Brown Trout V.S. Brook Trout

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Brown Trout V.S. Brook Trout Powered By Docstoc
					Brown Trout V.S. Brook Trout
                 German Brown Trout
   Scientific name
         Salmo trutta

   NON-NATIVE, usually native to the
    areas within Europe and western Asia
   Arrived in the late 1800s
   Identifiable by the coloring, a golden
    brown to a olive brown with yellowish
    sides
   Back and sides have dark spots that
    are encircled with light yellow or white
    coloring
                 So why are they here?
   Brown trout were widely introduced into North
    America around 1883
   The eggs were shipped to a local hatchery in
    Long Island, New York by a German named
    Baron Lucius von Behr
   Von Behr had brought these over to provide a
    substitute for the brook trout (Salvelinus
    fontinalis) that were disappearing because of
    the encroachment of civilization on their wild,
    pristine habitat
   This species is also found in Asia, New
    Zealand, South America, and Africa
   Known to be the most widely distributed trout
    in the world
            Not Only Found Here!
   Now, the brown trout is a prized and wary European game fish that is favored
    amongst most people

   The brown trout has several different varieties that can be found around the
    world
      Loch Leven trout found in Great Britain



   These fish are transplanted because they are able to thrive in warmer waters
    than some of the other species of trout that are found in open water

   However, there is one species of trout (sea trout) that is much larger than
    freshwater forms and provides good sport fishing
Whirling Disease
          The European trout has enacted a kind of
           revenge on the rainbow trout that eat them
           overseas

          It is in the form of one of their native
           parasites, a protozoan that causes the so
           called “whirling disease”

          The term whirling is used because of the fact
           that it makes its victims chase their tails

          Introduced around the 1950s, though had
           been laying dormant. However, for many
           unknown reasons in the 1990s the disease
           caught back on and began wiping out strains
           of both rainbow and cutthroat trout
   The brown trout is considered the
    most successful fish introduction in
    the United States, largely due to the
    fact that the disease helped suppress
    the competitors

   Among some species that are losing
    out to the over-populated brown trout
    is the state fish of California, the
    California golden trout (Oncorhynchus
    mykiss aguabonita)

   Also, their voracious appetite is
    causing endangerment to California’s
    rarer frog species like the mountain
    yellow-legged frog
Figure 1.1 Distribution Map for Whirling Disease that can be
found within both trout and salmon. Everything in Green is
where it can be found, and Red is where it is not located yet
Figure 1.2 Life
Cycle of Whirling
Disease
Figure 1.3


What you can do
to prevent the
spread of
Whirling Disease
                             Why Stock?
   Many of the state fish and game officials have for over a century routinely
    transferred species from outside their normal range to diversify or even
    increase angling opportunities for the general public

   Often, the native species will disappear (brook trout)

   Widespread introduction of the brown trout has depressed or even eliminated
    populations of many of the local trout species in the western part of the United
    States, an area at one time rich in local native trout numbers

   States are currently rethinking deliberate introductions that have an impact
    on their local species, and research is being conducted to evaluate non-native
    influences on local food chains.
Brook Trout
        Scientific Name
              Salvenlinus fontinalis

        Color patterns varies from the brown trout
           Color ranges from green to brown basic
             coloration (distinctive marbled
             pattern)
           Distinctive sprinkling of red dots that
             are surrounded by blue haloes
                  The Native One
   Brook trout are the true North American native, found as far south as
    Georgia all the way up to the Arctic Circle, and west into Washington and
    Oregon

   Can also be found within reaches of the Canadian provinces, South
    America, and Europe

   Brook trout were the only known species that the fly fishers chased in the
    eastern United States at one point in time

   Since the decline happened and the introduced brown trout came into
    direct competition, the brook trout started to lose it popularity in the late
    19th century
                            Quick Facts

   They are also known as speckled trout or squaretail

   Brook trout is very popular as a freshwater game fish because of its variety
    of char and regarded flavor

   Many people like to fish for it because of the fighting qualities when hooked

   It has also been transplanted to many other parts of the world, because it
    can thrive inside cold, clean fresh water
             Brook Trout Restoration
   Local communities and DNR officials are trying to restore the native brook trout back
    into natural habitat since they are slowly disappearing due to brown trout
    introduction

   One of the groups that are trying to do this is the Land O’ Sky Trout Unlimited
           The Great Smoky Mountains National Park has begun a program to
             reintroduce the Southern Appalachian Brook Trout to as much of its original
             territory as possible
           Their main goal is to re-establish stable reproducing populations in healthy
             streams and to ensure this unique genotype is protected and preserved
           Signed in 1998 between T.U. North Carolina, Tennessee, and the Great Smoky
             Mountains National Park
           The trout has lost approximately 75% of its range within the park, and some
             of the causes for this includes logging, subsequent stocking of non-native
             trout, and stream degradation from acidification
           By 1975, the population with native trout had become mostly restricted to
             marginal headwater streams above 3,500 feet

				
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