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_4 James Madison

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									#4 James Madison

    1809-1817
“The Great Little Madison”
                Born: March 16, 1751 in
                  Port Conway Virginia
                Parents: James and Nelly
                  Rose (Conway)
                Wife: Dorothea (Dolly)
                  Dandridge
                Children: None, but 2
                  stepson’s from his
                  wife’s previous
                  marriage.
Background
   Madison was born to a wealthy family of
    Virginia.
   His father was a tobacco planter, church
    official, and local public servant.
   His mother was the daughter of a wealthy
    planter.
   Both of his parents were of English heritage.
   Both parents were encouraging of James,
    who was the oldest of 12 children.
      Montpelier
James Madison’s Estate
Early Life and Young Adulthood
 James Madison was a bookish young man,
  who received his earliest education from a
  private teacher.
 While most young Virginia gentlemen of his
  era went to the College of William and Mary
  in Williamsburg, Madison went to the College
  of New Jersey, now Princeton.
 There he studied Latin, Greek, Mathematics,
  Philosophy, Rhetoric, Science, and
  Geography, and graduated at the age of 20!
Early Life and Young Adulthood
Continued
 Madison studied Hebrew and Political
  Philosophy for one year as a graduate
  student, but returned home for health
  reasons.
 While studying law a tremendous amount,
  Madison is never admitted to the bar,
  although he practices law as a young man.
 Madison defends Baptists preachers for
  practicing without a license, and helps draft
  the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom.
Marriage
   Madison married his
    wife Dolly when he was
    43 years old. She was
    17 years his junior, and
    had already been
    widowed.
   Dolly had a vivid
    personality, and was a
    good hostess. (She
    even gambled!)
   By all accounts the
    marriage was a happy
    one.
Personality
                 Madison was only Five
                  Feet, Four Inches in
                  height, making him the
                  shortest president in
                  history.
                 Madison was very shy,
                  but he did have skill as
                  an orator.
                 He was a bachelor until
                  he was 43, and most
                  thought he would stay
                  one.
Political Career
   1775 commissioned a colonel in the Orange
    County Militia, but sees know combat.
   1776-1777 Member of the Virginia
    Legislature.
   1777 Elected to Virginia State Council
   1778 Member of Executive Council to direct
    Virginia’s activities in the Revolution.
   1780-1783 Member of Continental Congress
   1784-1786 Member of Virginia Legislature
Political Career Continued
 1786-1788 Member of Continental Congress.
  During this time he attended the Philadelphia
  Convention, where he proposed the “Virginia
  Plan”, which was the foundation of the
  Constitution.
 During this period, Madison began writing
  The Federalist essays.
 1789-1797 Member of the House of
  Representatives. He also developed the Bill
  of Rights, to placate the anti-federalists.
Political Career Pt. 3
 1799-1800 Returns to Virginia
  Legislature.
 1801-1809 Secretary of State under
  Thomas Jefferson, during which time he
  helps with the Louisiana Purchase, and
  backs the disastrous Embargo Act.
 1809-1817 President of the United
  States
Presidency
 Adams had a strange Presidency, in which
  he, like Jefferson, seemed to contradict his
  views.
 His first few years were largely uneventful.
 He let the First Bank of the United States
  expire, and vetoed a bill to create a new one
  in 1815.
 By the end of the year though, he requested
  the creation of a new bank, mostly because it
  was necessary to finance the War of 1812.
War of 1812: Madison’s Biggest
Challenge
   In the spring of 1812, Madison decides to end
    trade with Great Britain.
   The British begin again the seizing of
    American ships.
   On the American frontier, settlers believe the
    British are arming Indians, and aiding them in
    attacking homes and farms.
   War Hawks in congress, led by Henry Clay of
    Kentucky, and John C. Calhoun of South
    Carolina, urged war against Britain.
   On June 18th 1812, the U.S. declared war.
War of 1812 Continued
   The War of 1812 lasted from 1812 until 1815, and
    ended in a stalemate after the signing of the Treaty of
    Ghent.
   During the war, the United States was invaded for a
    time by the British, who burned the Capital and the
    White House. Dolly Madison rescued important
    paintings and documents from the White House.
   President Madison was the first and only president to
    engage in combat when he took command of an
    artillery battery at the Battle of Bladensburg.
   Only the British unfounded fears of getting cut off
    from their supplies stopped the embarrassing
    invasion
War of 1812: Mixed Results
Good:                        Bad:
1. U.S. Independence         1. Washington captured.
    was ensured.             2. The British blockade of
2. The U.S. military had a       the U.S. cost millions
    few moments of               of dollars.
    success.                 3. Over 1,500 U.S. vessels
3. The Indian coalition of       were seized.
    Tecumseh was             4. The New England
    destroyed.                   states essentially sat
4. The U.S. lost no              out the war, and
    territory.                   debated succession.
Famous Images of the War of
1812
After the War
 Madison was forced to accept Hamilton’s
  arguments for a national bank, a strong
  standing army and navy, and an efficient
  taxation system based on tariffs, which all
  turned out to be necessary.
 Madison did veto a bill that would provide
  federal support for internal improvements
  such as bridges, roads, and canals.
 Second Barbary War ends tribute payments
  to Pirates in North Africa
Madison’s Legacy
   Madison is considered to be one of the most
    important of the Founding Fathers, and was the chief
    architect of the constitution which has governed the
    U.S. for well over 200 years.
   As a president, Madison largely limited the power of
    the executive branch, as he intended to do, with the
    exception being his acceptance of the Second Bank
    of the United States.
   Madison was not a good wartime president, but the
    “Era of Good Feelings” that began at the end of his
    presidency made him popular as he left office.
Later Years and Death
 Madison followed
  Jefferson as rector
  of U.VA.
 He served at the
  Virginia
  Constitutional
  Convention in 1829.
 Madison died at the
  age of 85, the last
  Founding Father to
  die.

								
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