Networking BASICS by yaohongm

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									Windows 2000
Windows.NET
 Servers
    Unit 2
   Lesson 6
          Lesson 6—Networking BASICS   1
           Objectives
• List and describe the features of a Windows
  2000 server.
• Create and modify a new user account using
  Windows 2000.
• Add users to a group using Windows 2000.
• List the new features of the Windows.NET
  network operating system.


                Lesson 6—Networking BASICS      2
    Windows 2000
• It is the most widely used
  network operating system.
• The first version appeared in
  1988.
• There are four versions of
  Windows 2000.
          Lesson 6—Networking BASICS   3
Windows 2000 Features
• They have a broad
  range of features.
• Many features are not
  available in other
  NOSs.
        Lesson 6—Networking BASICS   4
         Scalability
• These network servers are designed so
  that increased demand can be met by
  adding additional hardware.
• Scaling up – Adding additional
  processors to the server.
• Windows 2000 Datacenter supports up
  to 32 processors.

             Lesson 6—Networking BASICS   5
         Scaling Out
• Scaling out – Adding more servers to
  the network to handle increased load.
• Network Load Balancing –
  Automatically spreads Internet traffic
  across multiple servers.
• Component Load Balancing –
  Spreads load across application
  servers.

              Lesson 6—Networking BASICS   6
Scaling Out




  Lesson 6—Networking BASICS   7
              Stability
• Windows 2000 restricts programs from
  directly accessing server hardware.
• Executive services talks to the kernel
  subsystem, which communicates with the
  hardware abstraction layer (HAL).
• HAL consists of virtual hardware objects that
  represent the actual hardware devices.
• Any problem that occurs based on a faulty
  hardware request is first caught by HAL.

                Lesson 6—Networking BASICS        8
Stability




Lesson 6—Networking BASICS   9
                 Rings
• Each process is confined to a specific ring.
• Only processes run by the executive services
  run on Ring 0. All regular applications run on
  Ring 3.
• Any process running on Ring 0 can commun-
  icate with the hardware through kernel and
  HAL.
• When a program running on Ring 3 needs
  access to hardware, it must first communicate
  the request with a process running on Ring 0.
                Lesson 6—Networking BASICS     10
 Rings




Lesson 6—Networking BASICS   11
             Security
• It is essential that any NOS contains the
  necessary security features to keep out
  intruders.
• Windows 2000 security features have
  earned it one of the highest rankings
  from the U.S. government for a LAN.
• There are three categories of security
  features.

              Lesson 6—Networking BASICS   12
    Authentication
• Verifying the identity of the
  user
• Passwords and Kerberos
• Smart cards
• Biometric authentication
  (fingerprint and retinal scans)
           Lesson 6—Networking BASICS   13
              Access
• Resources are set up with permissions that
  define who can access the resource and what
  type of access is granted.
• Every item or device on a Windows 2000
  network has an access control list (ACL).
• When a user attempts to use a network
  resource, the user's permissions are first
  checked against ACL.

               Lesson 6—Networking BASICS   14
     Data Protection
• It is sometimes necessary to encrypt sensitive
  data on a file server.
• Windows 2000 supports a public key
  infrastructure, which allows data to be
  encrypted and then read without storing the
  key on a server.
• Windows 2000 supports Internet Protocol
  Security (IPSec), which encrypts IP packets
  so that packet sniffers cannot be used.
                Lesson 6—Networking BASICS    15
     Active Directory
• It is the directory service for Windows 2000.
• The building block of Active Directory is the
  domain.
• An object represents a network resource.
• An organizational unit (OU) can contain
  multiple objects.
• A tree is set of domains, and a forest is a
  collection of trees.
• The Active Directory is stored in the Security
  Accounts Manager (SAM) database.
                 Lesson 6—Networking BASICS        16
Active Directory




    Lesson 6—Networking BASICS   17
    User Accounts
• Performed at Computer
  Management window
• Username
• Full name
• Description
• Password
• Confirm password
           Lesson 6—Networking BASICS   18
Add Users to Groups
• Performed at Computer
  Management window
• Group name
• Description

        Lesson 6—Networking BASICS   19
          Shares
• Performed at Windows 2000
  Explorer window
• Share name
• Comment
• User limit
• Permissions
           Lesson 6—Networking BASICS   20
        Windows.NET
• Windows.NET represents a change in how
  information is accessed.
• It is an effort to take the Web to a new and higher
  level.
• Microsoft’s .NET framework is a set of software
  technologies for connecting information between
  people, systems, and devices.
• .NET acts as a “go-between” for information being
  transported from one piece of software to another.


                   Lesson 6—Networking BASICS           21
Windows.NET




   Lesson 6—Networking BASICS   22
 Windows.NET Servers
• Microsoft.NET servers are designed to
  work closely with the .NET framework.
• Instead of being a separate program
  that runs on the servers, .NET support
  is part of the NOS itself.
• There are four versions of .NET servers.


              Lesson 6—Networking BASICS   23
 Windows.NET Servers
• Improved security features in
  Active Directory
• New load-balancing techniques
• Enhanced encryption tools
• IPv6 support

           Lesson 6—Networking BASICS   24
                    Summary
• The Windows 2000 NOS has become the most popular network
  operating system for LANs. Windows 2000 has many advanced
  features that make it easy for network administrators to manage
  and for users to work with. Windows 2000 servers are designed
  so an increased demand can be easily met by adding additional
  hardware resources. These resources can be added by either
  installing more processors to the server (scaling up) or adding
  more servers (scaling out). To improve its stability, Windows
  2000 is divided into different subsystems, and only the hardware
  abstraction layer (HAL) provides instructions to the hardware.
  Any problem that occurs based on a faulty hardware request is
  caught by HAL before it ever reaches the hardware. A second
  technique used to increase stability is the use of rings, whereby
  a process running on a specific ring can communicate with the
  hardware.
                       Lesson 6—Networking BASICS                25
    Summary (continued)
• Windows 2000 also offers a high degree of security. For authen-
  ticating users, Windows 2000 uses a special security protocol
  known as Kerberos, which supports faster authentication and
  requires only one password from a user logging into a domain.
  Also, devices such as smart cards and biometric authentication
  can be used. Windows 2000 resources are set up with permis-
  sions that define who can access the resource and what type of
  access is granted. Sensitive data stored on a file server can be
  encrypted so only authorized personnel can read it. Windows
  2000 supports public key infrastructure, which allows data to be
  encrypted and then read without storing the key on a server, and
  Internet Protocol Security (IPSec), which encrypts IP packets.


                      Lesson 6—Networking BASICS                26
     Summary (continued)
•   The directory service for Windows 2000 is called Active Directory. The
    building block of Active Directory is the domain. Every domain must
    have at least one Windows 2000 server contained within it. The Active
    Directory is stored in the Security Accounts Manager (SAM) database.
    The primary domain controller (PDC) is the name of the server that
    houses the SAM database. A domain can also have multiple backup
    domain controllers (BDCs), which are on other servers in the domain.
•   Creating an account for a new user or creating groups are tasks that
    are done almost daily by network managers. Microsoft has streamlined
    this process so it can be done very quickly. A shared resource is known
    as a share and can include network resources such as a printer, a
    drive, and a folder. Individual files cannot be shared on a Windows
    2000 network. When a folder is shared, all the files in that folder are
    accessible to other users.

                          Lesson 6—Networking BASICS                     27
    Summary (continued)
• Microsoft’s Windows.NET is the latest version of operating
  system for LANs, but it is not just another upgrade to Microsoft’s
  line of network operating systems. Windows.NET is one piece of
  a much larger picture known as the .NET framework, which is a
  set of software technologies for connecting information between
  people, systems, and devices. On its most basic level, .NET
  acts as a “go-between” for information being transported from
  one piece of software to another.




                       Lesson 6—Networking BASICS                 28
    Summary (continued)
• A critical piece of the .NET framework is the eXtensible Markup
  Language (XML), which outlines how data elements are
  structured. XML provides a standard way of transmitting data
  independent of how it is to be formatted. Using XML as the
  “glue,” Microsoft’s .NET framework provides the means of
  integrating different servers and devices together. XML Web
  Services are small, reusable applications that are written in
  XML. They allow data to be communicated across the Internet
  or LAN. Microsoft.NET servers are designed to work closely with
  the .NET framework. Instead of being a separate program that
  runs on the servers, the .NET support is part of the NOS itself.



                      Lesson 6—Networking BASICS                29

								
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