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1 Chapter 6 SERVER CLUSTERING Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 2 OVERVIEW List the types of server clusters. Determine which type of cluster to use for your applications. Describe how Network Load Balancing and server clusters work. Deploy an NLB cluster. Deploy a server cluster. Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 3 WINDOWS SERVER 2003 CLUSTER TYPES Server clusters Network Load Balancing clusters Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 4 SERVER CLUSTERS Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 5 NETWORK LOAD BALANCING Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 6 DESIGNING A CLUSTERING SOLUTION What are you protecting against? Software failure Hardware failure Site failure Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 7 ESTIMATING AVAILABILITY REQUIREMENTS Decide what applications are required, and how much downtime can be tolerated. Consider what threats may be present—they will not be the same in every situation or environment. Investment in fault tolerance and availability is governed by the laws of diminishing returns. Spending twice as much will not provide double the protection. Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 8 SCALING CLUSTERS Scale up Improve performance of systems by installing a more powerful processor and adding RAM and higher performance disk subsystems. Scale out Add servers to cluster to increase overall processing power. Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 9 HOW MANY CLUSTERS? Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 10 COMBINING CLUSTERING TECHNOLOGIES Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 11 DISPERSING CLUSTERS Geographic separation provides higher availability in situations such as: Natural disaster (flood, earthquake, tornado) Power failure, rolling blackouts Theft, vandalism, terrorism Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 12 USING NETWORK LOAD BALANCING Easier to install, configure, and maintain than server clustering. Does not require additional storage hardware. No additional software is required. Managed via the Network Load Balancing Manager application. Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 13 UNDERSTANDING NETWORK LOAD BALANCING Each NLB cluster can consist of up to 32 servers. A virtual network adapter acts as an intermediary between the physical network interface and the protocol stack. An algorithm associated with the virtual network adapter determines which requests should be answered and which should be ignored. Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 14 PLANNING A NETWORK LOAD BALANCING DEPLOYMENT Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 15 NLB OPERATIONAL MODES Unicast mode Servers in the cluster can only communicate with each other if more than one network interface is installed in the server. Multicast mode Servers with one network card can communicate with each other, but any routers on the network must support multicast MAC addresses. Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 16 NLB NETWORKING Servers in an NLB cluster determine independently whether or not to process an incoming request. Servers in an NLB cluster transmit heartbeat messages to let the other servers in the cluster know they are running and operational. Heartbeats are the only cluster-related communication between servers in an NLB cluster. Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 17 DEPLOYING A NETWORK LOAD BALANCING CLUSTER Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 18 MONITORING NETWORK LOAD BALANCING Monitoring of NLB clusters can be performed using: Network Load Balancing Manager Event Viewer Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 19 USING NETWORK LOAD BALANCING MANAGER Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 20 USING EVENT VIEWER Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 21 USING NLB.EXE Command line utility used to configure and manage NLB clusters Enables commands to be placed into scripts and batch files Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 22 DESIGNING A SERVER CLUSTER Designing a server cluster deployment Planning a server cluster hardware configuration Creating an application deployment plan Selecting a quorum model Creating a server cluster Configuring failover policies Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 23 DESIGNING A SERVER CLUSTER DEPLOYMENT Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 24 PLANNING A SERVER CLUSTER HARDWARE CONFIGURATION All servers in the cluster must be running the same edition of Windows Server 2003. All servers in the cluster must have the same processor architecture: 32-bit or 64-bit. At least one network interface per system is required. Two are preferred. Shared storage connection is required. Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 25 USING SCSI Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 26 USING FIBRE CHANNEL Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 27 CREATING AN APPLICATION DEPLOYMENT PLAN Single-instance applications Applications that can run on no more than one server at a time, using a given configuration Multiple-instance applications Applications in which duplicated code can run on multiple nodes in a cluster or in which the code can be partitioned Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 28 DEPLOYING SINGLE-INSTANCE APPLICATIONS Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 29 CAPACITY PLANNING Idle servers in a standby configuration must be capable of running the application(s) on the active server. Depending on the failover configuration, the idle server may be required to run more than one application in the event of a multiple server failure. Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 30 DEPLOYING MULTIPLE-INSTANCE APPLICATIONS Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 31 SELECTING A QUORUM MODEL Single-node cluster Single-quorum device cluster Majority node set cluster Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 32 CREATING A SERVER CLUSTER Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 33 CONFIGURING FAILOVER POLICIES Failover pairs Hot-standby server N+I Failover ring Random Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 34 CHAPTER SUMMARY A cluster is a group of servers that appears to users as a single resource and that provides high availability, reliability, and scalability for specific applications. A Network Load Balancing cluster is a group of servers running a stateless application, such as a Web server, each of which has an identical, independent data store. A server cluster is a group of servers running a stateful application, such as a database server, and sharing a common data store. Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 35 CHAPTER SUMMARY (continued) Network Load Balancing works by creating a virtual network adapter with IP and MAC addresses that represent the cluster as a single unit. When NLB is running in unicast mode, ordinary communication between cluster servers is impossible. In multicast mode, the cluster servers can communicate normally. Although NLB and server clusters can both function with a single network interface adapter installed in each server, using multiple adapters in each server can prevent network performance degradation. Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 36 CHAPTER SUMMARY (continued) A server cluster requires a storage resource shared by the nodes in the cluster. Windows Server 2003 supports shared SCSI and Fibre Channel for this purpose. In a server cluster, the quorum is a storage resource that contains cluster configuration data, which nodes use to create their configuration databases as they join the cluster. You can configure a cluster to use various failover policies by specifying which nodes are permitted to run various cluster resources. Chapter 6: SERVER CLUSTERING 37 CHAPTER SUMMARY (continued) To create and manage server clusters, use the Cluster Administrator application. To manage Network Load Balancing clusters, use Network Load Balancing Manager.
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