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10th American History by QY2HZe7k


									10th American History

  Chapter 18    Unit V- A Nation
   Section 2   Facing Challenges
                        Freedom Now!
                                The Main Idea

    The quest for civil rights became a nationwide movement in the 1960s as
       African Americans won political and legal rights, and segregation was
                                   largely abolished.

                                Reading Focus
•    What are sit-ins and Freedom Rides, and why were they important in the
•    How was the integration of higher education achieved in the South?
•    What role did Albany, Georgia, and Birmingham, Alabama, play in the
     history of civil rights?
•    What concerns and events led to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi: Advocate of Tolerance and

                 Nonviolence (02:46)
Non-Violent Protests during
the Civil Rights Movement
 • Civil rights workers used several direct, nonviolent methods to
   confront discrimination and racism in the late 1950s and early
     – Boycotts
     – Sit-ins
     – Freedom Rides
 • Many of these non-violent tactics were based on those of
   Mohandas Gandhi—a leader in India’s struggle for
   independence from Great Britain.
 • American civil rights leaders such as James Farmer of CORE,
   Martin Luther King Jr. of SCLC, and others shared Gandhi’s
 • James Lawson, an African American minister, conducted
   workshops on nonviolent methods in Nashville and on college
        The Strategy of Nonviolence
       The Sit-in Movement                       The Freedom Rides
• Four college students in               • In 1960 the Supreme Court
  Greensboro, North Carolina,              ordered that bus station facilities
  stayed in their seats at a               for interstate travelers must be
  Woolworth’s lunch counter after          open to all passengers. But this
  being refused service because of         ruling was not enforced.
  their race.
                                         • CORE sent a group of Freedom
• Over the next few days,                  Riders on a bus trip through the
  protesters filled 63 of the 66 seats     South to draw attention to this
  at the lunch counter.                    situation.
• The students were dedicated and        • Mobs angry at the Freedom
  well-behaved and ended each sit-         Riders attempts to use white-only
  in with a prayer.                        facilities firebombed a bus in
                                           Anniston, Alabama and attacked
• Over time, protesters in about 50        riders with baseball bats and
  southern cities began to use the         metal pipes in Birmingham.
  sit-in tactic.
1960: Lunch Counter Sit-Ins: JFK Elected:
with Support from Black Leadership (01:54)
     Results of Sit-ins and Freedom Rides
               •   Succeeded at getting businesses to change their
               •   Marked a shift in the civil rights movement—showed
  Sit-ins          young African Americans’ growing impatience with the
                   slow pace of change
               •   Leaders formed the SNCC.

 Freedom       •   After the savage beatings in Birmingham, bus
   Rides           companies refused to sell the Freedom Riders tickets
                   and CORE disbanded the Freedom Ride.
               •   SNCC continued the Freedom Rides.
               •   Attorney General Robert Kennedy sent federal marshals
                   to Montgomery to protect the riders.
               •   The Interstate Commerce Commission finally forced the
                   integration of bus and train stations.
1961: Whites Join in with Freedom Riders:
  Medgar Evers is Assassinated (00:53)
Sit-ins and Freedom Rides

• What are sit-in and Freedom Rides and
  why were they important in the 1960’s?
• Identify- Who founded the Congress of
  Racial Equality?
• Summarize – What happened at the sit-in
  at the Woolworth store in Greensboro,
  North Carolina?
• Draw Conclusions – Why do you think the
  Greensboro newspaper supported the
Sit-ins and Freedom Rides

• Contrast- In what ways were sit-ins and
  Freedom Rides different?
• Explain – The success of the Freedom
  Riders came with death and blood-shed.
  Why was SNCC more successful tha
  CORE in conducting Freedom Rides?
• Evaluate – Do you think President
  Kennedy should have done more tol
  enforce the Court’s order regarding equal
  accommodations in bus stations?
    Integration of Higher Education in the South

•   By 1960 the NAACP began to attack segregation in colleges and universities.
•   In 1961 a court order required the University of Georgia to admit two African
    American students.
     – Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes suffered but both graduated in
•   In 1962 James Meredith tried to enroll at the University of Mississippi.
     – He arrived on campus with 500 federal marshals and was met by 2,500
       violent protesters.
     – President Kennedy went on national television to announce that he was
       sending in troops.
     – The troops ended the protest but hundreds had been injured and two
     – A small force of marshals remained to protect Meredith until he graduated
       in 1963.
•   In 1963 the governor of Alabama physically blocked Vivian Malone and
    James Hood from enrolling at the University of Alabama.
U.S. vs. Mississippi; Campus Riots
     Mark Integration (02:08)
Alabama Story: African Americans
Enrolled as Governor Yields (01:34)
  Integrating Higher Education

• How was the integration of higher
  education achieved in the South?
• Recall - Who were Charlayne Hunter and
  Hamilton Holmes and why were they able
  to attend the University of Georgia?
• Recall – What organization expanded its
  school integration efforts to college and
• Draw Conclusions – Why do you think
  colleges were able to continue
  segregation after the Brown decision?
  Integrating Higher Education

• Identify - Who was James Meredith?
• Summarize – How did some people of
  Mississippi react to the integration of the
• Evaluate – Which do you think was the
  most effective in dealing with the riots in
  Mississippi, President Kennedy’s appeal
  or sending federal toops?
What role did Albany, Georgia, and
Birmingham, Alabama, play in the
      history of civil rights?

   • Local officials in Albany, Georgia,
     ignored the Interstate Commerce
     Commission’s new integration rules.

   • Birmingham, Alabama, was known for
     its strict enforcement of segregation.
The Philosophy of Martin Luther King, Jr. (04:20)
      The Albany Movement
       The Movement                       The Results
• SNCC began a sit-in in         • The police chief had studied
  Albany’s bus station.            King’s tactics and made
                                   arrangements to counter-act
• Over 500 demonstrators were      the nonviolent protest.
                                 • When the press arrived, King
• The federal government was       was released.
  informed but took no action.
                                 • City officials would only deal
• Local leaders asked Martin       with local leaders until King
  Luther King Jr. to lead more     left.
  demonstrations and to gain
  more coverage for the          • Once King left, officials would
  protests.                        not negotiate at all.
• He agreed and was also         • The nine-month movement
  arrested.                        failed.
Birmingham, AL, 1963: Children Jailed, Protests and Police
 Brutality: JFK Pushes Civil Rights Act Through Congress
The Birmingham Campaign
          The Campaign                              The Results
• Martin Luther King raised money        • A SCLC leader convinced King to
  to fight Birmingham’s segregation        use children for his protests.
                                         • More than 900 children between
• Volunteers began with sit-ins and        ages six and eighteen were
  marches and were quickly                 arrested.
                                         • Police Chief Eugene ―Bull‖
• King hoped this would motivate           Connor used police and fire
  more people to join the protests.        fighters to break up a group of
                                           about 2,500 student protesters.
• White clergy attacked King’s
  actions in a newspaper ad.             • The violence of Connor’s methods
                                           was all over the television news.
• King wrote his ―Letter from a
  Birmingham Jail.‖                      • Federal negotiators got the city
                                           officials to agree to many of
• Fewer African Americans were             King’s demands.
  willing to join and risk their jobs.
     Albany and Birmingham

• What role did Albany, Georgia and
  Birmingham, Alabama play in the history
  of civil rights?
• Identify - What was the Albany
• Recall – Why did Albany, Georgia become
  a civil rights battleground?
• Elaborate – Why do you think the white
  clergy in Birmingham attacked Martin
  Luther King Jr.’s actions?
     Albany and Birmingham

• Recall – How did the chief of police
  in Albany, Georgia undermine Martin
  Luther King Jr.’s protest?
• Summarize – What lesson did Martin
  Luther King Jr. learn from the Albany
     Civil Rights Act of 1964
            •   The events in Alabama convinced President Kennedy to act on
President       civil rights issues.
Kennedy     •   Kennedy announced that he would ask for legislation to finally end
                segregation in public accommodations.

            •   Medgar Evers, the head of the NAACP in Mississippi, was shot
 Medgar         dead in his front yard.
  Evers     •   Ku Klux Klan member Byron De La Beckwith was tried for the
                crime but all-white juries failed to convict.

            •   On August 28, 1963, the largest civil rights demonstration ever
  March         held in the United States took place in Washington.
   on      •    More than 200,000 people marched and listened to Martin Luther
Washington      King Jr.’s ―I Have a Dream‖ speech.
   Civil Rights Act of 1964

• Outlawed discrimination
  based on race, color,
  religion, sex, or national
  origin: in voting,
  employment, and public
  services, such as
• To enforce the constitutional
  right to vote.
• To establish a Commission
  on Equal Employment
August, 1963: March on Washington: MLK's (01:12)
March on Washington
March on Washington
   Passing the Civil Rights
• President Johnson supported passage of a strong civil
  rights bill.
• Some southerners in Congress fought hard to kill his
• Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 into law on
  July 2, 1964.
• The law banned discrimination in employment and in
  public accommodations.
Right to Vote, The (01:23)
   The Civil Rights Act of 1964

• What concerns and events led to the
  passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964?
• Explain - What finally motivated President
  Kennedy to take action in the area of civil
• Analyze – Why was Medgar Evers
• Elaborate – Why do you think President
  Kennedy had resisted pushing strong civil
  rights legislation?
  The Civil Rights Act of 1964

• Analyze – What was the significance
  of the March on Washington?
• Evaluate – Why is the 1964 Civil
  Rights Act considered landmark

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