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Tata Nano by SHAMSHANKAR

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									Tata Nano - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Tata Nano
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tata Nano

The Tata Nano is a rear-engined, four-passenger city car built by Tata Motors, aimed primarily at the Indian market. The car is very fuel efficient, achieving around 26.00km/l on the highway and around 22.00km/l in the city.[4] It was first presented at the 9th annual Auto Expo on 10 January 2008, at Pragati Maidan in New Delhi, India.[5] Nano had a commercial launch on March 23, 2009 and a booking period from April 9 to April 25, generating more than 200,000 bookings for the car.[6][7] The sales of the car will begin in July 2009,[8] with a starting price of Rs 115,000 (rupees), which is approximately equal to UK£1,467 or US$ 2,421 as of June 2009. This is cheaper than the Maruti 800, its main competitor and next cheapest Indian car priced at 184,641 Rupees.[9][10][11] Tata had sought to produce the least expensive production car in the world[12] — aiming for a starting price of Rs.100,000 (approximately US$2,000 in June 2009).[13][14] In early 2008 the news magazine Newsweek identified the Nano as a part of a "new breed of 21st-century cars" that embody "a contrarian philosophy of smaller, lighter, cheaper" and portend a new era in inexpensive personal transportation — and potentially, "global gridlock".[15] The Wall Street Journal confirmed a global trend toward small cars, which includes the Nano.[16] "Nano" from the SI prefix for one-billionth is often used to mean "small" in colloquial English.[17] Coincidentally, it also means "small" in Gujarati, the language of the founders of the Tata Group.

Manufacturer Tata Motors Parent company Also called Production Assembly Tata Sons

The People's Car 2008—present Charodi, near Sanand-Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

Predecessor Class Body style(s) Layout Engine(s)

none City car 4-door saloon RR layout 2 cylinder SOHC petrol Bosch multipoint fuel injection (single injector) all aluminium 623 cc (38 cu in)

Contents
1 Overview 2 Design 2.1 Cost cutting features 2.2 Price 2.3 Model versions 3 Technical specifications 4 Speculated variants 4.1 Diesel 4.2 Compressed-air engine 4.3 Electric drivetrain or electric-version 4.4 Hybrid 4.5 Nano Europa 5 Expectations 5.1 Potential effect on Indian economy 5.2 Place in history 6 Singur factory pullout 7 Criticism, issues and problems 7.1 Questions of safety 7.2 Mass motorization 7.3 Used car market effects 8 Competitors 9 See also 10 References 11 External links
Transmission (s) Wheelbase Length Width Height Kerb weight Fuel capacity Related

4 speed synchromesh with overdrive in 4th 2,230 mm (87.8 in) 3100 mm (122 in)[1] 1500 mm (59.1 in) [1] 1600 mm (63 in)[1] 580 kg (1,300 lb)-600 kg (1,300 lb)[2] 15 L (4 US gal; 3 imp gal) [2] Maruti Alto Chevrolet Spark

Designer

Girish Wagh, Justin Norek of Trilix, Pierre Castinel[3]

Overview
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The introduction of the Nano received media attention due to its targeted low price. The Financial Times reported:[18] "If ever there were a symbol of India’s ambitions to become a modern nation, it would surely be the Nano, the tiny car with the even tinier price-tag. A triumph of homegrown engineering, the $2,200 (€1,490, £1,186) Nano encapsulates the dream of millions of Indians groping for a shot at urban prosperity." The car is expected to boost the Indian economy, create entrepreneurial-opportunities across India,[19][20] as well as expand the Indian car market by 65%[21]. The car was envisioned by Ratan Tata, Chairman of the Tata Group and Tata Motors, who has described it as an eco-friendly "people's car". Nano has been greatly appreciated by many sources and the media for its low-cost[22][23] and eco-friendly initiatives which include using compressed-air as fuel[24] and an electric-version (E-Nano).[25][26] Tata Group is expected to massmanufacture the Nano, particularly the electric-version, and, besides selling them in India, to also export them worldwide.[27][28][29] Critics of the car have questioned its safety in India (where reportedly 90,000 people are killed in road-accidents every year[30]), and have also criticised the pollution that it would cause[31] (including criticism by Nobel Peace Prize winner Rajendra Pachauri[32]). However, Tata Motors has promised that it would definitely release Nano's eco-friendly models alongside the gasoline-model.[33][34] The Nano was originally to have been manufactured at a new factory in Singur, West Bengal, but increasingly violent protests forced Tata to pull out October 2008. (See Singur factory pullout below.) Currently, Tata Motors is reportedly manufacturing Nano at its existing Pantnagar (Uttarakhand) plant and a mother plant has been proposed for Sanand Gujarat.[35] The company will bank on existing dealer network for Nano initially.[36] The new Nano Plant could have a capacity of 500,000 units, compared to 300,000 for Singur. Gujarat has also agreed to match all the incentives offered by West Bengal government.[37]

Design
Ratan Tata, the Chairman of Tata Motors, began development of the world's cheapest production car in 2003,[38] inspired by the number of Indian families with two-wheeled rather than four-wheeled vehicles.[39] The Nano's development has been tempered by the company's success in producing the low cost 4 wheeled Ace truck in May 2005.[38] Contrary to speculation that the car might be a simple four-wheeled auto rickshaw, The Times of India reported the vehicle is "a properly designed and built car".[40] The Chairman is reported to have said, "It is not a car with plastic curtains or no roof — it's a real car."[38] To achieve its design goals, Tata refined the manufacturing process, emphasized innovation and sought new design approaches from suppliers.[40] The car was designed at Italy's Tata Nano silver Institute of Development in Automotive Engineering — with Ratan Tata requesting certain [38] changes, such as the elimination of one of two windscreen wipers. Some components of the Nano are made in Germany by Bosch, such as Fuel Injection, brake system, Value Motronic ECU, ABS and other technologies.[41] The Nano has 21% more interior space (albeit mostly as headroom, due to its tall stance) and an 8% smaller exterior compared to its closest rival, the Maruti 800. Tata offered the car in three versions: the basic Tata Nano Std; the Cx; and the Lx. The Cx and Lx versions each have air conditioning, power windows, and central locking. Tata has set its initial production target at 250,000 units per year.

Cost cutting features
The Nano's trunk does not open. Instead, the rear seats can be folded down to access the trunk space.[42][43] It has a single windscreen wiper instead of the usual pair. It has no power steering. Its door opening lever was simplified.[44] It has three nuts on the wheels instead of the customary four. It only has one side view mirror.[45]

Price
Tata initially targeted the vehicle as "the least expensive production car in the world"[12] — aiming for a starting price of 100,000 rupees or approximately US$2000 (using exchange rate as of March 22, 2009) [13][14] 6 years ago, despite rapidly rising material prices at the time.
[46]

As of August 2008, material costs had risen from 13% to 23% over the car’s development,[47] and Tata faced the choice of: introducing the car with an artificially low price through government subsidies and tax-breaks forgoing profit on the car using vertical-integration to artificially boost profits on cars at the expense of their materials industries partially using inexpensive polymers or biodegradable plastics instead of a full metal-body

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Tata Nano - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia raising the price of the car[47]

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Model versions
At its launch the Nano was available in three trim levels:[11] the basic Tata Nano Std priced at 123,000 Rupees has no extras; the deluxe Tata Nano CX at 151,000 Rupees has air conditioning; the luxury Tata Nano LX at 172,000 Rupees has air conditioning, power windows and central locking the Nano Europa, European version of the Tata Nano has all of the above plus a larger body, bigger 3-cylinder engine, anti-lock braking system (ABS) and meets European crash standards and emission norms. The base model will have fixed seats, except for the driver's, which will be adjustable, while the deluxe and luxury models will get air conditioning and body coloured bumpers.[48] Photographs of some Nano models at the Auto Expo 2008 in New Delhi.

Nano in yellow

The interior of the Nano

Red Tata Nano : standard model

Rear of Tata Nano in yellow

Technical specifications
According to Tata Group's Chairman Ratan Tata, the Nano is a 33 PS (33 hp/24 kW) car with a 623 cc rear engine and rear wheel drive, and has a fuel economy of 4.55 L/100 km (21.97 km/L, 51.7 mpg (US), 62 mpg (UK)) under city road conditions, and 3.85 L/100 km on highways ( 25.974 km/L, 61.1 mpg (US), 73.3 mpg (UK)). It is the first time a two-cylinder non-opposed petrol engine will be used in a car with a single balance shaft.[49] Tata Motors has reportedly filed 34 patents related to the innovations in the design of Nano, with powertrain accounting for over half of them.[50] The project head, Girish Wagh has been credited with being one of the brains behind Nano's design.
[50][51]

Much has been made of Tata's patents pending for the Nano. Yet during a news conference at the New Delhi Auto Expo, Ratan Tata pointed out none of these is revolutionary or represents earth-shaking technology. He said most relate to rather mundane items such as the two-cylinder engine’s balance shaft, and how the gears were cut in the transmission. Though the car has been appreciated by many sources, including Reuters due to "the way it has tweaked existing technologies to target an as-yet untapped segment of the market", yet it has been stated by the same sources that Nano is not quite "revolutionary in its technology", just low in price.[52] Moreover, technologies which are expected of the new and yet-to-be-released car include a revolutionary compressedair fuel system[53] and an eco-friendly electric-version,[25] technologies on which Tata is reportedly already working, though no official incorporation-date for these technologies in the new car has been released. According to Tata, the Nano complies with Bharat Stage-III and Euro-IV emission standards.[54] Ratan Tata also said, 'The car has passed the full-frontal crash and the side impact crash'.[55] Tata Nano passed the required 'homologation’ tests with Pune-based Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI).This means that the car has met all the specified criteria for roadworthiness laid out by the government including emissions or noise & vibration and can now ply on Indian roads. Tata Nano managed to score around 24 km per litre during its ‘homologation’ tests with ARAI. This makes Tata Nano the most fuel efficient car in India. Nano will be the first car in India to display the actual fuel mileage figures it recorded at ARAI’s tests on its windshield. According to ARAI it conforms to Euro IV emission standards which will come into effect in India in 2010.[56] Rear mounted engine The use of a rear mounted engine to help maximize interior space makes the Nano similar to the original Fiat 500, another technically innovative "people's car". A concept vehicle similar in styling to the Nano, also with rear engined layout was proposed by the UK Rover Group in the 1990s to succeed the original Mini but was not put into production.[57] The eventual new Mini was much larger and technically conservative. The independent, and now-defunct, MG Rover Group later based their Rover CityRover on the Tata Indica.

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Tata Nano - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Tata is also reported to be contemplating offering a compressed air engine as an option.[58] Supplier [64] Texspin Bosch Continental AG Caparo HSI AUTO Delphi Denso FAG Kugelfischer Ficosa Freudenberg GKN INA ITW Deltar Johnson Controls Mahle Saint-Gobain TRW Ceekay Daikin/ Valeo Vibracoustic Visteon ZF Friedrichshafen AG Behr Dürr Engine mounts Air induction system Chassis components, including tie rods HVAC for the luxury version Lean Paint Shop Clutch Bearings Gasoline injection system (diesel will follow), starter, alternator, brake system Gasoline fuel supply system, fuel level sensor Inner structural panels Static sealing systems (Weather Strips) Instrument cluster Windshield wiper system (single motor and arm) Rear-wheel bearing Product [64]

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Engine:

2 cylinder petrol with Bosch multi-point fuel injection (single injector) all aluminium 33 horsepower (25 kW) 624 cc (38 cu in) Value Motronic engine management platform from Bosch 2 valves per cylinder overhead camshaft Compression ratio: 9.5:1 bore × stroke: 73.5 mm (2.9 in) × 73.5 mm (2.9 in) Power: 33 PS (33 hp/24 kW) @ 5500 rpm
[59]

Torque: 48 N·m (35 ft·lbf) @ 2500 rpm Layout and Transmission Steering Rear wheel drive 4-speed manual transmission mechanical rack and pinion Turning radius: 4 metres Performance
[60]

Rear-view mirrors, interior mirrors, manual and CVT shifters, washer system Engine sealing Driveshafts Shifting elements Outside and inside door handles Seating Camshafts, spin-on oil filters, fuel filters and air cleaners Glazing Brake system Clutch sets

Acceleration: 0-70 km/h (43 mph): 14 seconds Maximum speed: 120 km/h (75 mph)[1] Fuel efficiency (overall): 20 kilometres per litre (5 litres per 100 kilometres (56 mpgimp

; 47 mpg-US))

[2]

Body and dimensions Suspension, Tires & Brakes

Seat belt: 4[61] Trunk capacity: 150 L (5.3 cu ft)[2] Front brake: drum[62] Rear brake: drum Front track: 1,325 mm (52.2 in) Rear track: 1,315 mm (51.8 in) Ground clearance: 180 mm (7.1 in)[2] Front suspension: McPherson strut with lower A arm Rear suspension: Independent coil spring 12-inch wheels[63]

Speculated variants
Besides the regular and conventional petrol-variant,[34] the following variants are also expected:

Diesel
Wheelsunplugged.com reported that an anonymous source claimed a diesel variant would be available in September 2009.[65]

Compressed-air engine
Tata Motors is working with a French firm on using compressed air as an energy source.[53] The company has tied up with Moteur Development International (MDI) for this purpose.[34]

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Electric drivetrain or electric-version
Tata is also believed to be making an electric version of the Nano, called the E-Nano (reportedly with attached or sideby solar panels as well)[25][66] which might well turn out to be the "world's cheapest electric car"[67] which is more eco-friendly and has many enthusiasts and media for its support.[68] It's supposed to be as cheap as the conventional gasoline version. Tata is making the Nano compliant with export market regulations[69] and plans to export such a car worldwide, particularly to the UK and the rest of continental Europe,[27][28] the US, [70] and Australia.[29][71][72][73] Economic Times reported[74] that the "electric Nano" "would still make good sense for economic, clean and green personal mobility in countries around the world." According to the Hamburg-based newspaper, Auto Bild, the E-Nano would be built in cooperation with the Norwegian electric car specialist, Miljøbil Grenland AS.[75][76][77][78]

Hybrid
Leftlanenews reported that "a hybrid version [of Tata Nano] is also likely, although it is not yet known whether the electric motor will be paired with a gasoline or diesel version."[79]

Nano Europa
Tata Motors unveiled a version of the Nano mini-car called the Nano Europa at the 2009 Geneva Motor Show. The car will be coming to mainland Europe and the UK.[80] and will have a number of improvements over the standard Nano. The Nano Europa has an increased wheelbase, a new engine and improved interiors and exteriors. The Nano Europa will be more expensive than the standard Nano with prices said to be around the US$ 6000 mark.[81]

Expectations
According to one report, India as well as other nations, such as European nations, have great expectations from the Nano and are keenly awaiting it, especially the electric version of the Nano,[82] making it in all probability the "world's cheapest electric car" officially on record. [67][83] The car itself is expected to boost the Indian Economy as well as expand the Indian car market by 65%, according to rating agency CRISIL.[21]

Potential effect on Indian economy
Economic Times quotes:[21]

“

Tata Nano’s launch could expand the Indian car market by 65%, according to rating agency CRISIL. The low price makes the car affordable for families with incomes of Rs 1 lakh [100,000] per annum, the agency said. The increase in the market is expected to push up car sales by 20% over the previous year. “The unveiling of Tata Nano, the cheapest car in the world, triggers an important event in the car market. Based on the statement by company officials, CRISIL Research estimates the consumer price of the car at around Rs 1.3 lakh. This brings down the cost of ownership of an entry level car in India by 30%,” the company said in a report.

”

Place in history
Some news sources have compared the Nano with Henry Ford's Model T that coincidentally was built around a century ago. Livemint said:

“

Ford Motor Co. is rich because Henry Ford used the assembly-line to produce the Model T in 1908. Ratan Tata is a late entrepreneur, making the Nano in 2008. India is 100 years behind. But we are waking up to the possibility of catching up. I just hope our planners wake up soon.[84]

”

Times of India also compared the Nano to the Model T:

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“

This raises the question: How have the Tatas accomplished such a task? Pursuing this question a fascinating story unfolds that reminds one of Henry Ford's Model T that was built exactly one hundred years ago (September 1908). Ford wanted to make a car for the multitude, not for the elite, with the best material and the best design that the technology of his time could devise, and he wanted to make it, above all, at a price that was affordable. This is the example that Ratan Tata has followed with determination. When he announced the price of his car in an interview to the Financial Times during the Geneva Motor Show, his colleagues were 'aghast', but he had set his goal.[85]

”

The Nano, though not yet in production, has already been listed in the Guinness Book of World Records as the world's cheapest car.[83]

Singur factory pullout
After much speculation, Tata Motors announced on May 19, 2006 that it will be manufacturing Tata Nano from Singur, West Bengal.[86] However, within a week protests were started by a few farmers in the area against the acquisition of their lands by Tata.[87] The cause was taken up by Mamata Banerjee, the leader of Trinamool Congress.[88] The situation escalated with Tatas threatening to pull out,[89] and disruption of compensation for farmers who had volunteered to sell their land by anti-acquisition activists.[90] This was followed by a statewide bandh by Trinamool Congress in October.[91] The government banned political parties from holding meetings or processions at Singur and installed a huge police force there.[92][93] There was widespread violence in the clashes between the police and the farmers on December 2, 2006.[94] On December 4,2005 Mamata Banerjee entered into a hunger strike. A 48-hour strike was later called by her to protest the death of Tapasi, a Save Farmland Committee campaigner, whose burnt body was found at the Nano plant site in Singur.[95] Two CPM activists were later convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment for the murder.[96] On the 24th day of her strike, Banerjee was given oxygen support and finally called off her fast after appeals from the then President Abdul Kalam and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh.[97] As the protests over the land continued in 2007,[98] Ratan Tata accused that the competitors had a role in the controversy.[99] The acquisition of land was initially criticised in February 2007, but later approved by the Calcutta High Court in 2008.[100][101] As political unrest and rains hampered the construction, Tata Motors delayed the launch of Nano to September 2008.[102] Violence continued throughout 2008 [103][104][105] and on September 2,2008 Tata Motors announced that they have suspended work at Singur.[106] On October 2 ,2008 Tata Motors announced that they are pulling out of Singur.[107] On October 7 2008, it was announced that the Chief Minister of Gujarat, Narendra Modi had signed an MoU with Tata Motors for allocating land for Nano factory in Sanand in Ahmedabad district of Gujarat.[108]

Criticism, issues and problems
Questions of safety
The Times says:[30]

“

India has 8 percent of the world’s vehicle fatalities and less than 1 per cent of its cars, with more than 90,000 people killed on the country’s roads every year. Introducing a million Nanos into the mix may bring more – and unwelcome – headlines. Tata, which has the only crash-test facility in the country, said that the Nano "exceeds current regulatory requirements". And while it is not a deathtrap – it has crumple zones, seat belts and strong seat anchors – it is worth bearing in mind that total vehicle crash testing (rather than just frontal impact), airbags and antilock braking systems are not mandatory. Without these, the Nano would not even be considered for approval in Britain. Adding them would double its price in India, which is why they have been omitted.

”

Tata Motors will offer a version of the Nano with these safety-features, including an airbag system in its electric version. The Nano has an all sheet-metal body made from Japanese and Korean steel,[109] with safety features such as crumple zones, intrusion-resistant doors, seatbelts, strong seats and anchorages, and the rear tailgate glass bonded to the body. Tires are tubeless.[110]

Mass motorization
As the Nano was conceived and designed around introducing the automobile to a sector of the population who are currently using ecofriendly bicycles and motorcycles, environmentalists are concerned that its extraordinarily low price might lead to mass motorization in countries like India and therefore possibly aggravate pollution as well as increase the demand for oil.[111] The ecology focused German http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tata_Nano 7/25/2009 11:15:47 AM

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newspaper die tageszeitung feels that such concerns are "inappropriate" as the Tata Nano has lower emissions compared to the average Volkswagen, and that developing countries shouldn't be denied the right to motorized mobility when industrialized countries should be looking to reduce their emissions and usage of cars.[112] Die Welt reports that the car conforms with environmental protection, and will have the lowest emissions in India.[113] In crowded metropolitan cities like Mumbai, Ratan Tata has conceived a scheme to only offer the Nano to those individuals who do not have an automobile already. The Nano will also replace many overloaded and worn-out two-stroke polluting vehicles, both two and threewheeled. According to Anumita Roychowdhury, associate director of the Centre for Science and Environment in New Delhi, "the low-cost cars will be disastrous" in the current policy and regulatory framework.[53]

Used car market effects
The Nano is alleged to have severely affected the used car market in India, as many Indians opt to wait for the Nano's release rather than buying used cars, such as the Maruti 800 (a rebadged Suzuki Alto), which is considered as the Nano's nearest competitor. Sales of new Maruti 800s have dropped by 20%, and used ones by 30% following the unveiling of the Nano. As one automotive journalist summarises; “People are asking themselves—and us—why they should pay, say, 250,000 Rupees for a Maruti Alto, when they can wait and get a brand new Nano for less in a few months’ time, a car that is actually bigger”.[114]

Competitors
Rival car makers including Bajaj Auto, Fiat, General Motors, Ford Motor, Hyundai and Toyota Motor have all expressed interest in building a small car that is affordable to more middle-class consumers in emerging markets. The bulk of demand there is for small cars because people are much more sensitive to fuel prices.[115] Honda and Toyota are leading the way on so called cleaner gasoline-electric hybrids, and some environmentalists argue getting prices down on these technologies is where efforts should be concentrated.[115] Inexpensive and eco-friendly electric-cars like Tara Tiny, Oreva Super (both reportedly even cheaper than Tata Nano) and REVA[116] pose even more significant danger to Nano. There are also rumors of Maruti Suzuki introducing a lower priced version of Alto to counter Tata Nano.[117]

See also
Automobile industry in India City car Girish Wagh - General Manager, Tata Motors Ltd. Kei car REVA Tara Tiny Indica Electric Transport in India

References
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Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/3386709.cms. Retrieved on 2009-07-17. 26. ^ "Tata planning electric-drive version of Nano". Hindustan Times. 2008-08-20. http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/StoryPage.aspx? sectionName=&id=acf176cd-6f53-42b6-a47b-72e34341cfe1&&Headline=Tataplanningelectric-driveversionofNano&strParent=strParentID. Retrieved on 2009-06-08. 27. ^ a b 10 January 2008 (2008-01-10). "World's cheapest car launched: Tata Nano". Autocar. http://www.autocar.co.uk/News/NewsArticle/ AllCars/230103/. Retrieved on 2009-06-08. 28. ^ a b "India: Tata to export Nano to Europe from 2012". Automotive World. 2008-02-11. http://www.automotiveworld.com/AEM/content.asp? contentid=66287. Retrieved on 2009-06-08. 29. ^ a b Agencies (2008-05-13). "Tata may export 'Nano' to promising mkts". The Financial Express. http://www.financialexpress.com/news/Tata-mayexport-Nano-to-promising-mkts/308955/. 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Economictimes.indiatimes.com. 2008-11-18. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/News/News_By_Industry/Auto/Automobiles/Now_Honda_and_ Mitsubishi_follow_Nano_to_Gujarat/articleshow/3725831.cms. Retrieved on 2009-06-08. 36. ^ Shweta Bhanot (2008-09-20). "Nano dampener for Tata dealers". The Financial Express. http://www.financialexpress.com/news/Nano-dampenerfor-Tata-dealers/363718/. Retrieved on 2009-06-08. 37. ^ "Nano gets a new home: We are not orphans, says Tata- Interviews-Opinion-The Economic Times". Economictimes.indiatimes.com. 2008-10-07. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/articleshow/msid-3571177,flstry-1.cms. Retrieved on 2009-06-08. 38. ^ a b c d "The Next People's Car". Yahoo Finance. 2007-04-17. http://finance.yahoo.com/family-home/article/102865/the-next-peoples-car. Retrieved on 2008-01-11. 39. ^ "1 lakh car drives 1 billion dreams". Indian Express. 2008-01-11. http://www.indianexpress.com/story/260232.html. 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Motor Authority, 7 July 2008. http://www.motorauthority.com/news/hatchbacks/materialsprices-push-up-cost-of-tatas-nano/#more-6436. 47. ^ a b Nelson Ireson (2008-08-05). "Rising costs could eat Tata Nano’s profits". Motor Authority, Tuesday 5 August 2008. http:// www.motorauthority.com/news/hatchbacks/rising-costs-could-eat-tata-nanos-profits/. 48. ^ Adil Jal Darukhanawala. "Launch: ONE Lakh Rupee Tata Nano reviewed by ZigWheels". http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8AInXKvAUzs. Retrieved on 2009-03-24. "25 seconds into video" 49. ^ "Tata Nano, Unveiled!". Gawker Media. 2008-01-10. http://jalopnik.com/tag/tata-nano/. Retrieved on 2008-01-10. 50. ^ a b "It’s a car, not an apology". Times of India. 2008-01-11. http://epaper.timesofindia.com/Default/Scripting/ArticleWin.asp? From=Archive&Source=Page&Skin=TOI&BaseHref=TOIM/2008/01/11&PageLabel=1&EntityId=Ar00102&ViewMode=HTML&GZ=T. Retrieved on 2008-01-11. 51. ^ "The Next Peoples' Car". Forbes. 2007-04-16. http://www.forbes.com/forbes/2007/0416/070_2.html. 52. ^ "Events/Miscellaneous » Blog Archive » Detroit auto show: Tata’s Nano is talk of show | Blogs |". Blogs.reuters.com. 2008-01-15. http:// blogs.reuters.com/events/2008/01/15/detroit-auto-show-tatas-nano-is-talk-of-show/. Retrieved on 2009-06-08. 53. ^ a b c ENN: How green is my low-cost car? India revs up debate (http://www.enn.com/sci-tech/article/37437) 54. ^ "Ratan Tata unveils Rs 1-lakh 'Nano'". expressindia.com. http://www.expressindia.com/latest-news/Ratan-Tata-unveils-Rs-1lakh-Nano/259912/. Retrieved on 2008-01-10. 55. ^ "This is what the Tata Rs 1-lakh car looks like!". rediff. http://www.rediff.com/money/2008/jan/10tatacar.htm. 56. ^ "Nano passes Indian road test". indiatimes.com. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/News/News_By_Industry/Auto/Automobiles/Nano_passes_ Indian_road_test/articleshow/3464663.cms.

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57. ^ "Rover Mini 'Spiritual' project". austin-rover.co.uk. http://www.austin-rover.co.uk/r50storyf.htm. Retrieved on 2008-01-13. 58. ^ "Tata Nano To Offer Compressed Air Engine Optional, Make Electric Cars Look Silly". http://jalopnik.com/398180/tata-nano-to-offer-compressedair-engine-optional-make-electric-cars-look-silly. Retrieved on 2008-07-22. 59. ^ "Tata Motors unveils the People’s Car". tatamotors.com. http://www.tatamotors.com/our_world/press_releases.php?ID=340&action=Pull. Retrieved on 2008-01-10. 60. ^ "Tata Nano Std specification". CarDekho.com. http://www.cardekho.com/specs/Tata_Nano/Tata_Nano_Std-specification.htm. Retrieved on 2009-03-24. 61. ^ Ruth David (January 10, 2008). "Tata Unveils The Nano, Its $2,500 Car". Forbes.com. http://www.forbes.com/markets/2008/01/10/tata-motorsnano-markets-equity-cx_rd_0110markets05.html. 62. ^ "Specifications (from Tata web site)". http://tatanano.inservices.tatamotors.com/tatamotors/index.php?option=com_ whynano&task=specification&Itemid=303. Retrieved on 2009-03-31. 63. ^ "India's £1,250 car". autoexpress.co.uk. http://www.autoexpress.co.uk/news/autoexpressnews/214902/tata_nano.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 64. ^ a b "India’s Tata low-cost Nano took a lot of high-tech". ae-plus. http://www.ae-plus.com/Key%20topics/cc-Tata-news3.htm. 65. ^ "Tata Nano Diesel version roll out by September 2009". 2008-09-15. http://www.wheelsunplugged.com/ViewNews.aspx?newsid=1352. Retrieved on 2009-03-24. 66. ^ "Tata planning electric-drive version of Nano". Hindustan Times. 2008-08-20. http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/StoryPage.aspx? sectionName=&id=acf176cd-6f53-42b6-a47b-72e34341cfe1&&Headline=Tata+planning+electric-drive+version+of+Nano&strParent=strParentID. Retrieved on 2009-06-08. 67. ^ a b "The Tata Nano: World's Cheapest (Electric) Car? | EcoGeek - Clean Technology". EcoGeek. 2008-07-30. http://www.ecogeek.org/content/ view/1943/69/. Retrieved on 2009-06-08. 68. ^ "Let Tata's Nano be electric". Merinews.com. http://www.merinews.com/catFull.jsp?title=Let%20Tata's%20Nano%20be% 20electric&articleID=141391. Retrieved on 2009-06-08. 69. ^ "Tata's Nano Likely To Face Price, Competitive Pressures". Forbes.com. http://www.forbes.com/2008/01/11/tata-nano-competition-markets-equitycx_rd_0111markets04.html. Retrieved on 2009-06-08. 70. ^ "Tata may export Nano to US". Rediff.com. 2004-12-31. http://www.rediff.com/money/2008/may/13tata.htm. Retrieved on 2009-06-08. 71. ^ "tata nano export plans". Autofix.Com.Au. http://autofix.com.au/blog/archives/492. Retrieved on 2009-06-08. 72. ^ "Insider» Tata Nano—the Rs. 1 lakh car revealed". Lucire. http://lucire.com/insider/20080110/tata-nano%E2%80%94the-rs-1-lakh-car-revealed/. Retrieved on 2009-06-08. 73. ^ "Tata 'NANO' - The People's Car from Tata Motors". Tatanano.inservices.tatamotors.com. 2008-03-05. http://tatanano.inservices.tatamotors.com/ tatamotors/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=228&Itemid=207. Retrieved on 2009-06-08. 74. ^ "Tata's new volt colts! - Auto-The Economic Times". Economictimes.indiatimes.com. 2008-09-25. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/Auto/ Tatas_new_volt_colts_/articleshow/3524645.cms. Retrieved on 2009-06-08. 75. ^ "Miljøbil Grenland AS". Miljobil.no. http://www.miljobil.no/. Retrieved on 2009-06-08. 76. ^ "Tata plans E-Nano, electric version of Rs1-lakh car". domain-b.com. 2008-08-20. http://www.domainb.com/companies/companies_t/Tata_ Motors/20080820_tata_motors.html. Retrieved on 2009-06-08. 77. ^ Roshan PM (2008-08-21). "Tata Motors palnning electric-drive version of the Nano: Report". AutoIndia.com. http://www.autoindia.com/News/ auto-news-india1296.html. Retrieved on 2009-06-08. 78. ^ "Tata plans E-Nano, electric version of Rs1-lakh car". domain-b.com. 2008-08-20. http://www.domain-b.com/companies/companies_t/Tata_ Motors/20080820_tata_motors.html. Retrieved on 2009-06-08. 79. ^ "Tata Nano to get diesel, hybrid engines in addition to gasoline". Leftlanenews.com. 2008-07-24. http://www.leftlanenews.com/tata-nano-to-getdiesel-hybrid-engines-in-addition-to-gasoline.html. Retrieved on 2009-06-08. 80. ^ http://www.autonews.com/article/20090304/ANE02/903039952/1164 81. ^ "Tata Nano Europa &raquo Australian Car Advice | News Blog". Caradvice.com.au. 2009-03-04. http://www.caradvice.com.au/24821/tata-nanoeuropa/. Retrieved on 2009-06-08. 82. ^ "National : Europe awaiting Nano car’s electric version". The Hindu. 2008-09-14. http://www.hindu.com/2008/09/14/ stories/2008091455040700.htm. Retrieved on 2009-06-08. 83. ^ a b "Latest Guinness Book celebrates Tata Nano Car". Ibnlive.com. http://www.ibnlive.com/news/latest-guinness-book-celebrates-tata-nanocar/73807-2.html. Retrieved on 2009-06-08. 84. ^ "The car…and the planner - Views". livemint.com. 2008-09-14. http://www.livemint.com/2008/09/14215403/The-car8230and-the-planner.html? h=B. Retrieved on 2009-06-08. 85. ^ Surendra Munshi15 September 2008, 12:00am IST. "LEADER ARTICLE: More Than Just A Nano - Edit Page - OPINION - The Times of India". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Opinion/Editorial/LEADER_ARTICLE_More_Than_Just_A_Nano/ articleshow/3482989.cms. Retrieved on 2009-07-17. 86. ^ Tata WB car plant announced (http://www.financialexpress.com/old/latest_full_story.php?content_id=127639) 87. ^ Villagers raise slogans against car company (http://www.hindu.com/2006/05/26/stories/2006052618090900.htm) 88. ^ Mamta threatens bloodshed over Tata land (http://www.financialexpress.com/old/latest_full_story.php?content_id=134551) 89. ^ Tata threatens to pull out of Singur project (http://www.financialexpress.com/news/tata-threatens-to-pull-out-of-singur-project/352374/0) 90. ^ Chaos reigns at Singur (http://www.thestatesman.net/page.arcview.php?clid=1&id=158469&date=2006-09-26&usrsess=1) 91. ^ Trinamool-backed bandh hits life in West Bengal (http://www.tribuneindia.com/2006/20061010/nation.htm#1) 92. ^ Security blanket on Singur (http://www.telegraphindia.com/1061125/asp/frontpage/story_7048987.asp) 93. ^ WB bans protests against Tata Motors project (http://www.business-standard.com/india/storypage.php?tp=on&autono=18126) 94. ^ 80 injured in Singur flare-up (http://www.thestatesman.net/page.arcview.php?clid=1&id=166145&date=2006-12-03&usrsess=1) 95. ^ Singur protester found dead (http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/NEWS/India/Singur_protester_found_dead/articleshow/843314.cms) 96. ^ Life for CPM Singur activists in Tapasi murder case (http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/PoliticsNation/Life_for_CPM_Singur_activists_in_ Tapasi_murder_case/articleshow/3706245.cms) 97. ^ Mamta decides to end fast (http://www.rediff.com/news/2006/dec/29mamta.htm) 98. ^ Fresh violence erupts in Singur (http://www.expressindia.com/news/fullstory.php?newsid=80798) 99. ^ Tata: we have proof of rivals’ role in Singur (http://www.financialexpress.com/news/Tata:-we-have-proof-of-rivals%92-role-in-Singur/182562/) 100. ^ Singur land acquisition appears illegal: HC (http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/News/PoliticsNation/Singur_land_acquisition_appears_illegal_ HC/articleshow/1670553.cms) 101. ^ Singur land acquisition legal: Calcutta HC (http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/000200801190325.htm) 102. ^ [ http://inhome.rediff.com/money/2007/aug/03tata.htm Rain, political unrest delay Tatas' dream car] 103. ^ Violence in Singur again; 10 injured (http://www.expressindia.com/latest-news/violence-in-singur-again-10-injured/230387/)

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104. ^ Attack at Tata Motors site in Singur, constable injured (http://www.expressindia.com/latest-news/attack-at-tata-motors-site-in-singur-constableinjured/314566/) 105. ^ Villagers, cops clash at Tata's Singur plant (http://sify.com/news/fullstory.php?id=14704176) 106. ^ Tata Motors says suspends work on Nano plant at Singur, West Bengal UPDATE (http://www.forbes.com/feeds/afx/2008/09/02/ afx5378809.html) 107. ^ It's final: Tata Motors to pull out of Singur (http://www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/StoryPrint.aspx? ID=NEWEN20080067550&ch=633588296281093750) 108. ^ Buddha's loss is Modi's gain as Nano goes to Gujarat (2008-10-07). "Buddha's loss is Modi's gain as Nano goes to Gujarat". NDTV.com. http:// www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/story.aspx?id=NEWEN20080067901. Retrieved on 2009-06-08. 109. ^ Time Magazine article on Nano lessons (http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1887070-1,00.html) 110. ^ "FACTBOX: Specifications of the Tata Nano | Top News | Reuters". In.reuters.com. 2008-10-07. http://in.reuters.com/article/topNews/ idINIndia-35844720081007. Retrieved on 2009-06-08. 111. ^ 2008 Issues (http://www.moneyandmarkets.com/Issues.aspx?Energy-Stocks-for-200-a-Barrel-Oil-3) 112. ^ Der Spiegel Online: India Delivers World's Cheapest Car (http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,528106,00.html) 113. ^ "Deutscher Konzern verdient am Tata kräftig mit" (in German). Die Welt. 10 January 2008. http://www.welt.de/wirtschaft/article1536886/Tata_ Nano__der_indische_Volkswagen.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-22. 114. ^ "Nanomania overwhelms Indian car market". Autocar.co.uk. 2008-02-07. http://www.autocar.co.uk/News/NewsArticle.aspx?AR=231051. Retrieved on 2008-02-10. 115. ^ a b "Bajaj Auto and Renault-Nissan Form JV To Build Ultra Low Cost Car". Environmental News Network, June 19, 2008. http://www.enn.com/ sci-tech/article/37437. 116. ^ Motavalli, Jim (2008-09-24). "Tiny and Tax-Free: The Electric Reva - Wheels Blog - NYTimes.com". Wheels.blogs.nytimes.com. http:// wheels.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/09/24/tiny-and-tax-free-the-electric-reva/. Retrieved on 2009-06-08. 117. ^ "Stripped-down Alto likely to take on Nano". Economic Times. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/News/News-By-Industry/Auto/Strippeddown-Alto-likely-to-take-on-Nano/articleshow/4231117.cms.

External links
Tata Nano - Official product page (http://tatanano.inservices.tatamotors.com/tatamotors/) Tata Nano Reviews, Tata Nano Photos, Tata Nano Videos, Tata Nano Cartoons!! (http://www.tatananocar.net/) Crazyengineers.com, Interview with Mr. Girish Wagh (http://www.crazyengineers.com/small-talk/1-cover-story/65-small-talk-withmr-girish-wagh-realizing-the-big-qsmall-carq-dream) Tata Nano review video by Autocar (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3sZitve3SUw) Tata Nano Europa video (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vSaKVUkmtmA&feature=related) Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tata_Nano" Categories: 2000s automobiles | City cars | Sedans | Rear wheel drive vehicles | Rear-engined vehicles | Tata vehicles | Vehicles introduced in 2008 | Electric cars Hidden categories: All articles with dead external links | Articles with dead external links from June 2009 | All pages needing cleanup | Wikipedia articles needing clarification from March 2009 | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from March 2009 | Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2008 | Articles lacking sources from March 2009 | All articles lacking sources | Cleanup from March 2009 | Wikipedia articles needing style editing from March 2009 | All articles needing style editing | Articles with unsourced statements from October 2008 This page was last modified on 20 July 2009 at 15:30. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

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