                            elective offices.
           final evacuation. Over the next sixteen hours
                                                                1950s, once said, “In America, anyone can become                                    There are exceptions, however. Abraham Lincoln,                                                88%
           we managed to rescue 6,500 U.S. and South
                                                                president.” That is not quite true. Any candidate                              one of this country’s most admired presidents, had
           Vietnamese personnel without sustaining sig-
                                                                seeking the presidency must satisfy certain qualifica-                         little formal schooling. Although he had served as
           nificant casualties.                                                                                                                                                                                                                             71%
                                                                tions laid down in the Constitution. The president                             an Illinois legislator and a member of Congress,
                   —A Time to Heal: The Autobiography
                                                                must be a native-born citizen, be at least 35 years of                         he had lost several political races before winning
                                   of Gerald R. Ford, 1979                                                                                                                                                                           21%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        64%
                                                                age, and have lived in the country for at least 14 years.                      the presidency.                                                                             27%
       With the crisis resolved, Ford retired to his upstairs       The Twenty-second Amendment, ratified in 1951,                                  Historically, most chief executives have been
       White House residence. It was 12:05 in the morning.      added another rule: no one who has been elected                                white, male, and from the middle or upper class.             military background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     churchgoing habits                                       39%
           As this day in the life of President Ford illus-     president twice or who has served one full term plus                           As of 2007, those factors still held true for U.S.
       trates, the job of president involves many tasks and                                                                                                                                                             reputation for honesty
                                                                more than half of another term can seek the office                             presidents. Increasingly, however, chief executives
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ability to connect with people
       responsibilities. Some are routine, while others are     again. This amendment formalized the custom of                                 in states and cities have come to represent a broader
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          voting record or position on issues
       immensely challenging. All require the skills of an      a two-term president. This custom, established                                 spectrum of the American population.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       major campaign contributors
       effective leader. This chapter examines the qualities    by George Washington, was broken only once, by                                      Women have made significant strides at both
       necessary in chief executives, along with the main       four-term president Franklin Roosevelt, prior to                               state and local levels. The first female governor,
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Source: Pew Research Center for the People and the Press.
       features of the bureaucracies they run.                  ratification of the amendment.                                                 Nellie Tayloe Ross, was elected in Wyoming in 1924.

       242 Unit 5 The Executive Branch                                                                                                                                                                                  Chapter 13 Chief Executives and Bureaucracies 243


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       Until John F. Kennedy’s election in 1961, it was as-                                                                                                                                                          officer of wrongdoing. The trial is then held in the     A list of 135 candidates followed this second ques-




                                                                                                                                       © 2007 Cotham from cartoonbank.com. All Rights Reserved.
       sumed that a Catholic candidate could never win the                                                                                                                                                           Senate. Two-thirds of the senators must find the of-     tion. If a majority of voters answered “yes” to the
       presidency. Kennedy succeeded, in part, by promis-                                                                                                                                                            ficial guilty to remove that person from office.         first question, then a plurality of votes would be
       ing to keep his religious and political beliefs separate.                                                                                                                                                         The House has impeached only two presidents—         enough to select the governor’s replacement. In fact,
       “I am not the Catholic candidate for president,” he                                                                                                                                                           Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton—and the Senate           a majority did vote to remove Davis, and a plurality
       declared. “I am the Democratic Party’s candidate for                                                                                                                                                          found neither guilty. Richard Nixon resigned rather      of 49 percent voted to install former actor Arnold
       president, who happens also to be a Catholic.” Even                                                                                                                                                           than face impeachment during the Watergate scandal.      Schwarzenegger as the new governor.
       today, a non-Protestant candidate would likely face                                                                                                                                                               But what if citizens are simply unhappy with the         Many chief executives are also subject to term
       an uphill battle in winning the presidency.                                                                                                                                                                   job their chief executive is doing? For presidents,      limits. As noted previously, presidents are restricted
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     there is no provision for midterm removal based on       to no more than two terms in office. Many states and
       Gaining Office: Election and Succession                                                                                                                                                                        job performance. Many states and cities, however, do     cities also set term limits on their governors and
       Most chief executives, including governors and                                                                                                                                                                have procedures by which voters can order a recall of    mayors. In most cases, governors are held to two
       mayors, are elected by popular vote. The president,                                                                                                                                                           elected officials. Only two states—North Dakota and      consecutive terms in office. However, in some states,
       in contrast, is chosen by the Electoral College, based                                                                                                                                                        California—have ever removed a governor through a        they may run for reelection four years after their
       on the popular vote count in each state.                                                                                                                                                                      recall election.                                         last term.
           In some state and local elections, the candidate                                                                                                                                                              The California recall took place in 2003. Gover-         The power of incumbency in winning reelection
       who wins a plurality of the vote is declared the win-                                                                                                                                                         nor Gray Davis had just been reelected, but he soon      is not as strong for chief executives as it is for legisla-
       ner. In other states and cities, however, the candidate                “It worries me that he just wants to be                                                                                                faced widespread discontent over his handling of the     tors. That may be because chief executives serve as
                                                                                vice president when he grows up.”
       must receive a majority of the votes cast to win. If                                                                                                                                                          state budget. Citizens petitioned for a recall and got   a “lightning rod” for voter discontent. When voters
       that does not happen, the top two candidates must                                                                                                                                                             enough signatures to hold a special election. The        are dissatisfied with government, they often blame
                                                                   The vice president holds little formal power under the Constitu-
       compete in a runoff election, which is designed to          tion. For that reason, as this cartoon suggests, the position has                                                                                 election ballot asked two questions:                     their chief executive. Since World War II, three
       produce a clear winner.                                     often been regarded as unimportant. Nevertheless, the vice                                                                                            1. Should Governor Davis be removed from             presidents have been defeated in their run for a sec-
           Succession rules for the presidency are spelled         president is first in line to succeed the president, which gives                                                                                           office?                                          ond term: Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, and George
       out in the Constitution and federal law. Should a           holders of this office enormous responsibility.                                                                                                        2. If so, who should replace him?                    H. W. Bush.
       president be unable to complete a four-year term
       because of death, disability, resignation, or removal                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   In 2003, California voters
       from office, the law provides clear guidelines for          responsibilities by the president. For example, Al Gore                                                                                                                                                                                     replaced Governor Gray
       replacing the chief executive.                              headed President Clinton’s National Performance                                                                                                                                                                                             Davis in a recall election.
                                                                   Review, a project dedicated to the task of “creating a                                                                                                                                                                                      The victor, Austrian-born
           The line of succession for the presidency begins
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               actor Arnold Schwarzeneg-
       with the vice president. If the vice president cannot       government that works better and costs less.”                                                                                                                                                                                               ger, promised to solve the
       serve, the next successor is the speaker of the House,         In most states, a lieutenant governor holds a                                                                                                                                                                                            state’s budget crisis. He
       followed by the president pro tempore of the Senate,        comparable position to that of the vice president.                                                                                                                                                                                          went on to win a second,
       and then by the secretary of state. Other cabinet           This official stands in for the governor when neces-                                                                                                                                                                                        full term as governor in 2006.
       members continue the line of succession in a                sary but generally has few formal duties.
       specific order.
           It is often said that the vice president is “a heart-   Staying in Office: Impeachment, Recalls,
       beat away” from the presidency. Indeed, the main            Term Limits, and Incumbency
       job of the vice president is to take over if something      If a president, vice president, or other official in the
       should happen to the president. The Constitution            executive branch is suspected of wrongdoing, that
       gives the vice president almost no formal powers            person may be impeached and removed from office.
       other than this one.                                        The framers made the impeachment process dif-
           For that reason, some politicians have shunned          ficult, however, to prevent it from being used for
       the chance to run for vice president. In 1848, Daniel       frivolous reasons. To be removed, an official must be
       Webster refused to become a vice presidential can-          convicted of “Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes
       didate, saying, “I do not propose to be buried until        and Misdemeanors.”
       I am really dead.” Nevertheless, 14 vice presidents             Impeachment begins in the House of Represen-
       have gone on to become chief executive. In addition,        tatives. A majority of House members must vote to
       recent vice presidents have been given substantial          impeach, or formally accuse, the president or other

       244 Unit 5 The Executive Branch                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Chapter 13 Chief Executives and Bureaucracies 245


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       ■ 13.3 The Growth of Presidential Power                                   The president’s greatest formal power stems from
                                                                             Article II, Section 3 of the Constitution. This section
       The U.S. president today is often viewed as the most                  directs the president to “take Care that the Laws be
       powerful national leader in the world. At one time,                   faithfully executed.” Much as the Elastic Clause gives
       however, the U.S. president held far less power.                      broad powers to Congress, this “Take Care” Clause
       During the 1800s, with a few exceptions, presidents                   grants the president flexible powers to enforce the
       acted mainly as “chief clerks.” Other than carrying                   law and fulfill other executive duties. Not surpris-
       out the will of Congress, they assumed little author-                 ingly, the first president to define how the powers of
       ity other than those powers explicitly granted them                   the office would be used was George Washington.
       by the Constitution.
                                                                             George Washington (1789–1797):
       Powers Granted the President                                          Establishing Precedents
       Under the Constitution                                                As the nation’s first president, Washington knew
       The Constitution spells out the president’s formal                    that his every action would help shape the office for
       powers, which are listed in the diagram below. One                    future generations. “I walk on untrodden ground,” he
       of the most important powers is that of commander                     observed. “There is scarcely any part of my conduct
       in chief of the armed forces. The president, a civilian               which may not hereafter be drawn into precedent.”
       official, maintains control over the military and has                     One precedent involved his formal title. Wash-
       ultimate responsibility for military decisions.                       ington insisted on being addressed simply as “Mr.
           The president also has the power to grant re-                     President,” rather than “Your Highness” or some
       prieves and pardons. A reprieve is a postponement                     other majestic title. Rather than ruling like an aloof
       of punishment, whereas a pardon is a release from                     monarch, Washington traveled the country to main-
                                                                                                                                                                George Washington’s great dignity and sense of authority lent     Andrew Jackson was a powerful president who often battled
       punishment. Presidents may also grant amnesty, or                     tain contact with citizens. He also declined to seek                               power to the office of president. He was immortalized in numer-    with Congress and used his veto power to block legislation.
       a blanket pardon, to people facing prosecution. Pres-                 reelection after serving two terms in office, setting a                            ous statues and sculptures, including this plaster cast made in   Critics called him “King Andrew.” But his use of the veto to
       ident Jimmy Carter, for example, granted amnesty                      precedent that would last until 1940.                                              1785, not long after the Revolutionary War.                       shape public policy set a precedent for future presidents.
       to young men who had fled the country to avoid the                        Washington established the model for how the
       military draft during the Vietnam War.                                executive branch should be run. He appointed the
                                                                                                                                                                first department heads and brought them together                  Andrew Jackson (1829–1837):
                                                                                                                                                                to create the first cabinet. He negotiated the new                Champion of “The People”
                                                                                                                                                                government’s first treaty. He appointed its first                 Like Washington, Andrew Jackson believed in using
          Presidential Powers                                                                                                                                   judges. He received its first ambassadors. He signed              the powers given the president to the fullest. Jackson
         The Constitution lists various presidential powers, either exercised by the president alone or
                                                                                                                                                                its first laws. And he issued the first veto.                     was elected president at a time when many states had
         shared with Congress. The president also has many other powers that have evolved over time                                                                  Perhaps most important, Washington made sure                 eliminated property requirements for voting. As a
         through custom and practice.                                                                                                                           that the president would be respected as a figure of              result, he was the first occupant of the White House
                                                            Powers of the President                                                                             authority. He did this by projecting an air of great              who could claim to have been elected by “the people.”
                                                                                                                                                                dignity and strength. In addition, he took tough ac-                  Once in office, Jackson saw his role as the cham-
                                                                                                                                                                tion when necessary to ensure that acts of Congress               pion of the common people. As such, he often
                                                                                                          Powers Shared with the Senate
                                                                                                                                                                were “faithfully executed.”                                       clashed with Congress. In these power struggles, he
           Sole Powers
           Act as commander in chief of the                                                               Make treaties                                              Washington’s determination to enforce the                    turned to a tool seldom used by earlier presidents:
           armed forces                                                                                                                                         law was tested by the Whiskey Rebellion. In 1791,                 the veto. Previous presidents had vetoed acts of
                                                                                                          Appoint ambassadors, judges, and
           Commission military officers                                                                    high officials                                         Congress passed a law that taxed sales of whiskey.                Congress only when they viewed them as unconsti-
           Grant reprieves and pardons                                                                                                                          Farmers in western Pennsylvania who made whiskey                  tutional. Jackson vetoed legislation simply because
           for most federal offenses
                                                                                                                                                                refused to pay the tax and even attacked federal tax              he disagreed with it or thought it ran counter to the
           Call Congress into special session
                                                                                                                                                                collectors. Washington personally led 13,000 militia              people’s interests.
           Receive foreign ambassadors
           Ensure that laws of Congress are faithfully executed
                                                                                                                                                                troops into western Pennsylvania to put down the                      During his two terms in office, Jackson vetoed 12
           Exercise executive power
                                                                                                                                                                rebellion. In this way, he affirmed the power of the              bills, more than were struck down by all of his prede-
                                                                                       Powers Shared with Congress as a Whole
           Appoint officials to executive office                                         Approve legislation                                                      president as the nation’s chief law enforcer and                  cessors combined. His most famous veto involved a
                                                                                                                                                                commander in chief.                                               bill renewing the charter of the National Bank of the

       246 Unit 5 The Executive Branch                                                                                                                                                                                                       Chapter 13 Chief Executives and Bureaucracies 247


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       United States. Supporters of the bank argued it was      other states, placing the people there under military                                                                                           United States was destined to be a great power. The
       needed to stabilize the nation’s economy. Jackson        rule. He shut down newspapers that advocated seces-                                                                                             public was so impressed by his energetic leadership
       believed that the bank was designed to benefit the       sion. He suspended habeas corpus so that people                                                                                                 that he was reelected in 1904 by the greatest margin
       wealthy at the expense of the people. In a message       suspected of treason could be arrested and jailed by                                                                                            of votes in U.S. history up to that time.
       explaining his veto, Jackson wrote,                      the military without worrying about due process.
                                                                    All of these actions were taken by the new presi-                                                                                           Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933–1945):
           It is to be regretted that the rich and power-
                                                                dent without prior approval of Congress. Moreover,                                                                                              Maker of the Modern Presidency
           ful too often bend the acts of government to
                                                                when a federal court ruled in Ex parte Merryman                                                                                                 Theodore Roosevelt planted the seeds that would
           their selfish purposes. Distinctions in society
                                                                (1861) that suspension of habeas corpus was uncon-                                                                                              flower during the presidency of his distant cousin,
           will always exist under every just government
                                                                stitutional, Lincoln ignored the ruling.                                                                                                        Franklin Delano Roosevelt, commonly known as
           . . . But when the laws undertake to . . . make
                                                                    Likewise, Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proc-                                                                                             FDR. More than any president before him, FDR
           the rich richer and the potent more powerful,
                                                                lamation without approval from Congress or even                                                                                                 transformed the role of chief executive from chief
           the humble members of society—the farmers,
                                                                his full cabinet. When the president showed a draft                                                                                             clerk to what we think of as the modern presidency.
           mechanics, and laborers—who have neither
                                                                of the proclamation to his cabinet members, their                                                                                                   Like Lincoln, FDR came into office during a time
           the time nor the means of securing like favors                                                                                            Theodore Roosevelt was a powerful president who used the
                                                                response was mixed. Some members supported it,                                                                                                  of crisis: the Great Depression. During his first 100
           to themselves, have a right to complain of the                                                                                            office as a “bully pulpit” to advance his reform agenda.
                                                                while others were strongly opposed. Nevertheless,                                                                                               days in office, Roosevelt called Congress into special
           injustice of their Government.
                                                                Lincoln went ahead with the plan. On January 1,                                                                                                 session and presented it with 15 major bills. Con-
                                 —Andrew Jackson, 1832
                                                                1863, he released the proclamation as an executive                                   Theodore Roosevelt (1901–1909): The “Bully Pulpit”         gress passed them all. Later, he won passage of such
          Critics of Jackson’s use of this presidential power   order, a rule issued by the president that has the                                   The presidents who followed Lincoln acted more             groundbreaking programs as Social Security and
       dubbed him “King Andrew.” Nevertheless, since            force of law. With the order, Lincoln transformed                                    as clerks than executive officers. Then, in the early      unemployment insurance. In promoting his New
       Jackson’s day, the idea that presidents can and will     the war for the Union into an antislavery crusade.                                   1900s, Theodore Roosevelt breathed new life into the       Deal reforms, he dramatically expanded the role of
       use their veto power to shape public policy has be-          Lincoln’s many critics argued that he had far ex-                                office. Roosevelt used the presidency as a platform        the president. As political scientists have put it,
       come an accepted feature of American politics.           ceeded his constitutional powers. Lincoln, however,                                  from which to speak out on important public issues.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The president’s constitutional obligation to
                                                                believed that extreme measures were justified to pre-                                “I suppose my critics will call that preaching,” he
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   see “that the laws be faithfully executed”
       Abraham Lincoln (1861–1865): Savior of the Union         serve the Union and the Constitution. By his actions,                                said, “but I have got such a bully pulpit!”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   became, during Roosevelt’s presidency,
       Abraham Lincoln became one of the most power-            he demonstrated that during a national emergency, a                                      Roosevelt was a stirring speaker who loved be-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   virtually a responsibility to shape the laws
       ful presidents in U.S. history, in large part because    president might exercise almost unlimited powers.                                    ing seen and heard. He also knew how to work the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   before executing them.
       his election triggered a national crisis. By the time                                                                                         media. He held daily press briefings. He let photo-
       he took office in 1861, seven southern states had                                                                                             graphers take pictures of him at work and play. As a
       seceded from the United States. In his inaugural                                                                                              result, his name and smiling image were everywhere.
       speech, Lincoln argued that no state “can lawfully                                                                                                Roosevelt believed the president should act as a
       get out of the Union.” He went on to say,                                                                                                     “steward of the public welfare.” To fulfill that role,
                                                                                                                                                     he took a broad view of his powers. He later wrote,
           I therefore consider that . . . the Union is
           unbroken; and to the extent of my ability,                                                                                                   I did and caused to be done many things not
           I shall take care, as the Constitution itself                                                                                                previously done by the President . . . I did not
           expressly enjoins upon me, that the laws of the                                                                                              usurp [seize] power, but I did greatly broaden
           Union be faithfully executed in all the States.                                                                                              the use of executive power. In other words,
           Doing this I deem to be only a simple duty                                                                                                   I acted for the public welfare, I acted for the
           on my part; and I shall perform it, so far as                                                                                                common well-being of all our people, when-
           practicable, unless my rightful masters, the                                                                                                 ever and in whatever manner was necessary,
           American people, shall . . . direct the contrary.                                                                                            unless prevented by direct constitutional or
                                      —Abraham Lincoln,                                                                                                 legislative prohibition.
                            First Inaugural Address, 1861                                                                                               —Theodore Roosevelt: An Autobiography, 1913
          Lincoln used all of his powers to carry out this                                                                                              As the public’s steward, Roosevelt created gov-
       duty. Once in office, he spent money. He raised an                                                                                            ernment agencies to ensure safer food and drugs. He        Franklin Roosevelt’s great personal charm helped win public
       army. He ordered the navy to blockade southern           Abraham Lincoln expanded the power of the presidency during                          promoted conservation of the nation’s resources. He        support for expanded government power. Here, he gives one of
       ports. He declared martial law in Maryland and           the Civil War. Here, he meets with officers at Antietam in 1862.                      pursued an active foreign policy in the belief that the    his famous fireside chats.


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            Part of FDR’s power lay in his style as president.    corporation. In this role, the president presides over                          But presidents still find ways to stretch this law. As                 The Constitution directs the president to seek the
       Whereas previous presidents had used formal speech-        the federal bureaucracy, or the various agencies and                            one scholar noted, the military role of the president              advice and consent of the Senate in making treaties.
       es to get their ideas across, FDR addressed the Amer-      organizations that carry on the daily business of                               is “whatever Congress lets him get away with.”                     Taking this wording literally, President Washington
       ican people directly, in their own homes, through a        government. To keep that bureaucracy running,                                                                                                      went to the Senate in 1789 to seek its advice on a
                                                                                                                                                  Chief diplomat. Another key role for the president
       series of radio broadcasts known as “fireside chats.”      the president is responsible for appointing close                                                                                                  proposed treaty with the Creek Indians. After some
                                                                                                                                                  is that of the nation’s chief diplomat. In this role, the
       In these chats, Roosevelt spoke to listeners in a warm,    to 2,000 federal officials. These officials, in turn,                                                                                              debate, the senators referred the matter to a commit-
                                                                                                                                                  president oversees U.S. foreign policy, holds talks
       engaging manner, explaining his ideas and asking           oversee the work of nearly 2 million civilian employ-                                                                                              tee. Washington left in disgust, preferring after that
                                                                                                                                                  with foreign leaders, and negotiates treaties.
       for their support. In this way, many Americans came        ees of the federal government.
       to see the president not as a distant leader, but as a         As chief executive, the president has the power
       friend who understood their concerns.                      to issue executive orders. A president is most likely
            During World War II, FDR expanded his powers          to use this power during an emergency or when                                     The President’s Many Roles
       still further. But rather than objecting to this growth    Congress fails to take action on an important issue.
       of presidential power, most Americans applauded            For example, in 1948, Congress was divided over                                   The president performs many roles as head of the executive branch. Here are the most
                                                                                                                                                    important roles the president plays.
       Roosevelt as a “savior.” As one political scientist ob-    a bill to desegregate the armed forces. Rather than
       served, “The argument was simple: The more power           waiting for Congress to act, President Harry Truman
       the executive had, the more good he could do.”             issued an executive order abolishing segregation in                                       Chief citizen                                                                                Chief of party
            Since the end of World War II, the presidency         the military.
       has been powerful, no matter who is in the White
       House. By the 1970s, some critics of presidential          Chief of state. The president also acts as chief of state,
       power voiced concerns about the rise of an “impe-          the ceremonial leader of the government. In many
       rial presidency,” meaning presidents acted more like       countries, different individuals hold the positions of
       emperors than constitutional leaders. Nonetheless,         chief executive and chief of state. In Great Britain, for
       the president today is still limited in his powers to      example, the prime minister is the chief executive,
       those set down in the Constitution more than two           while the monarch is the chief of state. In the United
       centuries ago.                                             States, however, the president wears both hats.
                                                                      As chief of state, the president represents the
                                                                  United States at official functions, both at home and
       ■ 13.4 The Modern President’s Job                          abroad. For example, the president greets foreign
                                                                  leaders and hosts state dinners at the White House.
       President John F. Kennedy once said, “No easy prob-        Chief of state duties also include acts to promote na-
                                                                                                                                                    Chief manager of the economy                                                                              Chief diplomat
       lem ever comes to the President of the United States. If   tional spirit, as when the president lights the national
       they are easy to solve, somebody else has solved them.”    Christmas tree or throws out the first pitch of the
                                                                  major league baseball season.                                                     Chief executive                                                                                     Commander in chief
       Lyndon Johnson, who assumed the presidency after
       Kennedy’s assassination, called the job an “awesome
                                                                  Commander in chief. The job of commander in chief
       burden.” After looking at the modern president’s
                                                                  is one of the president’s most challenging roles. As
       many duties, one scholar noted, “All that is missing
                                                                  head of the armed forces, the president is responsible
       is Mover of Mountains and Raiser of the Dead.”
                                                                  for the operations of the U.S. military and the overall
                                                                  security of the nation.
       The Many Roles of the President
                                                                      The framers believed it was important for the
       Given the complexities of the modern world, the job
                                                                  nation’s top civilian leader to have control over
       of president has grown more challenging. To carry
                                                                  the armed forces. But they also set limits on the
       out their duties as chief executive, presidents must
                                                                  president’s control by giving Congress the power
       assume many different roles. The diagram on the
                                                                  to declare war. Since World War II, however, the
       facing page shows the various roles the president
                                                                  president has often committed troops to action
       plays on any given day.
                                                                  without a formal declaration of war. In 1973, Con-
       Chief executive. As the country’s chief executive,         gress passed the War Powers Act, which requires the                                       Chief of state                                                                          Chief policymaker
       the president acts much like the head of a large           president to get congressional approval to wage war.


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       to communicate with the Senate in writing. All other                   budget and set tax policy. The president also appoints
       presidents have followed his example. Presidents do                    members of the Federal Reserve Board, which works                                How a Bill Lives or Dies at the Hands
       consult with individual senators, however, and they                    to control the money supply and keep the economy                                 of the President
       must still obtain the consent of the Senate to get any                 growing at a sustainable pace.
       treaty approved.                                                                                                                                        The president’s power to approve or veto legislation gives the chief executive an important
                                                                              Chief of party. The president is the leader of his or                            role in the legislative process. As this diagram shows, a bill may pass through various steps
       Chief policymaker. Since Franklin Roosevelt’s ad-                      her political party. Presidents tend to have deep                                after it is sent to the White House.
       ministration, the president has served as chief poli-                  loyalty to their party and exert great influence over
       cymaker for the nation. Although Congress makes                        party members in Congress. They typically work to
       the laws, the president has significant influence over                 ensure that their party does well in congressional
       the legislative process. The president normally sets a                 elections, in hopes of gaining or strengthening a con-                                  l                                                    l
                                                                                                                                                                  Bil                                                   Bil
                                                                                                                                                                             A bill passed by                                          The president and
                                                                                                                                                                             Congress is sent to                                       his or her advisers
       policy agenda for Congress in the annual State of the                  gressional majority. They may take part in campaign                                            the president.                                            review the bill.
       Union address. The president may also propose leg-                     fundraising or other campaign events. They also
       islation or pressure members of Congress to support                    typically reward loyal party members with political
       or oppose certain bills. Other executive powers, such                  favors or appointments to federal office.                                                 VET        The president vetoes                  The president
                                                                                                                                                                           O       the bill and sends it                 takes action.
       as the power to call Congress into special session and                                                                                                                      back to Congress.
                                                                              Chief citizen. The president is also the nation’s chief
       to veto bills, are more key tools the president can use
                                                                              citizen. In that role, the president strives to embody
       to shape policy.
                                                                              American ideals and to serve the nation by acting
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           l
       Chief manager of the economy. The president has                        in its best interests. In times of crisis or tragedy, the                                                                                 Bil         The president signs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    the bill.
       no formal power over the economy. However, the                         president as chief citizen works to inform, inspire,
       president does work with Congress to write a federal                   and comfort the American people.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Congress                                                Congress is
                                                                                                                                                                VET         Congress considers
                                                                                                                                                                                                      overrides veto.    LAW           The bill becomes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                in session.       The president
                                                                                                                                                                   O        the vetoed bill.                                           a law.                                     takes no action
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  in 10 days.



                                                                                                                                                                                              Congress cannot                                                        Congress is not in
                                                                                                                                                                                               override veto.                                                      session—pocket veto.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           The bill dies.




                                                                                                                                                             Presidential Checks on the Other Branches                                        nothing and will simply let the bill die. This is known
                                                                                                                                                             The president also plays an important role as head of                            as a pocket veto.
                                                                                                                                                             the executive branch in the federal system of checks                                 The president can also check the power of
                                                                                                                                                             and balances. As chief executive, the president can                              Congress by invoking executive privilege. Although
                                                                                                                                                             check the power of the legislative branch by approv-                             this power is not formally granted in the Constitu-
                                                                                                                                                             ing or vetoing legislation passed by Congress. Like-                             tion, it has developed over time through custom and
                                                                                                                                                             wise, the president can influence the power of the                               practice. Executive privilege allows the president to
                                                                                                                                                             judicial branch by nominating judges to the Supreme                              deny access to White House documents, even when
                                                                                                                                                             Court and other federal courts.                                                  Congress wants to see them, on the grounds that
                                                                                                                                                                 The presidential veto is a powerful tool for in-                             keeping such records confidential is vital to the
                                                                                                                                                             fluencing policy. The diagram above shows how the                                operations of the executive branch. The Supreme
                                                                                                                                                             veto works. The president is required to sign or veto                            Court has recognized the right of presidents to
                                                                                                                                                             a bill within 10 days of receiving it from Congress.                             invoke executive privilege, though not in all cases.
                                                                                                                                                             If the president fails to act within that time, the bill                         Chapter 4 describes the Court’s refusal to back
      One of the president’s roles is to reassure and comfort the nation at times of crisis. George W. Bush fulfilled                                         automatically becomes law. However, if Congress                                  President Nixon’s use of executive privilege during
      this duty at Ground Zero in New York City, the site of the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center.                                           adjourns during those 10 days, the president can do                              the Watergate scandal.

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          The White House                                                                                                                                  The Executive Branch

         The White House complex consists of the executive residence at the center, with                                                                   As head of the executive branch, the president oversees the work of many executive officials, staff mem-
         the West Wing and East Wing at either side. The West Wing contains the president’s                                                                bers, and departments, some of which are listed below. There are 15 executive departments, each led by
         Oval Office, the vice president’s office, and the Cabinet Room. The East Wing contains                                                              an official appointed by the president. The heads of departments make up the president’s cabinet.
         additional office space.

                                                                     Executive
                      West Wing                                      Residence                               East Wing                                                                                         Executive Office of the President
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Office of the Vice President
                                                                                                                                                                                                               National Security Council
                       Vice president’s office                                                                                                                     The President                                Council of Economic Advisers
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Council on Environmental Quality
                                       Cabinet Room
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Office of Administration
                                                                                                                                                                 White House staff                             Office of Management and Budget
                                                                                                                                                                 Chief of Staff                                Office of National Drug Control Policy
                                                                                                                                                                 Director of Communications                    Office of Policy Development
                                                                                                                                                                 Press Secretary                               Office of Science and Technology Policy
                                                                                                                                                                 White House Counsel                           Office of the U.S. Trade Representative
                                                                                                                                                                 Staff Secretary
                                                      Presidential                                                                                                                                             President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board
                                                      briefing room

                                                  Oval Office
                                                                                                                                                                  Independent Agencies
                                                                                                                                                                  Corporation for National and Community Service
                                                                                                                                                                  Environmental Protection Agency
                                                                                                                                                                  Farm Credit Administration
       ■ 13.5 The Organization of the                                            “gatekeeper,” controlling who gets to talk to the                                Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
         Executive Branch                                                        president and who does not.                                                      Federal Labor Relations Authority
                                                                                                                                                                  Institute of Museum and Library Services
                                                                                                                                                                  National Aeronautics and Space Administration
       Without help, the president could never wear so                           The Executive Office of the President                                             National Endowment for the Arts
       many hats, much less faithfully execute the laws of                       The Executive Office of the President (EOP) was cre-                             Peace Corps
       Congress. As chief executive, the president both                          ated in 1939 by Congress to provide support staff to                             Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation
                                                                                                                                                                  Selective Service System
       oversees and is assisted by the vast bureaucracy that                     the president. Today it has about 1,800 employees.                               Social Security Administration
       makes up and manages the executive branch. This                               The agencies that make up the EOP perform a                                  U.S. Postal Service
       branch consists of four main groups: the White                            variety of specialized tasks for the president. The
       House staff, the Executive Office of the President,                       largest, the Office of Management and Budget, helps
       the executive departments, and independent agen-                          the president prepare an annual budget proposal to                              Executive Departments
       cies. The diagram on the facing page shows how the                        Congress. Chapter 14 provides a fuller overview of                              Agriculture: Inspect food and help farmers
       executive branch is organized.                                            the budget process.                                                             Commerce: Promote trade and technology
                                                                                     Other key agencies within the EOP include the                               Defense: Provide military forces for national defense
                                                                                                                                                                 Education: Fund and develop public education
       The White House Staff                                                     Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) and the Na-
                                                                                                                                                                 Energy: Advise on energy policy and development
       The White House staff consists of about 400 people.                       tional Security Council (NSC). The CEA provides                                 Health and Human Services: Promote national health programs and services
       It includes the president’s personal lawyer, press                        advice on the economy. The NSC advises the presi-                               Homeland Security: Monitor and provide security within U.S. borders
       secretary, various speechwriters, and many assis-                         dent on foreign and defense policy.                                             Housing and Urban Development: Enforce housing laws and manage public housing
                                                                                                                                                                 Interior: Manage natural resources and public lands
       tants. Many of these staffers have offices in the West                        Presidents can also add new agencies to the                                 Justice: Enforce federal law and handle federal court cases
       Wing of the White House. The most powerful staff                          Executive Office of the President to carry out                                  Labor: Enforce labor laws and promote worker welfare
       member is the chief of staff, who is considered the                       specific goals of their administration. For example,                            State: Advise on foreign policy and foreign affairs
       president’s most loyal aide.                                              George W. Bush created the Office of Faith-Based                                Transportation: Develop and regulate highway and transit systems
                                                                                                                                                                 Treasury: Formulate tax and financial policy
           Presidents depend on the White House staff to                         and Community Initiatives. This group was formed                                Veterans Affairs: Provide benefits and services to military veterans
       provide them with guidance and advice on a wide                           to coordinate public and private efforts to provide
       range of issues. The chief of staff also serves as a                      social services to needy Americans.


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       The Executive Departments                               because they do not fall within executive departments,
       The executive departments make up a third group         though they answer directly to the president. These                             Federal Workers
       of organizations in the executive branch. These         groups go by various names, including agency, com-
                                                                                                                                               The federal government
       departments carry out the work of government in         mission, administration, authority, and corporation.                            employs many kinds of
       broad areas of public policy, such as agriculture,          One of the largest independent agencies is the                              workers, including these
       commerce, and labor.                                    National Aeronautics and Space Administration                                   firefighters for the U.S.
           Each department also contains federal agencies      (NASA). This agency was created in 1958 to help the                             Forest Service. The graph
                                                                                                                                               shows the percentage of
       that target more specific policy areas within the       United States compete with the Soviet Union in the                              government workers in
       department’s general focus. For example, the Fed-       space race. Other well-known independent agencies                               various fields.
       eral Bureau of Investigation is an agency that exists   include the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the
       within the Justice Department, while the U.S. Mint is   Federal Communications Commission (FCC), and
       part of the Treasury Department.                        the Peace Corps.
           During Washington’s presidency, there were              A few federal agencies are run like businesses.                                                                              The Federal Workforce, 2004
       just three executive departments: War, State, and       They depend on revenues that they generate them-                                                      Professional
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Management and financial
                                                                                                                                                             (scientists, lawyers,
       Treasury. Washington met with these departments         selves rather than on tax dollars. The U.S. Postal                                                doctors, nurses)                                                           (managers, tax agents)
       regularly to debate issues. Today there are 15 execu-   Service is one such agency.                                                                                                          32.8%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      27.4%
       tive departments. The newest is the Department of                                                                                                           Other
                                                                                                                                               (construction, inspectors)
       Homeland Security, created in 2003. All 15 depart-                                                                                                                                                                10.6%
       ment heads are members of the cabinet, which may        ■ 13.6 Local, State, and Federal                                                                                              4.6%
                                                                                                                                                                                                              16.7%
                                                                                                                                                                                                       4.8%                                           Service
       also include the vice president and the national          Bureaucracies                                                                                   3.1%                                                                                 (correction officers,
       security adviser. As cabinets have grown in size,                                                                                                Transportation                                                                                detectives)
       presidents have become less inclined to hold regular    Government at every level depends on a bureaucracy                                  (air traffic control)
                                                                                                                                                                            Maintenance                                                Office and administrative
       meetings. Instead, they are more likely to turn to      to carry out public policies. Yet bureaucracy is one                                               (mechanics, technicians)
       White House staff and other personal advisers for       aspect of government that Americans love to hate.                               Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics.
       help in crafting policy.                                According to critics, government bureaucracies are
                                                               too large, too impersonal, and too self-serving to
       Independent Agencies                                    accomplish much. As Senator Eugene McCarthy
       The executive branch also includes dozens of            once quipped, “The only thing that saves us from the                          Who Are Civil Servants, and What Do They Do?                         Legislative and budgetary support. A bureaucracy
       independent agencies that help implement federal        bureaucracy is its inefficiency.” But is this a fair as-                      Bureaucracies are run by civil servants, or civilian             relies on laws and adequate funding to support its
       policy. These groups are considered independent         sessment of local, state, and federal bureaucracies?                          employees working in government agencies. In                     work. Without adequate funds, for example, a public
                                                                                                                                             popular culture, civil servants are often portrayed as           school district may not be able to hire enough teach-
                                                                                                                                             mindless paper pushers who insist on following petty             ers for its students.
       AmeriCorps is a volunteer                                                                                                             rules and creating mounds of paperwork, all while                    Interest group support. Government agencies
       service organization run by a                                                                                                         ignoring human needs. In reality, most government                can gain or lose power depending on the response
       federal agency, the Corpora-
       tion for National and Commu-
                                                                                                                                             employees are hardworking, highly skilled individu-              of interest groups to their work. For example, the
       nity Service. Here, AmeriCorps                                                                                                        als who are dedicated to their jobs.                             power of the Environmental Protection Agency may
       volunteers gather for a national                                                                                                          The work done by civil servants ranges from                  be enhanced by support from environmental groups.
       day of service in honor of                                                                                                            nursing and photography to engineering and                       Or opposition from interest groups that favor fewer
       Martin Luther King Jr.
                                                                                                                                             economic analysis. Civil servants are responsible                environmental controls may weaken it.
                                                                                                                                             for providing many of the government services that                   Expertise of bureaucrats. The ideal bureaucracy is
                                                                                                                                             Americans need and want. For example, public                     staffed by workers who are expert at their jobs. For a
                                                                                                                                             school teachers, park rangers, firefighters, and health          bureaucracy to work well, employees must know what
                                                                                                                                             inspectors are all government employees.                         they are doing. For that reason, many government
                                                                                                                                                                                                              jobs require applicants to pass competitive exams.
                                                                                                                                             What Are the Sources of Bureaucratic Power?                          Longevity or permanence. The longer a government
                                                                                                                                             For a bureaucracy to be effective, it must have the              agency exists, the more likely it is to enjoy substan-
                                                                                                                                             power it needs to do its job. This power stems from              tial power. In the same way, seniority strengthens the
                                                                                                                                             various sources, including those described here.                 hand of government workers, who tend to stay in their

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       jobs for many years. The average federal employee                   Is the Growth of Bureaucracy Out of Control?                                   A century ago, many Americans lived in filthy         government agencies. Despite frequent complaints
       has been at his or her job for around 17 years.                     Bureaucracy has grown at all levels of government                          slums that bred disease and worked in dangerous           about bureaucratic waste and mismanagement, most
           Effective leadership. Federal agencies typically thrive         since this country was founded. Much of this growth                        factories with few safety provisions. That has            Americans would be reluctant to give up the benefits
       under effective leaders. Conversely, they flounder when             has occurred since World War II, particularly since                        all changed for the better through the efforts of         that bureaucracy provides.
       their leadership is poor. Without effective leadership,             the 1960s, as government has provided more services
       NASA would not have been able to land a man on                      to the American people. Although many people
       the moon in 1969, just eight years after President                  complain about the growth of bureaucracy, they still                                                                                                                             Presidents often talk
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            about reducing the federal
       Kennedy made that achievement a national goal.                      want the services that civil servants provide.                                                                                                                                   bureaucracy, but most find
           Citizen demand. Concerned citizens can help                         In recent years, the number of federal civilian                                                                                                                              it difficult to cut executive
       expand and strengthen bureaucracy by demanding                      government employees has leveled off. The size of                                                                                                                                staff.
       government action to solve a problem. For example,                  the federal workforce today is about the same as it
       public concerns about the safety of workers led Con-                was in 1960. This shrinking of the federal bureaucra-
       gress to form the Occupational Safety and Health                    cy has been made possible by privatization, or the
       Administration (OSHA) in the early 1970s. This                      practice of contracting private companies to do jobs
       federal agency enforces health and safety regulations               once done by civil servants. Some 13 million people
       in the workplace.                                                   now work indirectly for the federal bureaucracy,
           The power of bureaucracies is not unlimited,                    either on contract with private companies or as state
       however. Ultimately, bureaucracies work under the                   and local employees working under federal funding.
       direction of an elected or appointed chief executive,
       whether a mayor, a city manager, a governor, or                     How Have Bureaucracies Affected Our Lives?
       the president. Legislative bodies also monitor their                Many Americans have a story to tell about a negative




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ©TCI/Scott Willis
       operations. On several occasions, Congress has held                 experience with a public agency. At the same time,
       hearings to investigate the work of federal agencies.               most can also recall a time when they desperately
       To help weed out corruption, Congress has also                      needed the services that civil servants provide. New
       passed laws to protect whistle-blowers, or employ-                  Yorkers felt this way in 2005, when public transit
       ees who expose wrongdoing.                                          workers went on strike. Some 7 million commuters
                                                                           suddenly lacked public transport. Many had to walk
                                                                           miles to get to work. When the strike ended two days
                                                                           later, commuters had a new appreciation for the
                                                                                                                                                                     Summary
                                                                           value of public services.
                                                                               The strongest argument in defense of govern-
                                                                                                                                                          The executive branch enforces the laws and carries out government policy. A chief executive
                                                                           ment bureaucracy is its success in improving the
                                                                                                                                                          leads this branch and oversees the work of the government bureaucracy.
                                                                           lives of many Americans. A short list of achieve-
                                                                           ments in the past few decades would include the                                Chief executives Mayors, governors, and presidents are all chief executives. They manage
                                                                           following:                                                                     executive affairs at their level of government.
                                                                           ■ fewer people living in poverty                                               Presidential power The president has certain powers under the Constitution. Over time,
                                                                           ■ better air and water quality                                                 however, presidential power has expanded as a result of custom and practice. Today the
                                                                           ■ more rights for women and minorities                                         president enjoys powers beyond those listed in the Constitution.
                                                                           ■ better access to health care for the elderly                                 Presidential roles The president plays many roles as head of the executive branch. Among
                                                                           ■ safer food and drugs                                                         these are chief executive, commander in chief, chief diplomat, and chief policymaker.
                                                                           ■ lower crime rates
                                                                                                                                                          Organization of the executive branch The executive branch contains many officials,
                                                                           ■ higher high school graduation rates
                                                                                                                                                          departments, and agencies. The president oversees the operations of these various groups,
                                                                           ■ elimination or prevention of diseases such as polio
                                                                                                                                                          with assistance from advisers.
                                                                           ■ higher rates of home ownership
                                                                           ■ development of the Internet                                                  Bureaucracy Most Americans benefit from the services that local, state, and federal
       In 2004, Sergeant Joseph Darby exposed prisoner abuse by
       U.S. military personnel at the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq. Darby’s   ■ safer highways                                                               bureaucracies provide, despite complaints about bureaucratic inefficiency.
       whistle-blowing sparked a scandal and led to investigations of      ■ more children in preschool
       U.S. military conduct.


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        13 Power, Politics, and You


       Do you want to
       be president?                              Run the Country? Most Teens Would Pass                                                                    a 17-point margin (58–41                                          Indeed, most teens, 57 percent,                                       reflect the current state of the
                                                                                                                                                            percent); those age 15–17 are                                     say they’re at least somewhat                                         world—“I don’t like war”;
                                                  by Dalia Sussman                                                                                          evenly split. And 26 percent of                                   interested in the campaign. And                                       another, perhaps reflecting the
       It is often said that any person                                                       Growing Up to Be President                                    the younger group would like                                      for good reason: seventy-two                                          Clinton years, was “too many
       born in the United States can              At least one aspect of the Ameri-            80%                                                          to be president, compared with                                    percent say that in terms of an                                       scandals.” One respondent cited
       grow up to be president. This is           can dream isn’t quite what it’s              70%                                                          13 percent of older teens.                                        impact on their lives, it does                                        security fears—“I don’t want to
       part of the “American dream.”              cracked up to be: While most                 60%                                                              Girls are 15 points more like-                                matter who gets elected . . .                                         get assassinated.” Another
       But do young people today want             teenagers in this country do think           50%                                                          ly than boys to say they’re not                                       Interest is higher among                                          critiqued the country’s political
       the job? To answer that ques-              they could grow up to be presi-              40%                                                          interested in the country’s top                                   teens with college-educated                                           structure: “I think that no one
       tion, ABC News and Weekly                  dent of the United States, the vast          30%                                                          job because of other career plans                                 parents—and it’s twice as high                                        should have that much power.”
       Reader conducted an opinion                majority wouldn’t want the job.              20%                                                          or a disinterest in politics. Boys                                (66 to 32 percent) among kids                                         And one other summed it up
       poll of teenagers.                             Fifty-four percent of 12- to             10%                                                          are more apt than girls either to                                 who think it matters in their life                                    neatly: “It doesn’t sound like fun.”
            The following article                 17-year-olds in this ABC News/                0%                                                          say that it’s too much responsi-                                  who’s president, compared with
       describes the results of that              Weekly Reader poll think they
                                                                                                      Think you could   Do you want to
                                                                                                       be president?    be president?                       bility or too much work . . .                                     those who don’t . . .                                                 The poll was conducted by tele-
       survey. As you read it and look            could grow up to be president.                        Yes             No
                                                                                                                                                                But lack of interest in poli-                                     In addition to the responses                                      phone January 7–11, 2004, among
       at the graphs, ask yourself,               That includes equal numbers                 Source: ABC News/Weekly Reader.
                                                                                                                                                            tics does not translate into lack                                 mentioned above, some respon-                                         a random national sample of 505
       Would I want the job of presi-             of boys and girls, and more, 62                                                                           of interest in this year’s [the                                   dents gave other reasons for not                                      12- to 17-year-olds. The results
       dent someday? If the answer                percent, of teens of color, despite        job, 15 percent say it’s too much                              2004] presidential election.                                      wanting to be president. Some                                         have a 4.5-point error margin.
       is no, ask, What kind of person            a history of white male presidents.        work, and 14 percent think they
       should be elected to that                      But an overwhelming major-             wouldn’t be good at it. Five
       powerful office?                            ity of teens—nearly eight in 10            percent say there’s “just too                                   Traits that Appeal to Voters—or Not
                                                  —aren’t interested in the job.             much arguing” involved . . .                                    In a 2007 survey, voters indicated their degree of willingness to support presidential
                                                      Why not? The top reason by                Younger teens are somewhat                                   candidates with certain traits. Below are the results, organized by candidates’ traits.
                                                  far, cited by 40 percent, is either        more optimistic about their                                                                       Christian                              Mormon
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Doesn’t
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          believe in God                        Muslim
                                                  a lack of interest in politics or          prospects of getting elected                                                              1%                                     4%                     2%              2%                    3%         4%                    1%

                                                  other career plans. An additional          president, and are twice as likely                                                                       39%                                      30%                    32%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      46%
                                                                                                                                                                                            56%                                                                                     63%                    49%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    64%
                                                  20 percent say there’s too much            to want the job. Kids age 12–14
                                                  pressure or responsibility in the          say they could be president by                                                                                      4%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Attended                           No college
                                                                                                                                                                             Woman                                    Black                               Hispanic                     prestigious university                    education
                                                    Why Teens Don’t Want to Be President                                                                              1%                                    1%                            4%    2%                        4%            1%                               2%                    3%
                                                                                                                                                                                 13%                                    7%                                      14%                                 22%
                                                    45%                                                                                                                                11%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              49%        46%
                                                    40%                                                                                                                    75%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  88%                                     80%                                72%
                                                    35%
                                                    30%                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          5%
                                                    25%
                                                                                                                                                                                             In their 40s                            In their 70s                           Divorced                       Homosexual
                                                    20%                                                                                                                                1%                                     2%                                     2%                    3%         2%                    1%
                                                    15%                                                                                                                                             18%                                   5%                                       9%
                                                    10%                                                                                                                                                      8%                    45%                                                                                46%
                                                                                                                                                                                            73%                                                48%                                                         51%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            86%
                                                     5%
                                                     0%                                                                                                      Source: Pew
                                                            Other career       Too much   Too much     Wouldn’t be           Too much                        Research Center
                                                          plans/no interest    pressure     work       good at it             arguing                        for the People
                                                                                                                                                             and the Press.                 More likely to support                   Less likely to support                    No difference in support               No data
                                                    Source: ABC News/Weekly Reader.




       260 Unit 5 The Executive Branch                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Chapter 13 Chief Executives and Bureaucracies 261


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