SERVER CLUSTERING

Document Sample
SERVER CLUSTERING Powered By Docstoc
					                    1




Chapter 6

SERVER CLUSTERING
                     Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING   2




OVERVIEW

 List the types of server clusters.
 Determine which type of cluster to use for your
  applications.
 Describe how Network Load Balancing and server
  clusters work.
 Deploy an NLB cluster.
 Deploy a server cluster.
                    Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING   3




WINDOWS SERVER 2003 CLUSTER TYPES

 Server clusters
 Network Load Balancing clusters
             Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING   4




SERVER CLUSTERS
             Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING   5




NETWORK LOAD BALANCING
                       Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING   6




DESIGNING A CLUSTERING SOLUTION

 What are you protecting against?
   Software failure
   Hardware failure
   Site failure
                    Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING      7




ESTIMATING AVAILABILITY REQUIREMENTS

 Decide what applications are required, and how
  much downtime can be tolerated.
 Consider what threats may be present—they will not
  be the same in every situation or environment.
 Investment in fault tolerance and availability is
  governed by the laws of diminishing returns.
  Spending twice as much will not provide double the
  protection.
                    Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING     8




SCALING CLUSTERS

Scale up
 Improve performance of systems by installing a
  more powerful processor and adding RAM and
  higher performance disk subsystems.
Scale out
 Add servers to cluster to increase overall processing
  power.
             Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING   9




HOW MANY CLUSTERS?
             Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING   10




COMBINING CLUSTERING TECHNOLOGIES
                      Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING   11




DISPERSING CLUSTERS

 Geographic separation provides higher availability in
  situations such as:
    Natural disaster (flood, earthquake, tornado)
    Power failure, rolling blackouts
    Theft, vandalism, terrorism
                    Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING     12




USING NETWORK LOAD BALANCING

 Easier to install, configure, and maintain than server
  clustering.
 Does not require additional storage hardware.
 No additional software is required.
 Managed via the Network Load Balancing Manager
  application.
                   Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING       13




UNDERSTANDING NETWORK LOAD
BALANCING
 Each NLB cluster can consist of up to 32 servers.
 A virtual network adapter acts as an intermediary
  between the physical network interface and the
  protocol stack.
 An algorithm associated with the virtual network
  adapter determines which requests should be
  answered and which should be ignored.
             Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING   14




PLANNING A NETWORK LOAD BALANCING
DEPLOYMENT
                   Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING      15




NLB OPERATIONAL MODES

Unicast mode
 Servers in the cluster can only communicate with
  each other if more than one network interface is
  installed in the server.
Multicast mode
 Servers with one network card can communicate
  with each other, but any routers on the network
  must support multicast MAC addresses.
                    Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING     16




NLB NETWORKING

 Servers in an NLB cluster determine independently
  whether or not to process an incoming request.
 Servers in an NLB cluster transmit heartbeat
  messages to let the other servers in the cluster
  know they are running and operational.
 Heartbeats are the only cluster-related
  communication between servers in an NLB cluster.
             Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING   17




DEPLOYING A NETWORK LOAD BALANCING
CLUSTER
                   Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING   18




MONITORING NETWORK LOAD BALANCING

 Monitoring of NLB clusters can be performed using:
   Network Load Balancing Manager
   Event Viewer
             Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING   19




USING NETWORK LOAD BALANCING
MANAGER
              Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING   20




USING EVENT VIEWER
                  Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING     21




USING NLB.EXE

 Command line utility used to configure and manage
  NLB clusters
 Enables commands to be placed into scripts and
  batch files
                    Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING     22




DESIGNING A SERVER CLUSTER

 Designing a server cluster deployment
 Planning a server cluster hardware configuration
 Creating an application deployment plan
 Selecting a quorum model
 Creating a server cluster
 Configuring failover policies
             Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING   23




DESIGNING A SERVER CLUSTER DEPLOYMENT
                    Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING    24




PLANNING A SERVER CLUSTER HARDWARE
CONFIGURATION
 All servers in the cluster must be running the same
  edition of Windows Server 2003.
 All servers in the cluster must have the same
  processor architecture: 32-bit or 64-bit.
 At least one network interface per system is
  required. Two are preferred.
 Shared storage connection is required.
             Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING   25




USING SCSI
              Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING   26




USING FIBRE CHANNEL
                    Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING     27




CREATING AN APPLICATION DEPLOYMENT
PLAN
Single-instance applications
 Applications that can run on no more than one
  server at a time, using a given configuration
Multiple-instance applications
 Applications in which duplicated code can run on
  multiple nodes in a cluster or in which the code can
  be partitioned
              Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING   28




DEPLOYING SINGLE-INSTANCE APPLICATIONS
                    Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING        29




CAPACITY PLANNING

 Idle servers in a standby configuration must be
  capable of running the application(s) on the active
  server.
 Depending on the failover configuration, the idle
  server may be required to run more than one
  application in the event of a multiple server failure.
              Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING   30




DEPLOYING MULTIPLE-INSTANCE
APPLICATIONS
                    Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING   31




SELECTING A QUORUM MODEL

 Single-node cluster
 Single-quorum device cluster
 Majority node set cluster
              Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING   32




CREATING A SERVER CLUSTER
                   Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING   33




CONFIGURING FAILOVER POLICIES

 Failover pairs
 Hot-standby server
 N+I
 Failover ring
 Random
                      Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING          34




CHAPTER SUMMARY

 A cluster is a group of servers that appears to users
  as a single resource and that provides high
  availability, reliability, and scalability for specific
  applications.
 A Network Load Balancing cluster is a group of
  servers running a stateless application, such as a
  Web server, each of which has an identical,
  independent data store.
 A server cluster is a group of servers running a
  stateful application, such as a database server, and
  sharing a common data store.
                    Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING       35




CHAPTER SUMMARY (continued)

 Network Load Balancing works by creating a virtual
  network adapter with IP and MAC addresses that
  represent the cluster as a single unit.
 When NLB is running in unicast mode, ordinary
  communication between cluster servers is
  impossible. In multicast mode, the cluster servers
  can communicate normally.
 Although NLB and server clusters can both function
  with a single network interface adapter installed in
  each server, using multiple adapters in each server
  can prevent network performance degradation.
                    Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING        36




CHAPTER SUMMARY (continued)

 A server cluster requires a storage resource shared
  by the nodes in the cluster. Windows Server 2003
  supports shared SCSI and Fibre Channel for this
  purpose.
 In a server cluster, the quorum is a storage resource
  that contains cluster configuration data, which
  nodes use to create their configuration databases
  as they join the cluster.
 You can configure a cluster to use various failover
  policies by specifying which nodes are permitted to
  run various cluster resources.
                   Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING   37




CHAPTER SUMMARY (continued)

 To create and manage server clusters, use the
  Cluster Administrator application. To manage
  Network Load Balancing clusters, use Network Load
  Balancing Manager.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:4
posted:2/8/2012
language:simple
pages:37