Chief Executives Lesson Guide by TeachTCI

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 P r o b l e m           S o l v i n g      G r o u p w o r k                                            C H A P T E R

 Chief Executives
 and Bureaucracies                                                                                   13
 What qualities do modern presidents need to fulfill
 their many roles?

 Overview                                                                                          Materials
 Students identify various roles that modern presidents fulfill and examine the                    Government Alive!
 structure and functions of the executive branch.                                                  Power, Politics, and You

 Preview Students examine a daily diary of a recent president to identify                          Placards 13A–13D (2 sets)
 presidential roles and duties.                                                                    CD Tracks 12–16
 Activity In a Problem Solving Groupwork activity, students create interactive                     Lesson Masters
 exhibits on a day in the life of a modern president for four presidential libraries               • Notebook Guide 13
 and museums.                                                                                         (1 per student)
 Processing Students write and conduct an opinion survey to evaluate the                           • Information Master 13
 current president’s job performance.                                                                (1 transparency)
                                                                                                   • Student Handouts
                                                                                                     13A–13D (2 copies of
 In the course of reading this chapter and participating in the classroom activity,                • Student Handout 13E
 students will
                                                                                                     (8 copies)
 • compare the formal and informal qualifications of national, state, and local                    • Student Handout 13F
   chief executives.                                                                                 (1 per student)
 • identify the responsibilities and roles of the modern president and the ways in                 8 large envelopes
   which presidential power has increased over time.
 • explain the organization and functions of the executive branch.
 • describe the role and impact of government bureaucracies.
 • evaluate the current president based on performance in various presidential roles.

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Suggested time: 15 minutes
1 Have students complete Preview 13. Distribute Notebook Guide 13 and proj-
  ect Information Master 13: Appointments in a Modern President’s Daily Diary.
  Students will examine the daily diary to determine some of the roles and
  duties this president had to perform. Tell students that they are viewing just
  a small selection of appointments from this president on this day. The actual
  daily diary includes some 80 entries and runs six pages.
2 Have students share their responses in pairs or with the class. Then ask
  them to guess whose daily diary this is. Reveal that this is President Jimmy
  Carter’s diary for April 24, 1980, the day he learned that an attempt to rescue
  American hostages held at the U.S. embassy in Iran had failed. (Note: You can
  obtain a full digital copy of this document from the Jimmy Carter Library and
  Museum Web site. Under the “Documents and Photographs” menu, select                Notebook Guide 13
  “President’s Daily Diary, 1977–1981.”)
3 Explain the connection between the Preview and Chapter 13. Tell students
  that a modern president has many roles and responsibilities, just as they saw
  in President Carter’s daily diary. Two examples are his role as chief of state,
  which the president performed when accepting diplomatic credentials from
  various ambassadors, and as commander in chief, as when he met with the
  chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The president is also the chief execu-
  tive—the head of the executive branch. In this chapter, students will learn
  more about these roles and responsibilities and about the organization and
  function of the executive branch.
                                                                                     Information Master 13

Speaking of Politics Encourage students to use the following terms as they
complete their Reading Notes for the chapter: reprieve, pardon, cabinet, executive
order, bureaucracy, pocket veto, administration, and whistle-blower.
1 Introduce the Essential Question and have students read Section 13.1.
  Then ask,
   • What was typical about President Ford’s day on April 28, 1975? What event
     occurred that was not typical?
   • What roles and responsibilities did the president perform on this day?
   • What qualities do you think modern presidents must have to fulfill their
     many roles?
2 Have students complete the Reading Notes for Chapter 13. Assign Sections
  13.2 to 13.4 before conducting the Problem Solving Groupwork activity. After
  conducting the activity, assign Sections 13.5 and 13.6.

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 Problem Solving Groupwork
 Suggested time: 90–120 minutes
 1 Prepare materials. Create two sets of materials for each president. Place each
   set in a large envelope labeled with the president’s name. Note that each hand-
   out is several pages long.
      • Franklin Roosevelt: Student Handout 13A and Placards 13A-1 and 13A-2
      • Lyndon Johnson: Student Handout 13B and Placards 13B-1 and 13B-2
      • Richard Nixon: Student Handout 13C and Placards 13C-1 and 13C-2
      • George H. W. Bush: Student Handout 13D and Placards 13D-1 and 13D-2
     During the activity (see Step 7), groups will need to be able to play their audio
     clips at the same time. If available technology does not permit this, have
     groups use the written transcripts of the audio clips on the handouts instead.
 2 Introduce the activity. Tell students they will now work in groups to create
                                                                                         Student Handouts 13A–13D
   an interactive exhibit on the day in the life of a modern president for a presi-
   dential library and museum. Each group will be assigned one president—
   Franklin Roosevelt, Lyndon Johnson, Richard Nixon, or George H. W. Bush—
   and will learn about a specific day when that president had to deal with an
   important crisis or event. They will design exhibits using artifacts—documents,
   audio clips, photographs, and objects—highlighting the various roles the presi-
   dent assumed on that day. Then they will serve as museum docents while visitors
   tour their exhibit to guess which roles the president performed on this day.
 3 Divide the class into eight groups and discuss the exhibits. Assign two groups
   of students to each of the four presidents: Roosevelt, Johnson, Nixon, and Bush.
   Give each group a copy of Student Handout 13E: Creating an Exhibit for a
   Presidential Library and Museum, and review the directions for creating the
   interactive exhibits. Then give each group the appropriate envelope—contain-
   ing a day-in-the-life overview, a daily diary, two documents, a transcript of an
                                                                                         Placards 13A-1 to 13D-2
   audio clip, and two photographs—and inventory the contents as a class.
 4 Monitor groups as they create their exhibits. As groups complete Step 1
   on Student Handout 13E, give each student a copy of Student Handout 13F:
   Touring Exhibits in Presidential Libraries and Museums. Allow groups ade-
   quate time—at least one full class period—to create their exhibits and rehearse
   their tours. If possible, provide access to CD Tracks 13–16 so groups can
   incorporate the audio clips into their exhibits.
 5 Arrange the room for the exhibit tours. Clear the furniture to create four
   exhibit areas in the corners of the classroom. Assign a different presidential
   group to each corner, and give them a few minutes to set up their exhibits.
   The other four groups will play the role of visitors.
 6 Introduce the exhibit tours. Play CD Track 12, “Hail to the Chief,” as you
   welcome visitors to the opening of special interactive exhibits in four presi-        Student Handouts 13E and 13F
   dential libraries and museums. Explain that visitors will tour the exhibits
   to learn about the roles and responsibilities of the modern president by
   examining a day in the life of Presidents Franklin Roosevelt, Lyndon Johnson,

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   Richard Nixon, and George H. W. Bush. They will examine a variety of
   artifacts that are related to each president’s day. They will connect these
   artifacts to specific times on the president’s daily diary and then discuss how
   the artifacts illustrate one or more of the president’s many roles.
7 Conduct the exhibit tours.
   • Assign each group of visitors to one of the four exhibits.
   • Allow several minutes for groups to tour the exhibits and interact with the
     museum docents and artifacts.
   • Have groups rotate to the remaining three exhibits. Play CD Track 12 each
     time to cue groups to move to the next exhibit.
8 Have docents and visitors switch roles and repeat Steps 5–7.
9 Debrief the activity by holding a class discussion. Ask,
   • What interesting things did you learn about the job of the modern president?
   • In what ways did each president demonstrate his roles and responsibilities?
   • What qualities do modern presidents need to fulfill their many roles? Give
     specific examples from the exhibits you have visited to support your answer.

Power, Politics, and You
1 Poll the class. As you ask these questions, record the results on the board:
   • How many of you think you could be president?
   • How many of you would want to be president?
   • Of those who do not want to be president, what are your reasons?
2 Have students read the “Power, Politics, and You” section of the chapter.
3 Facilitate a class discussion. Ask the questions below. Consider having stu-
  dents discuss the questions in pairs or small groups first.
   • How do the survey results compare to our classroom poll?
   • Do you agree with the survey results? Why or why not?
   • What kind of person do you think should be elected president?

Suggested time: 30 minutes
Have students complete the Processing activity, in which they create and conduct
an opinion survey to evaluate the current president’s job performance. Consider
providing additional support by distributing the “Creating and Conducting an
Opinion Survey” handout from the Doing Democracy toolkit and briefly reviewing
with students how to use it. (Note: In an election year, you might have students
instead create and conduct an opinion survey on the strength of the presidential
candidates for each of the eight presidential roles or write and submit a letter
to the editor supporting one or more candidates. Provide additional support
by distributing the “Writing a Letter to the Editor” handout from the Doing
Democracy toolkit.)

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 Quicker Coverage
 Have Groups Visit Fewer Exhibits Pair groups assigned to different presidents,
 and have the two groups tour each other’s exhibits.
 Eliminate the Exhibits Instead of having groups create and tour exhibits, have
 students complete Student Handout 13F using the exhibit materials. Give each
 group the materials for one president. After students have completed their notes
 for that president, have groups exchange materials.

 Deeper Coverage
 Add Primary Sources to the Exhibits Have groups expand their exhibits with
 additional documents, photographs, audio recordings, and video clips. Text and
 visual resources can be accessed online at presidential library and museum sites.
 Audio and video resources can be downloaded from the American Presidency
 Project and the Presidential Timeline of the Twentieth Century sites.
 Invite Guests to Tour the Exhibits Have all eight groups set up their museum
 exhibits in a large space such as a cafeteria, library, or hallway, and invite other
 classes, teachers, parents, or administrators to tour the exhibits. Ahead of time,
 have the class create a handout that briefly describes each of the eight presidential
 roles and post the handout next to the daily diary in each exhibit.

 Masters for the chapter assessment appear in the Lesson Masters.

 Mastering the Content

  1. D                 2. D              3. A        4. A                 5. B
  6. D                 7. C              8. A        9. B                10. A

 Exploring the Essential Question
 Possible answers:
 1. commander in chief, get written opinions from department heads, grant
    reprieves and pardons, make treaties with advice and consent of Senate, ap-
    point ambassadors and judges with advice and consent of Senate, recommend
    measures, call Congress into session, receive ambassadors, execute laws, com-
    mission officers
 2. The Take Care Clause gives the president the power to enforce the laws and
    carry out acts of Congress. It is similar to the Necessary and Proper Clause in
    that it provides the president with the flexibility needed to deal with changing
    needs and circumstances.
 3. The president has the power to command the armed forces, appoint and
    receive ambassadors, and negotiate treaties. Congress has the power to declare
    war. The Senate has the power to approve appointments of ambassadors and
    to ratify treaties. This division of powers gives the executive branch primary

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   responsibility for conducting foreign policy, but it must have the support,
   advice, and consent of Congress.
4. Being a good judge of character would help a president make wise appoint-
   ments as well as grant reprieves and pardons wisely. The ability to see all sides
   of an issue would help a president negotiate treaties.

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                                                                   D i f f e r e n t i a t i n g      I n s t r u c t i o n

 English Language Learners
 Conduct an Alternative Preview Introduce the chapter by asking students to
 discuss the many roles they would have to play if they were the teacher for the
 day, such as rule enforcer and lesson planner. Then explain that the president
 also has multiple roles. Do the Preview assignment, but focus on the first two
 questions. As a class, connect student responses to the eight roles of the modern
 president. Give students a handout or post the roles around the classroom to
 serve as a resource.
 Practice Exhibit Tours with Visitors Give students an opportunity to practice
 their exhibit tours by assigning the group with the same president to visit their
 exhibit first. Before groups move to the next exhibit, have the students discuss
 their tours and offer suggestions.

 Learners Reading and Writing Below Grade Level
 Annotate Student Handouts Review the primary source documents for each
 president (Student Handouts 13A–13D) ahead of time. Provide vocabulary
 support by writing synonyms for difficult words on the handouts.
 Highlight Key Sections Reduce the amount of reading required for each
 primary source document by highlighting key phrases or sections on Student
 Handouts 13A–13D.

 Learners with Special Education Needs
 Simplify the Preview Use these prompts for the Preview assignment in place
 of those given:
 1. Identify four activities the president participated in on this day.
 2. Identify two people he met with during the day.
 3. Name two qualities a president would need to do his job well.

 Also consider highlighting key entries on the daily diary to reduce the amount
 of information students must examine.
 Supply Templates for the Reading Notes Provide blank copies of the appropri-
 ate graphic organizers for the Reading Notes. Have students tape their completed
 notes into their notebooks.
 Have Students Share a Role Create groups of five to allow two students to share
 a role. Alternatively, review the responsibilities of the roles with students ahead of
 time and have them select a role in which they feel most comfortable.
 Use Prepared Questions Provide students with two or three questions for the
 Processing assignment as a model for creating their opinion polls.

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Advanced Learners
Research the Federal Bureaucracy Have students work in pairs to learn about
one office or agency in the executive office of the president, the cabinet, and
the independent agencies. Have pairs describe the goals and responsibilities of
each, name its head administrator, and list one specific action it has taken in
the past year.

Evaluate the Importance of Presidential Roles Ask students to place the
eight presidential roles on a spectrum from “Least Important Today” to “Most
Important Today” and then write an essay explaining their evaluation, with
specific examples.

Advise the President on Legislation Have students visit the Citizen Action
Center at the National Constitution Center connections at to
learn about a current piece of legislation and then write an e-mail or letter to the
president with a recommendation to sign or veto the bill.

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                                                                                    E n h a n c i n g     L e a r n i n g

 U.S. Supreme Court Cases: You Make the Call
 Have students read the summary of Case 7, Gonzales v. Oregon, which relates to
 the powers of the executive branch, in the “U.S. Supreme Court Cases: You Make
 the Call” section of the Student Edition. For each case, have volunteers share key
 facts from the case and the question before the Court. Then facilitate a Response
 Group–type discussion asking students to “make the call” on how the Court
 should decide the case and why. Finally, have students read the actual Supreme
 Court decision.

                                 National Constitution Center
                            To visit the Citizen Action Center to learn about
 current legislation, go to the National Constitution Center connections at

 Internet Connections
 For related research materials on the executive branch and the modern presidency,
 refer students to Online Resources at

 Please follow school and district guidelines for showing films in the classroom.

 The American President This 10-hour PBS series from 2000 examines the presi-
 dency from its earliest days under George Washington through the 20th century.
 The documentary profiles 41 of the nation’s chief executives, ending with Bill
 Clinton. Each hour is organized thematically and features several presidents. For
 example, Episode 9, “Expanding Power,” explores the presidencies of Andrew
 Jackson, Grover Cleveland, Theodore Roosevelt, and Richard Nixon.
 The American President (PG-13) This 1995 romantic comedy, directed by Rob
 Reiner, follows the experiences of widowed president Andrew Shepherd with
 a government lobbyist. Viewers have ample opportunity to see Shepherd as he
 performs the roles of the modern president, such as acting as commander in chief
 and chief citizen after a bombing of U.S. military personnel overseas. The film
 also raises issues about what Americans want in their president, as the president
 faces a vocal campaign challenger.

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G u i d e       t o     R e a d i n g       N o t e s    1 3

Following are possible answers to each section of the Reading Notes.

Section 13.2
                                                        Chief Executives

 Level of                                  Qualifications                     How are they        How can they be
 Government               Title            (formal and informal)             elected?            removed from office?

 National                 President        • native-born citizen             Electoral College   A majority of the House
                                                                                                 votes to impeach,
                                           • at least 35 years old
                                                                                                 then two-thirds of the
                                           • have lived in U.S. for at                           Senate must find the
                                             least 14 years                                      president guilty of
                                           • cannot serve more than                              wrongdoing.
                                             2 terms
                                           • most are well-educated
                                             and have political
                                           • until 2007, have been
                                             white and male

 State                    Governor         • less stringent than for         a plurality or a    Many states have recall
                                             president                       majority of the     procedures.
                                                                             vote; varies by
                                           • vary by state
                                           • some women and
                                             minorities have served
                                             as governors

 Local                    Mayor            • less stringent than for         a plurality or a    Many towns and cities
                                             president                       majority of the     have recall procedures.
                                                                             vote; varies by
                                           • vary by town or city
                                           • most towns or cities only
                                             require the mayor to be a
                                             legal adult
                                           • more women and
                                             minorities have been
                                             chief executives at local
                                             level than other levels

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                                                                      G u i d e     t o    R e a d i n g      N o t e s     1 3

 Section 13.3                                                       2. The president can check the power of the legislative
                                                                       branch by approving or vetoing legislation passed
 1. Descriptions will vary.
                                                                       by Congress or by invoking executive privilege. The
 2. During the 1800s, most presidents acted mainly as                  president can check the power of the judicial branch
    “chief clerks.” Other than carrying out the will of Con-           by nominating judges to the Supreme Court and other
    gress, they assumed little authority beyond those pow-             federal courts.
    ers granted them by the Constitution. When Franklin
    D. Roosevelt became president during the Great
    Depression, he transformed the role of president. He
                                                                    Section 13.5
    presented bills to Congress and got them passed and             White House Staff: Presidents depend on the White House
    won passage of groundbreaking programs like Social              staff to provide them with guidance and advice. The chief
    Security and unemployment insurance. He continued               of staff controls who gets to talk to the president. The
    to expand the presidential powers during World War              president’s personal lawyer, press secretary, and speech-
    II. The modern president is often viewed as the most            writers are also part of the White House staff.
    powerful national leader in the world.                          Executive Office of the President: The EOP provides sup-
                                                                    port staff to the president. The agencies that make up the
 Section 13.4                                                       EOP perform a variety of specialized tasks for the presi-
                                                                    dent. The largest, the Office of Management and Budget,
 1. Illustrations will vary.
                                                                    helps the president prepare an annual budget proposal
     Chief executive: presides over federal bureaucracy;            to Congress. Other key agencies include the Council of
     appoints some 2,000 federal officials; issues executive        Economic Advisers and the National Security Council.
     orders                                                         Presidents can add new agencies to the EOP to carry out
     Chief of state: acts as ceremonial leader of government;       their administration’s goals.
     represents United States at official functions at home         Executive Departments: These carry out the work of the
     and abroad; promotes national spirit                           government in broad areas of public policy, such as agri-
     Commander in chief: acts as head of armed forces; is           culture, commerce, and labor. Today there are 15 execu-
     responsible for operations of the U.S. military and            tive departments, including the Justice Department, the
     security of the nation; can commit troops to action            Treasury Department, and the Department of Homeland
     without a formal declaration of war                            Security. All 15 department heads are members of the
                                                                    president’s cabinet.
     Chief diplomat: oversees U.S. foreign policy; talks with
     foreign leaders; negotiates treaties                           Independent Agencies: These many agencies—such as
                                                                    NASA, the CIA, and the Federal Communications Com-
     Chief policymaker: sets policy agenda for Congress in
                                                                    mission—help implement federal policy. Though they still
     the State of the Union address; proposes legislation;
                                                                    answer to the president, they are considered independent
     can call Congress into special session; can veto bills
                                                                    because they do not fall within executive departments.
     passed by Congress
     Chief manager of the economy: works with Congress to
                                                                    Section 13.6
     write the federal budget; works with Congress to set tax
     policy; appoints members of the Federal Reserve Board          Analogies and drawings will vary.
     Chief of party: is the leader of his or her political party;
     works to ensure that the party does well in congres-
     sional elections; typically rewards loyal party members
     with political favors or appointments
     Chief citizen: embodies American ideals; serves the
     nation by acting in its best interests; informs, inspires,
     and comforts American people in times of crisis

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