Project Management Manual by sZU1tC


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               UNEP Programme of Work 2010-11

                Programme Framework Document

                                         Climate Change:
        EA (d): Increased carbon sequestration occurs through
      improved land use, reduced deforestation and reduced land

                                                   REVIEWED FOR APPROVAL
    Name and title of Expected Accomplishment                   Review Signature:
    Coordinating Division Director:

    Name: Ibrahim Thiaw, Director DEPI                          ____________________   Date:______/______/20__

    Name and title of Sub-programme Coordinator:                Review Signature:

    Name: Kaveh Zahedi, Climate Change Coordinator              ____________________   Date:______/______/20__

    PAG approval of the Programme Framework:                    Approval Signature:

    Name: Angela Cropper, UNEP Deputy Executive Director        ____________________   Date:______/______/20__

    Environment Fund Allocations are approved by the Executive director for each organizational unit.

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Table of Contents
1   Programme Framework Outline ........................................................................................................ 3
    Programme of Work Basis and Cost...................................................................................................... 3
    Programme Framework Description...................................................................................................... 4
2   Project Concepts .................................................................................................................................. 7
3   Risk Analysis ...................................................................................................................................... 11
    Programme Framework Opportunities ................................................................................................ 12
4   Overview Table, including Regional and Country Focus .............................................................. 13

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 1       Programme Framework Outline

 Programme of Work Basis and Cost

Subprogramme      #1 Climate change                                                      Lead Division:       DTIE

Expected          Increased carbon sequestration occurs through improved land Coordinating
               #d                                                                                            DEPI
Accomplishment    use, reduced deforestation and reduced land degradation.    Division:

                       Investment in reducing greenhouse gas emissions with respect to land use, land-use change
Indicator of
                       and forestry as a result of UNEP intervention is increased.
                       Total amount of funding for land use, land use change and forestry projects with emphasis on
Baseline and Target    carbon sequestration as a result of UNEP interventions: Dec 2007: n/a; Dec 2009:
                       $25 million; Dec 2011: $50 million.
                                                                                    IMDIS Category,       Accountable
PoW Outputs and ID Numbers (#ID: SP-EA-Output, e.g. 1-a-1)
                                                                                       Quantity            Division
       Mapping and assessment of land-use change biodiversity, forest loss and Advisory services
       carbon stocks, and associated capacity-building, are undertaken to
#1d1                                                                            Non-recurrent                DEWA
       provide the knowledge base for reducing emissions from deforestation
       [four assessments]                                                       publications, 4

                                                                                    Advisory services,
                                                                                     Training courses,
       Tools for examining and modeling greenhouse-gas emissions and carbon            seminars and
#1d2   stocks from deforestation, land use change, forest and land cover                workshops            DEPI
       degradation are developed and tested [four countries]
                                                                                       Booklets, fact
                                                                                    sheets, information
                                                                                           kits, 1
       Legal, regulatory and institutional frameworks governing land use and
                                                                                    Advisory services,
#1d3   forestry are strengthened to promote greenhouse-gas emission reduction                                DELC
       from deforestation and land use change [four countries].                            4

                                                                                    Advisory services,
       Lessons from the development of monitoring and evaluation systems,                  3
       payments for ecosystem services and carbon markets are used to support the
#1d4                                                                                 Training courses,       DEPI
       development of readiness in a number of relevant developing countries and
       to provide support to global processes.                                         seminars and

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Table 1: Total Framework Budget for 2010-2011 (total, including in-kind)

                      Environment Fund          Extra-Budgetary               GEF                     Total

Estimated Budget                 $               $15,000,000                    $                       $

Secured                   $5,753,400             $10,000,000                    $                       $

Unsecured                        $                5,000,000$                    $                       $

Programme Framework Description

Programme Framework logic:
The Programme Framework and the proposed Project are designed to specifically respond the EA(d)
objective and its four Outputs. Together, the objectives and four Outputs in this Programme Framework
will offer a shared vision for long-term cooperative action and a long-term goal for emission reduction in
line with the Bali Action Plan (§1a). In order to foster south-south cooperation, this Programme
Framework will promote cross country-partnerships, particularly within the scope of the “Specific
Objectives” described in Section 2 of this document.

The project strategy restructures the hierarchy of the EA(d) objective and outputs in order to re-establish
internal coherence and proper sequencing. The project also introduces additional specific objectives, which
are required to deliver on the EA but that were not clearly articulated in the outputs of the programme of
work. As this Programme Framework comprises only one project, the unified logic of the proposed
intervention and sequencing for EA(d) is presented in the project concept note.

The project will incorporate and build on the following projects that are already underway and will
continue into the 2010-11 biennium:

                                          Managing                        Funding     Total budget
                         Title                              Partners                                     Status
                                           division                        source         $M
                UN-REDD Programme
                – Global and national                       UNDP,        Norway,                     Under
            1                            DEPI
                                                             FAO         Denmark      $52,000,000*   implementation

                Carbon BenefitsProject                       State       GEF plus
                                         DGEF/                                                       Under
            2   Modeling, Measurement    DEWA/WCMC
                                                           University,   partner        $9,164,347
                and Monitoring                             WWF and       co-funding
*Note: Total budget allocation for UNEP, UNDP, FAO. Actual budget allocation for UNEP depending on
a number of pilot country programmes that will be presented to the UN_REDD Policy Board only in Oct
2009 and March 2010. Indicatively $10,000,000

The above ongoing projects will directly contribute to the POW Outputs as follows:
UN-REDD contributes to Output 1d1, 1d2, 1d3 and 1d4 with its work on readiness at country and global
level on tools and methodology to determine reference emission levels, systems for monitoring reporting
and verification (MRV), multiple benefits, payment distribution mechanisms and REDD strategies.

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The Carbon Benefit Project contributes to Output 1d1 and 1d2 by providing scientifically rigorous, cost-
effective tools to establish the carbon benefits of sustainable land in terms of enhanced carbon stocks and
reduced greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. The tool will estimate and model carbon stocks and flows and
GHG emissions under present and alternative management as well as measure carbon changes under
different land uses.

Key Actors in the field and Programme Framework partnerships:
The Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) in developing countries work
will be undertaken within the UNEP-UNDP-FAO collaborative UN-REDD Programme implemented in
close collaboration with the secretariat of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
and the World Bank Forest Carbon Partnership Facility to ensure a coordinated approach to countries.
Other partners will include the Coalition for Rainforest Nations, major tropical forest countries and
interested bilateral donors such as Norway, Australia, and the United Kingdom. Technical partners and
sponsors will include the Center for International Forestry Research, ICRAF, the Woods Hole Research
Center, the Packard Foundation, the Moore Foundation, the IPCC Secretariat, and the Clinton Climate

Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses (AFOLU, previously referred to as Land use, land-use change
and forestry (LULUCF) projects will build on both UNEP internally executed GEF projects and the
broader GEF portfolio as a whole, and partnerships already established at the regional and country levels.

For this programme to have any real impact on accelerating a transition to a low terrestrial-carbon growth
path, it needs to foster partnerships across three quite different communities of interest: climate,
forest/agroforestry, and development. These related but distinct communities have different – and not yet
fully matured - experiences in working together and understanding their respective languages and goals.

The main actors in the transformation that this program aims to accelerate are the target countries in
question where the changes need to take place. Supporting actors include donors (which play a
fundamental role, as the initial investment is going to be mostly ODA); civil society and private sector
(both crucial in creating a demand for reforms and actively engage in the response) and; international

Given that low terrestrial-carbon growth is a relatively new paradigm, understanding the full landscape of
stakeholders involved and their respective interests, as well as forging new partnerships is a major
undertaking. For this reason, partnership mobilization has been identified as a Specific Objective in the
proposed project. A more detailed and structured stakeholders analysis will be done in the coming weeks
to feed into the detailed project document and will continue in the next few months.

Other critical information:
UNEP work on land use, land-use change and forestry and reducing emissions from deforestation and
forest degradation (REDD) will be undertaken in response to requests from developing countries,
especially those with sizeable tropical forests that have the greatest potential to offset emissions and
therefore the most to gain from REDD. The work on Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses (AFOLU)
and REDD will build on existing programmes and projects at the regional and country levels, particularly
projects in the Global GEF portfolio.
Internal management arrangements and reporting requirements:

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A Stand-alone Activity will fund Expected Accomplishment baselining and monitoring activities, e.g. data
collection and indicator assessment. The support activities are the responsibility of the Subprogramme
Coordinator in close collaboration with Coordinating Divisions. The Stand Alone Activity is detailed

Wahida Shah, Programme Officer, is assigned by the Programme Framework Coordinating Division to
compile and report on Programme Framework progress six monthly to the Subprogramme Coordinator.

The accomplishments of this Programme Framework requires an integrated inter-divisional approach, with
important contributions from DEWA, DRC, DELC, DCPI, DTIE, UNEP-WCMC and other collaborating
centers, in addition to the regional offices responsible for the countries in which activities will be carried
out. All regional offices will have a role in monitoring and engaging with national policy development
related to REDD within their respective regions; bringing UN-REDD initiatives to the attention of relevant
policymakers as well as in the non-governmental community in their regions; representing UNEP at
selected REDD-related meetings; and supporting the organization of UN-REDD events when requested.
RONA will also help DEPI to harness the scientific and technical expertise on REDD-related issues that
resides in North American governmental and non-governmental institutions. DEWA will provide support
on the process of building capacity, understanding and confidence on a credible and sustainable approach
to carbon stock measurement; assessment reporting and verification (MARV) to support a future REDD
mechanism. DCPI will support the coordination and delivery of media, publishing, website,
communications and outreach activities to support REDD.

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2      Project Concepts
1-d-P1: REDD and AFOLU (Terrestrial Carbon) readiness and implementation support

Project         To support the development of and acceleration to a transition to an equitable, low terrestrial-
objective       carbon growth path , in line with the Bali Action Plan (particularly §1biii) and the Millenium
                Development Goals (particularly with MDG 7A and 7B), as well as UNEP’s Medium Term
                Strategy 2010-2013 (particularly with section III.Ad) and PoW 2010-2011 (particularly with
                section IV.D1)

Project idea and approach
Problem           Terrestrial ecosystems are a major source of carbon emission and do not provide their full
statement         potential as carbon sinks. In the absence of terrestrial carbon mitigation, the below 2° increase
                  target cannot be attained. The world is wasting the potential for a relatively rapid, cost-
                  effective and equitable 20-30% carbon abatement, which in turn, could bring-about other
                  social, economic and environmentally desirable outcomes.

                  The current climate change mitigation regime does not provide real incentives for terrestrial
                  carbon mitigation actions as called for in the Bali Action Plan (§1b). As such, the
                  transformations (in capacity, governance, institutions, and investment) required to shift to a
                  low terrestrial-carbon growth path are not taking place.
Proposed UNEP     This project will support the development of REDD standards and thereby create the
response          confidence that an equitable, and effective REDD mechanism fully addressing both carbon
                  and multiple benefits is feasible. This would help unlock the establishment of a definitive and
                  workable climate change regime in the aftermath of Copenhagen.

                  This project will also support the implementation of REDD readiness and demonstrations, and
                  in this way create the capacity to deliver a REDD programme and understand what it takes to
                  do so. This would prepare counties to gain the most out of a REDD regime and would also
                  help create an enabling environment for the required investment to make REDD operational.

                  For a REDD value chain to operate and deliver the to its full potential both carbon mitigation
                  as well as other social and environmentally desirable outcomes (poverty reduction, economic
                  growth, biodiversity conservation, etc., particularly those mentioned in MDG7) two
                  conditions are required: (1) a “REDD Infrastructure” needs to be established and; (2)
                  deforestation and forest degradation need to be reduced. The establishment of a REDD
                  infrastructure is the subject of the so called “REDD Readiness” phase. During this phase,
                  countries will develop a Monitoring Reporting and Verification (MRV) system, strategies and
                  a portfolio of programs to reduce deforestation, and carbon payments distribution
                  mechanisms. The reduction of deforestation will require a transformation of the sector,
                  reforming its policies, strengthening its institutions and addressing the broader governance
                  issues underpinning the effectiveness of any reform and intervention in the sector.

                  Finally, in line with MDG7A, to “integrate the principles of sustainable development into
                  country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources”,, the
                  project will help to make the case through analysis and policy interventions for the
                  development of an international mechanism for full terrestrial carbon mitigation and in this
                  way expand the current mechanism beyond REDD. In the UNFCC negotiations the broader
                  terrestrial carbon approach was previously known as LULCF (Land Use, Land Use Changes
                  and Forestry) and is now refereed to as AFOLU (Agriculture Forestry and Other land Uses.

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Rationale for       The rational for each of the proposed responses is provided in the UNEP Response section
the proposed        above. In addition, it is important to note the following.
                    REDD is already recognized as an important component of a future climate change mitigation
                    regime. Whilst a deal has not yet been made and standards are not set, it is expected that the
                    negotiations in Copenhagen will produce sufficient language to allow the REDD agreement to
                    develop into an operational mechanism in the following years. As such it will be important in
                    the 2010-11 biennium to support the development of the standards, experience and investment
                    required to scale-up and operate REDD. UNEP will also be instrumental in mobilizing
                    support and catalyzing activities on both the readiness phase and the transformation of the
                    sector as described above.

                    The broader terrestrial carbon mechanism, on the other hand, is still in its early gestation.
                    There is an emerging consensus that the Copenhagen agreement should focus only on REDD,
                    and should not attempt to resolve the broader terrestrial ecosystems mechanism but recognize
                    its importance as a source and sink of carbon and allow for its future development and
                    adoption. As such it will also be important to support during the biennium 2010-11 to make
                    the case for the development of such a mechanism in a similar manner to how it was
                    undertaken for REDD in the past few years.

Specific                1.    Demonstrate that REDD Readiness can be achieved: support            2010-11
objectives                    capacity development, institutional and legal and regulatory
                              support in the development of REDD Readiness (reference
                              level, modelling, assessment, measurement, reporting,
                              verification, reduction strategy, payment distribution,
                              transactions management) in at least 9 countries
                         2. Accelerate the development of equitable and effective                 2010-11
                              standards for REDD: support the development of
                              internationally agreed standards for REDD readiness and
                              REDD implementation that optimize the protection and
                              delivery of multiple benefits
                         3. Accelerate the mobilization of the interim investment required 2010-11
                              for REDD implementation: support the establishment of an
                              interim financing mechanism as stated in the Bali Action Plan
                         4. Test REDD mechanism and standards on the ground with the              Five years
                              view of demonstrating that it can deliver on mitigation and
                              multiple benefits: support the implementation of a the full
                              REDD value chain and related legal, governance and
                              management options in at least 4 countries (at least one for
                              each of the three REDD regions: AP, AFR, LAC)
                         5. Accelerate the development of a mechanism to enable the full          2010-11
                              terrestrial (including coastal) carbon mitigation potential:
                              support the policy dialogue, consultations and science to make
                              the case for terrestrial (including coastal) carbon as it was done
                              for REDD during the past few years
Sustainability of   Policy dialogue will contribute to the stipulation of a binding arrangement for REDD and
the results         AFOLU in the context of a new international climate change regime.
                    The emergence of a market based mechanism (regardless of whether it will be a compliance
                    or non-compliance market) to reward climate change mitigation performance of REDD and
                    AFOLU, will provide incentives to maintain the REDD and AFOLU mitigation outcomes. To
                    strengthen sustainability, participation of Indigenous Peoples and civil society will be
                    promoted from the very early stages of the project activities in the pilot countries as wells as
                    at global level

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Links to           The project contributes directly to the achievement of all the Outputs (1-4) of the Expected
UNEP’s             Accomplishment D " Increased carbon sequestration occurs through improved land use,
Programme of       reduced deforestation and reduced land degradation” of Subprogramme 1 “Climate Change”

Poverty and        A properly designed REDD and terrestrial carbon system has the potential to restructure the
gender             sector, address the underlying governance problems and maximize the livelihood outcomes
implications       from sustainable forest and land management. The Programme will specifically address the
                   poverty and gender dimensions in line with UNEP’s MTS 2010-2013 (section V.D).
Science            The scientific case for the importance of REDD and terrestrial carbon mitigation has already
foundation         been authoritatively made. Moving forward, technical and scientific partnerships will be
                   mobilized to develop robust methodology and modalities for the implementation of the
UNEP’s              UNEP has been the leading partner of the UN-REDD Programme and has initiated the first
comparative         comprehensive analysis of terrestrial carbon and biosequestration. It brings to the center of
advantage           the REDD debate, the notion of ecosystems services and benefits beyond carbon. It is also
                    uniquely positioned to bridge the policy, science and regulatory communities at a crucial
                    juncture when the quality of these interactions will determine the future viability of the
                    REDD and Terrestrial Carbon mechanism. The Green Economy Initiative and Report also
                    place UNEP in a unique position to influence and steer (from the useful stand point of the
                    neutral broker) the debate on investment for environmentally and socially desirable
                    transformation of forest and land ecosystems.
Relevance of the   The project has been developed in response to demands by developing country governments,
project to         regional processes and multilateral dialogues, to support their ongoing efforts in building a
national and       REDD and AFOLU mechanism in the Post Copenhagen climate change regime and establish
regional           the national capacity to operate and benefit from this regime.

Project roles and responsibilities
Roles &            EA Coordinating            The Coordinating Division is responsible for ensuring coherence
responsibilities   Division: DEPI             of the projects within this Programme Framework in meeting the
                                              Expected Accomplishment and for providing a report on
                                              Programme Framework progress to the Subprogramme
                                              Coordinator every six months.
                   EA Output Accountable      The Output Accountable Division is responsible for ensuring that
                   Divisions: DEPI            the activities of the project are in line with and help achieve
                                              Outputs 1-4. It is also responsible for tracking progress towards
                                              achieving the PoW performance measures related to this Output
                                              in close cooperation with the Lead Division.
                   Project Managing           The Managing Division is responsible for project development,
                   Division: DEPI             implementation, monitoring and reporting. This includes day to
                                              day management of the project, reporting of programme results,
                                              both to donors and internally, co-ordination with partners
                                              including the secretariat of the UNFCCC and UNDP. The
                                              Managing Division is responsible for providing monthly updates
                                              on project implementation to both the EA Coordinating Division
                                              and the Subprogramme Lead Division. It is also responsible for
                                              involving Regional Offices in all activities in their respective
                                              regions and in engaging both Divisional and Regional Office staff
                                              in the implementation of the project.

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              Other Divisions:             DRC and Regional Offices
                                           - co-ordination and day-to-day management of regional,
                                             subregional and national projects
                                           - provision of policy advice, notably as regards regional, sub-
                                             regional and national developments and initiatives
                                           - selection of target countries in consultation with the UN-
                                             REDD team and Board
                                           - coordinate interactions with governments in the regions,
                                             coordinate missions in the regions
                                           - provision of advice on regional, subregional and national
                                             partners which could support the implementation of the
                                             projects, and coordination of joint project implementation
                                           Other divisions and Centres
                                           - DEWA: assessments and modelling tools
                                           - DELC: legal and regulatory frameworks
                                           - DCPI: communication and outreach on REDD and AFOLU
                                             specific activities as part of EA(e)
                                           - UNEP-WCMC: multiple-benefits analysis and tools
                                           - UNEP-Risoe: carbon finance and incentives analysis and tools

Regions and   The project activities will cover principally the Asia Pacific, Africa and Latin America and
countries     Caribbean regions and with partnership nurturing and outreach activities in North America
              and Europe. It is anticipated that at least the following countries will be covered, but not
              limited to: the nine UN-REDD pilot countries (Indonesia, PNG, Vietnam, DRC, Tanzania,
              Zambia, Bolivia, Panama, Paraguay), Argentina, Mexico, Kenya.

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3       Risk Analysis
Table 2: Programme Framework risk analysis*

Framework risk rating

                             1.   Lack of robust agreement on REDD. Copenhagen does not produce a
                                  sufficiently robust agreement on REDD. As a result the REDD process will
                                  stagnate, a half-hearted (CDM A/F type) mechanism will be developed
                                  unable of promoting the transformation and level of funds required, and only
                                  providing small incentives for pet projects. The Terrestrial Carbon
                                  mechanism would be set back for good. Risk is LOW but we will know for
                                  sure in five months

                             2.   Insufficient capitalization. Donors hesitate to provide the level of required
                                  ODA to kick-off REDD for real immediately after Copenhagen. Risk is LOW
                                  as the signals from donors are positive and the – stated always with a lot of
                                  disclaimers – predisposition to invest high.

                             3.   Fragmentation of capitalization. The required additional multilateral liquidity
                                  for REDD may be divided into too many funds and financing mechanism.
                                  This may be advocated by some on the notion that it would promote diversity
                                  of approaches but in reality would create a landscape with many players
                                  seeking a share of the windfall, increasing the transaction costs, burdening
                                  recipients and reducing impact. Risk is LOW-MEDIUM as on one hand
Risk analysis                     donors and recipients are calling for an harmonised REDD implementation
                                  support platform but on the other there’s several interested potential homes
                                  for this platform.

                             4.   Governance. This has been and still remains the main barrier for transforming
                                  the forest sector and more broadly the management of natural resources and
                                  lands in those fairly common circumstances where these resources provide a
                                  rent to capture. Even in the presence of a mechanism providing substantive
                                  rewards for forest and terrestrial carbon mitigation, these would not accrue to
                                  the elite in control of the resource which would therefore resist any change to
                                  the current status quo (as it would be difficult to design a system of state
                                  capture for international carbon payments and administrative corruption
                                  would not be sufficient to siphon away the same level of illegal revenues
                                  created by the status quo). Risk is MEDIUM-HIGH

                             5.   Absorption capacity. Recipient countries do not have the capacity to utilize
                                  the funds available and transform their terrestrial sectors rapidly at the
                                  envisaged speed. Risk is MEDIUM-HIGH

                             1.   UNEP and the UN-REDD programme have convened in September 09 the
                                  first ever heads of states meeting on REDD which produced a critical mass
Proposed risk
                                  of support on REDD. Follow-up consensus building activities are planned in
management strategy
                                  the lead up to Copenhagen and beyond.

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                            2.   UNEP, the UN-REDD programme and other partners are already actively
                                 engaged to create donor convergence towards an interim fund for REDD. The
                                 UN-REDD programme is also working to increase the confidence of donors
                                 on the programme as a reliable and effective platform for REDD readiness

                            3.   If the funds are indeed fragmented across various platforms then this can be
                                 mitigated by creating a strong joint management and coordination
                                 mechanism. Similarly the creation of a REDD investment clearing house
                                 would be a viable option, whereby there would be several platforms and
                                 direct investors operating under a common agreed set of standards with an
                                 oversight entity ensuring coherence.

                            4.   How to mitigate for governance: (1) be prepared and chose carefully; (2)
                                 work with the champions and empower them through the REDD investment;
                                 (3) develop a demand for reforms through REDD capacity building funds and
                                 postpone REDD investment; (4) explicit commitment from heads of state.

                            5.   Use a stand-by funding mechanism, build capacity where it can be developed
                                 quickly, sequence intervention strategically; develop partnerships with private
                                 sector and other players with an operational presence in the country.

Programme Framework Opportunities
As described in the Project objective, UNEP response and rationale sections of the project

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4      Overview Table, including Regional and
       Country Focus
Table 3: Framework Overview

Separate Excel Table 3


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