VIEWS: 8 PAGES: 36 POSTED ON: 2/8/2012
10th American History Chapter 18 Unit V- A Nation Section 2 Facing Challenges Freedom Now Freedom Now! The Main Idea The quest for civil rights became a nationwide movement in the 1960s as African Americans won political and legal rights, and segregation was largely abolished. Reading Focus • What are sit-ins and Freedom Rides, and why were they important in the 1960s? • How was the integration of higher education achieved in the South? • What role did Albany, Georgia, and Birmingham, Alabama, play in the history of civil rights? • What concerns and events led to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964? Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi: Advocate of Tolerance and Nonviolence (02:46) Non-Violent Protests during the Civil Rights Movement • Civil rights workers used several direct, nonviolent methods to confront discrimination and racism in the late 1950s and early 1960s. – Boycotts – Sit-ins – Freedom Rides • Many of these non-violent tactics were based on those of Mohandas Gandhi—a leader in India’s struggle for independence from Great Britain. • American civil rights leaders such as James Farmer of CORE, Martin Luther King Jr. of SCLC, and others shared Gandhi’s views. • James Lawson, an African American minister, conducted workshops on nonviolent methods in Nashville and on college campuses. The Strategy of Nonviolence The Sit-in Movement The Freedom Rides • Four college students in • In 1960 the Supreme Court Greensboro, North Carolina, ordered that bus station facilities stayed in their seats at a for interstate travelers must be Woolworth’s lunch counter after open to all passengers. But this being refused service because of ruling was not enforced. their race. • CORE sent a group of Freedom • Over the next few days, Riders on a bus trip through the protesters filled 63 of the 66 seats South to draw attention to this at the lunch counter. situation. • The students were dedicated and • Mobs angry at the Freedom well-behaved and ended each sit- Riders attempts to use white-only in with a prayer. facilities firebombed a bus in Anniston, Alabama and attacked • Over time, protesters in about 50 riders with baseball bats and southern cities began to use the metal pipes in Birmingham. sit-in tactic. 1960: Lunch Counter Sit-Ins: JFK Elected: with Support from Black Leadership (01:54) Results of Sit-ins and Freedom Rides • Succeeded at getting businesses to change their policies • Marked a shift in the civil rights movement—showed Sit-ins young African Americans’ growing impatience with the slow pace of change • Leaders formed the SNCC. Freedom • After the savage beatings in Birmingham, bus Rides companies refused to sell the Freedom Riders tickets and CORE disbanded the Freedom Ride. • SNCC continued the Freedom Rides. • Attorney General Robert Kennedy sent federal marshals Federal to Montgomery to protect the riders. Intervention • The Interstate Commerce Commission finally forced the integration of bus and train stations. 1961: Whites Join in with Freedom Riders: Medgar Evers is Assassinated (00:53) Sit-ins and Freedom Rides • What are sit-in and Freedom Rides and why were they important in the 1960’s? • Identify- Who founded the Congress of Racial Equality? • Summarize – What happened at the sit-in at the Woolworth store in Greensboro, North Carolina? • Draw Conclusions – Why do you think the Greensboro newspaper supported the protest? Sit-ins and Freedom Rides • Contrast- In what ways were sit-ins and Freedom Rides different? • Explain – The success of the Freedom Riders came with death and blood-shed. Why was SNCC more successful tha CORE in conducting Freedom Rides? • Evaluate – Do you think President Kennedy should have done more tol enforce the Court’s order regarding equal accommodations in bus stations? Integration of Higher Education in the South • By 1960 the NAACP began to attack segregation in colleges and universities. • In 1961 a court order required the University of Georgia to admit two African American students. – Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes suffered but both graduated in 1963. • In 1962 James Meredith tried to enroll at the University of Mississippi. – He arrived on campus with 500 federal marshals and was met by 2,500 violent protesters. – President Kennedy went on national television to announce that he was sending in troops. – The troops ended the protest but hundreds had been injured and two killed. – A small force of marshals remained to protect Meredith until he graduated in 1963. • In 1963 the governor of Alabama physically blocked Vivian Malone and James Hood from enrolling at the University of Alabama. U.S. vs. Mississippi; Campus Riots Mark Integration (02:08) Alabama Story: African Americans Enrolled as Governor Yields (01:34) Integrating Higher Education • How was the integration of higher education achieved in the South? • Recall - Who were Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes and why were they able to attend the University of Georgia? • Recall – What organization expanded its school integration efforts to college and universities? • Draw Conclusions – Why do you think colleges were able to continue segregation after the Brown decision? Integrating Higher Education • Identify - Who was James Meredith? • Summarize – How did some people of Mississippi react to the integration of the university? • Evaluate – Which do you think was the most effective in dealing with the riots in Mississippi, President Kennedy’s appeal or sending federal toops? What role did Albany, Georgia, and Birmingham, Alabama, play in the history of civil rights? • Local officials in Albany, Georgia, ignored the Interstate Commerce Commission’s new integration rules. • Birmingham, Alabama, was known for its strict enforcement of segregation. The Philosophy of Martin Luther King, Jr. (04:20) The Albany Movement The Movement The Results • SNCC began a sit-in in • The police chief had studied Albany’s bus station. King’s tactics and made arrangements to counter-act • Over 500 demonstrators were the nonviolent protest. arrested. • When the press arrived, King • The federal government was was released. informed but took no action. • City officials would only deal • Local leaders asked Martin with local leaders until King Luther King Jr. to lead more left. demonstrations and to gain more coverage for the • Once King left, officials would protests. not negotiate at all. • He agreed and was also • The nine-month movement arrested. failed. Birmingham, AL, 1963: Children Jailed, Protests and Police Brutality: JFK Pushes Civil Rights Act Through Congress (02:41) The Birmingham Campaign The Campaign The Results • Martin Luther King raised money • A SCLC leader convinced King to to fight Birmingham’s segregation use children for his protests. laws. • More than 900 children between • Volunteers began with sit-ins and ages six and eighteen were marches and were quickly arrested. arrested. • Police Chief Eugene ―Bull‖ • King hoped this would motivate Connor used police and fire more people to join the protests. fighters to break up a group of about 2,500 student protesters. • White clergy attacked King’s actions in a newspaper ad. • The violence of Connor’s methods was all over the television news. • King wrote his ―Letter from a Birmingham Jail.‖ • Federal negotiators got the city officials to agree to many of • Fewer African Americans were King’s demands. willing to join and risk their jobs. Albany and Birmingham • What role did Albany, Georgia and Birmingham, Alabama play in the history of civil rights? • Identify - What was the Albany Movement? • Recall – Why did Albany, Georgia become a civil rights battleground? • Elaborate – Why do you think the white clergy in Birmingham attacked Martin Luther King Jr.’s actions? Albany and Birmingham • Recall – How did the chief of police in Albany, Georgia undermine Martin Luther King Jr.’s protest? • Summarize – What lesson did Martin Luther King Jr. learn from the Albany Movement? Civil Rights Act of 1964 • The events in Alabama convinced President Kennedy to act on President civil rights issues. Kennedy • Kennedy announced that he would ask for legislation to finally end segregation in public accommodations. • Medgar Evers, the head of the NAACP in Mississippi, was shot Medgar dead in his front yard. Evers • Ku Klux Klan member Byron De La Beckwith was tried for the crime but all-white juries failed to convict. • On August 28, 1963, the largest civil rights demonstration ever March held in the United States took place in Washington. on • More than 200,000 people marched and listened to Martin Luther Washington King Jr.’s ―I Have a Dream‖ speech. Civil Rights Act of 1964 • Outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin: in voting, employment, and public services, such as transportation. • To enforce the constitutional right to vote. • To establish a Commission on Equal Employment Opportunity. August, 1963: March on Washington: MLK's (01:12) March on Washington March on Washington Passing the Civil Rights Act • President Johnson supported passage of a strong civil rights bill. • Some southerners in Congress fought hard to kill his bill. • Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 into law on July 2, 1964. • The law banned discrimination in employment and in public accommodations. Right to Vote, The (01:23) The Civil Rights Act of 1964 • What concerns and events led to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964? • Explain - What finally motivated President Kennedy to take action in the area of civil rights? • Analyze – Why was Medgar Evers assassinated? • Elaborate – Why do you think President Kennedy had resisted pushing strong civil rights legislation? The Civil Rights Act of 1964 • Analyze – What was the significance of the March on Washington? • Evaluate – Why is the 1964 Civil Rights Act considered landmark legislation?
Pages to are hidden for
"10th American History"Please download to view full document