Peer Mediation by 3K6P0f68


									                             Peer Mediation


   Mediation is a process for resolving disputes and conflicts in which a neutral third party (parties)
    acts as a moderator for the process.
   In mediation, trained students help their classmates identify the problems behind the conflicts, and
    to find solutions.
   Peer mediators ask the disputing students to tell their stories and ask questions for clarification.
    The mediators help the students identify ways to solve the conflict.
   Peer mediation is not about finding who is right or wrong. Instead, students are encouraged to
    move beyond the immediate conflict and learn how to get along with each other - an important skill
    in today's world.
                  Some Startling Stats

• Violence and Kids
•   Homicide is now the third leading cause of death for elementary and middle school
•   Between 1979 and 1991, nearly 50,000 children were killed by firearms - a total
    equivalent to American battle casualties in the Vietnam War.
•   A gun takes the life of a child every two hours.
•   Between 1980 and 1990, there was a 79% increase of 10 to 17 year olds using guns
    to commit murder.
•   100,000 young people carry guns to school each day.
•   A typical U.S. Child witnesses 8,000 murders on television by the time he or she
    leaves the eighth grade.
•   Almost 3 million crimes occur in and around our nation's schools each year.
•   In 1990, 1 in 5 high school students reported carrying a weapon somewhere, at least
    once, during the past month.
•   1 out of 6 teenagers knows someone who died in a violent incident.
•   In a 1993 national survey, 11% of public school teachers and 23% of students
    reported being victims of violence in or around their school.
•   Source: WWW/ Internet Kids Conscious Acts of Peace
Peer mediation resources focus on older
     age groups and even adults.
• - Better Business Bureau Page
•   Not every kind of problem is suitable for peer mediation, For example,
    assault or other criminal activities are usually not referred to a school's
    mediation program. Common situations involving name-calling, rumors,
    bumping into students in the hallways, rumors, and bullying have been
    successfully resolved through peer mediation.
•   Better Business Bureau Although both school and BBB mediation models
    use a structured process to resolve disputes, the nature of the process
    varies. It is apparent that the level of maturity of the individuals using
    mediation would influence the complexity, depth and flexibility of the
    process. The basis for variations on the "adult" model of mediation we are
    familiar with stems from the work of a number of human development
    theorists including Bandura, Maslow, Kohlberg and Piaget.

                     • Traditional approaches to
                       dealing with violent behavior
                       and conflict in schools are
                       ineffective at best.
                       Punishments such as
                       detention, suspension and
                       expulsion do little to deter
                       students from violence when
                       they perceive the alternatives
                       (losing face, being robbed or
                       beaten) to be worse. Also,
                       discipline addresses problems
                       after they occur and does
                       nothing to educate students
                       about alternative ways to
                       resolve conflict.
           In the long run, programs aimed at preventing the escalation
            of conflict may be the key to breaking the cycle of violence.

Even at the elementary school level, students
have a one in ten chance of being regularly
harassed or attacked by bullies.
The mediation process used in primary schools
(grades K-5 or 6) is a greatly simplified, well-
defined version of the basic adult model.
Children at this level of physical, social and
cognitive development generally learn through
modeling and repetition and have simple,
inflexible rules that govern thought processes
and behavior. The child's attention is focused
only for short periods of time before shifting to
other experiential stimuli. Piaget calls this stage
of development the stage of "concrete
    What’s Involved in Peer
• Mediation Steps:                     • Ground Rules
•   Agree upon the ground rules        •   Participants should be willing to:
•   Each student tells his/her story   •   Solve the problem
•   Verify the stories                 •   Tell the truth
•   Discuss the stories                •   Listen without interrupting
•   Generate solutions                 •   Be respectful
•   Discuss solutions                  •   Take responsibility for carrying out
•   Select a solution                      the agreement
•   Sign a contract                    •   Keep the situation confidential
How does this apply to early childhood situations?

                   Think about it….

             At the preschool level, staff tends to be
             that 3rd party person in a neutral position to
             intervene. Hopefully, at younger ages we
             are empowering children to reason and
             problem solve to the best of their ability in
             conflictive situations. On the same note,
             hopefully we are modeling and/or
             communicating with parents about how to
             promote problem solving between siblings
             in the home environment. (Sharing
 How does this apply to early childhood situations?

 At upper elementary
  levels, children can begin
  taking on the peer
  mediator roles in some
  situations with group
  guidance and training.
  Much like the class
  meetings we talked about
  where a peer led the
  group, there could be
  neutral 3rd party students
  to help initiate the
  problem solving process.
     More reasons that support this method of conflict

•   Research findings are identifying factors in the development of aggressive and antisocial
    behavior from early childhood to adolescence and into adulthood.
•   Multiple factors contribute to and shape antisocial behavior over the course of
    development. Some factors relate to characteristics within the child, but many others relate
    to factors within the social environment (e.g., family, peers, school, neighborhood, and
    community contexts) that enable, shape, and maintain
    aggression, antisocial behavior, and related behavior problems.
•   Such forces as weak bonding, ineffective parenting (poor monitoring, ineffective,
    excessively harsh, or inconsistent discipline, inadequate super-vision), exposure to
    violence in the home, and a climate that supports aggression and violence puts children at
    risk for being violent later in life. This is particularly so for youth with problem behavior,
    such as early conduct and attention problems, depression, anxiety disorders, lower
    cognitive and verbal abilities, etc.
                     Bottom Line
         We see “our” kids everyday
• Do we have control over every aspect of or factor contributing
  to their behavior?

• Can we offer consistency, guidance, modeling, facilitation,
  empathy, realism, attention, support, communication,
  knowledge, love, compromise, safety, and nurturing as
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