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					                                              LAFARGE
                                                                                    Page:   1 of145
                                          SAFETY AND HEALTH                         Date:   12/29/2004
                                               MANUAL

                                                   TABLE OF CONTENTS

SECTION 1 - INTRODUCTION AND POLICY STATEMENT

      1.1       Introduction

      1.2       Policy

SECTION 2 - LAFARGE NORTH AMERICA SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM

SECTION 3 – RESPONSIBILITIES

      3.1       Safety Responsibilities
      3.1.1     Regional President and Vice President
      3.1.2     Regional Safety Personnel
      3.1.3     Local Safety Personnel (Division or Location Level)
      3.1.4     Manager
      3.1.5     Superintendent/Supervisor/Foreman (Mobile or Remote Crews)
      3.1.6     Safety Committee
      3.1.7     Safety Crew/Team Leader (Mobile or Remote Crews) (LCM only)
      3.1.8     Employee
      3.1.9     Vendor/Visitor/Contractor

SECTION 4 – SAFE WORK PRACTICES

      4.1                       Hazard Analysis
      4.1.1      Identification of Tasks and Activities
      4.1.2      Identification of Potential Hazards
      4.1.3      Prioritization
      4.1.4      Hazard Controls
            4.1.4.1 Engineering Controls
            4.1.4.2 Administrative Controls
            4.1.4.3 Personal Protective Equipment
      4.1.5      Safe Work Practices

      4.2                       General Safe Work Practices
      4.2.1      General
      4.2.2      Housekeeping
      4.2.3      Illumination
      4.2.4      Personal Protective Equipment
            4.2.4.1 Safety Glasses
            4.2.4.2 Hard Hats
            4.2.4.3 Hard-toed Safety Shoes
            4.2.4.4 Work Gloves
            4.2.4.5 Respirators
            4.2.4.6 Hearing Protection
            4.2.4.7 Vest
            4.2.4.8 Floatation Vests
            4.2.4.9 Fall Protection
      4.2.5      Materials Handling and Storage
            4.2.5.1 Manual Lifting
            4.2.5.2 Mechanical Lifting
            4.2.5.3 Personal Protective Equipment
            4.2.5.4 Material Storage
      4.2.6      Biological Hazards
            4.2.6.1    Poisonous Plants
            4.2.6.2    Stinging/ Biting Insects
            4.2.6.3    Poisonous Reptiles
            4.2.6.4    Rodents and Aggressive Mammals
      4.2.7      First Aid Flushing Procedure Using Water Stored On A Mixer Truck
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4.2.8                       Bloodborne Pathogens
        4.2.8.1                 Exposure Control Plan
        4.2.8.2                 Exposure Response
4.2.9                       Water Hazards
     4.2.9.1                    General
     4.2.9.2                    Dock Operations
     4.2.9.3                    Dock Communications
     4.2.9.4                    Dock Night Operations
     4.2.9.5                    Dock Emergency Response Plan
     4.2.9.6                    Safety Inspections
4.2.10                      Temperature Extremes
     4.2.10.1                   Heat Stress
     4.2.10.2                   Cold Stress

4.3                    Manufacturing Plants
4.3.1                       General (All Product Lines)
4.3.2                       Cement Plant Specific Issues
        4.3.2.1                  Shelf Cleaning
        4.3.2.2                  Unplugging Cyclones
        4.3.2.3                  Coal Mills
        4.3.2.4                  WOMA Gun Operation
        4.3.2.5                  Blaster Lockout
4.3.3                       Crushing, Screening, and Washing Operations
4.3.4                       Bins and Hoppers
4.3.5                       Conveyors
4.3.6                       Elevators
4.3.7                       Elevated Platforms
        4.3.7.1                  Stairways
        4.3.7.2                  Ladders
        4.3.7.3                  Fixed Ladders
4.3.8                       Scaffolding/Platforms
4.3.9                       Travelways and Escapeways

4.4                    Mobile Equipment
4.4.1      General
      4.4.1.1 Pre-Trip Inspections
      4.4.1.2 Accessing Vehicles and Equipment
      4.4.1.3 Starting Mobile Equipment
      4.4.1.4 Operating Vehicles and Equipment
      4.4.1.5 Stopping and Parking Mobile Equipment
      4.4.1.6 Cellular Telephone Use
      4.4.1.7 Reporting Traffic Accidents
4.4.2      Mixer Trucks
      4.4.2.1 Acid Washing of Mixer Drums
      4.4.2.2 Mixer Drum Entry Procedure
      4.4.2.3 Chipping Out Mixer Drums
4.4.3      Loaders
4.4.4      Bulldozers
4.4.5      Scrapers
4.4.6      Trailers
4.4.7      Rail Cars
4.4.8      Powered Industrial Trucks
4.4.9      Paving Equipment
4.4.10     Drilling Rigs
4.4.11     Hauling Equipment
4.4.12     Haul Roads
4.4.13     Stockpile and Dumping Safety
      4.4.13.1 Dumping
      4.4.13.2 Loading
      4.4.13.3 Surge Piles
      4.4.13.4 Winter Hazards
4.4.14     Loading Asphalt/Tar/Hot Oil
4.4.15     Traffic Controls
      4.4.15.1 Barricades
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     4.4.15.2 Flagging
4.4.16    Equipment Repair
     4.4.16.1 General
     4.4.16.2 Tires and Rims
     4.4.16.3 Battery Storage

4.5                       Tools
4.5.1        Defective Tools
4.5.2        Grinder/Abrasive Wheels
4.5.3        Drill Press
4.5.4        Explosive/Powder Actuated Fastening Tools
4.5.5        Chain Saws
4.5.6        Hand-Held Powered Circular Saws
4.5.7        Tiger Torches
4.5.8        Hand Tools
        4.5.8.1 Sledge Hammer

4.6                       Specific Hazards
4.6.1      Electrical
4.6.2      Utilities
      4.6.2.1 Overhead Power Lines
      4.6.2.2 Underground Utilities
4.6.3      Lockout/Tagout – Hazardous Energy Control
      4.6.3.1 Lockout/Tagout Procedures
      4.6.3.2 Locks/Tags Left in Place
      4.6.3.3 Service Contractors
4.6.4      Confined Space Procedures
      4.6.4.1 Confined Space Definition
      4.6.4.2 Permit-Required Confined Space
      4.6.4.3 Lafarge Confined Space Requirements
      4.6.4.4 Definitions
      4.6.4.5 Permit Space Entry Assigned Duties
      4.6.4.6 Emergency Response
      4.6.4.7 Entry Procedures
      4.6.4.8 Training
      4.6.4.9 Oxygen Deficiency
      4.6.4.10 Toxic Substances
      4.6.4.11 Flammable or Explosive Concentrations
      4.6.4.12 Engulfment
      4.6.4.13 Equipment
4.6.5      Compressed Gas Handling and Storage
4.6.6      Use of Compressed Air
4.6.7      Propane Cylinder Filling Procedures
      4.6.7.1 Regular Cylinders
      4.6.7.2 Forklift Cylinders
4.6.8      Welding and Cutting
      4.6.8.1 General
      4.6.8.2 Oxygen-Fuel Welding and Cutting
      4.6.8.3 Arc Welding and Cutting
      4.6.8.4 Welding or Cutting Near Rubber Liners and Urethane Screening Materials
      4.6.8.5 Fire Watch
      4.6.8.6 Respiratory Protection
4.6.9      Ground Control
      4.6.9.1 Surface
      4.6.9.2 Underground
4.6.10     Blasting
      4.6.10.1 Training Requirements
      4.6.10.2 Required Equipment
      4.6.10.3 Transporting Explosives
      4.6.10.4 Distribution in the Blast Area
      4.6.10.5 Loading the Shot
      4.6.10.6 Shot Warning Signal
      4.6.10.7 Firing the Shot and Follow Up
      4.6.10.8 Highwall Safety
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          4.6.10.9 Complaints
     4.6.11    Trenching and Excavation
     4.6.12    Nuclear Density Gauge
          4.6.12.1 Training
          4.6.12.2 Monitoring
          4.6.12.3 Storage Requirements
          4.6.12.4 Transport Requirements
          4.6.12.5 Testing
          4.6.12.6 Operation and Maintenance
          4.6.12.7 Disposal of Depleted Sources
          4.6.12.8 Records
          4.6.12.9 Incident Reporting
     4.6.13    Cleaning Solvents and Flammables

                               SECTION 5 - EDUCATION AND TRAINING

     5.1      Hazard Communication/ WHMIS
     5.1.1    Employee Training/Advisement
     5.1.2    Site-Specific Program

     5.2      Training
     5.2.1    Training Programs
     5.2.2    New Hire Orientation

                         SECTION 6 - MEDICAL MONITORING PROGRAMS

     6.1      Post Offer Physical Examination

     6.2      Employee Rules Related to Drugs and Alcohol

     6.3      Drug and Alcohol Testing

     6.3      DOT/MOT Requirements Physical Examinations

SECTION 7 - EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE

     7.1      Emergency Response

     7.2      Emergency Contacts

     7.3      Accident/Incident Reporting

     7.4      Evacuation

     7.5      Fire

     7.6      Fire Prevention

     7.7      Explosions

     7.8      Medical Emergencies

     7.9      Natural Emergencies
     7.9.1    Severe Storms
     7.9.2    Hurricanes/Tornadoes
     7.9.3    Floods
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      7.9.4    Earthquakes

      7.10     Critical Operations Shutdown

      7.11     Spills

      7.12     Spill Prevention

      7.13     Table of Contents for a Sample Emergency Management Program and Response
               Plan

SECTION 8 - ACCIDENTS/INCIDENTS/INVESTIGATION

      8.1      Accident/Incident Reporting

      8.2      Near Miss Reporting

      8.3      Accident/Incident Investigation
      8.3.1    Investigation Responsibilities
      8.3.2    Investigation Method

      8.4      First Aid
      8.4.1    General
      8.4.2    First Aid Reporting

      8.5      Claims Management

SECTION 9 - RETURN TO WORK PROGRAMS

      9.1      Modified Duty/Light Duty
      9.1.1      Policy
      9.1.2      Program
      9.1.3      Benefits
            9.1.3.1 Employee
            9.1.3.2 Employer
      9.1.4      Responsibilities
            9.1.4.1 Employee
            9.1.4.2 Employee’s Representative and Co-Workers
            9.1.4.3 Supervisor
            9.1.4.4 Physician
            9.1.4.5 Employer
      9.1.5      Procedures
            9.1.5.1 Accident in the Workplace
            9.1.5.2 Follow-up Procedure by Supervisor
            9.1.5.3 Procedures for Employees Absent from Work on WCB, STD. LTD
      9.1.6      Suggested Modified Duties
            9.1.6.1 Fuel Attendant
            9.1.6.2 Parts Runner
            9.1.6.3 Night Security
            9.1.6.4 Yard Maintenance
            9.1.6.5 Equipment Maintenance
            9.1.6.6 Clerical Duties
            9.1.6.7 Janitor
            9.1.6.8 Vehicle Washer

      9.2      FMLA (US)
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SECTION 10 – HEALTH PROTECTION

      10.1     Hearing Conservation Program
      10.1.1   Audiometric Monitoring
      10.1.2   Test Follow-up
      10.1.3   Recordkeeping

      10.2     Respiratory Protection Program
      10.2.1    Program Administrator
      10.2.2    Medical Evaluation (US-OSHA)
      10.2.3    Engineering Controls
      10.2.4    Respiratory Protection
           10.2.4.1 Selection and Purchase
           10.2.4.2 Training
      10.2.5    Fit Testing
      10.2.6    Exposure Monitoring
      10.2.7    Potential Respiratory Hazards
           10.2.7.1 Dust
           10.2.7.2 Crystalline Silica
           10.2.7.3 Volatile Organic Compounds
           10.2.7.4 Silica Fume

      10.3     Exposure Monitoring
      10.3.1    Airborne
           10.3.1.1 Personal
           10.3.1.2 Area
      10.3.2    Heat and Cold Stress

SECTION 11 - INSPECTIONS/AUDITS

      11.1     Purpose

      11.2     Procedure

      11.3     Daily Site Inspections

      11.4     Regulatory Audits (US)
      11.4.1   MSHA (US)
      11.4.2   OSHA (US)

      11.5     Regulatory Audits (Canada)

SECTION 12 - RECORDS AND STATISTICS

      12.1     Records

      12.2     Statistics

      12.3     Retention of Records

SECTION 13 - SAFETY COMMITTEE

      13.1     Committee Functions
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SECTION 14 - SAFETY AWARENESS

      14.1     Signs

      14.2     Posters

      14.3     Newsletters

      14.4     Mailings

      14.5     Safety Bulletin Boards

      14.6     Safety Reports and Statistics

      14.7     Safety Alerts

      14.8     Audio Visual Aids

      14.9     Awards and Recognition

      14.10    Disciplinary Procedure

SECTION 15 – PROGRAM REVIEW

      15.1     Process

      15.2     Regional Issues

      15.3     Sources

SECTION 16 - REGIONAL/DIVISIONAL PROCEDURES

SECTION 17 - DEFINITIONS

SECTION 18 - ACRONYMS

FORMS
      3.1-1    GENERAL SITE HAZARD RECOGNITION TRAINING FORM
      3.1-2    MINE SITE HAZARD RECOGNITION TRAINING FORM
      4.1-1    JOB HAZARD ANALYSIS FORM
      4.1-2    SAFE WORK PERMIT
      4.6-1    CONFINED SPACE ENTRY PERMIT
      4.6-2    BLAST COMPLAINT FORM
      5.2-1    GENERAL TRAINING SUMMARY FORM
      5.2-2    MOBILE EQUIPMENT TRAINING SUMMARY FORM
      5.2-3    POWERED EQUIPMENT TRAINING SUMMARY FORM
      5.2-4    SPECIFIC HAZARD TRAINING SUMMARY FORM
      8.1-1    AUTO ACCIDENT REPORT `
      8.1-2    PROPERTY DAMAGE/GENERAL LIABILITY REPORT
      8.1-3    INJURY REPORT
      8.1-4    PRELIMINARY INCIDENT REPORT
      9.1.1    LETTER TO ATTENDING PHYSICIAN
      9.1.2    PHYSICIANS REPORT TO EMPLOYER
      9.1.3    RECOMMENDED JOB DESCRIPTION FORM
      10.2-1   RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FIT TEST FORM
      11.1-1   LAFARGE CORPORATION FACILITY SAFETY AUDIT FORM
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SECTION 1               INTRODUCTION AND POLICY STATEMENT

1.1     Introduction

It is the intent of Lafarge to protect and promote the well being of our employees by providing a safe and
healthy work environment. This document represents Lafarge’s injury and illness prevention program.

This manual has been developed and written to provide Lafarge best practices and guidance for
compliance with applicable agency regulations as well as for protecting the public, equipment, property,
and the environment. The guidelines in this manual are somewhat generalized or there may be several
options presented due to the wide variation of regulations and requirements in the United States and
Canada. Section 16 of this manual has been set aside for safety staff to insert local regulatory
requirements and site specific safety policies and procedures. Contact local safety personnel for further
information if a safety issue is not discussed in Sections 1 through 15 and is not included in Section 16.

Employees are expected to adhere to the Lafarge safety program and to act responsibly toward
themselves, their fellow workers, customers, and contractors. Lafarge requires that employees assist the
safety staff and management in updating this program when the need is recognized. Lafarge encourages
employees to challenge unsafe work conditions or practices and to assist with the development and
implementation of the appropriate corrective remedy.

Employees, at a minimum, are expected to obey all municipal, state, provincial, and federal laws and
adhere to the Lafarge Safety Program. This manual presents the minimum safety requirements that will
be followed by Lafarge facilities and operations; individual sites may develop more stringent guidelines.

The most current version of this manual is located on the Lafarge Health and Safety Manual Lotus
Database. The database can be located all Lafarge servers under the name “Safety and Health (New)”.
On most servers, the database is located under the “lafargecorp” yellow folder. If you are unable to
locate the database, please email ebru.craft@lafargecorp.com to receive further directions. Any change/
review requests to this manual must be made using the “ Safety and Health Manual Update Request
Form” located in the forms section of this manual.


This manual supercedes other corporate and regional safety manuals currently in use throughout Lafarge
operations in North America.

Lafarge North America determined several Safety Key Performance Indicators. The regions are asked to
report their data to corporate by the announced dates. This information is consolidated and distributed to
senior management every month. A blank report form along with definitions and sample Report can be
found in the Forms section of this manual.

1.2     Policy

The Lafarge North America Safety and Health Policy:

Lafarge North America Inc. is committed to providing a safe work environment and to conducting its
various businesses in a safe manner. Health an safety are core business values that must be
incorporated into all aspects of our operations.

We integrate health and safety objectives into our management systems at all levels of the Company.
Achievement of these objectives is reinforced by our recognition and rewards programs.
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Everyone shares responsibility for health and safety. All employees expect a safe and healthy work
environment, and in turn, we expect each employee to contribute to that safe environment through
responsible behavior. When it comes to safety, the only acceptable number is zero – zero accidents,
incidents or cases of ill health. Reaching this goal is critical to our overall business success.
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 SECTION 2       LAFARGE CORPORATION SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM

The purpose of the Lafarge Corporation 15 Point Health and Safety program is to establish a uniform and
progressive safety management system which prevents accidents and illness in the workplace. This
program while defined generically, provides a “Roadmap to Safety” that uses the talents of all managers,
supervisors and employees for its implementation and support. The Lafarge Corporation Safety Program
should be adapted by all operating units. The elements of this program are supported by the Lafarge
Health and Safety Manual and its supplements. Where there is a conflict between the Health and Safety
program as defined herein and government regulations, those government regulations supercede the
program.

 1.SAFETY POLICY                 The spirit and intent of the Lafarge Health and Safety Policy shall be
                                 carried out by each operating unit. Therefore:
                                  Each operating unit will endorse and display the Corporate Policy
                                  Local management is encouraged to develop its own supplemental
                                      vision statement
                                  The Policy will be readily available to all employees through various
                                      media including the Lafarge Intranet
 2. SAFETY PROGRAM                Each site is expected to establish site specific safety programs which
                                      use the Lafarge 15 Point Safety Program as the basis for their
                                      operating philosophy and practices.
 3.RESPONSIBILITIES AND           Every Lafarge employee has a responsibility in the application of the
 LEADERSHIP                           Corporate, Regional and Site Safety Programs. Those responsibilities
                                      should be clearly communicated to and understood by each employee.
                                  Safety Committees, visitors and contractors have responsibilities
                                      under the plan.
 4.SAFE WORK PRACTICES           Almost every manufacturing, distribution, shipping, receiving and quarrying
                                 activity is exposed to potential hazards which should be anticipated and
                                 avoided. Where necessary, written procedures, standardized practices,
                                 work rules and training initiatives should be used to promote an
                                 atmosphere supportive of “Safe Work Practices”. Therefore:
                                  Hazard assessments shall be conducted at all sites to identify those
                                      work processes, practices, and facility hazards which could cause
                                      accidents, injuries or illness.
                                  Safe work practices which address the root causes of potential
                                      accidents, injuries and illness shall be established for all operations.
 5. EDUCATION AND                 Training is an important component of the Safety Program. Through
 TRAINING                             training, employees learn about their responsibilities while they are
                                      also gaining insight into the hazards in their respective jobs. Finally,
                                      learning to prevent accidents and injuries enhances the payoff from an
                                      effective education and training program. During their career with
                                      Lafarge, employees should receive:
                                       New Employee Orientation
                                       Job Specific training
                                       Refresher/Update/Annualized Training
                                       Management and Supervisory Training
                                       Safety for Engineers Training
                                       Contractor Training
                                       Hazard Communication
                                       WHMIS
                                       Hazard Identification
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                           Where applicable, safety topics and awareness should be
                            incorporated into all training programs
6. MEDICAL MONITORING      Assuring that employees are “fit” to perform the essential functions of
PROGRAM                     their job is important. The Medical monitoring program includes pro-
                            active elements which are predictive and preventive in nature. The
                            medical program may include:
                             New Hire, Post Offer Physical Examination
                             Annual Physical Examinations
                             Audiometric (Hearing)Testing
                             Respiratory Testing
                             Pulmonary Function Testing
                             Drug and alcohol testing
                             Smoking cessation
                             Lafarge Employee Assistance Programs
                             Wellness
                             Personal Physical Fitness
7.EMERGENCY                Though most accidents and emergencies should be avoidable,
PREPAREDNESS AND            preparation for any emergency or accident can save lives, minimize
RESPONSE                    injuries and reduce property and operating losses. The program
                            should include:
                             A risk assessment
                             Emergency Response plan
                             First aid treatment plan
                             Responder Training


8.INCIDENT/ ACCIDENT       While the objective of the Safety Program is to prevent accidents,
INVESTIGATION               there must be a system which consistently instructs supervisors,
                            managers, safety representatives and Safety Committee members on
                            the process involved in reporting, investigating and analyzing
                            accidents/incidents. The program includes the following:
                             Definitions
                             Forms/procedures
                             Notifications
                             Record Retention guidelines
                             Utilization of log books/spreadsheets
                             Periodic trend analysis
                             Management participation
                             Use of Root Cause Failure Analysis as a tool
                             Recognition of the “near miss” as a significant incident that should
                                 be investigated and used as a learning tool
9. RETURN TO WORK          The purpose of this component of the Safety Program is not only to
PROGRAMS                    return injured employees to their pre-accident/illness health status as
                            soon as possible but also to manage the resources necessary to fulfill
                            this goal. Each location is expected to institute a program which
                            includes:
                             Statement of Policy
                             Rehabilitation
                             Modified Duties Programs
                             Case management which emphasizes the proactive involvement
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                                 of local site management
                             Recognition of FMLA/ADA and other US and Canadian regulations
                             Compliance with local Worker’s Compensations requirements
10.HEALTH PROTECTION       Preventing occupational illness in the workplace necessitates that
                            management at the site monitor the workplace environment for
                            potential exposures that can have either short or long term effects on
                            employees. For each site, a program shall be instituted to monitor the
                            work environment for potential exposures such as:
                             Air quality
                             Noise
                             Chemicals
                             Dust
11. INSPECTIONS AND        Reviewing the operating facility, equipment and the site safety
AUDITS                      program on a scheduled basis, using uniform methods, procedures
                            and forms etc. contributes to the Safety Program by providing
                            feedback which can be used to make improvements. The components
                            of the inspection and audit program will include:
                             Daily inspections
                             Addressing of local, state, provincial and federal compliance
                                 requirements
                             Compliance with Lafarge policy
                             Management cooperation and participation
                             Recommendations
                             Follow-up
                             Record Retention
12. RECORDS AND            In order to review the safety program at a site, both management and
STATISTICS                  auditors must have access to certain records. The Site Safety
                            Program should include record retention criteria for:
                             Forms
                             Medical Records
                             Vehicle and Equipment Records
                             Inspection and Audit Records
                             Training Records
                             Confidentiality of Personnel and Medical Records
13. HEALTH AND SAFETY      Because “SAFETY IS EVERYONE’S BUSINESS” , the involvement of
COMMITTEES                  all managers, supervisors and employees in the Safety Program is
                            essential. A good safety program is cross functional and borderless.
                            Lafarge supports Health and Safety Committees by:
                             Encouraging committee membership which encompasses
                                 representation from the various disciplines at the site.
                             Prescribing the adaptation of regular meetings whose activities will
                                 be recorded in minutes that will be posted for all employees to
                                 view
                             Requiring site management to support the program by
                                 participation and provision of necessary resources to support the
                                 committee’s activities.
                             Encouraging the committee’s participation in the monthly
                                 inspection and internal audit process
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14. SAFETY AWARENESS      The success of the Safety Program relies heavily on the promotion of
                           goals and objectives in addition to the provision of information to
                           employees about the rewards and consequences of their actions.
                           Awareness can be raised by:
                            Clearly stated goals and objectives that are reviewed and revised
                               annually
                            Utilizing signs, posters, safety reports, newsletters, e-mail and
                               newsletters to promote the program.
                            Using all communication tools available to keep employees
                               informed about the focus and progress of the program
                            Promotion through the use of multimedia and video
                            Identifying opportunities to recognize good behavior and practices
                               with rewards
                            Including safety responsibilities and goals in the performance
                               management system
                            Using progressive discipline as the last resort when positive
                               reinforcement emphasis has not worked
                            Issuing “Safety Alerts” to advise management and employees
                               about training opportunities, near misses and lessons learned
15. PROGRAM REVIEW        Accidents, injuries, fatalities, equipment damage and loss of
                           production can always occur despite what is perceived as an “effective
                           safety program”. It is therefore a best practice to review the following
                           annually in order to continuously improve site, Divisional, Regional and
                           Corporate Safety Programs.
                            Accidents, Injuries, Near Misses
                            Audits
                            Daily, Monthly and Equipment/Vehicle inspections
                            Management Performance
                            Safety Committee Records and Minutes
                            Citation History
                            Regulatory Changes
                            Industry Best Practices
                            Exposure Monitoring
                            Permitting Requirements
                            Technological Change
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SECTION 3                RESPONSIBILITIES

3.1     Safety Responsibilities

Lafarge regards the safety and health of its employees of highest priority and is committed at the highest
level of management in this respect. Safety is a shared responsibility of all Lafarge employees and
requires cooperation and collaboration between all management and employee personnel. Consistent
with this commitment, the following sections present the safety responsibilities by title or function.
Adjustments may be required to the designations of responsibilities to accommodate variations in local
structures and overlap of job responsibilities.

3.1.1   Regional President and Vice President

Key Responsibility
High-level control of safety concerns/issues and facilitating resolution of same if unresolvable at a lower
level. Makes certain that there are processes and resources available for the corporate policy to be
enacted. Holds employees accountable for safe work performance.

Leadership
 Establishes safety as the highest priority.
 Maintains an awareness of safety concerns and issues.
 Supports corporate safety policies and procedures.
 Sets safety targets and goals for the Region.
 Maintains control, responsibility, and accountability for ensuring a proper work environment is
   provided and appropriate steps are taken to ensure employees perform work safely.

Process
Resource Allocation
 Include adequate funds for safety expenses in annual budget.
 Review the annual safety operating plans (ASOP) for compatibility with company objectives.

Communication
 Meet regularly with managers and safety staff to discuss new issues/concerns, accidents/incidents,
   and follow-up.
 Solicit safety recommendations from management meeting attendees.

3.1.2   Regional Safety Personnel

Key Responsibility
Serve as a key catalyst to promote and maintain a positive safety culture within Lafarge. This action will
include, at minimum, communication and partnership with the Local Safety Personnel and all
management levels to address and resolve safety concerns and issues. Regional Safety Personnel are to
provide leadership in the safety field.

Leadership With The Local Safety Personnel
 Assist Local Safety Personnel in resolving safety concerns/issues as needed.
 Ensure the Local Safety Personnel are adequately trained for the performance of their assigned
   duties.
 Participate in the Local Safety Personnel annual performance review process; assist with their
   professional development and goal setting.
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   Provide safety statistics for local management so they may evaluate their safety performance and
    monitor goal achievement.
   Chair regular regional safety meetings.
   Promote an open discussion forum to share best practices, trouble-shoot local issues, review
    accidents/incidents/near misses to identify corrective actions, etc.
   Track accidents/incidents/near misses to identify trends and to develop.
    policies/procedures/corrective action to minimize the potential for reoccurrence.

Training Program
 Investigate alternative training methods and determine the type(s) of training appropriate for Lafarge
    operations.
 Maintain existing programs if applicable to current operations.

Respiratory Program Administrator (US)
 Evaluate engineering control options for dust control and advise Local Safety Personnel. .
 Evaluate available respiratory protection and advise Local Safety Personnel.
 Assist Local Safety Personnel with local medical monitoring program maintenance.
 Ensure the Local Safety Personnel are trained to perform fit tests.
 Coordinate air-monitoring efforts with the Local Safety Personnel.

Process
Communication
 Maintain a positive and constructive relationship with management, Local Safety Personnel, and
   employees.
 Maintain an interactive relationship with Lafarge Safety Management corporate-wide.
 Issue “Safety Alerts” to inform Lafarge employees of accidents/incidents/near misses, newly
   developed best practices, identify unsafe acts/conditions and corrective actions there of, and
   corrective action(s) for issued citations as well as disseminating information regarding regulatory
   issues.
 Ensure OSHA 200 forms are developed and issued to Local Safety Personnel for posting the month
   of February.

Technical/Regulatory Expertise
 Act as a resource for safety information regarding safety processes and regulations.
 Ensure a review and update is done of the local safety program every three years or as needed.
 Work with management and local/division Safety Personnel to develop and recommend new
   policies/procedures.
 Partner with managers and local/division Safety Personnel to troubleshoot concerns and issues if
   they can not be resolved at a local level.
 Stay current with regulations; summarize into understandable requirements applicable to Lafarge
   operations.
 Communicate regulatory changes/updates to local/division Safety Personnel including compliance
   guidelines for implementation, a timetable for implementation, and an estimate of costs.

Site Safety Review
 Assist Divisional/location management in the development of an ASOP (including budget).
 Work with the Local Safety Personnel to annually review process effectiveness, identify issues, and
    develop corrective action plans.
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Post Accident/Incident Investigation
 Assist local/division Safety Personnel in identifying accident/incident causes and the preventative
   actions needed to minimize the potential for reoccurrence.
 Communicate accident/incident rates and statistics to management and Local Safety Personnel
   regularly.

Regulatory Agency Relationship
 Develop and maintain a positive relationship with regulatory agencies.
 Communicate permit requirements to plant managers as required by regulatory agencies. (see plant
   managers)
 Review citations with the Local Safety Personnel to track trends and develop corrective action(s).
 Review citations with the appropriate regulatory agencies, as necessary.
 Ensure a correct documentation policy and procedure is being followed in the region.

3.1.3   Local Safety Personnel (Division or Location Level)

Key Responsibility
Take necessary action to be a key catalyst and to promote a positive pro-active safety culture at the local
level. Promote employee involvement/participation through accident prevention and safety awareness
utilizing the actions presented below.

                                               Leadership
Consultation and Counseling
 Assist local management in counseling employees involved in accidents/incidents/near misses.
 Assist local management in communicating safety issues with employees.
 Provide information of safety related issues relevant to the division and disseminate local/division
   Safety Personnel Meeting findings through division managers meetings and to the Regional Safety
   Personnel.
 Promote open discussion of safety concerns/issues, best practices, and review
   accidents/incidents/near misses to identify and develop corrective actions.
 Track Division’s accidents/incidents/near misses to identify trends and to assist in the development of
   policies/procedures/corrective action to minimize the potential for reoccurrence.

                                               Process
Technical
 Contact Regional Safety Personnel regarding issue resolution and implementation, if necessary.
 Track proper Hazard Assessments (HABIT ANALYSIS’s) of the Division’s projects and operations as
   performed by plant managers to identify potential safety issues and to develop safe work
   practices/procedures.
 Work with the local management to identify and develop safe work practices/procedures. (see plant mgr.)
 Assist Regional Safety Personnel with development of new policies and procedures when requested.
 Schedule and conduct exposure air monitoring as required by agency regulations.
 Assist local management in the development of the Division’s ASOP.
 Schedule and conduct noise exposure monitoring as required by agency regulations.
 Schedule and conduct noise exposure monitoring as required by agency regulations.

Regional Safety Meetings
 Prepare discussion items for meetings; subjects will include accident/incidents, corrective
   actions, safety issues, best practices, or other relevant information.
 Contribute to the development of safe work practices/procedures.
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Communication - Management Level
 Keep local management, and the Regional Safety Personnel updated on local safety issues.
 Maintain an open, 2-way communication with Regional Safety Personnel regarding the Division’s
   safety or regulatory issues.
 Meet with local management regularly to review safety issues, accident/incidents, and the corrective
   actions there of.
 Include a summary of applicable information from the Regional Safety meeting during the next
   scheduled meeting with local management.
 Assist local management with maintenance of a positive safety environment through 2-way
   communication between management, the Safety Crew/Team Leaders, and the employee.

Communication - Employees
 Assist Safety Crew/Team Leaders with the development of the safety meeting format.
 Provide and/or develop material (safety topics) for safety meetings
 Publicize relevant safety information and “Safety Alerts”. (see plant mgr.)
 Ensure the locations post the OSHA 200 form during the month of February. (US only)
 Periodically interview employees for their ideas regarding the effectiveness of the safety program.
   (see plant mgr.)

Training
 Notify the site manager to schedule or conduct regulatory-required training for employees.
 Work with Regional Safety Personnel and the local management to design training programs that are
    relevant to the Division’s operations.
 Identify additional training needs and work with Regional Safety Personnel to make this training
    available.

Accident/Incident Investigation
 Train plant management and safety committees in Accident Investigation techniques.
 Review accident/incidents/near misses investigation as required.
 Inform Regional Safety Personnel of potential lost time accidents/incidents as soon as possible.
 Submit, or review, claims to the third party administrator for set up and handling.
 If appropriate, initiate a meeting with local management, the Supervisor, and the employee(s)
    involved to review the accident/incident/near miss.
 Assist plant management in the implementation of corrective action.
 Work with local management in returning employee to modified or full duty ASAP
 Investigate third party community/customer safety complaints and issues; coordinate resolution as
    appropriate.

Employee Medical Programs
Assist HR and/or operations with regulatory medical requirement compliance:
 Post offer physical examinations
 Respiratory protection
 Hearing conservation
 Range of motion
 Exposure monitoring
 Drug and alcohol testing, as per policy.

Records
 Prepare accident/incident summaries and cost reports for Business Unit Managers, Area Managers,
   and the Regional Safety Personnel.
 Prepare required regulatory agency reports.
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Claims Management
 Work with the designated company physician and legal counsel to resolve Workers’ Compensation
    claims.
 Report claims status to Division/Area Managers.
 Work with adjusters for proper claims handling and work towards closure of files.
 Identify claims that require management and report these to Regional Safety Personnel.
 Track claims and report to Division management on a regular basis.

Inspections
 Perform self-inspections of each work site at least annually.
 Work with local management to develop corrective actions based on inspection results and
    coordinate implementation of the corrective actions.
 Submit inspection results and corrective actions to the Regional Safety Personnel and local
    management to review.
 Visit work sites on a regular basis to maintain a “safety presence” with employees.

Documentation Retention
 Maintain a listing of and a copy of applicable Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS’s) for the
   location/division.
 Maintain a copy of the safety program at work sites as required.

Agency-Required Permits
 Submit MSHA permit requests to Technical Services/Human Resources for MSHA notification and
   updates regarding Lafarge operations (US).

Crisis Management
 Assist local management in developing Emergency plan(s) in accordance with the Lafarge and
    regulatory agency guidelines.
 Maintain training records for personnel trained on emergency response.
 Audit implementation of Emergency Response Plans at all sites

Safety Budget/Costs
 Provide cost estimates for safety equipment and training to be included in the Location/Division’s
    budget for the ASOP.
 Coordinate with local management to allot adequate time to address safety issues and adequate
    funding to purchase required equipment.

3.1.4   Manager

Key Responsibility
Provide leadership and support to cultivate safety consciousness and practices within the operating units.
Leadership shall be demonstrated through the actions presented below.

Leadership
 Embrace and promote the “Zero Incidents/Safety First” Philosophy
 Demonstrate a commitment to safety by following regulations and rules consistently.
 Incorporate safety awareness into meeting discussions.
 Review accident/incident statistics and reports with the Local Safety Personnel regularly to identify
   and implement corrective action(s).
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   Take corrective steps, including discipline as necessary, in an appropriate and consistent manner to
    address safety issues.
   Spend one day per month with site/group having the highest incident rate for the Division.
   Include safety discussions during field visits.
   Take a positive, proactive approach to safety.

Positive Safety Culture
 Participate in and support safety decisions in the location/division.
 Implement/administer/enforce the safety program and regulatory compliance.
 Submit recommendations to Local Safety Personnel regarding safety issues.
 Provide comments to Local Safety Personnel in a timely manner when a decision/policy is issued for
   review.
 Rapidly implement changes to processes, systems, and structure.
 Communicate changes to employees. Check that the communications are understood and followed.
 Maintain control/responsibility/accountability for the safe performance of employees and equipment
   within his/her jurisdiction.

Open Communication
 Contribute/provide ongoing feedback to Local Safety Personnel regarding the Location/Division’s
   issues and concerns.
 Instruct/Counsel employees involved in accidents/incidents/near misses.
 Communicate safety issues arising from the regional safety meeting with management on a timely
   basis.
 Resolve employee safety concerns/issues and implement corrective action. Consult with Local
   Safety Personnel as necessary.
 provide information to employees regarding work site hazards as well as methods to mitigate the
   hazards.
 Seek input from the Regional Safety Personnel in the annual performance review process for Local
   Safety Personnel.

Process
Resource Allocation
 Provide adequate funding and time to address safety issues.
 Schedule employees for training and ensure training is conducted as required and planned.
 Provide the necessary funding for safety equipment, training, and monitoring required by regulatory
   agencies (may include medical monitoring, air sampling, etc.).
 Develop and implement an ASOP, with the assistance of the safety personnel.

Accident/Incident Investigation
 Review accident/incident reports; sign and return the reports to the Local Safety Personnel as quickly
    as possible.
 Meet with Supervisor/Superintendent and employee(s) to review report, as appropriate.

Inspections
 Participate in site inspections at least twice yearly.
 Review corrective action recommendations and implement.
 Follow up with the supervisors to check that corrective action has been implemented.

3.1.5   Superintendent/Supervisor/Foreman (Mobile or Remote Crew)

Key Responsibility
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Promote site safety and maintain a positive safety culture at assigned work site(s) by following the
processes presented below.

Leadership
Safety Recognition
 Demonstrate a commitment to safety by following regulations and rules consistently.
 Provide and implement the safety systems at local work sites.
 Check that employees are aware of and ensure proper training/orientation has been completed in
    order that they can perform their assigned duties.
 Involve employees in problem solving and development/implementation of safety standards.
 Promote safety awareness and reinforce that safety is part of the job by setting an example of good
    safety behavior.
 Implement safety personnel recommendations and corrective action.
 Hold regular safety meetings, record minutes and attendance.
 Communicate employee recommendation and comments to the Local Safety Personnel and local
    management. Take action as appropriate.
 Hold employees accountable for their safe performance by requiring them to follow safety directives
    and to report unsafe acts/conditions.
 Provide safety counseling/communication in a positive, constructive manner.
 Assist employees in understanding the need for rules and the consequences of not following
    established safety rules and requirements.

Process
Hazard Analysis
 Partner with the Safety Crew/Team Leader to perform Daily Safety Inspections (DSI’s) to identify
   hazards and to implement appropriate corrective actions.
 Empowered to shut down a job until it is safe to continue within reason and using good judgement.
 Prepare, with Local Safety Personnel assistance, site-specific safe work practices.
 Require use of personal protective equipment (PPE) when appropriate.
 Maintain good house keeping.
 Make necessary checks to ensure equipment and vehicles are maintained to minimize the potential
   for accident/incident.
 Assist with site inspections by regulatory agencies, Lafarge safety personnel, and/or local
   management.
 Complete and/or monitor the implementation of corrective action for identified safety issues.

Accident/Incident Investigation
 Conduct accident/investigations.
 Develop and implement corrective actions.

Training
 Schedule employees to attend safety training. Ensure employees are trained prior to being placed on
    the job.

Crisis Management
 Participate in development and implementation of the crisis management plan.
 Participate in training and drills.

Safety Equipment Purchase
 Identify and request the purchase of equipment required for employees to complete their assigned duties
    safely.
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Documentation Retention
 Submit requests for hot work permits and confined space entry as per location procedures before
   work is begun. Forward completed/closed permits accordingly.
 Review MSDS listing and MSDS’s located at the site twice a year to check that the MSDS’s for
   products currently in use at the site are on file.
 Ensure MSDS’s are provided for all new products/materials introduced to the work environment.
 Maintain a copy of the safety program at the site.

3.1.6   Safety Committee

Key Responsibility
The Safety Committee is a forum of management and employee representatives that discusses and
resolves safety concerns/issues at the local level.

Leadership
 Makes communication and resolution of safety concerns/issues a priority.
 Makes recommendations to management regarding safety improvements.

Process
 Provides consultation to management regarding safety concerns/issues.
 Participates in regular site inspections to identify potential hazards and to check that required safety
   standards are being maintained.
 Participates in accident/incident investigations and/or reviews reports to assist with development of
   procedures to minimize the potential for reoccurrence.
 Maintains and posts minutes of meetings at the work sites.

3.1.7   Safety Crew/Team Leader (Mobile or Remote Crews)(LCM only)

Note: The responsibilities presented below were developed to provide safety representation for mobile or
remote work crews/teams. The responsibilities may also be assigned to the union representative.

Key Responsibility
Create and maintain a positive safety culture at the work site level. Act as the employees’ representative
to local management to address and resolve employee safety issues and concerns through the
processes presented below.

Leadership
Communication
 Demonstrate a commitment to safety by following regulations and rules consistently.
 Act as a communication liaison between employees, the Local Safety Personnel and/or the direct
   supervisor.
 Represent the work crew/team on the Safety Committee.
 Listens to employee safety concerns/issues and report this information to the Local Safety Personnel
   and/or the direct supervisor.
 Keep employees apprised of safety concerns/issues and the corrective action taken to resolve the
   concerns/issues.
 Collect relevant information (e.g., safety topics, employee concerns and issues) for employee safety
   meetings. Contact the Local Safety Personnel for assistance, if needed.
 Discuss relevant safety information, “Safety Alerts”, and safety issues reviewed/resolved by local
   management or the Local Safety Personnel during weekly safety meetings.
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   Involve employees in regular safety meetings by requesting meeting topics, getting employees
    involved in discussions, having an employee do a presentation, etc.
   Conduct safety meetings in a positive, constructive way to promote a positive safety culture.
   Initiate communication with the employee regarding their concerns/issues on a weekly basis.
    Develop resolutions and implement. Report progress to employees weekly.
   Present safety issues, safety suggestions, accident/incidents/near misses, corrective actions, etc. at
    employee safety meetings and solicit employee comments.
   Identify unsafe behavior and assist employee in learning a safer method.

Process
Daily (or Shift) Safety Inspections (US)
 Perform DSI’s to identify potential hazards and corrective actions there of.
 Empowered to shut down a job until it is safe to continue within reason and using good judgement.
 Work with the Supervisor to develop appropriate corrective action(s) for identified hazards.
 Inform employees of site hazards and mitigation procedures to minimize the potential for
    accident/incident.
 Identify unsafe behavior and implement corrective action.

Accident/Incident Investigation
 Assist the Supervisor or Local Safety Personnel with accident/incident/near miss investigations.
 Assist the Supervisor, Local Safety Personnel, and/or local management with development and
    implementation of corrective actions.

Training
 Assist in tracking employee training due dates.
 Assist in training scheduling and set-up.
 Assist in identification of additional training needs.

Inspections
 Assist the direct supervisor with site safety inspections.
 Accompany regulatory agency inspectors in the Supervisor’s and/or the Local Safety Personnel
    absence.
 Assist the direct supervisor with development and implementation of corrective action.

Crisis Management
 Assist Local Safety Personnel with development of the crisis management plan.
 Inform employees of the proper emergency response procedures as presented in the crisis
    management plan.
 Assist with training and drills.
 Notify the Supervisor when changes/updates to the crisis management plan are needed.

Coordinate purchase of safety equipment
 Identify need for safety equipment and submit purchase request to the direct supervisor.

3.1.8   Employee

Key Responsibility
Perform assigned duties in a safe manner by complying with the procedures presented below.

Leadership
 Positive safety attitude.
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   Perform assigned duties with the attitude that safety is the most important aspect of the job.
   Work within the requirements of Lafarge safety procedures, safe work practices, and regulatory
    requirements.
   Actively participate in required safety meetings, inspections, and training classes.

Process
Training
 Attend training when required to do so.
 Submit a copy of training certificates (from outside sources) to the Supervisor.
 Be prepared to contribute to discussions during training.
 Apply information from safety training and meetings to daily job performance.

Hazard Reporting and Mitigation
 Report unsafe acts or conditions to the safety staff and/or direct supervisor and/or crew leader.
 Report accident/incidents/near misses to direct supervisor and/or crew leader as soon as possible
   after occurrence.
 Follow up on the corrective action developed from accident/incident/near miss investigations.
 Report safety concerns/issues to direct supervisor and/or crew leader.
 Wear PPE when required.
 Empowered to shut down a job until it is safe to continue within reason and using good judgement.

3.1.9   Vendor/Visitor/Contractor

Key Responsibility
Perform contracted work in a safe manner by complying with the procedures presented below.

Leadership
 Encourage and foster a positive safety attitude.
 Perform contracted work with the attitude that safety is the most important aspect of the job.
 Work within the requirements of Lafarge safety procedures, safe work practices, and regulatory
   requirements.
 Actively participate in required safety meetings.

Process
Training
 Attend the training required by regulation for performance of contracted work prior to commencing
    work.
 Attend Lafarge training and/or orientation required for the performance of contracted work prior to
    commencing work.
 Be prepared to contribute to discussions during training/orientation.
 Apply information from safety training and meetings to daily job performance.

Hazard Reporting and Mitigation
 Report unsafe acts or conditions to the crew leader and/or the Lafarge site supervisor.
 Report accident/incidents/near misses to the crew leader and/or the Lafarge site supervisor as soon
   as possible after occurrence.
 Follow up on the corrective action developed from accident/incident/near miss investigations.
 Report safety concerns/issues to the crew leader and/or the Lafarge site supervisor.
 Wear PPE when required.
 Empowered to shut down a job until it is safe to continue within reason and using good judgement.
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   Maintain and provide proof of WCB (US or Canada) insurance coverage for all employees of the
    contractor working at or on any Lafarge projects.

General Site Hazard Recognition and Direction

All contractors, vendors, and visitors will abide by the rules and regulations for the specific Lafarge site or
project. As a minimum, contractors are reminded of the following and are required to sign Form 3.1-1
included in the forms section of this manual:

   Wear or use safety equipment (e.g., hard hat, hard-toed boots, safety glasses, etc.) as directed
         by Lafarge employees
   Observe and comply with safety, warning, and directional signs
   If touring the site, stay with the Lafarge “tour guide(s)”
   Observe speed limit signs or drive at a safe speed during adverse driving conditions
   Be aware of heavy equipment and large trucks – they have the right-of-way. Check that the truck
         or heavy equipment operator is aware of your presence.
   Unauthorized passengers are not permitted in vendor, visitor, or contractor vehicles
   Do not drive in the active operations area unless accompanied by a Lafarge employee
   Remain in the vehicle unless directed otherwise by a Lafarge employee
   Park in designated areas and set the parking brake before vacating the vehicle
   When parking heavy equipment or large trucks on a grade, chock the wheels and turn
   the front wheels uphill or into an embankment, berm, or curb
   Vehicle maintenance shall be performed in designated areas
   Do not engage in horseplay
   Entry into unauthorized areas is not permitted
   Smoking outside of designated areas is prohibited
   Avoid wet areas
   Do not climb on or operate site equipment unless authorized to do so

Mine Site Hazard Recognition and Direction

All contractors, vendors and visitors will abide by the rules and regulations for the specific Lafarge site or
project. As a minimum, contractors are reminded of the following and are required to sign Form 3.1-2
included in the forms section of this manual:

   Hard hats and hard-toed boots are required to be worn while on mine property. If you don’t have
    hard-toed boots, strap-on toe guards will be issued to you by Lafarge. The toe guards must be
    returned to the mine office before leaving the site.
   Safety glasses are required when a potential eye hazard exits (e.g., dust). Wear or use additional
    safety equipment as directed by Lafarge employees.
   Observe and comply with safety, warning, and directional signs. Watch for pedestrians.
   If touring the site, stay with the Lafarge “tour guide(s)”.
   Unauthorized vehicles are not permitted at the mine. Check in with the scale clerk upon arrival.
   Vehicles entering the mine shall be inspected. A copy of an inspection sheet is available at the scale
    house.
   Observe speed limit signs or drive at a safe speed during adverse driving conditions.
   Be aware of heavy equipment and haul trucks – they have the right-of-way. Check that the truck or
    heavy equipment operator is aware of your presence.
   Unauthorized passengers are not permitted in vendor, visitor, or contractor vehicles.
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   Do not drive in the active portion of the mine unless accompanied by a Lafarge employee or you have
    been trained to do so.
   Remain in the vehicle unless directed otherwise by a Lafarge employee.
   Do not stop on the haul road; pull off the haul road into an inactive area away from traffic patterns or
    park the vehicle in designated parking areas.
   Park in designated areas and set the parking brake before vacating the vehicle.
   When parking heavy equipment or large trucks on a grade, chock the wheels and turn the front
    wheels uphill or into an embankment or berm.
   Tarping or vehicle maintenance shall only be performed in designated areas.
   Do not engage in horseplay.
   Entry into unauthorized areas (e.g., working sections of the mine, less than 10 feet (3 m) from a high
    wall, within 20 feet (6 m) of operating equipment, or 10 feet (3 m) of a live pile, etc.) is not permitted.
   Smoking on mine property outside of designated areas is prohibited.
   Avoid wet areas.
   Do not climb on or operate mine equipment unless authorized to do so.
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SECTION 4        SAFE WORK PRACTICES

4.1      Hazard Analysis

There are four steps in Hazard Analysis:
 Identify tasks and activities
 Identify Potential Hazards
 Prioritize Potential Hazards
 Develop Recommended Procedures

Form 4.1.1 can be used to document this process.

4.1.1    Identification of Tasks and Activities

The first step in developing a safe work practice is to observe the work in process while it is being
performed step by step.

4.1.2    Identification of Potential Hazards

The second step is to identify the potential adverse effects of a task. This can be accomplished by:
 Inspection of the site or work area before work is begun.
 Discussion of the potential hazards with the employees assigned to perform the work.
 Looking for potential hazards originating from the surroundings, materials, equipment, and personnel
   working in or near the area, weather conditions/environment, and/or other operations in the vicinity.

NOTE: MSHA requires the following classifications to be listed under the “Potential Hazards” Column:

          CB-Contacted By                   CW-Contact With                     OE-Overexertion
          CBT-Caught Between                E-Exposure                          SA-Struck Against
          CI-Caught In                      FB-Fall Below                       SB-Struck By
          CO-Caught On                      FS-Fall Same Level
     Asking “What if…?”

The purpose of a Hazard Analysis is to identify potential problems or issues; not to solve them. Solving
or resolving the problems and/or issues is the process that follows hazard identification and will be
addressed later in this section.

4.1.3    Prioritization

The next step is to prioritize the potential hazard(s) as follows:
 Probability for occurrence – low, medium, or high.
 Potential for damage – low, medium, or high.
 Possible result(s) of an adverse occurrence – minimal, moderate, or maximum.

The following are examples of questions to ask to identify potential hazards:
 Surroundings:        Mobility limitations? Visual limitations? Access difficulties?
 Materials: Proper storage? Adequate emergency response training/equipment available to clean up
   a spill?
 Equipment: Appropriate tools for completion of the job? Condition of the tools/equipment? What if
   the tools/equipment break? Appropriate fire-fighting equipment available?
 Personnel: What type of actions may adversely affect the operation (working too slow or too fast)?
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    Adequate training? Enough personnel? Potential for unauthorized entry?
   Weather: Too hot? Too cold? Too much sun exposure? Precipitation?
   Other ops: Blasting in the area? Traffic?

Once identified, the potential hazards should be prioritized as low, medium, or high potential for
occurrence and the potential adverse impacts should be ranked as minimal, moderate, or maximum
adverse effect. The identified hazards that are rated as a “high” potential for occurrence and/or as a
“maximum” adverse effect should have the highest priority for development of controls. Hazards rated as
“low” and/or “minimal” should not be ignored but may not need to be addressed until a later time, e.g.,
potential for heat stroke in December.

4.1.4   Hazard Controls

After the potential hazards have been identified and prioritized/ranked, hazard controls must be
developed and implemented. There are three primary hazard controls:
 Engineering controls
 Administrative controls
 Personal protective equipment (PPE).

4.1.4.1 Engineering Controls

Engineering controls are required to be implemented first. Examples include:
 Ventilation
 Rollover protective systems (ROPS) on equipment
 Machinery guards
 Dust filters or water suppression
 Barricades.

4.1.4.2 Administrative Controls

Administrative controls usually involve personnel scheduling and/or training such as:
 Working at night to minimize the potential for heat stroke during hot summer weather.
 Assigning an employee to other duties to minimize dust exposure if the employee has developed a
   dust sensitivity.
 Providing safe work practices and training to personnel before assigning them to new duties.

4.1.4.3 Personal Protective Equipment

The last control that should be used is PPE. Types of PPE may include:
 Respirators
 Hearing protection
 Hard hats
 Hard-toed safety footwear
 Protective gloves (leather, chemical-resistant, etc.)
 Fall protection (five-point harness with lanyard).
 Approved Safety Glasses with permanent or detachable side shields (Link to 4.2.4.1).
 Self-Rescue Devices per 30 CFR 57.15030 and approved by 30 CFR 57.22315 (for underground
   operations only).
 Work gloves.
 Vests.
 Flotation Vests.
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4.1.5     Safe Work Practices

The Hazard Analysis process identifies hazards and prioritizes the potential for hazard occurrence as well
as ranks the potential adverse result. This information is used to develop engineering controls,
administrative controls, and/or identify the appropriate PPE required to minimize the potential for
accident/incident. The end result is a new safe work practice that may be used in future operations of
similar or the same circumstances.

The remainder of Section 4 presents safe work practices that have been developed at Lafarge
operations. Safety staff should be notified when/if new safe work practices are developed or existing safe
work practices are revised or modified. The Safe Work Permit Form # 4.1-2 is included in the forms
section.

4.2       General Safe Work Practices

4.2.1     General

     Horseplay, fighting and disruptive behavior are prohibited while on company time or on company
      property.
     Employees shall not create discord, unrest, or violence among fellow employees.
     Intimidation and malicious mischief are prohibited.
     Failure to comply with Lafarge policies and procedures and/or regulatory requirements may result in
      disciplinary action as presented in Section 14.10 of this manual.
     Unauthorized visitors are not permitted at company work sites or on company property.
     Use caution when the ground surface is slick or uneven or icy.
     Look before stepping to limit the potential for unsecured footing.
     Do not jump on or off equipment, stockpiles, or other unstable and/or elevated surfaces.
     Read warning labels and signs on containers and equipment; follow specified precautions.
     Smoking is prohibited in areas where flammables, combustibles, or chemicals are used or stored.
     Be aware of adverse weather conditions; take appropriate actions to minimize the potential for
      negative impact (e.g., put on a warm coat, apply sunscreen, etc).
     Discontinue operations or actions that could result in injury, illness, or property damage.
     Report to work rested and physically and mentally fit to perform assigned work.
     Wear suitable clothing (shirts and pants, at minimum) for weather conditions and assigned work.
     Hair which is shoulder length or longer shall be restricted from free movement when working around
      equipment.
     Do not wear jewelry or loose-fitting clothing when operating equipment.
     Follow instruction signs in the plant area, including traffic signs.
     Hair which is shoulder length or longer shall be restricted from free movement when working around
      equipment.

4.2.2     Housekeeping

     Work areas shall be maintained in a clean, neat and orderly manner to minimize potential trip/fall
      hazards.
     Keep hallways, traffic lanes, fire exits and aisles clear of debris, floor storage, or other potential trip
      hazards.
     Keep loose material off stairs, walkways, ramps, platforms, etc.
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   Worn, defective, outdated, or otherwise nonfunctional equipment or parts shall be removed from the
    premises and properly discarded.
   Do not block fire extinguishers, electrical panels or circuit breakers.
   Desk, cabinet, and file doors shall not be left open when unattended. Do not open more than one file
    drawer at a time.
   Report unsafe conditions to your supervisor as soon as possible.
   Clean up spills upon occurrence to minimize the potential for slip/fall hazards.
   Report all hazardous material spills to the appropriate Lafarge person designated in the emergency
    response plan. Do not attempt to clean hazardous material spills unless you are properly trained.
   Chairs, wastebaskets, cords, etc. must not be placed across aisles or where they will create a trip
    hazard.
   Do not climb on chairs, boxes, file cabinets, etc.; use a ladder or step stool designed for that purpose.
   Dispose of refuse appropriately and in a timely manner.
   Store tools and equipment appropriately.
   Consume food/beverages, smoke, or apply make-up in areas designated for these activities.
   Do not store potentially toxic/hazardous materials in areas where food/beverages are consumed or
    smoking is permitted.
   Store liquids and spillable solids in a secure manner and below eye level.

4.2.3   Illumination

   Check that there is enough light to performed assigned work. Review regulations for guidance
    regarding minimum illumination requirements.
   Perform inspections at night to check for adequate illumination.
   Replace burned out lights as soon as possible.
   Use portable lights for night work if permanent lighting is inadequate or nonexistent. Use of vehicle
    headlights may not provide adequate illumination and is not recommended.
   Check that facilities and operations are equipped with emergency lighting.
   The necessary grounding and continuity testing shall be performed on all electrical equipment as
    required by regulations.

4.2.4   Personal Protective Equipment

Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) is required to minimize the potential for injury or illness
during the performance of assigned duties.

4.2.4.1 Safety Glasses

General
Employees are required to wear approved safety glasses while performing work activities where there is a
reasonable potential for the eyes to be adversely impacted by liquid splashes or airborne particles.
Approved safety glasses (plano and/or prescription) are only those safety glasses that are stamped by
the manufacturer of the safety glasses with ANSI Z87.1 (US) or CSA Z94.3 (Canada), and shall have
approved side shields. Note, side shields must be attached at all times to approved safety glasses while
performing work activities.

Prescription
Prescription glasses worn by employees during work activities shall meet the requirements for general
safety glasses as presented above.

4.2.4.2 Hard Hats
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Lafarge issues hard hats meeting ANSI Z89.1 (US) or CSA Z94.1 (Canada) requirements to employees
who may potentially be exposed to head impact hazards. Lafarge employees are directed to wear their
hard hats per the manufacturer's directions during work activities as required by regulation and/or local
policy.

4.2.4.3 Hard-toed Safety Shoes

Hard-toed safety boots meeting the requirements of ANSI Z41.1 (US) or CSA Z195 (Canada) will be worn
by employees during work activities that may potentially expose the employee to foot impact hazards as
required by regulation and/or local policy. Lafarge reserves the right to require the employee to replace
his/her boots if the boots are determined to be worn out or the boot does not provide adequate foot
protection.

4.2.4.4 Work Gloves

Work gloves are provided by Lafarge and shall be worn by the employee during the performance of work
activities, as applicable. Contact the Local Safety Personnel for guidance regarding appropriate hand
protection.

4.2.4.5 Respirators

Respirator use may be required when potential respirable dust hazards have been identified at a work
site. Further information regarding Lafarge's respiratory protection program is discussed in Section 10.2
of this manual.


4.2.4.6 Hearing Protection

Lafarge may require employees to wear hearing protection if potentially exposed to loud noise. Further
information regarding Lafarge's hearing conservation program is presented in Section 10.1 of this manual.

4.2.4.7 Vests

Personnel working in heavy traffic areas are required to wear high visibility fluorescent vests (daylight
hours) or high visibility fluorescent vests with reflective strips (night work or work during foul weather).
Fluorescent orange shirts may be worn instead of a vest during daylight hours if the shirt is a solid color
with no appliqués (unless it's a Lafarge appliqué) and the shirt is not faded, degraded, or dirty.
Fluorescent orange shirts may not be worn during night work or when there is foul weather. The
fluorescent vest shall be in the employee's possession at the work site for use if there are weather
changes or work continues after the sun has set.

4.2.4.8 Floatation Vests

Employees working in or near water bodies that are over 3 feet (900 mm) deep are required to wear
floatation vests. The floatation vests shall meet the requirements of the Coast Guard (US and Canada).

4.2.4.9 Fall Protection

In areas where it is not possible to erect safety nets and/or handrails for fall protection, the employee will
be required to wear a 5-point safety harness with a lanyard of appropriate length for the working height
(*). (In the US, personnel shall wear a 5 point harness and lanyard when working at or above 6 feet
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(1800 mm) on OSHA sites (29 CFR 1910.66) and at any height where there is a danger of falling on
MSHA sites (30 CFR 56.15005). In Canada where height requirements vary from 8 feet (2.5 m) to 10 feet
(3 m), personnel shall wear the appropriate fall protection system as required by the governing regulatory
authority. . Fall protection is also required in the US when working within 6 feet (1800 mm) of the top
edge of a high wall. For any task, where the feasible of following the criteria established above is in
question, and/or if the task creates a greater hazard to use the fall protection systems established above,
the case shall be referred to the Safety Manager for review. A site-specific fall protection plan shall be
developed for each of these cases.

(*) Note: Safety belts are no longer acceptable as part of a personal fall arrest system at Lafarge
operations. A safety belt may be used as a positioning system if and only if the safety belt-lanyard
combination protects the employee from falling no more than two feet.

Fall protection (a.k.a. fall arrest system) must meet ANSI (US) or CSA (Canada) requirements. The
harness must fit snugly and the D-ring shall be positioned in the middle of the back. The lanyard shall be
secured to a rigid, sturdy support and shall be kept as short as possible without limiting the movement
required to complete the assigned work. Do not tie the lanyard in a knot.

The following is an inspection list that must be performed before using fall protection equipment:
 Examine the harness fabric for cuts, cracks, tears, enlarged/distorted/broken eyelets (eyeholes), and
   signs of wear that may compromise the integrity of the equipment.
 Inspect the harness stitching for breaks, ragged strands, or other signs of wear or weakening.
 Check the metal hardware for loose anchorage, breaks, cracks, or signs of wear that will affect the
   strength or action of the fastening devices.
 Check that the D-ring is positioned in the middle of the back of the harness.
 Replace or repair defective/worn parts or equipment before use. Equipment that can not be repaired
   must be destroyed and disposed.
 Do not alter the lanyards or harnesses.
 Check lanyards for fraying, cuts, or other indications of wear or damage that may affect the integrity
   of the lanyard.
 Check loops or metal hardware for proper safety catches.

4.2.5   Materials Handling and Storage

The following best practice guidelines are to be followed when handling materials and storage:




4.2.5.1 Manual Lifting

   Lifting will be accomplished with feet set solidly and set apart enough to provide balance and stability.
    (Placing one foot slightly ahead of the other will provide better stability.) Stand as close to the load as
    possible and bend at the knees; crouch, do not squat. While keeping the back as straight as possible
    (not arched) lift with leg muscles. The lifting motion should be smooth and steady without twisting or
    leaning. Do not carry an object you cannot see around or over. Carry the object close to the body.
   Choose your travel path before lifting the object. Check that the travel path is free of slip/trip/fall
    hazards.
   Push rather than pull when moving materials on hand trucks or dollies.
   Get help or divide the load if the object to be lifted is bulky or heavy. Material handling equipment use
    is recommended to move bulky or heavy objects.
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4.2.5.2 Mechanical Lifting

Mechanical lifting equipment includes cranes and draglines.
 Obtain training as required by regulatory authority; certification may also be required.
 Operators shall test controls, brakes, and hoisting ropes before use.
 Repairs shall be performed before use. Defective equipment shall not be operated.
 Repairs and maintenance shall only be performed on equipment that is stopped and locked out.
 Keep the equipment clean, tidy, and free of oil/grease build up.
 Access the cab using the three-point contact system.
 Avoid distractions and refrain from talking to others; concentrate on the job.
 Do not move a load over the heads of personnel or over the cab or passenger portion of an occupied
   vehicle.
 Lower the load to the ground before leaving the controls.
 Mechanical lifting shall be accomplished utilizing the lifting equipment as per manufacturer
   instructions and within the equipment’s limitations. Rated load capacities, recommended operating
   speeds, and special hazard warnings or instructions shall be posted. This information must be visible
   to the equipment operator at the controls.
 Accessible areas within the swing radius shall be barricaded to limit the potential for unauthorized
   entry.
 Maintain clearance from overhead power lines in accordance with Section 4.6.2.
 One person will be assigned to direct the operator when powered equipment is used to raise or lower
   materials. The crane operator will be directed to follow the signals from only that assigned person.
   The signal person shall remain in visual contact of the operator while the load is being handled. The
   signal person shall wear a high visibility vest that identifies him/her as the designated signal person.
 Signals used to direct crane/hoist/derrick operators shall be those prescribed by the applicable ANSI
   standard (US) for the type of crane/hoist/derrick in use. An illustration of these signals shall be
   posted at the job site.
 Notify personnel in the area before a crane or hoist is used to lift a load and if the crane/hoist will be
   moved from its current location.
 Check load for loose objects or material to limit the potential for items to fall while suspended.
 Check that bolts/clamps are secured when setting steel, placing large objects, or machinery before
   releasing the support line
 Secure items that have been placed on an elevated platform to minimize the potential for adverse
   impact to personnel at lower levels. Elevated platforms must be constructed with a top rail, mid rail,
   and toeboard. Further information concerning elevated platform requirements is presented in Section
   4.3.6 of this manual.
 Do not use a hoisting spreader to choke or cradle a load; use a sling.
 Check that the personnel assisting with the lift have released slings and/or chokers and are in the
   clear before giving the lift signal.
 If the sling or choker must be held in place, check for potential pinch points or potential snags to
   minimize the potential for adverse affect.
 Observe the direction of the roll or swing of the load and avoid getting in its path.
 Do not stand or walk under suspended loads. Maintain a safe distance from ropes, cables, and
   chains that under tension. Suspended loads shall not be left unattended.
 Do not stand between the load swing and objects or equipment that present a potential crush hazard.
 Inspect the area where the load will be placed for potential hazards (objects that may fly into the air,
   uneven surface, etc.) before the load is lifted.
 Tag lines shall be attached to loads before they are lifted to provide guidance and load control, as
   appropriate.
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   Place the load slowly and carefully to avoid crushing body parts of assisting personnel and to allow
    adequate time for personnel to move out of the way if the load begins to roll
   Cranes and hoists are required to be inspected before use by a designated competent person to
    verify that the equipment is in operating condition and that it is constructed/equipped within
    manufacturer standards. Additionally, lifting equipment is required to be periodically inspected as per
    manufacturer inspection recommendations. Damaged or defective equipment must be repaired
    before the equipment is returned to service.
   The operator shall have access to a fire extinguisher rated at 5BC or higher.
   Hoisting and lifting equipment must be equipped with load limit switches for vertical and horizontal
    travel.
   The safe working load shall be clearly marked on rigging, chains, slings, spreaders, or other devices
    used for lifting loads.
   Wire rope shall be replaced when worn or as per manufacturer recommendations.
   Pinch points shall be appropriately guarded. Keep hands and fingers away from pinch points, impact
    areas, and connections.
   Personnel are forbidden to ride on lifting equipment.

4.2.5.3 Personal Protective Equipment

   Work gloves must be worn when handling heavy or rough objects.
   Wear required PPE when handling toxic or hazardous products. Be familiar with safe handling
    procedures and other pertinent information presented in the MSDSs for the product.
   Hard hats are required when working in the vicinity of material lifting equipment.

4.2.5.4 Material Storage

   Exits and aisles must be kept clear. Most building codes require 25 inches (600 mm) to 28 inches
    (700 mm) of clearance for aisles and exit-ways.
   Store loose materials securely to limit the potential for material to fall into walkways thus causing a
    slip/trip/fall hazard.
   Materials shall be securely stacked in a neat and orderly manner.
   Rubbish and flammable materials shall be appropriately stored or disposed at the end of the shift.
   Check that the material to be stored is compatible with the container before filling it.
   Smoking shall not occur within 20 feet (6 m) of flammable storage areas or in areas that are posted
    as "No Smoking". Do not smoke except in designated smoking areas.
   Sparking or open flame equipment shall not be used within 20 feet (6 m) of flammable storage.

4.2.6   Biological Hazards

Potential biological hazards associated with Lafarge work activities include poisonous plants,
stinging/biting insects, venomous reptiles, rodents, and aggressive mammals. These potential hazards
are discussed in the remainder of this section.


4.2.6.1 Poisonous Plants

   Learn to recognize the type(s) of poisonous plants in your region and avoid contact with them.
   Wear long sleeves, long pants, and boots to minimize the potential for dermal contact with poisonous
    plants.
   If dermal contact occurs, wash area immediately with a strong soap (e.g., Fels Napa, Lava, etc).
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   Do not touch potentially contaminated clothing until laundered. (Poison ivy residue on clothing can
    remain active and cause a dermal reaction as long as a year later!)
   Launder potentially contaminated clothing separately.

4.2.6.2 Stinging/Biting Insects

   Use insect repellent to avoid contact with stinging/biting insects.
   Avoid encounters with bees, wasps, spiders, or other stinging/biting insects.
   Avoid placing hands and feet into concealed areas.
   Employees who have had adverse reactions to insect bites or stings should carry the appropriate
    treatment medication. Employees are required to notify their Supervisor of the potential for adverse
    reaction to insect bites or stings and the first aid or other assistance that may be required to assist the
    employee.

4.2.6.3 Poisonous Reptiles

   Avoid contact with poisonous snake or other poisonous reptiles by quietly walking away.
   If bitten, do not use a snakebite kit or attempt to suck the venom out; seek medical assistance
    immediately.

4.2.6.4 Rodents and Aggressive Mammals

   Avoid contact with rodents as they are frequently hosts to fleas, which can carry typhus and the
    plague.
   Avoid contact with or inhaling dust associated with rodent feces or urine to minimize the potential for
    contracting haunta virus. Clean up of mouse waste, carcasses, or mouse “nests” shall be performed
    as follows:
          Wear a HEPA dust mask or respirator with HEPA filters and gloves.
          Wet down the area with an aqueous Clorox  solution (5% in water).
          Dispose of fecal material, nesting material, and carcasses in a sealed plastic bag.
   Seek medical assistance immediately if cold- or flu-like symptoms occur after being exposed to
    mouse waste, carcasses, or nests.
   Do not approach or agitate animals, especially animals that are foaming at the mouth or behaving
    strangely.
   Report the location of animals foaming at the mouth or behaving strangely to the local animal control
    agency. Do not attempt to capture or “corner” the animal.
   If bitten by a potentially rabid animal, seek medical assistance immediately.

4.2.6.5    Birds
 Avoid contact with birds, such as pigeons, as they can be carriers of bacteria, which can be harmful
    to humans.
 Avoid contact with or inhaling dust associated with bird feces or urine to minimize the potential for
    exposure.
 Clean up of bird waste, carcasses or bird nests shall be performed as follows:
                Wear a HEPA dust mask or respirator with HEPA filters and gloves.
                Wet down the area with an aqueous clorox solution (5% in water).
                Dispose of fecal matter, nesting materials and carcasses in a sealed plastic bag.
                When the clean up is completed, wash all exposed skin thoroughly with warm water
                   and a good antibacterial soap.
                Seek medical assistance immediately if cold or flu-like symptoms occur after being
                   exposed to bird waste, carcasses or nesting materials.
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4.2.7   First Aid Flushing Procedure Using Water Stored on a Mixer Truck

OSHA (US) states in 29 CFR 1910.151 (c) and 29 CFR 1926.50 (g) that "suitable facilities for quick
drenching or flushing of the eyes or body shall be provided within the work area for immediate emergency
use". Mixer trucks are equipped with a tank of water that can be used for emergency flushing, provided
the tank is filled with potable water. Mixer truck drivers are required to wear appropriate PPE when
there is a potential for splash hazards. However, if a splash occurs that impacts the eye or bare skin, the
area shall be flushed using the hose connected to the water tank mounted on the mixer truck. The flush
shall be performed using gravity feed without the nozzle attachment and shall continue for 15 minutes
or until medical assistance arrives. Lafarge employees who have sustained a splash are required to
complete an incident or injury report and submit it to their supervisor as soon as is reasonably possible
after the splash occurs. This report must be forwarded to the Local Safety Personnel within 24 hours of
occurrence.
4.2.8 Bloodborne Pathogens (US)

The bloodborne pathogens standard was developed to protect employees potentially exposed to
bloodborne pathogens (Hepatitis B Virus [HBV], Human Immunodeficiency Virus [HIV]) during normal
work assignments. Specific parts and sections of the standard do not apply to Lafarge employees
because normal work activities do not provide a reasonable potential for exposure to bodily fluids or
potentially infectious materials. Assisting a co-worker with a cut or nosebleed (or other "Good Samaritan"
act) is not subject to the requirements of this standard. However, Lafarge employees should be aware
that contact with another person's blood or body fluids can potentially be an exposure to infectious
materials. For this reason, Lafarge employees should be familiar with the standard; a summary follows.

4.2.8.1 Exposure Control Plan

Lafarge employees will be required to use universal precautions when assisting an injured party.
Universal precautions include: training, engineering controls, PPE, clean up procedures, etc. These
precautions are presented below.

Training
Lafarge will include a discussion of the regulatory requirements, universal precautions, use of PPE,
proper disposal, and the potential hazards of exposure regarding bloodborne pathogens in Lafarge’s
training program.

Engineering Controls
 Do not eat, drink, smoke, apply cosmetics, handle contact lenses, or apply lip balm in areas where
   there is a potential for exposure.
 Equipment such as machines involved in an injury accident may be contaminated must be inspected
   before use or servicing. Equipment that is contaminated must be decontaminated unless this is not
   feasible to do so. If the equipment can not be decontaminated it must be posted with a biohazard
   label that describes the location of the contamination. Personnel and service representatives must be
   informed of the equipment contamination.
 Engineering and work practice controls must be used to minimize the potential for bloodborne
   pathogens exposure when possible. Where the potential for exposure remains after controls have
   been implemented, personal protective equipment (PPE) must be used.

Personal Protective Equipment
Lafarge requires that a first aid kit be located in an accessible area at work sites. First aid kits are
required to contain a CPR shield, a pair of disposable and impermeable gloves, and a pair of safety
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glasses, goggles or a face shield. These items are to be worn by the employee when rendering first aid
assistance to another person.
                                        Disinfection/Clean-Up

The following procedures shall be followed after the medical emergency has been resolved.

   Spills of body fluids will be cleaned up with a 10% aqueous chlorine solution (e.g., bleach).
   The employees performing clean up and disinfection shall wear the PPE discussed above until clean-
    up/disinfection is completed and potentially contaminated items are properly disposed.
   Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water after removing gloves and wash hands or other parts of
    the body with soap and water immediately after contact with blood or body fluids. Flush mucous
    membranes with water as soon as possible after contact.
   Remove PPE before leaving the area. Personal clothing may have to be removed if the garment has
    been contaminated. If the garment is penetrated, remove it as soon as possible. Place contaminated
    items in appropriate containers for disposal and wash potentially contaminated skin. Check that the
    container is labeled with a biohazard label.
   Areas that become contaminated will be cleaned with a 10% aqueous chlorine solution (e.g., bleach)
    and inspected to check that the contamination has been properly cleaned up. Personnel wearing the
    appropriate PPE will clean these areas. Beware of glass or other sharp objects that may be
    contaminated and dispose of properly.

Disposal
Potentially contaminated items will be disposed as biohazardous material. The items will be placed in a
red bag labeled with the biohazard label or in a trash bag that is clearly labeled as containing
biohazardous material. The material will be taken to the nearest medical facility capable of appropriately
disposing biohazardous waste.

4.2.8.2 Exposure Response

If a Lafarge employee is exposed to another person's bodily fluids, the area of exposure shall be
washed/disinfected immediately. If clothing is contaminated with potentially contaminated body fluids, the
contaminated clothing is to be removed and bagged immediately and the area of skin in contact with the
body fluid washed/disinfected. The employee is required to notify his/her supervisor and the Local Safety
Personnel no later than 4 hours after the exposure. The employee will be advised of his/her options
regarding medical testing/monitoring, Hepatitis B vaccinations, and counseling. Results from the source
employee’s blood test will be made available to the exposed employee. Medical records concerning the
employee's evaluation and monitoring will be retained by Lafarge's medical provider(s) for the duration of
employment plus 30 years. Employees will be permitted access to their medical files upon request.

4.2.9   Water Hazards

The following are procedures to be used when working on or near bodies of water:

4.2.9.1 General

   Life vests approved for use by the US or Canadian Coast Guard will be worn by employees working
    on or near bodies of water when the water depth is 3 feet (900 mm) or greater
   Employees working on elevated surfaces (e.g., cliff, high bank, platform) greater than 4 feet (1200
    mm) above water bodies should wear a 5-point harness and a lanyard of appropriate length in
    addition to the life vest
   Water bodies should be posted with hazard information. When possible, water bodies that are
    accessible by the public should be fenced or barricaded
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4.2.9.2 Dock Operations

   Written and diagramed tie-off/mooring procedures shall be developed and implemented for Lafarge
    docks. Employees shall receive training in these procedures
   Personnel assigned to work at the dock shall wear PPE appropriate for the duties performed
   Visitors to the dock must be authorized and shall be required to use appropriate safety equipment
   Unsafe conditions shall be reported to the site manager upon discovery. Repairs or other mitigation
    shall be completed as soon as possible after discovery
   Walkways shall be constructed with handrails meeting the requirements presented in Section 4.21.
   Walkways shall be securely attached or tied off to the dock. The walkway shall allow for barge
    movement
   Dock and captive barge stations shall have railings, including a midrail, in accordance with
    regulations
   Access openings in the railings shall be equipped with safety chains, including “midrail” chains, and
    snaps. The chains and attachments shall be snag-free
   Barge haul or cable positioning systems shall be operated from a remote station where the operator
    has a clear view of the operation
   Barge haul systems shall be inspected and maintained on a monthly basis
   Dock personnel shall not participate in towboat or switching activities unless trained to do so and
    directed to do so by the site manager
   Barge unloading systems shall have “kill” or “idle” switches clearly marked. Barge and dock
    personnel shall be familiar with the switch operation and location
   Mooring lines and pipelines shall be adjusted as needed during unloading to maintain control and to
    avoid hazardous strain and failure
   Hoses and attachments connected to barges shall be tied off during operations to minimize the
    potential for injury or damage should the hoses burst or accidentally disconnect
   Tools used during dock operations shall be inspected and repaired or replaced if damaged
   Barge electrical cables shall be disconnected and locked/tagged out before beginning electrical
    repairs
   Floatation compartments shall be vented at least 20 minutes before entering. In addition, confined
    space entry procedures shall be followed if entry into the compartment is required. Compartment air
    shall be monitored for % oxygen, presence of potentially explosive gas, and presence of volatile
    organic compounds before entry and while an entrant is inside the compartment. Further information
    regarding confined space entry procedures are presented in Section 4.27.

4.2.9.3 Dock Communications

   If applicable, the dock shall be equipped with a properly licensed and operational VHF marine radio.
    Employees shall be trained to use and maintain the radio.
   Docks and captive barges shall be equipped with a telephone or a radio service capable of
    summoning emergency assistance
   Employees must use the “buddy system” (visual and/or verbal contact with a co-worker) when
    traveling from dock to barge and the reverse. If an employee is left alone at the barge unloading
    station, he/she must not move on or off the barge until another employee is present
   Barge and dock equipment operators must be in full visual contact with other personnel in the area
    when operating this equipment
   Barge operators and dock personnel shall maintain radio, visual, and/or voice contact during docking
    operations
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4.2.9.4 Dock Night Operations

   Barges shall not be hooked up overnight if unattended
   Dock lighting shall be adequate for the performance of night work
   Employees shall use personal lights as needed
   Docks and barges must be equipped with navigation warning lights in accordance US or Canadian
    Coast Guard requirements. Warning lights shall be maintained in operational condition
   Cleats, fittings, accessories, or other mounted items on docks that may pose a trip hazard shall be
    painted yellow

4.2.9.5 Dock Emergency Response Plan

   A written emergency response plan shall be located at the dock. Information required to be included
    in the plan is as follows:
                 Lafarge emergency contact names and telephone numbers
                 Telephone numbers for local emergency response organizations
                 Written emergency response procedures specific to the site
                 Location of emergency response equipment available for use at the dock
                 Local agency contact names and numbers for reporting required by regulation
   The following emergency and rescue equipment shall be available for use at the site and shall be
    clearly identified and designated for emergency use:
                 Portable lighting
                 Rope
                 US or Canadian Coast Guard approved throwable flotation device with line attachment
                 Stretcher
                 Oxygen and first aid supplies
   Emergency response procedures shall be included in employee training
   A mock drill of the emergency response plan shall be performed at least annually
   Local emergency response organizations shall be informed of Lafarge’s emergency response plan.
    These organizations will be requested to participate in the site’s mock drills
   The emergency response plan shall be reviewed and updated as needed

4.2.9.6 Safety Inspections

Safety inspections shall be performed monthly. A copy of the inspection report shall be filed at the site for
a period of 2 years. Safety inspections shall include the following equipment or conditions:
 Emergency equipment and supplies
 Railings, safety chains, and clips
 Potential slip/trip/fall hazards
 Hoist cables
 Electrical cables and connections
 Communications equipment
 Lighting
 Personal safety equipment
 Other safety items
 Mooring cables and ropes

4.2.10 Temperature Extremes

The procedures presented below shall be followed to limit the potential for heat or cold related illnesses.
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4.2.10.1          Heat Stress

Be conscious of situations that can create heat stress, i.e., high temperatures, humidity and confined
spaces.
 Have a cool water or carbohydrate electrolyte replenishment solution available. Drink small amounts
    of the water or the solution frequently to limit the potential for dehydration.
 Count the pulse rate for 30 seconds at the beginning of the break. If the pulse rate exceeds 110
    beats per minute, shorten the next work period by one-third.
 Do not continue working if you become disoriented, feel nauseous, or become light-headed,. If these
    symptoms occur, take a break and drink cool water or a carbohydrate electrolyte replenishment
    solution. If the symptoms persist, seek medical assistance.
 Include salt in your food intake; salt tablets are not recommended.



4.2.10.2          Cold Stress

     Wear multi-layer cold-weather clothing. The outer layer should be a wind-resistant fabric.
     Drink warm fluids and take rest breaks in a warm shelter.
     Avoid heavy perspiration – it’s just as easy to dehydrate in cold weather as it is in hot weather.
     Do not continue working if you become disoriented, confused, or sleepy. If these symptoms occur,
      take a break in a warm shelter. If the symptoms persist, seek medical assistance.

4.3       Manufacturing Plants

4.3.1     General

The following best practice guidelines are to be followed when working in shops, on machinery or general
work areas:
 Equipment operators must be trained to operate the equipment associated with their assigned work
   duties.
 Provide adequate illumination to perform the assigned work.
 Guards must be in place during equipment operation. Guards removed for equipment maintenance
   or repair must be replaced before the equipment is put back into operation.
 Check that personnel are clear of the work area before starting powered equipment.
 Eye protection must be worn when operating or working near powered equipment or airborne
   particles that may adversely impact the eye.
 Clean and inspect equipment at the completion of the task.
 The floor area around machines/equipment must be kept clean and free of slip/trip/fall hazards.
 Place insulating mats or other electrically non-conductive material on the floor at switchboards and
   power control panels where there is a potential for shock hazard.
 Electrical equipment and illumination devices used in wet or potentially wet areas shall have a GFCI.
 Powered equipment shall not be left running while unattended unless it is designed to operate without
   an attendant.
 Operate equipment as per manufacturer recommendations. Operate equipment within rated capacity
   and at safe speed.
 Powered equipment operators shall not wear jewelry or lose clothing in the vicinity of moving parts,
   machine tools, and other equipment. Long hair shall be tied back.
 A respirator with appropriate cartridges must be worn while spray painting. Further information on
   respirators can be found in section 10.2.
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   A 30 inches (750 mm) clearance around electrical panels and circuit breaker boxes must be
    maintained. Electrical panels and circuit breaker boxes shall be labeled with the equipment controlled
    by the panel or box. Additional electrical requirements are presented in Section 4.6.2 of this Manual.
   Floors and workbenches shall be kept free from oily rags. Oily rags shall be placed in covered metal
    containers and shall be properly disposed at the end of each shift.
   Verify daily that equipment and associated tools are in good working condition. Record repairs
    needed for equipment and/or tools in the Equipment Maintenance Log.
   Powered equipment inspection, maintenance, and use procedure:
     Turn off the equipment power switch.
     Turn off the power supply to the receptacle (when applicable).
     Check the cables, plugs, connectors, and receptacles for damage.
     Check that the equipment is properly grounded. If applicable, check that surrounding metal
        objects, fencing, metal enclosures, etc. are grounded.
     Check that inspection and cover plates are in place. These plates are required to be in place
        except when inspection or maintenance is being performed.
     If no damage is observed, reconnect the equipment to the power supply.
     If damage is observed, tag the equipment as “out of service”, and remove the equipment from
        service until it is repaired or replaced.
     Turn on the power supply and/or the equipment power switch and operate the equipment with
        care.
   Powered equipment must be stopped and locked out before maintenance or repairs are performed.
    Lockout/tag-out procedures will include locking out electrical, mechanical, and stored energy as
    appropriate. Further lockout/tag-out information is presented in Section 4.6.3 of this Manual.
   Defective equipment must be removed from service and reported to the Supervisor or Foreman as
    soon as it is discovered.
   Employees shall not work under vehicles or equipment supported by jacks, hoists, or cranes without
    protective blocking that may prevent injury should the lifting device fail.
   Cranes and hoists shall be inspected on a regular basis as per the manufacturer’s recommendation
    and applicable regulations. Refer to Section 4.2.4 of this Manual for further information regarding
    crane and hoist safety.

4.3.2   Cement Plants

4.3.2.1 Shelf Cleaning Procedure

   Always have a Safety Man go with you to the shelf area when cleaning is required
   Ensure safety man is familiar with controls and the cleaning operation of the shelf
   Wear adequate safety equipment at all times: safety glasses, face shield, hood, gloves, etc.
   Do not have cigarette lighters or matches in your pocket while cleaning shelf
   Let the Control Room know that you are going to clean the shelf
   Lockout blasters as per the lockout procedure
   Ensure that all safety barricades are up
   Ensure work area is clear of all hazards
   Check all hoses, fittings and gun for damage before use. If any damage is present DO NOT use, take
    down to maintenance for repair or replace if necessary. DO NOT leave it for someone else.
   Start from pre-cal area and work down
   Always poke an opening into a port, do not use WOMA Gun to blast your way in as this is very
    dangerous
   Never have more than one port open at a time
   Use EXTREME CAUTION while operating the WOMA Gun at all times
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   Insert WOMA Gun into appropriate poke hole and depress trigger, have the safety- man start pump.
    Ensure that the safety man is free from any flying debris
 Do not hold the gun at an upward angle while cleaning as scale falling could strike lance and cause
    serious injury to the operator
 Use WOMA Gun to knock down any build-ups and to clean all surfaces
 After cleaning is complete, stop pump and depress trigger until all water pressure is drained off ,then
    shut off water supply valve
 Store gun and hoses in a safe area and ensure that the work area is left clean
 Recharge blasters and remove all safety barricades.
** MOST IMPORTANTLY IF IN DOUBT ASK! REQUEST MORE HELP IF NEEDED

4.3.2.2 Unplugging Cyclones

   Only trained or qualified people are to unplug cyclones
   All safety gear must be worn. e.g. gloves, glasses, face shields, hoods, dust mask.
   Always have a minimum of 2 people working on unplugging the cyclone, both people must have a
    knowledge of what to expect and the hazards of the job. They should also both have radios for
    communication purposes.
 Ensure that all safety barricades are put up to warn any other employees.
 Ensure that the tower is completely empty of everyone else but the people working on the unplugging
    of the cyclone. No one is allowed access to the tower until notifying the people unplugging the
    cyclone.
 Have the appropriate fans started by the Control Room Operator to keep the tower negative.
 Elevator should be taken to the level you are working on and left there.
 Ensure that you have a safe entrance and exit route before commencing.
 Only have one porthole open at a time.
 When a hole is not in use, make sure it is securely closed.
 Any material that comes out of the cyclone is extremely hot, large spills should be marked so that all
    other employees are made aware of them.
 Some of the tools to unplug a cyclone are as follows; bars, air lances, blasters, jack hammers and the
    Power Shot System. Anyone unplugging a cyclone should be knowledgeable in the safe and
    proficient use of these tools.
NOTE: Unplugging a cyclone is a very dangerous job, remember to always think out your actions and
use your head. Do not take chances that could harm yourself or your partner.

4.3.2.3 Coal Mills

Introduction

The objective of these rules and guidelines is to:
 Ensure employee safety
 Comply with existing laws, regulations, and codes
 Provide optimum work flexibility
 Protect equipment

Hazard Identification

        Hazards of Coal

        There are real hazards involved in working with coal that you must be familiar with:
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          Coal in any form, is a fuel. As with any fuel, it should be treated with care. Therefore, we
           should be constantly on guard against fires.
          Coal “Dust” can be explosive ONLY WHEN SUSPENDED IN AIR (i.e., a dust cloud);
           otherwise, it is just a fire hazard. (Pittsburgh coal, volatile content 37% has the potential to
           produce an 83 psi (570 kPa) explosion given a minimum dust concentration of 0.055 oz per
                                3
           cubic foot (55 g/m ) of air containing 17% oxygen.) Therefore, we must protect against
           explosions. Taking it one step further, we must be very wary of dust clouds.
          Wet coal is not an explosion hazard providing it is wet enough so that it won’t dust or remain
           suspended in air. It is still a fire hazard, though, and this fact should not be ignored.
           Furthermore, care must be taken that over a period of a long job or shutdown, the coal does
           not dry out.
          Raw coal can spontaneously combust. This is a fairly well documented phenomenon and
           occurs generally in stock piles, given the right conditions. However, it has been known to
           occur in coal dust piles as well.
          Ground or crushed coal can release combustible gases, and unless ventilated these gases
           can collect. The risk varies with the percentage of volatile content: the higher the
           percentage, the greater the risk. Typical gases are ethane and carbon monoxide.

       Hazards of Coke

          Coke is a less serious hazard than coal, but does possess some hazards of which everyone
           should be aware. Coke does not auto-ignite as coal does because it has no volatile content.
           However, since coal and coke dust look so much alike, all piles should be cleaned up as
           soon as possible since it could be coal or have coal mixed with it.
          Airborne coke dust “may” explode if ignited.

       Hazardous Situations

          If coal itself is hazardous, there are also hazardous situations that must not be ignored.
           Generally speaking, the risks are greater in the Coal Mill Building than in the Bin Building or
           in the rest of the handling system (in that order). Furthermore, the hazard is greater when the
           system is running then when shut down. The coal pulverizing and firing system, in particular,
           is most dangerous just as it starts up and just when it shuts down. Basically, the degree of
           risk varies with the circumstances, and we therefore, must always be aware of which set of
           circumstances we are working in.

       Precautionary Measures

          The number one precautionary measure is to keep the coal handling areas and the coal mill
           building as clean as possible. Cleaning these areas should be given top priority.
          Admittedly, trying to keep all of this information straight can be difficult. Remember two “rules
           of thumb”:
            Don’t take chances, play it safe - especially if in doubt.
            Minimize the risk as far as practical. Get rid of the hazard if you can.

Building Entry and Evacuation

       General

          Given the potentially dangerous nature of the Coal Plant, we must control the traffic,
           especially in the Coal Mill Building. Consequently, it is very important for the control
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    operating staff to know not only who, but what everybody is doing and where. Moreover, it is
    for your own protection to keep the Control Room fully informed. Everybody must check in by
    one way or another, before performing any work or inspections in the Coal Mill.
   In addition, the coal mill system must be inerted with Raw Mix for any work which requires the
    system to be shut down and equipment opened.
   Do not walk under operating mills.

Work Permits

   A General Work Permit is required for all Coal Plant work which:
     Requires the equipment to be locked out.
     Renders a piece of equipment inoperable or unsafe to operate.
     Involves hot work, including all forms of welding, cutting, grinding, and the use of any
        portable electrical tools or equipment that are not CSA rated or approved for Class II,
        Division I Locations.
     Requires entry into a confined space and/or atmospheric testing.
     For work in areas designated “Explosion Hazard” .
   The General Work Permit should be completed by the department involved and submitted to
    the Control Room or the Shift Foreman prior to starting any activity which falls under any of
    the above categories.

Exemptions

   On-duty shift personnel are exempt from filling out General Work Permits. Additional
    personnel assigned to the control operating staff may also be exempt at the shift foreman’s
    discretion, e.g. shift maintenance mechanic. This exemption, however, does not apply to
    Confined Space Entry.

Sign In / Sign Out

   Sign-ins are mandatory for all activities in the Coal Mill Building, and under the coal bins
    when Work Permits are not necessary, and under the following circumstances:
     The system is running.
     The system is shut down for less than one day (24 hours) and a restart is anticipated.
     The system is to be restarted within the next FOUR HOURS.
   If the system is down for a lengthy overhaul period, it is relatively safe, and therefore, sign-ins
    are not mandatory. This is done simply to facilitate maintenance work, provided that the
    appropriate Work Permit has been completed. However, this can change at the supervisor’s
    discretion with proper written notice temporarily discontinuing sign-ins.
   Sign out when you’ve finished your task

Free Access Building Entry

   Free access entry (i.e., no prior signing is required) is limited to the control operating staff, the
    mechanical inspector, and the maintenance and electrical trouble shooters. People with free
    access are not required to sign in or put out; however, they are required to carry a radio and
    use it to check in and out with the control room operator.
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      Emergency Building Entry

         Under certain extreme emergency situations, entry is limited to the control operating staff
          only, or other people designated by the Shift Foreman. These individuals must have a
          functioning portable radio.

      Coal Mill Building Evacuation

         NOBODY is to be present in the Coal Mill Building under the following circumstances:
           Coal Mill startup
           Coal Mill shutdown
           System preheat initial startup
           Activation of the Inert Gas fire suppression system (during or immediately after)
         In each case, an evacuation siren or horn will sound. However, there are two different sirens
          used. The first one is a long rising periodic sound, used in cases a, b, and c. the other is a
          rapid oscillating sound, used when the IG System has been triggered.
         These alarms can be triggered automatically or manually. Furthermore, precautionary
          evacuations may take place. But don’t be fooled by those non-critical alarms. Someday one
          of them may be urgent. Generally speaking, follow these steps:
           Evacuate when a siren goes. Do not re-enter while the siren is on.
           Check in with the Control Room to determine if it is safe to re-enter after the siren has
               ceased.
         The startup siren lasts 60 seconds, the shutdown siren lasts 5 minutes. Manually triggered
          alarms are at the operator’s discretion.

      Fire Exits

         Care must be taken that fire exit doors are not blocked and that the escape routes are clear.

Maintenance and Housekeeping Rules

      Housekeeping

         Good housekeeping is essential for safe operation and prevention of fires and explosions.
          Therefore, to prevent the accumulation of appreciable dust deposits, regular periodic cleaning
          of horizontal ledges and surfaces of buildups and equipment is a must.
         In cleaning, dust clouds shall be minimized by using the vacuum system as much as
          possible. Compressed air or air lances shall not be used to dislodge coal dust accumulation.
          Vacuum cleaning methods are preferred, but vacuum systems shall be adequately grounded
          and bonded to prevent the possibility of a static charge igniting the coal dust. However, in
          those situations where sweeping is necessary, use dust suppression or sweeping
          compounds (i.e., Dustbane - TM) if possible. Vacuum cleaning methods are preferred, but
          vacuum systems shall be adequately grounded to prevent the possibility of a static charge
          igniting the coals dust.
         Never perform cleaning nearby anybody doing Hot Work. Cleaning and hot work must not
          take place at the same time anywhere within the coal mill building. Obviously, these activities
          have to be coordinated to avoid conflicts, but recognize that mistakes will happen. You must
          do one and then the other, BUT NEVER BOTH AT THE SAME TIME.
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Air Lances and Air-Operated Tools

   Air lances SHALL NOT BE USED for any housekeeping activities. Air lances may be used to
    clear plugged chutes, provided the coal is wet. Extreme caution must be exercised when
    cleaning the Coal Mill feed chute. Recognize that the use of air lances to clear plugged
    chutes ought to be considered an emergency measure and not a standard practice.
    Therefore, emphasis should be placed on redesigning the chute to eliminate the plugging
    problem.
   Air-operated tools are permitted provided that the risk of producing dust clouds is minimal.

Cleaning Plugged Equipment

   Severe injury and property damage can result from the careless handling of pulverized fuel.
    Therefore, extreme caution shall be used in cleaning out plugged burners, burner piping,
    pulverized coal bins, chutes, ducts, or other parts of the system.
   Pulverized fuel that may flood out or spill from such places can be ignited by random spark or
    a hot surface on which it falls, or it may already be smoldering and can produce an intensely
    hot fire or explosion without warning. Since pulverized fuel drifts freely in air, ignition may
    take place at a considerable distance from the point of disturbance.
   While cleaning, stop all Hot Work activity in the building or nearby, including the areas above
    and below.

Hot Work

   Hot work is defined as any work or activity which will or can produce a heat source of such
    intensity that it could start a fire or ignite an explosion. The following activities or equipment
    fall into this definition:
     Welding
     Flame Cutting
     Grinding
     High speed mechanical cutting or drilling (unless ample quantities of cooling oils are used)
     Soldering
     Sparking electrical tools or portable motorized electrical equipment (unless CSA
          approved CLASS II DIV. 1)
     High intensity heating devices (unless CSA approved for CLASS II, DIV. 1)
     Live high voltage electrical work
     Unattended, unprotected heat lamps and lighting (unless CSA approved CLASS II DIV. 1)
   Rule of thumb: If it is too hot to touch, treat it as if it were hot work.

Designated Areas

   Specific rules, regulations, and procedures for hot work apply to any area or piece of
    equipment designated “EXPLOSION HAZARD.” Please note that these areas have been so
    designated because of their potential for explosion. The following areas and equipment are
    so designated:
     The interior and all equipment within the Coal Mill Building
     The Coal Bins and all equipment directly above
     All equipment and ductwork associated with the coal firing system, including the Shape
        air fans, Overflow Fan, and Burner
     All Coal dust collectors
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   Raw Coal Handling areas are generally considered to be FIRE HAZARD AREAS only;
    however, that may change. Before starting the job, an inspection is strongly recommended.
    If dry fines are present, treat the area as if it were an Explosion Hazard Area.

Hot Work Rules for Pulverized Coal

The following are precautions that must be taken before starting any task involving Hot Work.
Given the particular job or situation, additional precautions may be required. This is to be
determined by your supervisor.

   The system within the building must be shut down.
   There must be no airborne dust in the vicinity.
   There must be no other activity ongoing nearby or within the Coal Mill Building that might
    cause or create dust clouds, i.e. sweeping, unplugging, etc. For conflicting activities, the
    priorities and sequence are to be determined by the coordinators. You do one, then the
    other, BUT NEVER BOTH AT THE SAME TIME.
   The work site or the site of potential heat sources must be clean. All accumulations of
    pulverized coal must be removed, AS FAR AS PRACTICABLE, by approved methods.
    Exterior surfaces of the work site and surrounding area must be clean to a radius of
    approximately four to five feet. This may vary depending on the nature of the heat source.
    For example, where flame cutting is necessary, one may need to clean a larger area to
    account for the cutting spatter, where as the de-dusting of the electrical receptacle requires
    only a quick wipe with a rag. Use some judgment.
   As far as interior surfaces are concerned, recognize that it is often impossible to clean these
    parts. Whenever possible inter the system with raw mix or limestone. Clean as much as you
    can or isolate it. For example, much of the ductwork will be coated with coal inside. One
    could isolate by breaking the nearest flange, then inserting a blank or fire resistant blanket in
    between. In extreme cases, it may be necessary to first dismantle completely, then clean
    out. Regardless, one must exercise care so that any fire started inside the equipment is
    somehow contained. This is perhaps your best guiding principle in these cases.
   Where sparks or weld spatters are likely to be produced, fire-resistant blankets or other
    approved methods shall be used in such manner so as to confine sparks and weld spatter.
   Fire watches are mandatory. The assigned person shall have no duty other than to watch for
    fires starting or dust clouds forming. Should a hazard manifest itself, stop work, and stand by
    with the appropriate fire fighting equipment. Should the situation require it, fire watches need
    to be established on more than one level.
   An inspection or patrol shall be made of the area (above and below if applicable) after the job
    is complete or if weld spatter has been produced and a complete clean-up has not been
    done. It is recommended that the patrol be continued for a period of at least ten minutes
    immediately after the job has been finished.
   A general work permit is required.

Dismantling of Equipment

   Whenever possible, before dismantling any equipment, the Coal Mill System should be
    inerted with raw mix or limestone.
   As an added precaution, all de-dusting pipes should be checked to ensure they are not
    plugged. This can be achieved by hammering on them with a brass hammer prior to shutting
    down the coal mill system.
   In situations when it is necessary expose to open atmosphere any piece of equipment that
    can be inerted with carbon dioxide (CO2). THE CO2 TANK MUST BE LOCKED OUT.
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            Recognize that if an accidental inertion were to occur, sufficient quantities of CO 2 can be
            released to suffocate a person very quickly.
           If the equipment has already been flooded, extreme caution must be taken. Ensure that the
            work site is ventilated. Also before proceeding, check to make sure that the oxygen levels are
            greater than 19.5%.
           Where applicable, the nearest sampling point for the monitoring system should be active and
            functioning. In this case, you are using the monitoring system for personnel protection.
            However, unless the nature of the work involved can be defined as confined space, it is not
            mandatory but merely precautionary. Whether or not it is necessary, the decision is at the
            foreman’s or workers discretion, given the nature of the task and severity of the hazards
            involved. Consult process flow sheets to determine the nearest sampling point. When
            reassembling the equipment, care must be taken to ensure that it is properly sealed.
            Furthermore, all ductwork, fan casings, and rotors must be statically grounded.
           It should be recognized that there will be some situations when inerting the coal mill is
            impossible, e.g. catastrophic failure of the system fan. If this should occur a number of
            precautions should be taken before beginning work and while work is progressing.

        Before Starting Work
         Assume the equipment being worked on contains pulverized coal.
         Have a pail of raw mix nearby.
         Ensure that the monitor is operational before locking out the CO2 tank.
         Have the vacuum system running and a hose long enough to reach the work area.
         Ensure the immediate area is clean.

        While Work Is On Going
         As the equipment is being dismantled clean as much dust as possible from inside the
           equipment or any that may fall to the floor.
         If CO levels in the Coal Mill system increase while work is progressing. It will be necessary to
           cease work and unlock the CO2 tank so that the system can be inerted, Operating personnel
           will inform you when the inertion is complete. This may have to be repeated several times
           before repairs are completed.
         Be aware that coal dust from piping above may fall and create a hazardous dust cloud where
           you are working. If this happens, leave the area until the dust settles, then clean up before
           re-commencing work.

4.3.2.4 WOMA Gun Operation

   Responsible supervisory personnel must instruct and impress upon the workers that the energy or
    force at the nozzle is almost equal to the horsepower of the drive (engine/motor). It then becomes
    obvious that the working power of the water jet must be respected and any uncontrolled or careless
    practice must be prevented.
   Proper periodic maintenance of all equipment is also important to the proper operation of equipment
    and thus contributes to safe working conditions. Keep a record.
   Careful handling and proper use are the best guaranty for safety. There is no substitute for safety and
    never a reason to operate in an unsafe manner.

Basic Precautions

   Observe internal company safety regulations. Observe pump maintenance instructions. No
    admittance to unauthorized persons to working area. Make sure accessories are suitable for pressure
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    range used. Insure seals on safety valve and pressure regulator stem are not broken. Place caution
    signs in work area.

Protective Clothing

   Protective clothing is required to operate the equipment. Protective clothing must be waterproof and
    include safety goggles, boots, and gloves. Rain suits are also highly recommended.

Working Area

   The place where the worker stands must be free from grease, etc. to ensure firm footing in
    anticipation of the water reactive force.
   If work is to be performed on unsteady ground, the worker will be secured by a safety harness.
   If work is performed in closed areas (tanks, autoclaves, etc.) the worker shall be secured by a safety
    harness and have sufficient supply of fresh air. A second man must watch the worker at the gun
    continuously.

 Checks On Equipment

Check the high pressure cleaning unit and all connectors for proper functioning prior to every start of work.

Electrical Equipment
        The electrical connections must be at least splash proof. Washing the electric motor and pump
           with high-pressure water is not permitted.

Connections
      Check connections, hoses and packing on fluid end. Replacement and repair to be done by
         trained personnel only. Do not attempt to tighten any leaking fittings on the fluid end while
         under pressure.

Gun
         Check for leaks and easy opening and closing of gun. Trigger of gun must not be blocked. (Do
          not wire or otherwise secure gun in the trigger in the open position.) Check function of safety
          lock and clearance under trigger guard. Regular maintenance checks and programs must be
          carried out. Keep a record by gun serial number.

Hoses
         Pad hoses in areas where they contact sharp edges, walls, cracks, etc. If necessary, suspend
          hoses with ropes in order to avoid abrasion. Hoses with defective or corroded steel mesh must
          be replaced. Do not loosen or tighten hose fittings and nozzles with pipe wrenches; use proper
          wrenches only. Two wrenches are required for proper tightening.

Accessories
      Accessories used must be in accordance with pump capacity (this check is especially important
         if plunger sizes and/or pump head types are changed often). Accessories should be
         permanently labeled with their safe working pressure and operating personnel should be
         familiar with these ratings.

Nozzles
 Use forward jetting nozzles on rigid steel lances only. Nozzles jetting backwards are suitable for use
   with hoses and flexible lances. Nozzles wash out with use and can prevent unit from reaching rated
   operating pressure, therefore replace nozzle as required. Do not attempt to over-compensate for
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    excessive nozzle wear by over-pressure on the pressure regulating screw. Once pressure reading on
    the gauge stops increasing no amount of additional turns will achieve a higher pressure.
   The recommended number of people to perform actual blasting is two (2). One must be an operator
    and the second is a safety man. The safety man does not have to be an operator.
   The main reminder for all employees using and repairing the high pressure gun is Any leak at any
    part of the gun, no matter how small, must be corrected!!
   For more detailed information regarding the WOMA gun, see, the maintenance and/or production
    department.

4.3.2.5 Blaster Lockout

   Inform operator on what you are doing
   Close and lockout supply valve
   Open drain valve and lockout in the open position
   Go to the manual jog station and fire each blaster manually to ensure that all blasters are relieved of
    any residual pressures
   If one blaster is going to be down for repairs for a while, it can be isolated and tagged while the other
    blasters remain operational.

4.3.2.6 Power Shot/Cardox Opeartion

The purpose of this procedure is to control the number of personnel and their safety when using the
power shot.

Basic Precautions
 Observe internal company safety regulations
 Observe maintenance instructions
 No admittance to unauthorized persons to working area
 Insure seals on safety valve and pressure regulator stem are not broken.
 Place caution signs in work area.

Special Precautions
Only trained personnel with blasting experience shall be permitted to perform this activity as the lead
person.

Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of the shift supervisor to control the number of people and the operation of the
power shot.

Procedural Instructions
 The number of personnel in the area when using the power shot should be limited to 3 or 4 people.
    This is explosive equipment and the fewer number of personnel the better from the safety stand point.
 The same procedure should be followed when using the power shot for unplugging a cyclone.
 There should be one person to refill the tubes and transport them.
 There should be two people, one to get the preparation work done, drill holes, check area and a
    designated safety person whose sole duty during this operation is to assist the other member of the
    power shot team in case of emergencies.

Frequency of Operation
Variable. Used to help in the unplugging of cyclone or breaking a large lump in the clinker cooler.
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Special Equipment
Radios are important for communication. Everyone must have one during this operation in order to
maintain constant communications.

Personal Protective Equipment
Personal protective equipment is required and must be used at all times during this operation.

Sample Production Procedure:

   Purpose: The Purpose of this procedure is to control the number of personnel and their safety when
    using the power shot.
   Scope:    This procedure covers the number of personnel required to do an adequate job in a safe
    manner when using a power shot.
   Responsibilities: It is the responsibility of the shift supervisor to control the number of people and
    the operation of the power shot.
   Procedure Instruction:
   Note: Radios are very important for communication Everyone must have one.
   Protective Equipment Required: Face Shield
   Welding Gloves
   Safety Glasses
   Hoods
   Dust Masks
   Hearing Protection
   Steel Toed Boots
   The number of personnel in the area when using the power shot should be limited to 3 or 4 people.
    This is explosive equipment and the fewer number of personnel the better from the safety stand point.
   The same procedure should be followed when using the power shot for unplugging a cyclone.
   There should be one person to refill the tubes and transport them.
   There should be two people, one to get the preparation work done, drill holes, check area and
    secondly a safety person in case someone gets into an uncomfortable situation.
   The trequency of using powershot varies. They are sused to help unplug a cyclone or breaking a
    large lump in the clinker cooler.
   Reference: See Cyclone Clean, Check, Unplug Procedure Prod Safety 003 / Power shot training
    video / Company Pamphlet in power shot room.
   Audit Statement: All activities prescribed by the procedure should be audited by the Production
    Supervisor or his/her designate at least once per year. Ensure that the following three questions can
    be answered in an audit: 1) Are the processes defined and their procedures appropriately
    documented? 2) Are the procedures fully deployed and implemented as documented? 3) Are the
    procedures effective in providing the expected results?
   Customer Priority: Additional requirements of any customer in regards to this procedure, not
    covered, shall be fully satisfied in addition to, or in place of this procedure.
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   Reviews and Revisions: The following conditions constitute a revision: 1) Removal of a procedure
    or part thereof from the list of procedure’s. 2) Addition to a procedure or policy . 3) Verbiage or
    language changes. 4) Changes to associated forms and / or documents. Any revisions to a procedure
    must be approved, and distributed in the same manner as the original. Any older revisions of
    procedures or policies must be discarded or marked obsolete if they are to be kept for historical
    reasons.
   Distribution & Location: Distribution and location of this procedure is noted on the Document
    Distribution List.


4.3.3   Crushing, Screening, and Washing Operations

   Inspect brakes and tires, clean brake drums, and check air lines before moving portable equipment.
   Place portable crushers on firm, level ground; block with chocks made of hardwood.
   Follow the crane operation safe work practices presented in Section 4.2.4 of this Manual when
    assembling or disassembling portable crushers.
   Use fall protection when personnel are working 4 feet (1200 mm) or more above the surface (US) or
    10 feet (3 m) in Canada. Fall protection is presented in Section 4.2.1.9 of this Manual.
   Place guards over pinch points and rotational hazards.
   Check that site personnel are familiar with start-up warning devices and procedures.
   Use water to control dust.
   Inspect welds and repair the welds show wear or cracking.
   Set up adequate lighting as needed.
   Continuously inspect operations and equipment for potential safety hazards.
   Do not use a tool to free lodged material when the equipment is in operation.
   Keep walkways and catwalks free of debris and trip hazards.
   Check that safety pull cords are operational and in good condition.
   Safety pull cords shall not be used for normal shutdowns.
   Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry when operating equipment. Tie back long hair.
   Ensure that portable generators used to supply power to the units listed above need to be properly
    grounded.

4.3.4   Bins and Hoppers

   Bins and hoppers that are classified as confined spaces requiring a confined space permit for entry.
    See Section 4.6.4 of this Manual for further information before entering a confined space.
   Use a pole or rod to move/compact stored materials to limit the potential for engulfment.
   Do not enter rock bins or crushers unless they have been locked out/tagged out. Further information
    on lock out/tag out procedures is presented in Section 4.6.3 of this Manual.
   Fall protection shall be used:
          Entering or working over bins and hoppers
          A potential for engulfment exists
          There is a potential for a hazardous atmosphere or oxygen deficiency
          There is a potential for a fall of over 4 feet (1200 mm) in the US or 10 feet (3 m) in Canada.
             Fall protection is presented in Section 4.2.1.9 of this manual.

4.3.5   Conveyors

   Lockout/tag-out/ try out conveyors before cleaning, repairing, or performing maintenance operations.
    Guards may not be removed unless the conveyor is locked and tagged out.
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   Do not manually clean pulleys when the conveyor is in motion.
   Do not apply belt dressing when the conveyor is in motion unless the dressing is an aerosol.
   Conveyor start-up:
          Check that employees are clear of the conveyor belt.
          If possible, walk the length of the conveyor belt to inspect for damage before start-up.
          If the length of the conveyor belt is not visible from the starting switch, a visible or audible
              warning shall be used before activating the start-up switch.
   Check that guards are in place over pinch points or rotation hazards. Do not remove guards while the
    belt is in motion. The machine guard must prevent access to all moving machine parts.
   Do not ride or walk on conveyor belts.
   Do not step through, crawl on, stand under, or step over moving conveyors.
   Do not operate a screw conveyor unless the cover is in place. Do not step on screw conveyor
    covers.
   Do not use D-handled shovels around moving conveyors.

4.3.6   Elevators

   Wait until the elevator is stopped and is level with the landing before attempting to enter or exit.
   Move loads on and off after the car has stopped is level with the landing.
   Elevator gates and doors shall remain closed except when passengers are exiting/entering or the
    elevator is being inspected/repaired.
   Check for the presence of a car before entering.
   Use the handles of collapsible elevator or shaft gates to open/close the gates to minimize the
    potential for injury.
   Make sure body parts and objects are entirely inside the elevator before closing the doors.
   Chock or set the brakes or wheeled equipment being transported in the elevator.
   Do not load the elevator past it’s posted weight limit.
   Do not distract the elevator operator.
   Horseplay on or near an elevator or shaft is forbidden.
   Do not disengage safety devices on elevators.

4.3.7   Elevated Platforms

The following best practices are to be followed when using stairways, ladders, or scaffolds during work
assignments:

4.3.7.1 Stairways

   Stairways are required where the accessed elevation is greater than 19 inches (480 mm) and no
    ramp, runway, or personnel hoist is available.
   Clear access must be maintained. If the stairway becomes restricted a second access stairway must
    be constructed.

                                                             o                        o
    Stairways must be constructed at an angle of at least 30 but no greater than 50 from horizontal.
   Access ways where a door or gate opens directly onto a stairway must have a platform that extends
    at least 20 inches (500 mm) beyond the swing of the door/gate.
   Stairways must be free of dangerous projections (e.g., protruding nails).
   Stairways shall be constructed and maintained to minimize the potential for slip/trip/fall hazards and
    injuries.
   Stairways having 4 or more risers or rising more than 30 inches (750 mm) must have at least one
    handrail; a handrail is required for each unprotected/open side or edge.
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   Stair trend must be of uniform rise and run and must be undamaged.
   Handrails must not exceed 34 inches (850 mm) nor be less than 30 inches (750 mm) in height and
    shall be constructed of smooth materials without projections that may cause injury to personnel or
    damage to clothing. Platform handrails shall be 42 inches (1050 mm) in height.
   Mid-rails, screens, mesh, intermediate vertical members, or equivalent shall be provided between the
    top rail and the steps.
   Handrails and mid-rails must be capable of withstanding 200 pounds (900 N) of pressure applied
    within 2 inches (50 mm) of the top edge without failing.

4.3.7.2 Ladders

   Inspect ladders before use. Damage/defective ladders shall not be used and shall be removed from
    the work area for repair or replacement.
   Ladders must be sturdy and have a firm base.
   Ladders shall be placed on a stable, level surface.
   Ladder rungs, cleats, or steps must be parallel, level, and uniformly spaced. Rungs, cleats, or steps
    must be uniformly spread at a distance of 10 inches (250 mm) to 14 inches (350 mm).
   The minimum clear distance between side rails is 11.5 inches (290 mm).
   Rungs and steps of portable metal ladders shall be corrugated, knurled, dimpled, coated with skid-
    resistant material, or treated to minimize the potential for slipping.
   Painted ladders are prohibited as the paint may cover damage or defects.
   Ladders must be free of oily substances and dirt accumulations.
   Ladders shall be used according to manufacturer recommendations and shall not be modified without
    approval from the manufacturer.
   Ladders shall not be tied or fastened together to create longer sections unless they are designed to
    do so.
   Ladders being used within 5 feet (1500 mm) of and electrical source must be constructed of a
    nonconductive material.
   The angle of the ladder must be at least 4:1 (length of the ladder: base distance from the wall).
   A metal spreader or locking device is required on stepladders to hold the front and back sections
    together when the ladder is in an open position for use.
   Keep the area around the ladder free of debris, tools, equipment, etc.
   Ladders must extend at least 3 feet (900 mm) above the elevated surface being accessed. The
    ladder must be tied off at the top and secured at the bottom to limit the potential for accidental
    movement. A grasping device shall be installed at the top of the ladder to assist personnel with
    dismounting from the ladder. Long ladders may need to be braced in addition to the above securing
    methods.
   Do not place a ladder in front of a door or entrance/exit without first securing or barricading the door
    or entrance/exit.
   Face the ladder when climbing and maintain three points of contact.
   Standing on the rung above the third rung from the top of a long ladder or the second rung of a
    stepladder is prohibited.
   Do not carry electrical hand tools up the ladder by holding onto the cord.
   Use a hand line or a material hoist to lift loads.
   Stepladders are required to extend at least 36 inches (900 mm) above the elevated surface being
    accessed.

4.3.7.3 Fixed Ladders

   Fixed ladders must be capable of supporting 2 loads of 250 pounds (1.1 N) each concentrated
    between any 2 consecutive attachments.
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   Fixed ladder steps must be capable of supporting a load of at least 250 pounds (1.1 N) applied to the
    middle of the step.
   The minimum clear distance between the side rails is 16 inches (400 mm).
   The rungs/steps shall be corrugated, knurled, dimpled, coated with skid-resistant material, or treated
    to minimize the potential for slipping. Rungs/steps shall also be shaped to limit the potential for
    slipping off the end of the rungs.
   Distance from the solid member (e.g., wall) to the fixed ladder rungs, cleats, or steps must be 7 inches
    (175 mm).
   Distances from the mid-point on the climbing side of the ladder to obstructions must be at least 30
    inches. If avoidance of the obstruction is not possible, this distance may be reduced to 24 inches
    (600 mm) provided there is a method of deflection installed to protect personnel.
   The step-across distance from the centerline of the ladder to the nearest edge of the elevated surface
    being accessed must be no less than 7 inches (175 mm) and no greater than 12 inches (300 mm). A
    step-across exceeding 12 inches (300 mm) must have a platform constructed under it.
   Fixed ladders without cages must have at least 15 inches (380 mm) of clear width to the nearest
    permanent object on either side of the centerline of the ladder.
   Fixed ladders must be provided with cages, wells, ladder safety devices, or self-retracting lifelines in
    accordance with regulations.
   If the total climb length on a fixed ladder exceeds 24 feet(7.3 m), the ladder shall be equipped with
    one of the following options:
          Self-retracting lifelines and rest platforms not to exceed 150 feet (45 m).
          A cage or well and multiple ladder sections; sections not to exceed 50 feet (15 m) each.
          Ladder sections must be offset from adjacent sections and landing platforms in accordance
              with regulations.
          The side rails of through- or side step-fixed ladders must extend 42 inches (1060 mm) above
              the top level or landing platform.
          Steps or rungs for through-fixed-ladder extensions must be omitted from the extension and
              the extension of the side rails must be flared to 24 inches (600 mm) to 30 inches (750 mm)
              clearance between side rails.
          A maximum clearance between side rail extensions cannot exceed 36 inches (900 mm).

4.3.8   Scaffolding/Platforms

   Contact the local qualified competent person to review OSHA’s requirements before using scaffolding
    or platforms at the job site. (Note: use of the word “scaffolding” hereafter shall represent
    requirements for both scaffolding and platforms, as applicable).
   Use scaffolding constructed of straight-grained lumber that is free of defects and knots.
    Handrails/guardrails must be 42 inches (1050 mm) in height and constructed around the scaffold
    platform.
   Contact the local qualified competent person to review OSHA’s fall protection requirements before
    using the scaffolding.
   Inspect scaffolding before use. Damage/defective scaffolding shall not be used and shall be removed
    from the work area for repair or replacement.
   Scaffolding must be sturdy and secured.
   Scaffolding must be free of oily substances and dirt accumulations.
   Scaffolding shall be used according to manufacturer recommendations and shall not be modified
    without approval from the manufacturer.
   Scaffolding being used within 5 feet (1500 mm) of and electrical source must be constructed of a
    nonconductive material.
   Do not walk or stand under elevated loads, ladders, or scaffolding.
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     Toeboards shall be constructed on scaffolding where there is a potential for personnel working below
      the scaffolding to be adversely impacted by falling objects or the tools and materials being used on
      the scaffold shall be secured and placed away from the scaffolding edge.
     All scaffolding will include mid-rails.
     Platform planks shall overlap supports no less than 6 inches (150 mm) nor more than 12 inches (300
      mm) and shall be secured to limit the potential for the planks to shift.
     Scaffolds must be tied off to the building/structure at intervals not to exceed 30 feet (9 m) horizontally
      and 26 feet (8 m) vertically.
     Keep the area around the scaffolding free of debris, tools, equipment, etc.
     Do not carry hand tools up the ladder by holding onto the cord. Use a hand line or a material hoist to
      lift loads. Do not overload scaffolding platforms; materials should be brought up on an as needed
      basis. Keep your hands free and use 3 point contact while climbing up the ladder.
     Unstable objects (e.g., drums, boxes, etc) shall not be substituted for scaffolding.
     Overhead protection for personnel working under platforms shall consist of 2 inchesx10 inches (50
      mm x 250 mm) planks.
     Personnel are prohibited from riding rolling scaffolding.
     Brakes must be locked when the scaffolding is not being moved.
     Employees working on suspended scaffolding must be tied off with a safety line.

4.3.9     Travelways and Escapeways

     Maintain a safe access/egress for work sites.
     Maintain crossovers, elevated walkways, elevated ramps, and stairways. These access/egress
      structures shall be constructed with handrails in accordance with regulations.
     Do not run up or down the stairs. Use the stair handrail(s). Do not skip stairs.
     Ladders shall be of solid construction and in good repair.
     Use of wooden ladders is not permitted unless authorized by the authority having jurisdiction
      (Canada).
     When climbing a ladder, face the ladder and maintain 3-point contact. Do not carry an item when
      climbing a ladder; use a winch to pull/lower the item once you are no longer on the ladder. Do not
      jump off the ladder before reaching the bottom rung.
     Cross moving conveyors at crossover points.
     Slip/trip/fall hazards in walkways should be corrected immediately.
     Hang up or otherwise properly store hoses, cables, and other types of lines.
     Hoses, cables, and other types of lines shall be laid out carefully to limit the potential for slip/trip/fall
      hazards when these items are in use.

4.4       MOBILE EQUIPMENT

4.4.1     General

The procedures presented in this section are to be followed for all mobile equipment in use at Lafarge
operations. Additional requirements for specific types of equipment are given in subsequent sections.

4.4.1.1 Pre-Trip Inspections

     Vehicles shall be equipped with a 5BC (minimum) fire extinguisher
     Vehicles which are operated beyond vicinity of a production facility should be equipped with a first aid
      kit (including a pair of protective gloves, splash protective equipment, and a 2-way CPR valve).
     Inspect the vehicle/equipment before driving/operating. Inspection shall include:
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           Foot and hand brakes
           Steering
           Tires and tire pressure
           Fluid levels
           Horn and back up alarm (if so equipped)
           Windshield wipers
           Clean, undamaged windows
           Rear view and side view mirrors
           Coupling devices
           Evidence of leaks
           Clean, uncluttered cab and passenger compartment.
           Worn seat belts
           Steps
           Handrails/ grab bars

   Check that head lights, brake lights, turn signals, 4-way flashers and reflectors are functioning and
    are free of mud, grease, or other obstruction.
   Check that safety decals are free of mud, grease, or other obstruction.
   Walk around the equipment to check that it is safe to start and move the equipment
   Check for “out of service” or other warning signs on the equipment
   Articles, tools, equipment, etc. placed in cars or truck cabs shall be stored so as not to interfere with
    vision or with proper vehicle operation.

4.4.1.2 Accessing Vehicles and Equipment

   Any individual operating equipment shall be trained and qualified on that piece of equipment.
   Familiarize yourself with the vehicle/equipment before attempting to operate it. Practice operating the
    vehicle/equipment in a large open area until you are comfortable with the control mechanisms.
   Walk completely around the vehicle equipment before attempting to access to check for surficial hazards.
   Clean boots of mud, snow, or ice before climbing into a vehicle of piece or equipment (if appropriate).
   Remove excess grease or mud/dirt from the access areas of the vehicle/equipment and from hand
    and foot controls.
   Use the access way if the vehicle/equipment is so constructed.
   Face the vehicle/equipment when getting on or off.
   If the vehicle/equipment is equipped with a ladder or stairs, grasp the handrail(s).
   Maintain a three-point contact with the vehicle (two hands and one foot or one hand and two feet).
   Do not jump on or off a vehicle or piece of equipment.
   Do not get on or off a vehicle or piece of equipment that is in motion.
   Use extra care in wet, muddy, or snowy/icy conditions.
   Do not carry tools or other items when accessing vehicles/equipment.
   Do not wear jewelry or loose clothing that may become caught or entangled while operating the
    vehicle or equipment. Hair which is shoulder length or longer shall be restricted from free movement
    when working around equipment.

4.4.1.3 Starting Mobile Equipment

   Before starting, check that the gears are in neutral and that the park and/or emergency brakes are
    set.
   Start the engine.
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   Once the engine is running, check proper operation of hydraulic attachments and the park and/or
    emergency brakes.

4.4.1.4 Operating Vehicles and Equipment

   Personal vehicles should not be used in operations areas unless permission to do so has been
    obtained.
   Drivers must carry a valid, unsuspended driver's license, operating ticket, and/or Commercial Driver's
    License (CDL) as required for the vehicle being operated. If a CDL is required, the driver must also
    have a valid medical certificate.
   Do not drive while under the influence of drugs or alcohol.
   Drive company vehicles professionally and in accordance with traffic laws.
   Do not drive a vehicle or mobile equipment unless you are trained to do so.
   Seatbelts must be worn by vehicle/equipment operators and passengers in vehicles so equipped and
    used when operating the vehicle or equipment.
   Passengers must have a seat and a seat belt in order to ride in/on a vehicle or equipment.
   Employees may not be transported outside of the cab or inside the cab if there is no passenger seat.
   Do not ride on forks, a load, rigging, hook, ball, bucket, shovel, and/or in a pickup bed.
   Check that personnel have moved away from the vehicle before moving.
   Refer to the owner’s manual for safety and maintenance information specific to the vehicle or
    equipment.
   Look to the back and to both sides before backing.
   Look in the direction of travel when you begin to move.
   Sound the vehicle’s horn before moving.
   Use a spotter or signal person to direct you when moving a vehicle or piece of equipment in high
    traffic areas, when visibility is limited or when backing up. A spotter/signal person shall also be to
    direct you around objects/obstacles in “tight quarters”. Agree on the signals to be used before
    moving the vehicle.
   Back up vehicles slowly and with caution.
   Fleet vehicles should be operated with headlights (low beams) on for higher visibility.
   Regularly monitor gauges while operating the vehicle or equipment.
   Obey traffic signs and regulations when operating a motorized vehicle. Costs for traffic citations
    issued while driving on the job are the responsibility of the driver except for over weight truck
    citations.
   Drive within the posted speed limits or at a safe speed based on driving conditions.
   Focus on the work you are performing.
   Maintain an awareness of vehicles/equipment and personnel around the vehicle/equipment you are
    operating.
   Stunt driving and horseplay are not permitted.
   Do not stand or pass under elevated forks (unloaded) or an elevated load.
   Maintain control of the equipment; do not coast downhill.
   Secure equipment and tools before moving the mobile equipment.
   Do not drive over power conductors or drag loads over power conductors unless the conductors are
    properly bridged or otherwise protected.
   When operating mobile equipment, avoid standing water, debris on the road, spilled material, or other
    potential hazards.
   Access equipment using the 3-point of contact system.
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4.4.1.5 Stopping and Parking Mobile Equipment

   Park in a legal, safe area, that does not obstruct traffic , preferably on a level surface (when possible).
    If obstruction is unavoidable, set up traffic control to route traffic away from the parked vehicle/
    equipment.
   If it is necessary to park on a slope, park with the wheels turned into a bank/berm or block the wheels.
   Put gears into neutral or park.
   Activate park and/or emergency brakes.
   If the vehicle/equipment is equipped with a transmission lock, it shall be engaged when the vehicle/
    equipment is parked.
   Drop hydraulic attachments to the ground.
   Slow the engine to an idle.
   Dismount the equipment in a safe manner using the 3-point contact system.
   After 15 minutes (or manufacturer-recommended idle-down time), remount the equipment and turn off
    the engine. Do not permit idling to exceed 15 minutes or the manufacturer’s recommended idle-down
    time.
   Recheck that the brake(s) are set.
   Dismount safely and perform a visual inspection to check for leaks, worn belts, etc. that may have
    occurred during operation.
   If damage is observed, the equipment shall be tagged “out of service” until it is repaired or the
    equipment is replaced.
   Remove the ignition keys and re-lock the doors before leaving the vehicle.
   Use flashers, flares, or other visual warning device when broken-down equipment is parked near or
    on a road and is a potential hazard.

4.4.1.6 Cellular Telephone Use

The following are recommended guidelines for cellular telephone use:
 It is recommended to pull off the road and park away from traffic before making or answering a call.
 Installation/use of a hands-free system is recommended.
 Check if use is permitted and/or turn the cellular telephone off in blasting areas.
 Turn the cellular telephone off while in potentially explosive atmospheres.
 Check with the airline flight crew for permission before using a cellular telephone on an aircraft.
 Radio frequency (RF) energy has, in rare cases, been linked to cancer - limit duration and use to limit
   exposure.

4.4.1.7 Reporting Traffic Accidents

   Stop your vehicle immediately. Do not leave the scene of an auto accident without identifying
    yourself and rendering appropriate assistance within your capabilities. Notify your dispatcher or your
    Supervisor/Foreman.
   Render first aid if properly trained to do so.
   Call for emergency response. (The universal emergency telephone number is 911). Check your area
    for alternate contact telephone numbers if the area is not using the 911 system.
   Give the following information to the 911 operator:
     Your name
     Your current location
     Number and type of injuries (if applicable)
     Telephone number you are calling from
     Response action taken
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     Time accident occurred
     Additional pertinent information
   Do not move injured persons unnecessarily. Unskilled handling may cause minor injuries to become
    serious.
   Place flares or other warning devices to warn other motorists of the accident scene. Direct traffic
    around the accident scene, if necessary, but do not endanger yourself or others in the process.
   Exchange information. The law requires that you give your name, address, vehicle registration
    number, insurance information, and (if requested) display your driver's license to the other driver.
   If you strike an unattended vehicle, leave a written notice containing name, address, telephone
    number, and circumstances.
   If you damage property along the highway, notify the owner or person in charge.
   Report the accident as soon as possible in accordance with Section 8.1 of the Safety and Health
    Manual.

4.4.2   Mixer Trucks

Review Lafarge’s driver’s manual for mixer truck safe work practices.

4.4.2.1 Acid Washing of Mixer Drums

   All employees shall be trained before using the acid wash.
   Notify your immediate supervisor before beginning the wash process.
   Move the truck to the wash out area.
   Read the MSDS for the product being used in the wash before beginning the procedure. If you do not
    understand the MSDS, contact your supervisor for clarification before proceeding with the wash.
   Use appropriate PPE as stated in the MSDS.
   Pour the acid into water if “cutting” or diluting the acid. Do not pour water into acid.
   Rinse the drum thoroughly after washing with acid.
   Perform the acid wash of the drum, apron, and hopper with the booster in the elevated position to
    minimize acid corrosion of the hydraulic rams. Lower the booster to acid wash the trailer and wheels
    separately.
   The acidic solution used in the wash shall be collected, treated, and disposed properly.
   Do not throw acid on the truck or carry a bucket of acid up the truck ladder.
   Return cleaned wash equipment to the designated storage area. Dispose of used PPE or clean and
    return it to storage as appropriate.
   Notify your immediate supervisor if the equipment is in need of repair and/or if the acid supply is low
    so that more may be ordered.
   Carrying acid in or on the truck cab is prohibited.

4.4.2.2 Mixer Drum Entry Procedure

   Train personnel in confined space entry procedures before entering the mixer drum. Training is
    required for the entrant, the Safety Watch, and the Supervisor.
   Obtain a confined space permit before entering a mixer drum.
   Post a sign on the mixer control panel that states that the mixer is under repair and must not be
    started.
   Follow the lockout/tagout procedure presented in Section 4.6.3 of this manual.
   Check that the mixer is secured against movement.
   Use a fan or other form of ventilation to exhaust dust from the drum.
   Wear PPE appropriate to hazards anticipated while inside the drum, if required.
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   Post a Safety Watch outside of the drum. The Safety Watch shall remain in position while there is a
    person inside the drum. The Safety Watch will have no other duties or assignment until the drum
    entry is complete. The Safety Watch shall maintain verbal and/or visual contact with the entrant and
    shall be equipped with a method of emergency communication (e.g., telephone, radio, etc).
   The person entering the mixer drum shall have the truck keys in his/her possession before entry.
   If an emergency occurs, call or go for help; do not enter the drum unless the emergency response
    team has arrived.
   Do not move or “jog” the mixer drum while a person is inside.
   Remove lockout/tagout devices and locks after the entry is complete and before attempting to start up
    the mixer. Remove only your own lock; do not remove another’s lock.

4.4.2.3 Chipping Out Mixer Drums

   Follow the entry procedures presented above in Section 4.6.4.
   Remove the hatch cover and/or hopper, if necessary.
   Wear appropriate PPE for the hazards anticipated during the chipping process.
   Take a break and/or rotate in a replacement person to perform the chipping operations every 30
    minutes or sooner based on working conditions.
   Maintain visual and/or verbal contact with the Safety Watch.
   Hammer below the waistline. Do not hammer overhead.
   Do not hammer directly below concrete build-up; the vibration may cause pieces to break loose and
    fall on the chipper.
   Do not permit the drum to be rotated or “jogged” while the chipper is inside.
   Position the drum so that the area to be chipped is easily accessed. If the drum must be rotated to
    access other areas to be chipped, the chipper must exit the drum before it is rotated.
   After chipping has been completed and the chipper has exited the drum, rotate the drum slowly to
    remove the broken concrete.
   Replace the hatch cover and/or the hopper if it was removed to facilitate concrete removal.
   Return cleaned chipping equipment to the designated storage area. Dispose of used PPE or clean
    and return it to storage as appropriate.
   Notify your immediate supervisor if the equipment is in need of repair.

4.4.3    Loaders

   Roll over protection (ROPS) shall be in place on the equipment as required by regulation.
   Do not swing dippers, buckets, loading booms, or heave suspended loads over vehicle/equipment
    cabs.
   Do not dump in an area where the surface looks unstable or incapable of supporting the
    vehicle/equipment.
   Truck spotters must be clear of the dump area and in view of the driver before the load is dumped.
   Trim and terrace stockpiles and muck piles to minimize potential hazards to personnel.
   Maintain proper face heights in the bank or stockpile. Do not create hazardous undercuts.
   Do not load rocks into a crusher if the rocks are too large for the equipment to crush; set these rocks
    aside to be re-broken before loading into the crusher.
   Keep the loader bucket in a lowered position (when possible) to maintain loader stability during
    movement.
   Keep the loader bucket pointed in the direction of travel.
   Loaders shall be driven in reverse when traveling downhill with a loaded bucket.
   Lower the bucket and/or other attachments when parking the loader or other equipment.
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4.4.3.1 Removal of Wear Teeth from Buckets

High impact hammering that is often required to remove these teeth from the shank poses great
danger due to the possibility of metal shear in which fragments of the tooth fly off at high speeds
and can strike employees performing the maintenance. This problem has occurred most often in
hot slag operations. Wear teeth on buckets (Loaders, Draglines, etc) that can not be easily
removed from the shank by light to moderate striking with a hammer, should be removed using
the following technique(s) to aid in safe removal:


   Block the bucket using substantial wooden blocks or other materials capable of supporting
    the weight on both sides of the bucket and put the bucket on an angle at waist height so that
    hammering can take place in a downward motion towards the ground and away from the body.
   Power wash the tooth to attempt to eliminate material build up that may be binding the tooth,
    while wearing an ANSI approved face shield over safety glasses, and any other appropriate
    PPE.
   After the keeper pin has been removed, v – shaped notched should be cut in one or all sides
    of the tooth to eliminate binding pressure.
   Wear additional PPE. (chainsaw chaps, ANSI impact resistant approved face shield over safety
    glasses, heavy clothing/leather apron.)
   Use a softer alloy ( i.e. brass) hammer , if possible, to avoid splintering of the metal.


4.4.4   Bulldozers

   Roll over protection (ROPS) shall be in place on the equipment as required by regulation.
   Trim and terrace stockpiles and muck piles to minimize potential hazards to personnel.
   Maintain proper face heights in the bank or stockpile. Do not create hazardous undercuts.
   Keep the blade in a lowered position (when possible) to maintain stability during movement.
   Lower the blade and/or other attachments when parking.

4.4.5   Scrapers

   Roll over protection (ROPS) shall be in place on the equipment as required by regulation.
   Loaded scrapers have the right-of-way; otherwise, normal traffic laws shall be followed.
   Scrapers will be operated with headlights (low beams) on for higher visibility.
   A push cat will assist the scraper after loading has begun to minimize excessive wheel spin.
   Scrapers will not be parked directly ahead/behind other scrapers or push cats. Parking is permitted
    beside or at a safe distance ahead/behind other equipment.

4.4.6   Trailers

   Personnel driving vehicles that are hauling trailers must be trained to do so.
   Tow bars should be of sufficient size and capacity for the vehicle/equipment towed. Safety chains
    must be used when towing vehicles/equipment.
   Trailers shall be equipped with properly functioning lights, brake lights, and brakes (if applicable).
   Trailers shall not be loaded beyond manufacturers’ recommendations.
   Check that personnel have moved away from the trailer before attempting to load or unload
    equipment.

4.4.7   Rail Cars
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   Access the railcar using the 3-point contact system.
   Parked rail cars shall be blocked or the brake shall be set before being loaded or unloaded.
   Rail cars left on sidetracks shall be parked to allow adequate clearance on adjacent tracks.
   Do not travel under, over, or between railcars unless the train is stopped and the motorman has
    acknowledged such action.

4.4.8   Powered Industrial Trucks

Powered industrial trucks include forklifts (a.k.a., lift truck), tractors, platform lift trucks, motorized hand
trucks, and other industrial trucks powered by electricity or internal combustion engines. The definition
does not include compressed gas-operated industrial trucks, farm vehicles, earth-moving vehicles, or
over-the-road hauling trucks.
 Powered industrial trucks shall have a legible testing certification plate permanently affixed in a
    conspicuous location.
 Do not operate a powered industrial truck unless you have been trained and certified to do so.
    (Training shall include: use of equipment controls, steering, acceleration, braking, backing, traveling
    with and without a load, and raising/lowering a load. Certification shall be based on actual use
    observation by the training instructor.)
 Operate the powered industrial truck within rated capacity and at safe speeds. Maintain
    approximately 3 truck-lengths distance between operating powered industrial trucks.
 Powered industrial trucks are required to be equipped with Rollover Protection Systems (ROPS).
 When the powered industrial truck is unattended, the controls must be neutralized, power shut off,
    brakes set, and forks or bucket set flush on the floor. The wheels shall be blocked if the truck is
    parked on an incline.
 A safe operating distance shall be maintained from the edge of ramps or platforms.
 Powered industrial trucks shall not be used to open or close rail car doors.
 Do not refuel a powered industrial truck with the motor running.
 Operate powered industrial trucks in well-ventilated areas unless the truck’s power source is an on-
    board battery or other electrical source.
 Do not place arms or legs between the uprights of the mast or outside the running lines of the
    powered industrial truck.
 Brakes shall be set on the vehicle or trailer being loaded before the powered industrial truck begins
    loading.
 Railroad tracks should be crossed diagonally when possible.
 Driving over loose or slippery material should be avoided.
 The forks shall be placed under the load as far as possible before attempting to pick up the load.
 If a load obstructs the operator’s view, the truck shall be driven backwards.
 Loads shall be carried tilted back when possible.
 Elevated loads shall not be tilted forward any more than necessary to unload.
 Lift trucks shall be driven downgrade with the load following and upgrade with the load ahead on
    grades in excess of 10%.
 The load shall be kept as close to the ground as possible when traveling.
 When traveling but not carrying a load, the forks shall be tilted up/back and shall be raised above the
    anticipated travel surface between 4-6 inches.
 Employees are not permitted to ride in buckets, on balls, on forks, or other part of the industrial truck
    that is not designed for passenger carriage.
 Review Section 4.4.17.3 for recommendations regarding use and storage of large equipment
    batteries.
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4.4.9   Paving Equipment

Review Lafarge’s paving operations safe work practices manual (to be developed).

4.4.10 Drilling Rigs

   Employees operating drilling rigs shall be trained and certified as drillers.
   Inspect the drilling rig for damage, wear, and leaks daily. Defects shall be repaired before the drilling
    rig may be used.
   Inspect the area to be drilled before setting up the drilling rig.
   Have the area cleared for underground utilities before drilling.
   At least one employee shall be present when the drilling rig is operating.
   Do not hold drill steel while collaring holes or rest your hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling.
   Tools and other loose objects should not be left on the mast or platform.
   Stay clear of the augers or drill stem when it is motion; do not pass under or step over a moving stem or
    auger.
   The mast must be lowered before the drilling rig is moved to another location.
   Drill steel and augers shall be secured before the drilling rig is moved.
   Lower the mast if an electrical storm is moving into the area. Stay away from the drilling rig until the
    storm has passed.
   Maintain clearance from overhead power lines in accordance with Section 4.6.2.
   Do not wear jewelry, loose clothing or long hair that may become entangled while operating a drilling
    rig.

4.4.11 Hauling/Earth moving Equipment

   Loaded equipment have the right-of-way; otherwise, normal traffic laws shall be followed.
   If unsure of traffic patterns or dumping procedures, STOP AND ASK!
   Haul trucks and other types of hauling equipment should be loaded using the most effective method
    to minimize spills during the loading process and while being transported.
 Drivers shall remain in the truck cab during loading unless the load must pass over the cab.
 Before dumping:
          Check that personnel are clear of the dump area.
          Check overhead clearances.
          Check that the dump area is large enough for safe entry and exit.
          Check for uneven or unstable ground.
          Keep the trailer and tractor in line while dumping, if applicable.
 Do not dump in an area where the surface looks unstable or incapable of supporting the
    vehicle/equipment.
 Truck spotters must be clear of the dump area and in view of the driver before the load is dumped.
 Do not load rocks into the crusher that are too large for the equipment to crush; set these rocks aside
    to be re-broken before loading into the crusher.
 After dumping, verify that the box is completely lowered before moving the truck.
4.4.12 Haul Roads

   Construct and maintain berms or barriers along side haul roads to comply with regulatory standards.
   Construct and maintain berms, bumper blocks, safety hooks, or other means to minimize the potential
    for overtravel and overturning at dumping stations.
   Verify that ramps and dumping facilities are of substantial construction and are of adequate
    width/clearance for equipment.
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   Operators shall report unusual or potentially dangerous road conditions such as:
     Poorly drained areas
     Soft shoulders
     Washouts, ruts, and gullies
     Boulders and debris on the roadway
     Snow drifts and ice
     Cracks or unstable slopes above or below the road
     Excessive dust

4.4.13          Stockpile and Dumping Safety

4.4.13.1        Dumping

   Dump material back from the crest of the pile as the edge may not support the vehicle or equipment.
   Material shall be pushed over the edge by a bulldozer or a loader using a “bumper” of other material
    to keep the equipment at a safe distance.

                                                   o
    Loaders and bulldozers shall operate at a 90 angle to the top edge of the stockpile.
   Berms shall be maintained along the edges of stockpiles and dumps. Note: The presence of a berm
    does not mean that the edge is stable.
   Inspect dumpsites frequently and regularly for signs of slope instability, e.g., cracks, slumping,
    bulging at the toe.
   Dump in designated areas.
   Do not dump at the top of a pile if the toe has been removed.

4.4.13.2        Loading

The following procedures shall be followed when loading from the base of a stockpile:
 If a truck is being loaded, pull into the waiting area until it is your turn.
 Do not pull in behind working loaders.
 Wait until the loader operator sees you before moving into a loading position.
 Look around you for personnel or other trucks before moving out of the loading area.
 Loader operators shall be alert to material sliding down the pile.
 Check the pile for frozen or consolidated chunks that could roll down the face.
 Loaders shall be operated facing the pile to place the cab as far from the face as possible.
 Inspect and scale the face after blasting before mucking below with equipment.

4.4.13.3        Surge Piles

   Do not operate equipment directly over a feeder.
   Do not push material directly into a draw hole; bump it with other material keeping the bulldozer or
    loader a safe distance away from the edge.
   Operators are forbidden to get off their equipment and walk to the edge of the draw hole.
   Operate equipment facing the feeder.
   Maintain a nearly full level at the draw hole or hopper to limit the potential of equipment being drawn
    in.
   Open holes shall be guarded when not in use.

4.4.13.4        Winter Hazards
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   Weathering such as freezing and thawing can cause rock to become unstable. This causes material
    to loosen and fall from the pit wall. Pay close attention to the condition of pit walls while working in
    winter conditions.
   Freezing and thawing can cause slick surfaces. Personnel shall be aware of the surface they are
    walking on to limit the potential for slips and falls. Personnel shall wear appropriate footwear and
    walk slowly/carefully when snow and ice are present. Efforts should be made to limit ice and snow
    build up and to place deicer or sand on slick surfaces.
   Frost overhangs can occur at pit and stockpile faces. Do not undercut an overhang. Remove
    material from the sides of the overhang until the overhang collapses or work in another area until the
    overhang has thawed and collapsed.
   Drivers shall consider the hazards of driving on ice and/or snow and adjust accordingly. Graders or
    other equipment shall be used to maintain roads to limit the potential for ice and snow build up.

4.4.14 Loading Asphalt/Tar/Hot Oil

   Lafarge requires truck drivers and operators working at asphalt plants to wear a shirt and long pants
    constructed of natural fibers or flame resistant material.
   Check with the operator for additional required PPE (e.g., safety glasses, safety shoes, etc).
   Check with the operator to identify the chute you will be loaded from, if applicable.
   Pull completely under the chute and stop.
   Roll up the windows of the truck before loading begins.
   Do not move the truck until loading is completed unless it is necessary to load asphalt evenly.

4.4.15 Traffic Control

   Employees driving on Lafarge sites will follow the established traffic pattern and obey the posted
    signs.
   Unless posted otherwise, large equipment has the right of way; cars and small trucks must yield right of
    way.
   Employees working at underground sites will familiarize themselves with the site trip probe diagram
    and the traffic control response table for the site.

4.4.15.1        Barricades

   When working in a public right-of-way, use signs, cones, and/or warning lights as recommended in
    the federal highway guidance manual to limit the potential for accidental unauthorized access to the
    work area. DOT (US) and federal (US) highway guidelines shall be followed for work sites where
    motorized vehicles are present. When available, a vehicle with the hazard lights engaged should be
    part of the barricade system.
   Lafarge normally contracts this work out. If a contractor is not hired to perform this work, contact the
    Safety Manger for information before work is begun at the site.

4.4.15.2        Flagging

   Flagging must be conducted as per local legislation.
   Be alert to your surroundings and traffic.
   Stay on your feet and face oncoming traffic.
   Stand in a highly visible location.
   Do not stand directly in the path of vehicles.
   Stand approximately 200 feet (60 m) ahead of the work site (when possible), but not less than 100
    feet (30 m) ahead of the work site when two flaggers are directing traffic.
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   When one flagger is used, stand on the roadway shoulder directly opposite of the work site.
   The following procedures shall be used when two flaggers are directing traffic at the same work site:
          The flaggers shall be in visual contact.
          Both flaggers must have a means of communication established before beginning work, e.g.,
             hand signals, two-way radio, etc.
   Stand alone and away from other members of the crew, travelling public, or other people who may
    have access to the work site.
   Do not obstruct the view or line of sight of motorists.
   Park personal vehicles well off the roadway.
   Pay attention to your assigned duties.
   Wear bright orange clothing, e.g., vests, shirt, and/or jacket.
   Wear a hard hat, as required.
   Personnel working during non-daylight hours or during foul weather that limits visibility must wear
    clothing that is reflectorized.
   A combination “Stop”/”Slow” paddle may be used to direct traffic. The paddle shall be 18 inches (450
    mm) wide with 6 inches (150 mm) high lettering.
   Reflectorized paddles shall be used when visibility is reduced. A flashlight and/or lantern with a
    standard red warning light should also be used.
   During emergencies or when one flagger is directing traffic, a bright red flag can be used instead of
    the direction paddles. The flag must be a 24 inches (600 mm) square attached to a 3 feet (900 mm)
    staff.

4.4.16 Equipment Repair

4.4.16.1        General

   Attempt to identify which item requires repair on the equipment.
   If the equipment is in use, follow the procedure in Section 4.4.1.5 of this manual to park the
    equipment on a level surface and shut the engine down before attempting repair(s).
   Tag the equipment “out of service”; lock/tag out the equipment if possible.
   Disconnect the battery to prevent accidental start-ups.
   Attach steering lock on articulated machines.
   Contact a mechanic to perform repairs; do not perform repairs unless you are trained/qualified to do
    so.
   Do not remove the “out of service” sign until the repair is completed.
   Do not use equipment if it is out of service.
   Do not repair or perform maintenance operations on equipment with a person sitting in the
    operator’s/driver’s seat unless it is necessary to complete the repair or maintenance operation.
   Place blocks capable of supporting the weight in and/or under equipment to minimize the potential for
    movement while being repaired.
   Lower the bucket, blade, forks, or other attachments to the surface before beginning repairs.
   Bleed off pressure systems before beginning repairs.
   If the bucket, blade, forks, or other attachments must be raised for maintenance, block securely and
    use a lift arm safety bar or cylinder locking device.
   Do not crawl under equipment unless it is parked out of traffic, the wheels are choked/blocked, and
    the controls are locked out/tagged out.
   Use platforms designed for equipment maintenance when available.

4.4.16.2        Tires and Rims
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                                          Equipment Jacking

Before attempting to jack up equipment:
         Check that the parking break is engaged.
         Check that the wheel chocks are in place.
         Check that the jack you are using is large enough for the vehicle or equipment that will be
            lifted.
         Check that the footing for the jack is secure and level.
         Jack up the equipment or vehicle slowly.

Deflation

Before work begins on a tire and rim assembly:
         The tire must be completely deflated by removing the valve stem and running a wire through the
           valve to check that the pressure has been exhausted before loosening nuts to remove the
           assembly from the vehicle.
         The air must be exhausted from both tires before the outside dual is removed from the
           vehicle when working on dual assemblies.
         Stand to one side while deflating tires.
         Wear eye protection.

Rim Assembly Inspection

Once the tire has been removed from the rim:
        Check metal surfaces for defects.
        Look for rust, corrosion, cracks, bent flanges, defective or worn lock rings, etc.
        Replace damaged parts before remounting the tire.
        Do not use mismatched parts.
        Replace broken studs and studs adjacent to the rim.
        Identify the cause of the damage and rectify the problem before re-assembly.


Changing Tires

Once the rim assembly has been inspected:
        Remove rust and corrosion from metal surfaces, particularly the long ring and gutter.
        Paint bare metal on the tire side of the rim assembly.
        DO NOT install tubes into tubeless tires.
        Check that spacer bands on dual assemblies are the proper size, round, and free of defects.
        Lubricate tire and metal mating surfaces with a non-petroleum base lubricant.
        DO NOT install radial tires on older rims that have been previously run with bias ply tires.

Inflation

Once the tire has been re-mounted on the rim:
        Assemblies shall be placed in an adequate restraining device before inflating, wherever
            possible.
        Compressor lines shall be equipped with an in-line valve and gauge located at a minimum of
            3 feet (1 m) back from the clip on the air chuck.
        Once the assembly is in the restraining device inflate the tire to 5 psi (35 kPa) and check
            assembly components for proper fit and seating.
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           If assembly components need adjusting, deflate, adjust, and then re-inflate to 5 psi (35 kPa),
            so that proper fit and seating can be re-checked.
           Inflate tires to a maximum of 50% of operating pressure before re-mounting.
           DO NOT stand in front of a tire that is being inflated.
           Mount assembly on vehicle.
           “Snug up” nuts in proper sequence to achieve proper seating.
           Tighten nuts after seating has been completed.
           Do not over-torque nuts.
           Inflate tire to proper operating pressure.
           Wear eye protection.
           Do not weld rims that are cracked or otherwise damaged.

4.4.16.3        Battery Storage

Batteries shall be stored in areas designated for that purpose as follows:
 A flushing/neutralizing method capable of providing 15 minutes of flushing shall be available adjacent
    to the battery storage.
 Battery handling shall be performed using a conveyor, overhead hoist, or equivalent material handling
    equipment.
 Electrolyte shall be handled using a carboy tilter or a siphon.
 Acid shall be poured into water, not water into acid, when recharging batteries.
 The vehicle parking brake shall be set before changing or charging a battery.
 Battery charging shall occur in a well-ventilated area.
 Battery compartments/covers shall be open to dissipate heat and vent caps shall not be clogged.
 Smoking and sparking/open flame equipment shall be prohibited in the storage/charging area.
 Batteries shall not be stored near a potential electrical hazard nor shall electrical cords be permitted
    to contact batteries.
 Tools and other metallic objects shall be kept away from uncovered batteries.
 Provisions shall be made to diffuse/vent gases from stored batteries to minimize the potential for
    accumulation of explosive gases.
4.5      Tools

4.5.1   Defective Tools

   Defective tools can cause serious and painful injuries.
   If a tool is defective in some way, DON'T USE IT, and it must be tagged “out of service” immediately.
   Be aware of problems such as:
     Chisels and wedges with mushroomed heads
     Split or cracked handles
     Chipped or broken drill bits
     Wrenches with worn out jaws
     Tools which are not complete, such as files without handles

   To ensure safe use of hand tools:
     Never use a defective tool;
     Double check all tools prior to use; and
     Ensure that defective tools are repaired.

   Air, gasoline or electric power tools require skill and complete attention on the part of the user even
    when they are in good condition. Don't use power tools when they are defective in any way.
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   Watch for problems such as:
     Broken or inoperative guards
     Insufficient or improper grounding due to damage on double insulated tools
     No ground wire (on plug) or cords of standard tools
     On/off switch not in good working order
     Tool blade is cracked
     The wrong grinder wheel is being used.

4.5.2   Grinder/Abrasive Wheels

   Obtain training and be familiar with the equipment before attempting to operate.
   Wear goggles or full face shields when operating a grinder/abrasive wheel/abrasive wheel or when
    working in the vicinity of an operational grinder/abrasive wheel/abrasive wheel.
   The shield(s) and/or guard(s) on the grinder/abrasive wheel must be in place before operation.
   Grinder/abrasive wheel work/tool rests shall not be adjusted more than 1/8 inches (3 mm) from the
    wheel periphery edge.
   The work/tool rest shall be positioned at the center of the grinder/abrasive wheel.

                                                     o
    The largest guard opening shall not exceed 90 .

                                                                       o
    The guard opening above the horizontal line shall not exceed 65 .
   Do not make clearance or tool rest adjustments while the grinder/abrasive wheel is rotating.
   Check the grinder/abrasive wheel for cracks, chips, or uneven wear before using. If damaged is
    observed, do not use the grinder/abrasive wheel until the wheel has been replaced or resurfaced.
   Do not exceed the maximum wheel speed (as marked on the wheel). Check the identified wheel
    speed and the compare it to the grinder speed before starting the equipment.
   Run the grinder at operating speed to check newly mounted wheels for vibration before using the
    equipment for grinding.
   Move the work piece back and forth across the rotating grinder/abrasive wheel to minimize the
    potential for uneven wear.
   Do not operate grinders near flammable materials.
   Do not use a grinder/abrasive wheel for operations that it was not designed for, e.g., cutting.

4.5.3   Drill Press

   Manufacturers’ instruction manual must be read before operating.
   Be familiar with the drill bit size relationship to RPMs.
   The drill bit angle shall be compatible with material to be drilled and its gauge.
   Clean the work area before starting. Clean up oil or cutting fluid spills using an absorbent material.
   A safety shield and/or safety glasses must be worn when operating a drill press.
   Do not wear loose clothing, hair, ties, sleeves, etc when operating a drill press. Rotating hazards are
    located at head level and belt level.
   A clamping vice of appropriate size and in good repair can be bolted to the base to stabilize the object
    being drilled.
   “C” clamps should be readily available.
   Use a chuck key to tighten the drill bit; do not use a substitute.

                                                      o
    Tighten the drill bit by rotating the chuck 360 by hand.
   Remove the chuck key immediately after tightening the drill bit.
   Do a visual inspection of the drill press before starting:
         Is the drill bit sharp and undamaged?
         Has the chuck key been removed?
         Is the work secured in a clamp or vice?
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         Is the power cord clear of the spindle and the item to be drilled?
         Is the power cord in good condition?
         Is the drive belt positioned in the proper pulley?
         Is the drive belt in good condition and is the tension correct?
4.5.4   Explosive/Powder Actuated Fastening Tools

The manufacturers of tools utilizing an explosive charge to drive fastenings provide detailed instructions
regarding their use and maintenance. The following general safe work practices apply to
explosive/powder actuated tools:

   Personnel assigned to operate these tools shall be trained. The user shall possess proof of this
    training issued by the manufacturer, authorized dealer/distributor, or other competent source.
 These tools shall meet ANSI standards (US) or CSA standards (Canada).
 The tool shall be loaded just before use with the correct load for the assigned task. Tools that have
    been be loaded shall be used and not set down until unloaded.
 Loaded tools shall not be moved to an alternate work site after being loaded.
 The tool shall not be pointed at personnel whether it is loaded or unloaded.
 Hands and other body parts shall be kept clear of the muzzle end.
 Explosive/powder actuated tools shall be stored in lockable boxes.
 Explosive/powder actuated tools shall not be used in an explosive atmosphere.
 Hold the tool firmly and at right angles to the surface being driven into.
 The operator shall wear appropriate eye protection. Full face protection must be worn when there is
    a danger of spalling. Hearing protection is required to be worn in confined areas.
 Check the integrity and solidity of the material being driven into before attempting to use an
    explosive/powder actuated tool to avoid the potential for the stud to completely pass through the
    material. Do not use this tool on glass block, hollow tile, etc.
 Manufacturers’ recommendations shall be followed when there is a doubt about the material being
    driven into or the proper load strength to be used.
 Be aware of the other workers in the area. Signs and barricades identifying the hazard area are
    required when there is a potential hazard to other workers.
 Maintenance for explosive/powder actuated tools shall be as per manufacturers’ recommendations.
4.5.5     Chain Saws

   Workers must be trained in its safe use before using a chain saw.
   Manufacturers’ recommendations shall be followed for starting, holding, carrying, using, and storing
    the saw.
   Appropriate PPE shall be worn as required by the manufacturer and/or regulatory authority.
   Fueling of the saw shall be done in a well-ventilated are. The saw shall be turned off during fueling.
   An approved safety container must be used to contain the fuel. An appropriate spout or funnel shall
    be used to pour fuel from the safety container into the fuel tank on the saw.
   Check the chain brake for proper function before using the chain saw. Check that the brake
    adequately stops the chain when applied.
   The chain must be sharp, adjusted to the correct tension, and adequately lubricated.
   The bar guard must be in place and the chain bar must be toward the back with the motor shut off
    when carrying/transporting a chain saw.
   The chain saw shall not be used for cutting above shoulder height.
   Chain saws will comply with ANSI standards (US) or CSA standard Z62.1-M-77 (Canada).

4.5.6   Hand-Held Powered Circular Saws
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   Appropriate PPE such as safety glasses or a face shield shall to be worn.
   Appropriate respiratory protection shall be worn if there is a potential for the release of harmful vapors
    and/or dusts while operating the saw.
   An appropriately sized blade for the work to be done must be selected and used.
   Saw blades must kept be sharp.
   Disconnect the power supply before making adjustments to the saw or changing the blade.
   Check that the retracting guard has fully returned to its down position before setting the saw down.
   Use both hands to hold the saw while ripping.
   Maintenance shall be performed according to the manufacturer’s specifications.
   Check to see that power cords are clear of the cutting area before starting to cut.
   Check the stock for foreign objects or other obstruction(s) which could cause the saw to “kick back”
    before cutting is begun.
   Check that the stock is held securely in place when ripping.
   Use a wedge to keep the stock from closing and causing the saw to bind.

4.5.7   Tiger Torches

   Use of tiger torches is limited to preheating metal before welding, shrink fitting, etc.
   Tiger torches will not be used for heating work areas or thawing pipes or frozen equipment.
   Turn off the propane supply when the work is completed.
   Fuel lines shall be equipped with regulators.
   Propane containers shall be secured in an upright position when in use and when in storage.




4.5.8   Hand Tools

The following best practice guidelines are to be followed when operating hand tools:
 Hand tools shall be used for the purpose for which they are designed; use the “right tool for the right
   job”.
 Verify that tools are in good condition before use. Tools with burrs, cracks, mushroomed heads,
   loose or damaged handles shall not be used. Damaged or defective tools shall be removed from
   service for repair or replacement.
 Clean and inspect tools after use.
 Properly store tools after use to minimize the potential for tools falling and striking personnel or for
   causing a slip/trip/fall hazard.
 Edged or pointed tools in shall be sheathed or otherwise appropriately stored to minimize the
   potential for cuts and punctures when not in use.
 Screwdriver tips shall be maintained in good condition to avoid slipping. Use the appropriate
   screwdriver that properly fits the screw. Do not use a screwdriver as a punch, pry, or a chisel.
 Wrenches shall not be altered by the additions of a handle extension.
 Files shall be equipped with handles and shall not be used to punch or pry.
 Check that personnel are clear of the area before using a tool that requires a large amount of
   movement (e.g., sledge hammer, shovel, etc.).
 Portable electric power tools must be properly grounded or double insulated.
 Power sources shall be three-wire grounded receptacles and/or extension cords. Power sources for
   power tools used outside or in potentially wet conditions shall be equipped with GFCI.
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   Long-handled tools shall be laid down out of the way or stored in racks to minimize the potential for
    slip/trip/fall hazards.
4.5.8.1 Sledgehammer

     Pick up sledgehammer by placing both hands on hammer shaft; right hand approximately 6 inches
      (150 mm) to 8 inches (200 mm) from the head and the left hand 6 inches (150 mm) from top.
     Check the head of the hammer for tightness and condition.
     Check handle for cracks, wood slivers, and/or grease and oil.
     Hold the shaft of hammer 6 inches (150 mm) from top of shaft with the left hand and approximately
      12 inches (300 mm) from the head with right hand (opposite if left-handed).
     Check the clearance in area in which you are to swing with respect to the location of objects and
      personnel.
     Set feet in a balanced position, consistent with terrain, etc.
     Set the hammer on object to be struck before beginning the swing.
     Lift the hammer in a controlled manner and swing toward object letting right hand slide along shaft to
      meet left hand.
     Do not tape or mark the shaft of the hammer.
     If possible, do not wear gloves when using the sledgehammer.
     Do not use a sledgehammer when you are overtired.



4.6       SPECIFIC HAZARDS

4.6.1     Electrical

     Do not touch loose or fallen wires unless you are a certified/trained electrician.
     Place insulating mats or other electrically non-conductive material on the floor at switchboards, power
      control panels, or other electrical devices where there is a potential for shock hazard.
     Electrical equipment and illumination devices used in wet or potentially wet areas shall have ground
      fault circuit interrupters (GFCI ).
     A 30 inches (750 mm) clearance around electrical panels and circuit breaker boxes must be
      maintained. Electrical panels and circuit breaker boxes shall be labeled with the equipment controlled
      by the panel or box.
     Check that the equipment is properly grounded. If applicable, check that surrounding metal objects,
      fencing, metal enclosures, etc. are grounded.
     Check that inspection and cover plates are in place. These plates are required to be in place except
      when inspection or maintenance is being performed.
     Powered equipment must be stopped and locked out before maintenance or repairs are performed
      unless the equipment is designed or fitted with safeguards to protect personnel during
      maintenance/repair. Lockout/tag-out procedures will include locking out electrical, mechanical, and
      stored energy as appropriate. Further lockout/tag-out information is presented in Section 4.6.3 of this
      Manual.
     Use fuse tongs or hot-line tools to remove/replace fuses in high potential circuits. Do not remove or
      replace fuses by hand if the circuit is still energized unless the circuit is designed or had a special
      device to prevent shock when fuses are changed. These procedures should be performed by a
      certified electrician.
     Shut off the power source or check that wires are properly energized before using metal tools to
      repair bare wires, trolley wires, or electric rails.
     Check that transformers are enclosed and that the housing in good condition. Check for leaks or
      staining on the transformer or surrounding surface.
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   If the transformer does not have a plaque or label stating that it does not contain polychlorinated
    biphenols (PCBs) and it is not labeled as a dry transformer, contact the owner/operator of the
    transformer to have the oil tested for PCBs.
   Transformers near vehicle or equipment travel ways shall be protected from impact hazards.
   Electrical terminals or junction boxes shall be guarded.
   Do not use damaged electrical cords/cables until repaired by a certified electrician. Do not remove a
    plug that has broken off in a receptacle unless you are a trained and certified electrician.
   Check that plugs are free of dirt, grease, oil, etc. before using.
   Cords/cables used in the workplace shall be 3-pronged and grounded. Do not remove the grounding
    prong or attach a 2-prong adapter to a 3-prong plug.
   Do not use extension cords unless there are no other options. Check that the extension cord is
    adequate for the power output required. Use an extension cord of the same type and size as the cord
    of the electrical equipment to be connected.
   Extension cords shall not be substituted for hard wiring.
   Extension cords shall not be passed through wall openings or under doors or windowsills.
   Extension cords shall not be secured in place with staples, nails, or other sharp objects.
   Do not overload extension cords or electrical outlets.
   Do not use an extension cord near oil or water unless the cord cover is resistant to oil and/or water.
   Place cords and cables so that they do not create a trip hazard. Do not use cords/cables on
    stairways, in doorways, in passageways, or in areas where they may be exposed to excessive heat.
   Do not step on cords/cables or drive over unshielded cords/cables with mobile equipment.
   Do not drape cords/cables over lighting fixtures or metal structures without softeners or other
    insulators or adequate protection.
   Do not pull on the cord when removing a plug from a receptacle.
   The necessary grounding and continuity testing shall be performed on all electrical equipment as
    required by regulations.

4.6.2   Utilities

4.6.2.1 Overhead Power Lines

The procedures presented below will be followed when working near overhead power lines:
 Overhead lines shall be considered to be energized unless and until the owner of the line or the
   electrical authorities indicate that the line is not energized and the line is visibly grounded.
 Whenever possible, overhead power lines should be deenergized and grounded before work near the
   power lines is begun.
 If the power lines can not be deenergized the lines must be masked or work in the area shall be
   moved to a safe distance.
 Power line masking shall be performed by the person or organization that operates or controls the
   electrical power source.
 Approach distances for unqualified persons are calculated as follows:
        A minimum distance of 10 feet (3 m) is required for overhead power lines up to 50 kV.
        For each 10 kV over 50 kV the distance must be increased by 4 inches (100 mm) (Example
            – Work performed near a 70kV power line shall be at a distance of 10 feet plus 8 inches
            (3200 mm).
 When calculating the required distance, take into consideration booms, derricks, or other extensions
   that have the potential to extend past the minimum calculated safe distance.
 Maintain an awareness of the current weather conditions; high humidity may require that the safe
   distance from the power lines be increased.
 Do not estimate or “guess” the voltage of a power line; when in doubt, contact the person or
   organization that operates or controls the electrical power source.
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   Install proper signage when working near or around overhead powerlines.

4.6.2.2 Underground Utilities

Utility Location

   Before the surface is broken, the location of pipelines, cables, and conduits in the area shall be
    identified by a locator service or the person or organization that operates or controls the utility.
   The location shall be clearly marked on the surface.
   If the surface that is marked with the utility location will be removed before excavation occurs, the
    markings shall be transferred to the remaining layer.
   If a utility location can not be determined or the area to be excavated is close to utility line(s), the
    excavation shall proceed by hand until the utility is located.
   If the depth to the utility line is uncertain, excavation shall proceed by hand until the utility is located.
   Ensure copies of location sheets are kept on site.
   Ensure workers know where shut offs for utilities are located.

Utility Damage Response

   If a utility line is damaged during excavation, cease work immediately and take appropriate action to
    safeguard site personnel and other operations and/or businesses in the vicinity.
   Notify the site supervisor/foreman of the damage and steps taken to safeguard those located in the
    vicinity. Contact the Regional Safety Manager for additional safety recommendations as appropriate.
   Barricade the area to limit the potential for unauthorized access until repairs have been completed.
   Notify the person or organization that operates or controls the utility to report the damage.
   Complete and accident/incident report; check that adequate information is included in the report to
    support a dispute should this issue require resolution in court.
   Do not resume work activities in the area until the person or organization that operates or controls the
    utility has completed repairs.


4.6.3   Lockout/Tag-Out/Try-Out – Hazardous Energy Control

Employees will be trained on how to identify the types of hazardous energy (electrical, mechanical,
pressure, and stored) and the hazards thereof.

4.6.3.1 Lockout/Tag-out/Try-out Procedures

   Notify personnel in area before locking/tagging out equipment.
   Shut down equipment; turn equipment power switch off.
   Turn off the power supply to the receptacle (when applicable).
   Lock out equipment using a unique padlock and key that is identified for lockout/tag-out; use a
    multiple lock hasp if more than one person will be working on the equipment.
   Lock/key must be easily identified from other locks in use at the site.
   Release stored energy from the equipment.
   Attempt start-up to check that lockout is effective.
   Place a sign on the equipment controls warning that the equipment is locked out and can not be used
    until repair/maintenance is completed.
   After work is completed, each employee will remove his/her own lock; removal of a lock by another
    employee is prohibited.
   Replace guards before start-up of equipment.
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   Notify personnel in the area before testing equipment.
   Notify personnel in the area that the repair/maintenance of the equipment is complete.

4.6.3.2 Locks/Tags Left in Place

   If an employee fails to remove his/her lock, the procedure presented below must be followed:
   The supervisor will attempt to contact the employee who did not remove his/her lock.
   If the employee can not be reached, the supervisor will inspect the work that was scheduled to be
    completed on the locked/tagged out equipment.
   If the work has been completed, the supervisor may remove the lock.
   The machine shall be started and run to check that the repair maintenance is complete and that it is
    safe to operate.
   If repair/maintenance of the equipment must be continued until a later shift, the supervisor shall place
    his lock on the power source and a warning sign shall be posted stating that the work will continue at
    a later date.
   The next shift will contact the supervisor to remove his/her lock after work on the equipment is
    completed.

4.6.3.3 Service Contractors

   Service contractors must be informed of Lafarge’s lockout/tag-out procedures.
   Service contractors will supply their own locks for equipment lockout/tag-out.
   The supervisor shall be notified by the service contractor before the equipment is locked/tagged out.
   The supervisor will notify personnel in the area of the lockout/tag-out.
   Service contractors will follow Lafarge’s lockout/tag-out procedures unless the service contractor’s
    procedures are more stringent.

4.6.4   Confined Space Procedures

There are two types of confined space defined by OSHA (US): non-permit required and permit-required.

                                   4.6.4.1 Confined Space Definition

   Confined space is defined as a space large enough to enter, has limited access/egress, and is not
    designed for human occupancy. A non-permit required confined space does not contain nor does it
    have the potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere. Confined spaces that meet the above listed
    criteria do not require a permit to enter.

4.6.4.2 Permit-Required Confined Space

   Permit-required confined space is space that has one or more of the following characteristics:
               Contains or has the potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere (e.g., tank with diesel
       residue, manhole with less than 19.5% oxygen, presence of more than 23.5% oxygen), or
               Contains a material that has the potential for engulfment (e.g., grain silo), or
               Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated (e.g.,
       tanker truck with interior baffles, silo with sloping sides), or
               Contains any other recognized safety or health hazard (including electrical, chemical,
       mechanical, temperature extremes, etc).
   Confined spaces meeting one or all of the above listed criteria must have a completed permit to enter.
   Form 4.6-1 is an example of a confined space entry permit.
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4.6.4.3 Lafarge Confined Space Requirements

   Confined spaces at Lafarge sites may include tanks, silos, large liquid vessels, and manholes. These
    structures shall be cleaned or pumped out before employees are permitted to enter. After
    cleaning/pumping is complete, the structure will remain open to ventilate and will be purged with a
    fan. If efforts to remove the hazardous atmosphere are not successful, contact your supervisor or the
    Local Safety Manager for a permit and instructions regarding safe entry.
   Safe entry may include one or more of the following precautions:
                 Confined space entry training as per 29 CFR 1910.146 (US). (Canadian training will
         include use of fall protection and retrieval equipment).
                 First aid and CPR training.
                 Air monitoring and ventilation procedures.
                 Completion of a confined space entry permit including signatures of the supervisor and
         the Local Safety Manager.
                 Two-man team (minimum); the entrant and the safety watch or stand-by who is capable
         of pulling the entrant out in case of emergency. In some jurisdictions, the safety watch is required
         to be trained in first aid and CPR.
                 Lockout/tag-out of energized equipment (including mechanical, electrical, pressure, etc).
                 Use of brass or other nonsparking tool in a hazardous atmosphere.
                 Use of appropriate PPE.
   If the applicable requirements listed above cannot be met by plant personnel, a contractor who has
    the capability to comply with the requirements shall be contracted to perform the confined space entry
    work.
   Contact your supervisor or the Local Safety Manager if you have questions or concerns regarding
    non-permit-required or permit-required confined space entry.

4.6.4.4 Definitions

   Attendant – A trained individual stationed outside one or more permit spaces who monitors the
    authorized entrants.
   Authorized Entrant – A trained individual who is authorized by the employer to enter a permit space.
   Confined Space Team – Includes the attendant, authorized entrants, and the entry supervisor.

   Emergency – An occurrence or event internal or external to the permit space that could endanger
    entrants.
   Engulfment – Surrounding, entrapping, suffocating, and/or crushing of an individual by a flowable
    substance inside a structure.
   Entry Supervisor – The person responsible for determining if acceptable entry conditions are present
    at a permit space where entry is planned. The person (usually a manager or supervisor) authorizing
    the entry, overseeing entry operations, and terminating the entry. The entry supervisor may also
    serve as an attendant. The entry supervisor will receive confined space training before he/she will be
    permitted to assume the duties listed above.
   Retrieval System – The equipment (including a retrieval line, full-body harness, anchor, or lifting
    device) used for non-entry rescue of persons from permit spaces.

4.6.4.5 Permit Space Entry Assigned Duties

Authorized Entrant’s Duties

   Must be capable of understanding and recognizing confined space hazards, methods of exposure,
    and the signs/symptoms/consequences of the exposure.
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   Shall use PPE as required.
   Maintain communication with the attendant.
   Exit the permit space as soon as possible when instructed by the attendant, when warning signs or
    symptoms of exposure are recognized, or when a prohibited condition is detected. (Prohibited
    conditions include: hazardous atmosphere, presence of engulfing material, or other safety and health
    hazard).
   Notify the attendant if exposure signs/symptoms or prohibited conditions are detected.

Attendant’s Duties

   Remain in position outside permit space during entry operations unless relieved by an authorized
    person.
   Perform non-entry rescues when an emergency within the space occurs.
   Capable of recognizing potential permit space hazards and the signs and symptoms of exposure to a
    hazardous atmosphere.
   Maintain communication with entrant.
   Order evacuation of the permit space when a prohibited condition exists, when a worker shows signs
    and/or symptoms of exposure, or when an emergency inside or outside of the permit space exists.
   Summon rescue and other services during an emergency.
   Keep unauthorized personnel clear of the area.
   Perform no other duties that interfere with attendant duties.
   Must not enter the confined space.

Entry Supervisor’s Duties

   Understand and be able to recognize space hazards, mode of exposure, signs and symptoms and
    consequences of exposure.
   Verify emergency plans and specified entry conditions (such as permits, atmosphere tests, entry
    procedures, PPE and required equipment) before allowing entry.
   Terminate entry and cancel permits when entry operations are completed or if a new condition exists.
    (Note: Development of a new condition may require that a new permit be issued).
   Check that entry operations remain consistent with the entry permit and that acceptable entry
    conditions exist.
   Notify rescue services of the potential permit space hazards.



4.6.4.6 Emergency Response

In case of an emergency situation within the space, the attendant will immediately notify the rescue team
by dialing 911. The attendant will then use the retrieval system to assist the entrants in leaving the
space.

4.6.4.7 Entry Procedures

   Complete the confined space entry permit and submit it to the entry supervisor for review and
    signature approval. A copy of the confined space entry permit is located at the end of this section.
   Check that the space is locked-out and tagged-out in accordance with Lafarge’s lockout/tagout
    program. Conveyors, bins, hoppers, or other devices, capable of feeding material into the space
    must be shut down, locked-out and tagged-out. In addition, gates or other devices capable of
    draining material from the space must also be locked-out, tagged-out, and rendered inoperable.
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   The entrance cover (if any) shall be removed and the opening guarded by a barrier, railing, or caution
    tape to prevent unauthorized entry.
   The internal atmosphere of the space will be tested for oxygen content, flammability, and toxic
    atmosphere before entry. No one may enter a confined space until hazardous conditions are
    mitigated.
   The following is a list of acceptable limits for entry into a confined space without PPE:
     Oxygen reading of 19.5% to 23.5%, and
     Lower explosive limit (LEL) of less than 10%, and
     Volatile gas concentration of less than 5 parts per million (ppm) for unknown compounds or one-
         half of the threshold limit value (TLV) of a known compound.
   Forced air ventilation may be used to purge hazardous atmospheres. If forced air ventilation is
    needed, the atmosphere of the space must be tested again before entry to check that ventilation has
    been effective.
   The permit -space must be monitored while authorized personnel are in the space.
   PPE, ladders for safe entry, proper lighting, and a retrieval system will be provided as needed for safe
    entry. The retrieval system with lifting device must be used for entry into a permit space more than 5
    feet (1500 mm) deep.
   The attendant will remain outside the space until relieved. The attendant will also maintain the entry
    permit until the entrants have exited the space.
   Do not use loose material (aggregate, cement, fly ash, etc.) as a platform while inside a permit space
    unless the material has been “rodded” to minimize the potential for bridging or surface collapsing.
   Entrants will exit the space after work is completed and will remove equipment used in the permit
    space. The entrance cover will be reinstalled and the lockout/tagout procedure may be terminated.
   The entry supervisor will cancel the entry permit and file the canceled permit at the local Safety
    officer’s office. Canceled permits must remain on file for at least one year in accordance with the
    LNA records retention policy.
   Contractors hired to perform permit-required confined space entry work for Lafarge will be required to
    have confined space entry training. Work performed by contractors shall comply with the
    requirements of 29 CFR 1910.146 (US) or other applicable regulation.

4.6.4.8 Training

Employees required to enter confined space in the performance of their assigned duties will be trained in
accordance with the appropriate regulation. Other employees at the site where confined spaces are
located will be informed of the hazards and cautioned to avoid these areas.

4.6.4.9 Oxygen Deficiency

The following table presents the symptoms associated with insufficient oxygen:


    STAGE      % OXYGEN                                            SYMPTOMS
      1          12-16          Breathing and pulse increases, ringing in ears, diminished muscular
                                coordination
      2            10-14        Abnormal fatigue, emotional upsets, impaired judgement, lack of willingness to
                                continue work, euphoria
      3            6-10         Nausea and vomiting, loss of consciousness, unable to move or cry out for
                                assistance, potential for physical collapse
      4             <4          Convulsions, heart failure
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4.6.4.10 Toxic Substances

   Toxic substances may be classified by their physiological effect. The degree of toxicity and
    atmospheric concentration of the substances are of chief concern in protecting the worker. Toxic
    substances may affect the worker in a confined space in several ways: as an irritant, asphyxiant,
    anesthetic, narcotic, systemic poison, or disabling respirable particulate matter, such as fibrosis-
    producing dusts and bacteria.
   The extent of the affects may vary considerably. Acute poisoning may occur. Very short exposures
    to high concentrations of a material such as hydrogen sulfide (sewer gas), a substance which
    paralyzes the respiratory system, may be fatal. Chronic exposure to low concentrations of this
    substance may result in eye irritation, skin irritation, or general discomfort.
   Many toxic substances are colorless, odorless, and tasteless. This further complicates their detection
    in atmospheric concentrations and sometimes causes a sensitizing or fatigue of the olfactory senses.
    An example of this is hydrogen sulfide which can be detected initially but the odor will no longer be
    detected with prolonged exposure).

4.6.4.11 Flammable or Explosive Concentrations

   Most volatile compounds have limits below which they will not explode or burn as well as limits above
    which they will not burn/explode. When the concentration of a flammable liquid or vapor or a
    combustible particulate in the air falls between the lower explosive limit and the upper explosive limit,
    an ignition source may cause a fire or an explosion. Cleaning and/or purging of the confined space
    will minimize the potential for fire explosion in a confined space.

4.6.4.12 Engulfment

Engulfment is literally being buried alive and subsequently suffocated by the weight or inhalation of the
material that buried you. Actions that minimize the potential for engulfment include:
 Use of lockout/tagout procedures to minimize the potential for materials to move while workers are
   inside.
 Not using remaining material within the space as a platform to stand on unless the entrant first rods
   the material thoroughly to minimize the potential for bridging and to check that the material is packed
   down and capable of supporting the workers.

4.6.4.13 Equipment
 A 5- point safety harness and lanyard is required for entry into confined spaces in the US if the space
    is deeper than 4 feet (1200 mm), if there is a potential for engulfment, and/or if the entrant is not in
    visual contact with the safety watch.
 PPE and equipment which may be used for a confined space rescue shall be maintained in good
    operating condition and periodically cleaned and inspected for flaws. If equipment is damaged or
    flawed, it will be replaced/repaired before use.
 All equipment associated with permit space activities (e.g., gas meters, retrieval lifting devices,
    breathing air, etc.) must be inspected prior to use and stored properly when the job is finished.
 All equipment associated with permit space activities (e.g., gas meters, retrieval lifting devices,
    breathing air, etc.) must be calibrated and maintained per the manufacturer’s specifications.

4.6.5   Compressed Gas Handling and Storage

The following best practice guidelines are to be followed when handling and storing compressed gas
cylinders:
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   Personnel working with compressed gas cylinders or working in the area where compressed gas
    cylinders are used or stored shall be trained regarding the hazards associated with compressed gas
    cylinders and the appropriate emergency response procedures that have been developed for the
    work site.
   Do not point an air hose at other personnel or use compressed gases to clean clothing.
   Wear eye protection when working with compressed gas.
   Lines shall be bled, regulators removed, and valve caps replaced before unsecured cylinders are
    moved.
   Cylinders shall be visually inspected to check that the cylinders are in a safe condition to use at the
    work site.
   Compressed gas cylinders shall be turned off and pressure drained from the hoses when use is
    complete or if the operator leaves the work area regardless of whether or not the activity is complete.
   Compressed gas cylinders shall be secured to minimize the potential for tipping or falling. Cylinders
    must be stored with the gauges removed and the protective valve caps in place. Cylinders containing
    oxygen, acetylene, hydrogen, or chlorine shall be stored in an upright position; other compressed gas
    cylinders may be stored horizontally. Check with the local distributor, the producer, or the MSDSs for
    appropriate storage and handling procedures.
   Oxy acetyline cutting systems need to be equipped with flash back arrestors.

                                                                                        o      o
    Compressed gas cylinders shall not be exposed to temperatures exceeding 125 F (50 C).
   Cylinders shall be clearly marked with the name of the contained gas and the hazards there of.
   Empty cylinders shall be stored separately from full cylinders and shall be segregated by cylinder
    content. The valves on empty cylinders shall be closed.
   Compressed gas cylinders shall not be stored near an electrical source or where the cylinders may
    come in contact with electrical wiring.
   Cylinders, apparatus, and hose or piping connections shall be gas tight.
   Hoses, apparatus, and cylinder valves shall be free of grease, oil, dust, and dirt.
   Inspect hoses before use; replace old, damaged, or worn hose.
   A suitable pressure regulator shall be used to reduce cylinder flow pressure. Do not remove the
    pressure-reducing regulator.
   The regulator pressure adjusting screw must be released before opening the cylinder valve.
   Stand to one side and away from the front of pressure regulator gauge when opening cylinder valve.
   Open cylinder valves slowly.

4.6.6   Use of Compressed Air

   Air powered tools range from stapling guns to jack hammers. If not treated with respect, these tools
    can become a powerful enemy rather than a servant.
   Compressed air must not be used to blow debris or clear dust from any worker's clothes.
   Ensure that the air pressure has been turned off and the line pressure relieved before disconnecting
    the hose or changing tools.
   All hose connectors must be of the quick disconnect pressure release type with a "safety
    chain/cable".
   Wear personal protective equipment such as eye protection and face shields, and ensure other
    workers in the area are made aware of or have restricted access to the hazard area.
   Hoses must be checked on a regular basis for cuts, bulges, or other damage. Ensure that defective
    hoses are repaired or replaced.
   A proper pressure regulator or relief device must be in the system to ensure that correct desired
    pressures are maintained.
   The correct air supply hoses must be used for the tool/equipment being used.
   The equipment must be properly maintained according to the manufacturer’s requirements.
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   Follow manufacturers general instructions and comply with legislated safety requirements.



4.6.7   Propane Cylinder Filling Procedures

4.6.7.1 Regular Cylinders

   Complete a supplementary visual inspection which includes:
     Check all seams and corroded areas.
     Carefully inspect the areas most subject to corrosion and rust such as inside the foot ring and on
         the bottom of the cylinder. If these areas are badly corroded or deeply pitted and there is the
         possibility of a leak, the cylinder must be taken out of service.
     Check for dents, such as deformations caused by a blunt object. If the dents are very large or
         deep, or have sharp angles, they make the cylinder unsafe for service.
     Check for cuts, gouges or digs. These deformations are caused by sharp objects and actually
         decrease the thickness of the cylinder walls. Unless these are mere scratches, they may also
         make the cylinder unfit for service
     Check for damage and breakage to the foot ring and protective collar. If a foot ring or protective
         collar requires replacement or repair the cylinder should be taken out of service.
     Inspect the cylinder for fire damage. Cylinders bulged or deformed by fire should be taken out of
         service.
   Ensure that cylinder shoulder label is legible.
   Set scale to correct filled weight, i.e. tare weight, plus cylinder weight, plus nozzle weight.
   Connect the hose POL connection to the cylinder valve POL connection (it has a left hand thread).
   Open the cylinder valve, the hose end valve and start the pump.
   As soon as the scale beam indicator starts to rise, close the hose end valve and turn off the pump.
   Close the cylinder valve and slowly bleed off the gas trapped between the hose end valve and the
    cylinder valve.
   Disconnect the filling hose and inspect the cylinder valve for leaks.
   Replace the protective cap on the cylinder to protect the valve, if so equipped.
   After filling cylinders with a capacity of 45 lbs (20.5 kg) or less, plug the opening of the valve with a
    plug cap or quick-connect device that provides a leak-free seal. NOTE: New regulations require that
    this seal be in place whenever the cylinder is not connected for use.

4.6.7.2 Forklift Cylinders

   NOTE: Propane cylinder must be equipped with a liquid level gauge
   Complete supplementary visual inspection (same as above Section 4.6.7.1).
   Ensure cylinder shoulder label is legible.
   Connect the filling hose POL connection to the cylinder valve POL connection ( it has a left hand
    thread).
   Open the liquid level ( dip tube) gauge.
   Open the cylinder hose filler valve and start the pump.
   As soon as you see a fog-like stream flowing steadily from the dip tube gauge, the level has reached
    80%. Turn off the hose filler valve, close the dip tube gauge valve and turn off the pump.
   Close the cylinder valve and slowly bleed off the gas trapped between the hose fill valve and the
    cylinder valve.
   Disconnect the filling hose and inspect the cylinder valve for leaks.

4.6.8   Welding and Cutting
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The following best practice guidelines are to be followed when welding or when using a torch to cut metal:

4.6.8.1 General

   Personnel working with compressed gas cylinders or working in the area where compressed gas
    cylinders are used or stored shall be trained regarding the hazards associated with compressed gas
    cylinders and the appropriate emergency response procedures that have been developed for the
    work site.
   Personnel performing welding and/or cutting activities shall be qualified to do so.
   Obtain a “hot work” permit before starting welding/cutting activities.
   Appropriate clothing shall be worn to minimize the potential for adverse affects from the rays of the
    arc and from metal sparks.
   Shoes that extend above ankles or welding spats and trousers extending over the tops of the shoes
    shall be worn. Trousers should not have cuffs and shall not be tucked into the top of shoes or boots.
   The welder must put on a welder’s hood or shield before striking an arc and continue wearing the
    hood until welding/cutting activities have ceased. Hardened filter lens goggles are to be worn under
    the hood or shield.
   Screens shall be placed around the welding/cutting activity to protect others from the rays of the arc.
   Check that you have enough fuel to complete the job before turning on the welder.
   Check that ventilation is adequate to remove welding fumes.
   Check cables and hoses for damage before beginning to weld.
   Protect hoses and cables from physical damage or damage caused by heat, fire, and sparks.
   Avoid looking at the arc unless protected with an appropriate mask or goggles.
   A fire extinguisher shall be placed near welding/cutting work areas. Combustible material should be
    removed from the work area before welding/cutting activities are begun. A fire safety watch is
    required if combustibles cannot be removed from the work area.
   A non-combustible surface shall be used to support work.
   Turn off cylinders and drain hoses or turn off power source when suspending welding activities.
   Wash out and inert (e.g., using nitrogen gas) containers that held flammable materials before welding
    or cutting.
   Wear appropriate respiratory protection when welding materials that emit noxious fumes e.g.
    galvanized surfaces

4.6.8.2 Oxygen-Fuel Welding and Cutting

   The operator shall be properly trained and qualified to operate the welding equipment.
   Cylinders shall be visually inspected to check that the cylinders are in a safe condition to use at the
    work site.
   Where possible, keep welding cables on overhead brackets to minimize the potential for tangling of
    the cables. Cable insulation condition shall be inspected for damage/defects before use.
   Rods shall be removed from the holder when the operator leaves the work area. The work area shall
    be cleaned before the employee operating the equipment ends his/her shift. Rod stubs shall be
    appropriately disposed.
   Welding gas cylinders shall be turned off and pressure drained from the hoses when the
    welding/cutting activity is complete or if the operator leaves the work area regardless of whether or
    not the activity is complete.
   Regulators shall be turned off, lines bled, and valve caps shall be replaced before cylinders can be
    moved.
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   Oxygen and acetylene cylinders shall be secured to minimize the potential for tipping or falling.
    Cylinders must be stored with the gauges removed and the protective valve caps in place. Cylinders
    containing oxygen or acetylene shall be stored in an upright position.

                                                                                          o     o
    Compressed gas cylinders shall not be exposed to temperatures exceeding 125 F (50 C).
   Cylinders shall be clearly marked with the name of the contained gas and the hazards there of.
   Different flammable gases are permitted to be stored together if the cylinders are properly identified.
   Empty cylinders shall be stored separately from full cylinders and shall be segregated by cylinder
    content. The valves on empty cylinders shall be closed.
   Oxygen and acetylene cylinders shall be stored separately with a 20 feet (6 m) minimum distance
    between storage areas or in the same area if a 5 feet (1500 mm) tall, non-combustible divider is
    constructed to separate the two gases. The divider is also required to be in place on the welding cart.
   Storage areas are to be posted with the following signs: “No smoking within 20 feet (6 m)”, “No open
    flame or sparking equipment within 20 feet (6 m)”, “Flammable”, and “ Oxygen “ or “Acetylene” to
    identify the cylinder contents.
   Oxygen and acetylene cylinders shall not be stored near an electrical source or where the cylinders
    may come in contact with electrical wiring.
   Welding/cutting a drum or container that has stored gasoline, oils, or other flammable liquids is
    prohibited.
   Cylinders, apparatus, and hose or piping connections shall be gas tight.
   Hoses, apparatus, and cylinder valves shall be free of grease, oil, dust, and dirt.
   Inspect hoses before use; replace old, damaged, or worn hose.
    A suitable pressure regulator shall be used to reduce oxygen and acetylene cylinder flow pressure.
   The regulator pressure adjusting screw must be released before opening the cylinder valve.
   Stand to one side and away from the front of pressure regulator gauge when opening cylinder valve.
   Open cylinder valves slowly; oxygen is to be opened all the way, acetylene only ¼ turn.
   Friction lighters or stationary pilot flames shall be used to light torches; do not use matches to light
    torches. Do not light a torch from hot metal in a small cavity or in a hole where gas might
    accumulate.
   If a torch flashes back or burns back inside the blowpipe, shut off the torch oxygen valve first, and
    then close the torch acetylene valve.
   Do not use acetylene at pressure in excess of l5 psi (100 kPa) or oxygen in excess of 30 psi (200
    kPa).
   Do not allow sparks, molten metal, or slag to fall on cylinders, apparatus, or hose.
   Do not allow oxygen under pressure to come in contact with oil or grease.

4.6.8.3 Arc Welding and Cutting

   The operator shall be properly trained and qualified to use the arc welder.
   Only approved cable connectors must be used for splices beyond the 10 foot limit.
   Alternating-current manual arc welders shall not exceed 80 volts; automatics shall not exceed 100
    volts. Direct-current manual or automatic arc welders shall not exceed 100 volts.
   Arc welders shall be adequately insulated or shall be protected so as not to shock personnel. The
    machine shall also be grounded and the grounding mechanism shall be periodically inspected.
   The arc welder shall be equipped with a “kill switch”.
   Operation and maintenance of the arc welder shall be as per manufacturer recommendations.
   When electrode holders are not in use, they shall be placed so as not to make electrical contact with
    personnel or conducting objects.
   Cables with splices within 10 feet of the holder shall not be used. Cables with damaged insulation
    shall be replaced. Only approved cable connectors must be used for splices beyond the 10 foot limit.
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4.6.8.4 Welding or Cutting Near Rubber Liners and Urethane Screening Materials

Work is not to proceed until the following are in place:
 All workers are made aware of fire hazards associated with rubber liners and urethane screening
   materials
 Make certain that an up-to-date Emergency Procedures for the site is posted and all employees have
   been trained in its implementation
 Ensure that there are 2 - 10 lb (4.5 kg) serviced portable extinguishers available at each level of the
   structure
 Ensure that each welder or cutting torch cart has a 10 lb (4.5 kg) serviced portable extinguisher
 Assign “spotter” to be available during the maintenance period to be responsible for fire suppression
 Make certain that 2-way communication is available and functional between office and maintenance
   crew
 Keep work area clean and free from any further source of fire hazards
 Use fire blankets or similar material to isolate sparks and hot metal from other combustibles
 Ensure water is available and functional at all levels of the structure
 If possible load feed conveyor with material to act as fire suppressant and “keep ready”
 Follow Emergency Procedures if a fire breaks out and cannot be suppressed
 Review “Hot Work” checklist to make certain all procedures are in place
 At those sites where the equipment is ‘housed” in an enclosure, plant management should consult
   with Regional Technical Services to develop a specific plan of action

4.6.8.5 Fire Watch

A fire watch must be assigned to assist the welder if combustible materials can not be removed from the
area where welding will occur. The following are the duties of the fire watch:
 Use the fire extinguisher, if necessary.
 Be familiar with and trained on the fire-fighting equipment available near the welding activities.
 Sound the fire alarm, if required.
 Watch for sparks that may start a fire
 Remain at the welding site for one hour after welding is complete to extinguish fires that may start.
 Be familiar with and trained on the fire fighting equipment available near the welding activities.

4.6.8.6 Respiratory Protection

   See Section 10.2 for further information on respiratory protection during welding and cutting.

4.6.9   Ground Control

   Safe ground control methods shall be established and followed at Lafarge mine sites. Mining
    methods shall be selected that will minimize the potential for wall/bank failure. These methods shall
    be written and shall include the following:

4.6.9.1 Surface

   Benching shall be used as necessary to maintain a safe slope.
   Loose, unconsolidated material shall be stripped at least 10 feet (3 m) from the top of the pit wall and
    shall be sloped to the angle of repose.
   Hazardous banks shall be scaled before other work is permitted in the area.
   Employees shall not work under dangerous overhangs. Overhanging banks shall be taken down as
    soon as possible or the area shall be barricaded and posted.
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   Employees shall not enter areas that have been barricaded or posted where there are potential
    dangers.
   A competent person shall visually inspect working areas and faces for unsafe conditions before the
    work shift is begun and after blasting before personnel are permitted to enter the blast area.
   Unsafe conditions observed during the competent person’s inspection shall be corrected before work
    in the area may resume.
   Employees are responsible for checking their work areas for unsafe conditions. The unsafe
    conditions shall be corrected before work may resume.
   Employees are not permitted to work between equipment and the working face where equipment may
    hinder escape from rock falls or slides.
   Material, other than hanging material, to be broken by secondary drilling, blasting, and/or other
    method shall be positioned or blocked to limit the potential of hazardous movement before employees
    begin breaking operations. Employees breaking the material shall work in a location where they will
    be minimally impacted if hazardous movement were to occur.
   A scaling bar of sufficient length shall be used for manual scaling to limit the potential for the user to
    be adversely impacted by falling material. The user shall hold the blunt end of the scaler. Picks or
    other short tools shall not be used for scaling as the short length may place the user in the way of
    falling material.

4.6.9.2 Underground

   Employees are responsible for checking their work areas for unsafe conditions both before and during
    the work shift including testing the back, face, and rib. The unsafe conditions shall be corrected
    before work may resume.
   Loose ground shall be taken down or adequately supported before other work is performed in the
    area.
   Ground conditions on haul ways or travel ways shall be inspected periodically and scaled/supported
    as necessary.
   Employees shall not enter abandoned areas of underground mines unless specifically directed to do
    so by the site manager or supervisor.
   Employees shall not enter areas that have been barricaded or posted where there are potential
    dangers.
   Underground operations are inspected quarterly by MSHA (US) as opposed to the semi-annual
    inspections conducted at surface operations.
   Underground operation must have two mine rescue teams available that meet the MSHA standards.
   All persons entering the mine must carry a MSHA (US) approved self-rescuer device and miner’s
    light.
   Procedures must be established for entering and leaving a mine to include a check-in and check-out
    system.
   If access to the mine will be by a hoisting device, employees will be required to know and recognize
    the various signals utilized by the hoist operator.
   Procedures must be established controlling the riding in and on mine conveyances for both vertical
    and horizontal transportation.
   A communication system must be established which includes warning signals, and directional signals
    (such as marking or numbering of pillars).
   An emergency evacuation plan is required, and shall be posted where employees have access to the
    plan.
   A mine map, that is maintained and updated, must be posted per the MSHA (US) standard indicating
    escape routes.
   A ventilation plan is necessary, which must include procedures for maintaining, and controlling
    ventilation plus air quality monitoring.
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   Training – Underground operations are governed by Part 48 training requirements. Such training will
    be conducted by a MSHA (US) certified instructor.
                   All new miners must receive 40-hours training (safety and job specific) prior to being
                      assigned to specific tasks. Annual 8-hour refresher training will also be conducted.
                   This training shall include, but not limited to:
          Hazard recognition.
          Communications.
          The use, care and maintenance of self-rescue and respiratory devices.
          Procedures for entering and leaving the mine.
          Emergency evacuation procedures. Evacuation drills will be conducted every six months.
          Mine layout and emergency escape plan.
          Fire fighting plan.
          Instructions in barricading.
          Ventilation plan.
          Mine gases.
          Explosives.
          Roof and ground control.
          First aid.
   Surface operations connected to the underground operations shall also be governed by the Part 48
    training requirements.


4.6.10 Blasting

   This section presents safe blasting procedures for Lafarge quarry and pit operations.

4.6.10.1        Training Requirements

Lafarge employees working with explosives shall receive the following training and shall comply with
Lafarge safety requirements before performing blast operations. Training may include:
 Blaster’s certification training
 MSHA 5000-23 (US) or equivalent certification
 Other training/certification required by local municipalities (if required)
 Applicable Lafarge safety meetings
 First aid and CPR.

4.6.10.2        Required Equipment

   Personal protective equipment (PPE):
         Hard hat
         Safety-toed shoes
         Safety glasses
         Body harness (5-point) and lanyard
         Gloves
         Hearing protection.
         Reflective clothing and vest (where applicable)
   Seismograph equipment
   Blast area and other warning signs
   Two-way radios
   Powder punch
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   Wire strippers
   Weighted tape
   Powder retriever (non-sparking)
   Loading poles with non-sparking couplers
   Density scale and cups
   Shovel
   Bucket
   Mirror
   Blasting machine
   Blaster’s galvanometer (if using detonators).

4.6.10.3        Transporting Explosives

   The number of holes will be determined by both the Lafarge mine manager or supervisor and the
    blasting contractor.
   Explosive materials shall be transported in a vehicle meeting DOT (US), MSHA (US), ATF (US), or
    other agency’s regulations.
   The vehicle shall be in safe operating condition, equipped with two 10-pound (4.5 kg) multipurpose
    dry-chemical fire extinguishers, and properly placarded.
   Detonators may be transported in the same vehicle with other explosives provided that the other
    explosives are separated from the detonators by a barrier laminate.
   Vehicles transporting explosives shall be attended and shall not be parked and left unattended.
   Explosives shall be kept at the blasting area or in designated storage. Vehicles hauling blasting
    materials shall maintain a distance of 50 feet (15 m) from inhabited buildings.
   A spotter shall be used if the vehicle transporting explosives is required to back up on or off the shot.
    If the vehicle has to back up, the driver shall turn off radios and roll down the window to watch/listen
    to the spotter.
   Smoking is prohibited in the vehicle or within 50 feet (15 m) for a vehicle transporting explosives.

4.6.10.4        Distribution in the Blast Area

   Warning signs and traffic cones shall be places at entrances to the blast area. A sign will also be
    placed at each entrance to the property.
   Explosives on the blast site shall be attended except during the approach or occurrence of an
    electrical storm, fire, or other hazard which could endanger the attendant.
   Detonators shall be kept separated from other explosives until loading begins. The detonator may
    then be distributed by each hole for proper hole delay.
   Packaged products including ANFO, blasting agents, water gels, and emulsions may be staked at the
    holes during loading.
   When assembled, primers shall be loaded into the hole immediately.
   Explosive material, such as small primers or detonators shall not be carried in personal clothing or
    pockets.
   The blast area shall be attended/guarded when explosives have been loaded or are being loaded.
    The attendee must be competent and responsible for the safety of others and the protection of the
    explosives.

4.6.10.5        Loading the Shot

   Seismograph monitoring will be performed by Lafarge personnel or the blasting contractor upon
    request.
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   When weather is a concern, the blaster in charge will contact the local weather service to obtain a
    weather report and temperature inversion data. The blaster in charge will consult with the production
    supervisor if there is a need to postpone the shot.
   Communication must be established with the driller before loading the shot.
   One “blaster in charge” will be assigned for each shot. Work during the loading process shall be
    supervised by the blaster in charge.
   Personnel and equipment shall not work in front of a face where blast materials are being loaded. If
    work at the face must continue, the blaster in charge will coordinate with the production supervisor to
    shut down operations before blasting begins.
   The blaster in charge shall coordinate with the driller for drilling rig set-up and movement when it is
    necessary to operate the drilling rig while the shot is being loaded. Drilling shall not occur closer than
    one hole spacing to a loaded shot. There shall be no opportunity for a drill bit to intersect an adjacent
    loaded or unloaded shot hole.
   Primers shall be placed (using a non-sparking tool) at the hole where they are to be used. Do not use
    the detonator shell to punch a cap hole in the explosives.
   A blast hole loaded with an electric detonator shall be checked with a blaster’s galvanometer or a
    blaster’s multimeter before stemming or decking.
   Blasting agents shall be primed in accordance with manufacturers’ recommendations. When using
    packaged products, a loading device will be used to lower the bag into deep holes. Packaged
    products will not be dropped on primer cartridges.
   Tamping or dislodging bridged or hung explosive material shall be done with non-sparking or wooden
    loading poles.
   Do not tamp directly on the primer. Do not force a primer into a hole or past an obstruction in a hole.
   Exposed metal, other than non-sparking types such as brass or lead, shall not be placed in a charged
    blast hole. Cloth or plastic tapes with lead plumb weights shall be used to measure blast holes after
    explosive materials have been introduced.
   Unused explosives shall be returned to storage after loading and before blasting.
   Maintain a record of the explosive materials loaded into each blast hole.
   Check the column rise in blast holes frequently when using free-running explosive materials.
    Discontinue loading if there is little or no rise and take corrective action, such as decking through the
    faulty are, before loading more explosives into the hole. A condition such as this may produce fly
    rock and may require special techniques to control the blast.
   When auguring/pumping ANFO or Emulsion/ANFO, the column rise shall be measured continuously
    by tape.
   Quality control of explosive materials shall be checked periodically throughout the shot.
   Unauthorized persons shall not be permitted in the blast area.
   Areas where loaded holes are awaiting firing shall be guarded against unauthorized entry in
    accordance with federal, state, and local laws.
   Upon completion of loading and connection of circuits, firing shall occur without undue delay.
   Do not handle explosives during the approach of an electrical storm. Personnel shall be required to
    leave the blast area after thunder or lightning are heard/seen. Explosive material shall be secured.
   Do not attempt to de-water a blast hole into which detonators and primers have been loaded.
   Driving over loaded holes is not permitted.
   Blast holes exceeding a depth of 30 feet (9 m) shall be double capped.
   The following are responsibilities of the blaster in charge:
          Oversee the safety of personnel and the blast.
          Oversee the loading of shots.
          Monitor the actions of the blast crew.
          Check that the proper procedure(s) is being followed.
          Monitor the environment for factors that may adversely effect the blast or the crew.
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        Double-check the surface delays and connections for proper hook-up.
   The decision to leave shot overnight will be made by the blaster in charge and the production
    superintendent.
   Security guards shall be informed if shot is left in the holes over night.
   Security guards will be trained in the proper procedures required to guard loaded shot.
   The second shift supervisor will be informed if shot is left in the holes over night.

4.6.10.6        Shot Warning Signal

The following procedures shall be completed before shot is fired:
 Mine personnel shall be cleared from the blast area.
 Mine personnel will be advised to remain clear of the blast area until the all clear signal is sounded.
 The blast area shall be checked and guarded to prevent re-entry.
 Public and mine roads in the danger/blast area shall be blocked and guarded at a safe distance from
   the time the warning is sounded until the all clear signal is sounded.
 Two-way radio communication is permitted unless the detonators in use are electric.
 Cellular telephones and 2-way radios shall not be used in the blast area where electric detonators are
   being used.
 The warning signal will be sounded for one minute after a verbal “okay” from seismograph operator,
   from the person assigned to checking that personnel have been evacuated and entrance ways have
   been blocked, and from the blaster in charge.
 The blaster in charge will state that blasting will occur in 5 seconds and seek shelter.
 Blasts shall not be viewed or filmed from areas directly in front of the shot; viewing/filming shall occur
   at a safe distance.
 Work shall not resume in the blast area until the blaster in charge has checked the area for blast-
   related hazards.

4.6.10.7        Firing the Shot and Follow Up

   After the initiation system hook-up is completed, the blaster in charge shall walk the shot to check the
    delay pattern and check that each hole is hooked into the initiation system securely and properly.
   Blasts shall be fired from a safe distance behind the blast.
   Blasts shall not be fired after dark or if there is insufficient visibility to determine the presence of
    personnel in the blast area.
   Do not fire a blasting machine unless the charging indicators are positive.
   If the charge time on the blasting machine is not adequate, do not attempt to fire; immediately install
    new batteries and recheck the machine.
   Following a shot, allow smoke and dust to dissipate before entering the blast area.
   Muck piles shall be inspected for undetonated explosives and signs of misfires after the blast but
    before the all clear is given
   When a misfire is suspected, the blast area shall not be entered for:
          30 minutes if blasting caps were used.
          15 minutes if other types of detonators were used.
   Only work and personnel necessary to clear a misfire will be permitted in the blast area until the
     explosive material has been safely removed.
   Appropriate personnel will be informed if a misfire occurs. An investigation will be conducted to
    ascertain the cause of the misfire.
   The blast area shall not be entered until the blaster in charge has given the all clear.
   Lafarge shall receive a completed document regarding the blast.
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4.6.10.8        Highwall Safety

Bench Operations – Vehicles

   Vehicles shall not be operated where a wheel crosses in front of a row of holes.
   When a vehicle is backed towards the highwall face, a spotter must be used.
   Vehicles shall be turned off and have the brakes set unless the vehicle is needed for the blasting
    activities.
   Wheel chocks will be required for parked vehicles carrying explosives where the surface is uneven or
    may cause the vehicle to roll.

Bench Operations – Personnel

   Employees shall not be within 6 feet (2 m) of the face without an approved safety harness and
    lanyard that is attached to a proper tie-off point.
   Vehicles may be used as a tie-off if:
     The vehicle is parked parallel to the face.
     The vehicle is turned off.
     The keys are not in the ignition.
     The parking brake is set and the transmission is in gear or in park.
     The wheels are chocked.
     The vehicle has a tie-off point that is capable of withstanding a possible fall of the person who is
        tied off.
     Drivers shall check that the vehicle is not being used as a tie-off point before driving off.
   Take precautions to identify areas that shall not be entered by mine personnel not involved with
    blasting activities.

4.6.10.9        Complaints

   Complaints shall be documented on Form 4.6-2.
   The site manager and the blaster in charge shall be informed of the complaint.
   Blasting records, seismic readings, and the blast procedure shall be reviewed to determine if the
    complaint is valid.
   Complaint response will occur within 24-hours of receipt.
   If the complaint is valid, steps will be taken to resolve and/or correct the situation.

4.6.11 Trenching and Excavation

A summary of applicable agency regulations that shall be followed when performing trenching and/or
excavation activities is presented below.
 Develop an HA specific to the site for the trenching/excavation activities before beginning the
    operations.
 Hold a safety meeting with site personnel to discuss how the trenching/excavating will be performed
    to minimize the potential for accident or incident. This information shall be given to employees who
    are assigned to this site after activities have begun before they are permitted to begin their assigned
    duties at the site.
 Contact the local regulatory agency to check if a permit is required for trenching/excavation.
 Check for presence of utilities in the area to be excavated.
 The trench/excavation shall be inspected daily by a trained Competent Person (US) as required by
    agency regulations.
 The Competent Person will also inspect the trench/excavation if site circumstances change that may
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    affect stability (e.g., rain, explosion nearby, etc).
   Personnel entering trenches/excavations greater than 5 feet (1500 mm) in depth, shall be protected
    by a shoring/barricading or sloping/benching method applicable to the soil type as required by
    agency regulations (US – 29 CFR 1926, Subpart P).
   Shoring/barricading or sloping/benching may be required for shallower trenches/excavations if
    personnel are performing work that requires them to place their head lower than the
    trench/excavation edge.
   Additional shoring/barricading or sloping/benching may be required for trenches/excavations located
    near streets, railroads, or other sources of vibration as well as areas that may have been previously
    excavated and backfilled.
   Shoring/barricades shall be placed at ground level first and then proceed downward. The reverse
    process shall be followed when removing the shoring/barricades.
   Loose material on the edge or sides of the trench shall be trimmed.
   If the trench/excavation appears to be unstable during operations, personnel shall exit and shall not
    re-enter until the Competent Person has performed an inspection.
   Existing walls or structures shall not be used as a retaining wall unless it is capable of withstanding
    the load.
   Excavated material, tools, equipment, vehicles, etc. shall not be placed closer than 2 feet (600 mm)
    from the edge of the trench/excavation.
   Effective means shall be used to prevent water or loose materials from entering the
    trench/excavation.
   The area around the trench/excavation shall be barricaded to prevent unauthorized entry.
   When work is not being performed in the trench/excavation it shall be covered.
   Trenches/excavations shall be backfilled as soon as possible after work is completed.
   Trenching/excavation activities shall be supervised by a trained/qualified person who is designated as
    the “stand-by” or “safety watch”.
   Some trenches/excavations may meet the requirements for confined space or permit-required
    confined space; contact the qualified competent person to check the trench/excavation for
    applicability. This type of trench/excavation must be monitored for sufficient oxygen, potential for an
    explosive atmosphere, and volatile organic compounds. Further information on confined space
    requirements are presented in Section 4.6.4 of this Manual.

4.6.12 Nuclear Density Gauge

4.6.12.1        Training

   Nuclear density gauge operators shall complete a radiation safety class and be certified to operate
    the equipment by the course instructor.
   Operators and employees working in the vicinity of a nuclear density gauge shall be informed of the
    following:
                 The potential effects of radiation exposure.
                 Procedures, precautions, and/or protective equipment required to minimize the potential
         for health effects.
                 Radiation regulations and license conditions.
                 Employee reporting responsibilities.
                 Emergency response procedures.

4.6.12.2        Monitoring

   Employees assigned to operate the gauge will be enrolled in Lafarge’s radiation monitoring program.
   Operators will be required to wear dosimeter badges when operating the gauge. Operator exposure
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    shall not exceed:
    2 millirems in one hour
                One hundred millirems in 7 consecutive days
                0.5 rem in 1 year.

4.6.12.3        Storage Requirements

   The gauge shall be stored in a locked, sealed box and shall be placed in a locked storage room.
   Storage requirements must meet state regulations.
   Regulatory sign requirements shall be followed. Postings required may include caution signs,
    radiation warnings, permit copy(s), emergency procedures, or others as required by regulation.


4.6.12.4        Transport Requirements

   Gauges shall be chained and locked to a solid portion of a truck bed, cargo section of a van, or trunk.
   Gauges shall not be left in unattended vehicles or taken home.
   A copy of the permit and a shipping form shall be in plain view on the dash or on the seat near the
    driver when transporting the gauge.

4.6.12.5        Testing

   Gauges shall be leak tested by a professional service at least every other year, or as per local
    regulations or permit requirements; test results shall be maintained on file where the gauge is stored.
   Operators shall test the gauge for leaks or contamination before placing the gauge in storage as per
    manufacturer recommendation(s).
   If leaks or contamination are detected, check that the carry shield is properly in place. If the
    contamination/leak source cannot be determined, the gauge must be removed from service and
    repaired by a qualified repair service before it is used again.
   A copy of the repair request and a copy of the corrective action taken to repair the problem shall be
    maintained on file where the gauge is stored

4.6.12.6        Operation and Maintenance

Operation and maintenance of the gauge shall be as per manufacturer recommendation.

4.6.12.7        Disposal of Depleted Sources

Gauge sources shall be disposed as radioactive waste at a licensed and authorized disposal facility.

4.6.12.8        Records

   Written records shall be maintained at the facility where the gauge is stored when not in use.
   Maintained records shall include:
               Calibration, survey, and test results
               Receipts, transfers, and disposal of gauges and/or sources
               Monitoring records and/or exposures of operators
               Records of operator dosages
               Sign-out and –in logs/sheets.
               Inventory of units
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4.6.12.9        Incident Reporting

   Incidents involving potential radiation contamination and/or leaks shall be reported to the appropriate
    regulatory authority as soon as possible.
   Incidents that must be reported to the appropriate agency immediately include:
                Individual whole body dose of 25 rems or more.
                Whole body skin doses of 150 rems or more.
                Feet, ankle, hand, or forearm doses of 375 rems or more.
                Damage in excess of $100,000.
                Operations loss of one working week or more due to leak or contamination.
   The following incidents must be reported to the appropriate agency within 24 hours:
                A whole body dose of 5 rems or more.
                Whole body skin dose of 30 rems or more.
                Feet, ankle, hand, or forearm doses of 75 rems or more.
                Damage in excess of $1,000.
                Operations loss of one working day or more (up to one working week) due to leak or
             contamination.

   The following incidents must be reported to the appropriate agency within 30 days:
                 Exposures or potential exposures to individuals in excess of applicable regulatory limit.
                 Uncontrolled contamination 10 times greater than applicable regulatory limits regardless
             of individual exposure.
                 Overexposure indicated by dosimeter badge or other radiation detection device.
   The above listed reports shall include that following information:
                 Name of individual exposed or potentially exposed.
                 Social Security Number (US) or Social Insurance Number (Canada) of the exposed
             individual.
                 Date of birth of the exposed individual.
                 Estimated exposure dosage.
                 Extent of exposure.
                 Levels of radiation and concentration of radioactive material involved.
                 Cause of the exposure as well as the detected levels of exposure, and/or concentrations
             of exposure.
                 Corrective action taken.

4.6.13 Cleaning Solvents and Flammables

   Use an appropriate cleaning solvent to clean tools or parts. Do not use gasoline as a cleaning
    solvent.
   Use nonflammable and nontoxic cleaning solvents when possible.
   Review the MSDS for the cleaning solvent before using. Obtain Hazard Communication (US) or
    WHMIS (Canada) training before using a cleaning solvent.
   Do not use a flammable cleaning solvent in an area where hot work is being performed or where
    there is an open flame or sparking equipment.
   Flammables and cleaning solvents shall be stored as recommended by the manufacturer. Check the
    container label and the MSDS for storage requirements.
   The area where the cleaning solvent or flammable is being used shall be well ventilated.
   Use appropriate PPE (e.g., goggles, splash shield, etc.) to minimize the potential for splash or spray
    hazards.
   Gloves shall be worn to limit the potential for contact with cleaning solvents. Check with safety staff
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    for the appropriate glove required for protection from the specific cleaning solvent being used.
   Protective clothing may be required to limit the potential for contaminating or burning personnel
    clothing.
   Appropriate respiratory protection is required if there is a potential for respiratory hazard during use of
    a cleaning solvent or flammable.
   Use appropriate containers for storage and transport.
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SECTION 5                 EDUCATION AND TRAINING

5.1       Hazard Communication/ WHMIS

Regulations require that employees be informed of the hazards associated with their assigned duties.
This information, referred to as the Hazard Communication Program (US) or WHMIS (Workplace
Hazardous Materials Identification System – Canada), includes the potential hazards of the
substances/products/materials in the workplace. The Program also includes procedures to minimize
adverse effects from the identified potential workplace hazards.

5.1.1     Employee Training/Advisement

Lafarge employees will be trained or advised of the following potential hazards as applicable to the
assigned work site or assigned duties:
 Regulatory requirements overview.
 Employee rights and responsibilities.
 Hazardous operations/chemicals/conditions in the work place.
 Where the written program is filed or stored.
 Physical and health effects of hazardous substances in the workplace.
 Safe handling/use/storage of hazardous substances.
 Methods to determine exposure or release.
 Engineering controls, PPE, or other method of controlling the potential for exposure/release.
 Emergency response including spill clean up, first aid, reporting procedures, and disposal.
 Reading/understanding Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) and labels.

Hazard Communication/WHMIS updates will be conducted as needed for new employee orientation, new
substances introduced to the work site, etc. as per regulatory agency requirements.

5.1.2     Site-Specific Program

The minimum requirements for site-specific Hazard Communication are as follows:

     Lafarge employees will be trained regarding the hazardous substances in their assigned work areas,
      potential hazards associated with assigned duties, procedures to minimize the effects of the potential
      hazards, reading/understanding MSDSs, and spill emergency response procedures.
     PPE required for working with the potentially hazardous substances at the work site will be issued to
      employees. Employees will be trained on the use and maintenance of the issued PPE. For further
      information regarding PPE, refer to Section4.3 of this manual.
     Employees will be trained on the safe work practices appropriate to the substances in use at the work site.
      An inventory or list of hazardous substances in the workplace will be maintained in a notebook or
      binder with the site’s MSDSs. The MSDS notebook or binder will be made available to employees or
      contractors upon request.
     The MSDS notebook or binder shall be updated when new substances are brought to the work site.
     The MSDS notebook or binder shall be reviewed as per regulatory agency requirements to check that
      the substances in use at the site are on the inventory and that an MSDS has been placed in the
      notebook or binder.
     Containers will be labeled with the name of the contents and the hazard information for the contents,
      as appropriate.
     Process pipes will be appropriately labeled.
     Container labels shall include:
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          Chemical identification
          Hazard warning(s)
          Name and address of the manufacturer, importer, or other responsible party.

     Please refer to the Lafarge North America HazCom Program Manual that can be found on the LNA
      Health and Safety Lotus Database.
     Temporary or portable containers used during the shift by the person transferring the substance are
      not required to be labeled (US).
     Temporary or portable containers used during the shift by the person transferring the substance are
      required to be labeled (Canada).
     Additional training for non-routine tasks will be conducted as needed.
     Contractors working at Lafarge sites will be informed of Lafarge’s Hazard Communication Program.
      Contractors will be required to follow Lafarge’s Program unless the contractor program is more stringent.
     Substances purchased for use at a Lafarge facility must be accompanied by an MSDS.

5.2       Training

5.2.1     Training Programs

Employees of Lafarge will receive training as appropriate to their assigned duties and the potential
hazards thereof. Training for regulatory compliance (DOT, OSHA, Coast Guard, and MSHA in the US;
WBC and Ministry of Mines in Canada) shall include the following as applicable to the employee’s
assigned work duties:

     Hazard Communication (US)/WHMIS (Canada)
     Bloodborne Pathogens
     Personal Protective Equipment Use and Maintenance
     Respiratory Protection
     Hearing Conservation
     Accident/Injury Reporting
     Lockout/Tagout
     Electrical Safety
     Guarding
     Confined Space Entry
     Drilling/Blasting
     Nuclear Density Gauge Use
     Transportation of Dangerous Goods
     Construction Safety
     Flagperson and Traffic Diversion
     First Aid and CPR
     Injury and Illness Prevention
     Equipment Operation
     Powered Industrial Truck Operation
     Surface Haulage
     Barge/Dock/Maritime Safety
     Mentor Driver
     Trenching and Excavation
     Prime Contractor (Alberta).
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Specialized training for Lafarge may include:
 Division Safety Program
 Emergency Response and Spill Plan Procedure
 Job Orientation Program
 Hazard Analysis
 Daily Safety Inspection
 Auditor Training.
 Basic Training
 Accident Root Cause Analysis Training

Training will be performed by Lafarge personnel or by skilled professionals. Training materials will be
provided and presented in a manner such that employees will understand the information exchanged.
The training materials will be based on Lafarge’s best practices for regulatory compliance and for
provision of a safe and healthy work environment for Lafarge employees, vendors, visitors, and
contractors as well as minimizing the potential for adverse affect on the public and the environment.

Regions are encouraged to use a similar matrix to the one below to assist in the make up of their Safety
Training Program. Forms 5.2-1 through 5.2-4 included in the Forms section of the manual, are more
specific personnel training summary forms.

It is recommended that testing be used to evaluate employee comprehension. Under certain regulation
testing is required.




5.2.2   New Hire Orientation

New employees will receive orientation and training appropriate to their assigned duties before assigned
work is begun. Training requirements may vary based on agency regulatory requirements and local site
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conditions. Training/orientation may include a senior employee working with the new employee as a
mentor.
It is recognized that this may well be the most important module of training that an employee receives and
as such a great deal of time and effort should go into formulating a session customized to meet your
Regions particular requirements.
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SECTION 6                 MEDICAL MONITORING PROGRAMS

Newly hired employees will be required to pass a post offer physical examination by Lafarge’s consulting
physician before beginning work as assigned by the immediate supervisor. Those employees whose
assigned duties include driving and/or activities that may present a potential for exposure to hazardous
substances or noise may be required to participate in Lafarge’s medical monitoring program after the
initial physical examination.

6.1       Post Offer Physical Examination

The “new hire” physical examination may include:

     A general wellness evaluation to check that the employee is capable of performing the essential
      functions associated with the hire position.
     A respiratory evaluation to check that the employee is capable of wearing respiratory protection if
      required by the job assignment.
     An audiometric test to establish a baseline of the employee’s hearing.
     A range of motion evaluation for those employees that may be required to perform physical activity as
      part of their assigned duties.
     A drug and alcohol clearance; new hires may not report for work until negative drug and alcohol
      testing results have been received (US).

6.2       Employee Rules Related to Drugs and Alcohol

     No employee will be permitted to work under the influence of alcohol or drugs that impair work
      performance.
     Possession of alcohol and/or controlled substances while on company property and/or during work
      hours is prohibited.
     Employees who report to work under the influence of alcohol and/or controlled substances will be
      subject to disciplinary action.
     Consumption alcohol and/or controlled substances during time away from work and return to
      assigned duties (e.g., breaks, lunch breaks) is not permitted.

6.3       Drug and Alcohol Testing (US)

Potential employees will be required to pass a drug and alcohol test by Lafarge’s consulting physician
before the hiring process has been completed. Potential employees who do not pass the testing will not
be hired by Lafarge. New employees will be informed on the specifics of Lafarge’s Drug and Alcohol
Policy by Human Resources (HR) before the employee will be permitted to begin work at Lafarge sites.
Employees assigned to “safety sensitive” positions (e.g., mixer drivers) will be required to participate in a
drug and alcohol testing program as required by the Department of Transportation (DOT - US). This
program requires drug and alcohol testing as follows:
 Before beginning assigned duties
 Random testing
 Post-accident testing
 Follow-up/return to duty
 For cause or suspicion.

Each Region will adopt the above drug and alcohol testing procedures in accordance with local regulatory
requirements. Further information on Lafarge’s drug and alcohol testing program is available through the
Regional HR.
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6.3.1   Testing after Incidents

When there is an incident with injuries that require off-site medical attention, a drug test and a breath
alcohol test will be administered to all individuals directly involved.

For the purpose of this policy, an individual is presumed to be under the influence of a drug if a urine test
or other scientifically accepted testing procedure shows a confirmed positive proof of drug usage. If the
positive is the result of a prescription medication, the employee must produce a CURRENT
prescription in EMPLOYEES name, prescribed by a licensed medical provider. The detection levels
post injury testing are as follows:

                                                                            GC/MS
                                          SCREENING                      CONFIRMATION
 DRUG
                                           CUT-OFFS                        CUT-OFFS

 Amphetamines                                                                500 ng/mL

 Barbiturates                                                                200 ng/mL

 Benzodiazepines                                                             200 ng/mL

 Cannabinoids (Marijuana)                                                     15 ng/mL

 Cocaine                                                                     150 ng/mL

 Methadone                                                                   100 ng/mL

 Methaqualone                                 300 ng/mL                      100 ng/mL

 Opiates                                                                     300 ng/mL

 Phencyclidine                                                                25 ng/mL

 Propoxyphene                                                                100 ng/mL

For the purpose of this policy, an individual is presumed to be under the influence of alcohol if a
breath alcohol test or other scientifically accepted testing procedure shows a level of .08 or
greater.
6.4     DOT/MOT Requirements on Physical Examinations

In addition to the drug and alcohol testing, DOT (US) and the Ministry of Transportation (MOT - Canada)
requires that employees who drive as part of their assigned duties receive a physical examination initially
and every other year thereafter (or as required by regulation) for a Certified Driver’s License (CDL).
Lafarge has contracted physicians to perform these physical examinations; testing parameters are
available through Human Resources or technical services.
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SECTION 7               EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE

7.1     Emergency Response

A written Emergency Response Plan is required for Lafarge sites. This plan shall include the following.
The Table of Contents of a sample Emergency Management Program and Response Plan is presented in
Section 7.13.
 A description of the site, surrounding locale, and plant facilities.
 A site and plant layout plan.
 Actions to be taken during work hours and, if applicable, after work hours procedure.
 Lafarge personnel names (including telephone numbers) who must be contacted if an emergency occurs.
 Local emergency response personnel contact names and numbers. The Local safety personnel shall
   coordinate Lafarge’s emergency procedures with emergency response personnel before an actual
   emergency occurs.
 Training required for on site personnel; including mock drills.
 Regulatory requirements.
 Evacuation procedures.

7.2     Emergency Contacts

The public emergency response telephone number for most work sites is 911. Work sites that are
located in areas where 911 is not available shall post the alternate number in a common area that is
accessed by site employees. Site employees shall be informed of the alternate emergency number when
assigned to work at the site.

Employer emergency contact names and numbers shall be posted in addition to the public emergency
response telephone numbers. These names and telephone numbers should include: the Plant Manager,
the Division Manager, the regional safety personnel, the Local safety personnel, and others appropriate to
the work site.

7.3     Accident/Incident Reporting

On the job injuries, regardless of severity, must be reported to your supervisor immediately. Further
information regarding accident/incident reporting is presented in Section 8.1 of this manual.

7.4     Evacuation

Employees will be trained for safe evacuation from their assigned work site. Refresher training and mock
evacuation drills will be held annually. The training shall include:
 Use of floor plans and workplace maps showing the emergency escape routes.
 Location of evacuation maps at the work site.
 Use and location of stairs for emergency evacuation unless directed otherwise by emergency
   response personnel.
 Plant shut-down procedures, if applicable.
   Where the assembly area is located.
 Procedures for reporting to the designated Evacuation Coordinator(s) at the safe zone.
 Outside response personnel communication procedures.
 Emergency and all clear signals.
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7.5        Fire

Use the following guidelines to respond to a fire emergency. Do not endanger yourself or others to fight a fire.
 Sound the alarm (if applicable) and evacuate personnel from the area.
 Contact the fire department by dialing 911 or by calling the local emergency response number.
 Provide the following information to emergency response personnel: your name, the location of the
   incident (including address), and a brief summary of the type and size of the emergency.
 Do not attempt to fight a fire unless you have been trained to use a fire extinguisher.
 Use a fire extinguisher to fight small or smoldering fires. Fire extinguishers should not be used to
   fight large fires but can be used as an escape tool for larger fires.
 Aim the fire extinguisher at the base of the fire and sweep back and forth to put out the flame. Fire
   extinguisher charge (period of time during which the contents of the extinguisher will be completely
   discharged) is proportional to the weight of the fire extinguisher; e.g., a five pound fire extinguisher
   may only last for 30 seconds or less.
 For additional information, refer to the site Crisis Management Plan.

7.6        Fire Prevention

The following are best practice guidelines for fire prevention:
 Flammable and combustible materials shall be stored in approved containers and shall be disposed
   in accordance with regulatory agency requirements.
 Open containers of flammable or combustible materials shall not be stored at the work site. Oily rags
   shall be stored in closed metal containers until the end of the work day then appropriately disposed.
 Do not smoke or operate sparking or open flame equipment within 20 feet of flammable or
   combustible storage or where flammable liquid or vapor may be present.
 Post the following warning signs at flammable or combustible storage areas: “No Smoking”, “No Open
   Flame or Sparking Equipment”, “Flammable” or “Combustible” (as applicable), and the name of the
   stored product.
 The National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA, US only) requires that an appropriately rated fire
   extinguisher be available for use in occupied buildings, in storage buildings, at flammable/combustible
   storage areas, at refueling areas, and on mobile equipment. The chart presented below describes the
   types of fires and corresponding extinguishing agents. Some fire extinguishers have multi-class
   ratings while others are single class units. Check the unit available to you before attempting to use
   the fire extinguisher during a fire emergency response. Sound the alarm (if applicable) to warn others
   to evacuate the area and call the fire department as quickly as possible before using a fire
   extinguisher in response to a fire emergency. WARNING: Fires may give off hazardous or deadly
   chemicals. Extinguishers should be used by a trained individual on small fires in the incipient/early
   stages or as an escape tool for larger fires.

    CLASS               TYPE                   EXAMPLES             EXTINGUISHING AGENT
      A           Combustible            Paper, wood, grass,      Water or foam
                                         cloth, trash, etc.
       B          Flammable Liquids      Oil, gasoline, paint     Foam or dry chemical
                                         thinner, solvents,
                                         grease, etc.
       C          Electrical             Wiring, power tools,     Carbon dioxide or dry chemical
                                         office equipment, etc.
       D          Combustible Metals     Magnesium                Sand or a Class D extinguisher

     DO NOT USE WATER OR FOAM ON AN ELECTRICAL FIRE.
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     Inspect fire extinguishers and fire extinguishing systems in accordance with the NFPA (US)
      requirements on a monthly basis. During the monthly inspections, dry chemical fire extinguishers
      should be shaken or turned upside down several times to “fluff up” the chemical. Maintain a record of
      the inspections. Have the fire extinguishers inspected by a professional annually and hydrostatically
      tested as per NFPA (US) recommendation.
     Facility inspections for identification and remediation of potential fire hazards shall be performed as
      part of the DSI.
     Observe "No Smoking" areas and extinguish smoking materials in a safe place.
     Locate the fire extinguishers, fire alarms, and escape routes in your work area(s). The locations are
      required to be posted at the work site along with other site emergency information by NFPA (US).
     Do not place a discharged fire extinguisher back on its bracket. Instead, tag it as being used, and
      report it to your supervisor for replacement and recharging.
     Obtain hot work permits before starting welding or cutting activities. Place a fire extinguisher of
      appropriate size and type near the welding/cutting activities. Remove combustible materials from the
      area or assign a fire watch to observe the welding/cutting activities if combustible material cannot be
      removed.
     Practice good housekeeping.

7.7       Explosions

     Notify emergency response personnel if an explosion occurs in the work place or if a suspicious
      package/device is observed at the work site.
     Evacuate the area and proceed to a predetermined assembly area that is located outside of the
      estimated blast fall-out area.
     Do not address medical emergencies until you are out of danger.
     Do not reenter the work site until “all clear” has been sounded.

7.8       Medical Emergencies

“First-aid" refers to the immediate and temporary care given the victim of an accident or sudden illness
until the services of a doctor or medically trained personnel arrive. If a medical emergency occurs:
 Contact local emergency response personnel directly if the 911 system is not available.
 Or call 911 and request the fire department, not an ambulance (US). The fire department will
     respond faster than an ambulance (typically 5 to 10 minutes versus 20 minutes or more).
     Additionally, the fire department usually has emergency medical technicians on staff. The fire
     department will alert the ambulance service to the medical emergency, provide medical support upon
     arrival at the scene, and request mobilization of the ambulance, if required.

The site manager or supervisor should maintain a listing of employees and their contact numbers who are
trained in first aid and/or CPR procedures.

Employees are encouraged to participate in certified first aid training and to remain current through
periodic "refresher" training.

7.9       Natural Emergencies

Natural emergencies include those caused by storms, floods, and earthquakes. The following sections
present recommendations for response to emergencies resulting from natural phenomenon.
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7.9.1   Severe Storms

Severe storms may include high winds, heavy rain, hail, and/or electrical storms. The recommended
emergency procedures for severe storms are presented below.

   High winds:
     Seek shelter inside a building or vehicle.
     If possible, do not drive high profile vehicles.
     Reduce driving speed to limit the potential for the vehicle to be flipped or rolled by the force of the wind.
     Park vehicles facing into the wind.
   Heavy rain or hail:
     Seek shelter inside a building or vehicle.
     Do not attempt to drive a vehicle in heavy rain or hail unless attempting to leave a low area that is
        or has the potential for flooding.
   Electrical storms
   Seek shelter inside a building or vehicle.
   Do not stand near or under trees, cranes, drilling rig masts, or other high objects.

7.9.2   Hurricanes/Tornadoes

   Seek shelter underground or in a closet, bathroom, or other interior wall of a substantial building.
   Do not stay in a vehicle or trailer/mobile home.
   For tornadoes: lie flat in the nearest ditch if substantial shelter is not available.
   Stay away from large areas of glass and areas where metal, rock, or other potential projectile
    materials are stored.
   Stay away from unsupported roofs or unstable structures.

7.9.3   Floods

   Move to higher ground.
   Seek shelter on stable ground; do not stay in an area that is characterized by unstable or
    uncompacted material.
   Do not stay on a steep slope if it can be avoided.

7.9.4   Earthquakes

If an earthquake occurs while you are inside a building or structure:
 Stand in an interior doorway or get under a desk or table.
 Stay away from large areas of glass and areas where metal, rock, or other potential projectile
     materials are stored.
 Do not use stairways or elevators during the tremor.
 If possible, turn off gas supplies and ignition sources.
 Be aware of the potential for downed electrical lines to be live.
 Check that the telephone handset is on the hook or that the telephone cord is disconnected. Do not
     use the telephone except for emergency calls.
 Evacuate the building after the tremors have ceased.
 Walk quickly but do not run.
 Do not stop to pick up personal items.
 Report to the predetermined assembly area and check in with the designated Evacuation
     Coordinator.
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If an earthquake occurs while you are outside:
 Avoid buildings, trees, power lines, large areas of glass, and areas where metal, rock, or other
     potential projectile materials are stored.
 Avoid downed power lines.
 If operating motorized equipment or a vehicle, stop immediately but stay in the equipment/vehicle
     until the tremors have stopped.
 If operating motorized equipment or a vehicle on a bridge, proceed to solid ground if the end of the
     bridge is close.
 If operating motorized equipment or a vehicle at mid-span on the bridge when the earthquake occurs,
     get out of the equipment/vehicle and walk to the nearest solid ground.

7.10    Critical Operations Shutdown

Employees will be selected at Lafarge operations to act as designated personnel for maintaining or
shutting down operations during an emergency. Responsibilities of designated personnel may include:
 Monitoring and shutting down equipment.
 Shutting down equipment in stages or steps when required.
 Other duties specific to the work site.

7.11    Spills

The following procedures should be implemented if a spill occurs:
 Perform spill emergency response procedures only if you do not put yourself at risk.
 Minimize the flow by shutting off a valve, repairing a leak, righting an overturned container, or
   whatever action is appropriate.
 Contact local emergency response personnel if appropriate.
 If the spilled substance is considered hazardous or potentially hazardous, use appropriate PPE.
   Remove contaminated clothing and wash exposed skin.
 Contain and clean up the spill using absorbent materials and barriers, as appropriate. Clean up may
   require removal for surficial material.
 Place the spilled substance, PPE, clean up materials, and surficial material in a container for
   appropriate disposal as necessary.

7.12    Spill Prevention

The following guidelines should be followed to limit the potential for a spill:
 Obtain training regarding preventative maintenance.
 Inspect stored materials and transfer equipment during the DSI. Check container condition as well as
   leaks or stains that may indicate a potential container failure; correct deficiencies as soon as possible.
 Check that stored materials are compatible with the containers.
 Store potentially hazardous materials in excess of 5 gallons with in a secondary spill containment system.
 Perform spill prevention /management consistent with the facilities spill prevention plan. Refer to the
   site spill prevention/management plan for further information.
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7.13 TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR A SAMPLE EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT PROGRAM AND
     RESPONSE PLAN

        Part 1
        Emergency Management Program
        1.1 Introduction
        1.2 Lafarge Environmental and Safety Policies
        1.3 Purpose and Scope
        1.4 Setting
            1.4.1 Environmental Setting
            1.4.2 Geographic Setting
        1.5 Plant Facilities
        Plan Administration
        2.1 Training/ Exercises
        2.2 Evaluating Plans and Procedures
        2.3 Updating Plans and Procedures
        2.4 ERP Auditing
        Risk Overview
        3.1 Risk Summary
        3.2 Risk Descriptions
            3.2.1 Dangerous Goods Release
            3.2.2 PCB Spill
            3.2.3 Fire/Explosion
            3.2.4 Flood
            3.2.5 Earthquake
            3.2.6 Injury/Accident
            3.2.7 Major Utility Failure
        Emergency Program Organization
        4.1 Organizational Flow Chart for Emergency Program
        4.2 Emergency Response Plan Responsibility
            4.2.1 Responsibilities of Incident Commander or Designate
            4.2.2 Responsibilities of Other Emergency Response Personnel
        4.3 Emergency Response Resources
            4.3.1 Incident Command Center
            4.3.2 Communications Equipment
            4.3.3 Emergency Response Equipment
        Generic Emergency Response Guidelines
        5.1 Notification Procedures
            5.1.1 Internal Alerting
            5.1.2 Incident Command Center
            5.1.3 External Alerting
            5.1.4 Notification of Regional/Provincial Authorities
        5.2 Media and Public Relations
        5.3 Incident Site Security
        5.4 Post Incident Reporting
            5.4.1 Incident Investigations
            5.4.2 Incident Reporting
            5.4.3 Distribution of Incident Reports
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Part II
Emergency Response Plan
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Emergency Severity Levels
6.3 Dangerous Goods Release
     6.3.1 Reporting Framework
     6.3.2 Response Checklist
     6.3.3 Reminders
6.4 PCB Response
     6.4.1 Reporting Framework
     6.4.2 Response Checklist
     6.4.3 Reminders
6.5 Fire/Explosion Response
     6.5.1 Reporting Framework
     6.5.2 Response Checklist
     6.5.3 Reminders
6.6 Flood Response
     6.6.1 Reporting Framework
     6.6.2 Response Checklist
     6.6.3 Reminders
6.7 Earthquake Response
     6.7.1 Response Checklist
     6.7.2 Reminders
6.8 Injury/Accident Response
     6.8.1 Reporting Framework
     6.8.2 Response Checklist
     6.8.3 Reminders
6.9 Major Utilities Failure/Shut-Down Response
     6.9.1 Reporting Framework
     6.9.2 Response Checklist
     6.9.3 Reminders
6.10Evacuation
     6.10.1 Reporting Framework
     6.10.2 Response Checklist
     6.10.3 Reminders
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SECTION 8                 ACCIDENTS/INCIDENTS/INVESTIGATION

Analysis of accidents, incidents, and near misses provides information that can be used for development
of procedures to minimize the potential for reoccurrence.

8.1       Accident/Incident Reporting

After the injuries have been addressed and the immediate crisis has been resolved an Accident/Incident
Investigation must be initiated immediately (Refer to Section 8.3). In addition:

     Accidents and incidents shall be reported to the Supervisor, Manager or Local Safety Personnel as
      soon as possible.
     If possible, the Local Safety Personnel should be verbally informed of an accident/incident as soon as
      possible or no later than the start of the next work day.
     Written accident reports be completed by the employee’s Supervisor, Manager or Local Safety Personnel.
      The forms available for use at Lafarge sites are forms 8.1-1 through 8.1-4 included in this manual’s forms
      section.
     The completed and signed report forms shall be reviewed and signed by the Supervisor and/or the
      Manager and sent to the Local Safety Personnel before the end of the shift.
     The completed and signed report forms shall be sent to the Regional Safety Manager with in 72
      hours.
     Accidents/Incidents also need to be reported to appropriate regulatory agencies as required.
     Accidents/incidents that involve a fatality or serious injury must be reported to the Regional Safety
      Manager immediately, and to the Vice President of Environment, Health and Safety at Corporate.

8.2       Near Miss Reporting

     Near misses shall be reported to the employee’s immediate Supervisor upon occurrence.
     The Supervisor shall take the necessary steps to minimize a reoccurrence.
     A written summary or accident report form shall be submitted to the Local Safety Personnel as soon
      as possible to be used in safety discussions, development of new or updated procedures, further
      investigation (if required), and best practices sharing within Lafarge.

8.3       Accident/Incident Investigation

An investigation shall be initiated within 24 hours on accidents/incidents that result in personnel injury and
on all accidents/incidents that result or could have resulted in injury or property damage. The purpose of
the investigation is to identify the root cause of an incident so that appropriate action can be taken to
correct unsafe conditions, acts, and procedures to limit the potential for similar incidents occurring in the
future. A copy of all non first aid accident/incident reports shall be forwarded to the Regional Safety
Manager.

8.3.1     Investigation Responsibilities

     Investigations shall be conducted by a person familiar with the type of work being performed when the
      accident/incident occurred. At minimum, the investigation will be conducted by a Lafarge employee who has
      been trained to conduct investigations. An outside specialist may be required to augment the employee’s
      investigation based on the accident/incident circumstances.
     The Supervisor/Superintendent/Foreman is responsible for the initial investigation with the assistance
      of the Local Safety Personnel, if needed.
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     Final review of the investigation and approval of the investigation report is the responsibility of the Manager.

8.3.2     Investigation Method

     Preserve physical evidence (e.g., place items involved with the incident in plastic bags, remove
      equipment from use, etc).
     Photograph the scene when possible.
     Take note of:
          Location of equipment (fixed or mobile) and displacement there of
          Location and/or displacement of materials or supplies
          Availability and operational condition of safety equipment
          Position of safety devices
          Position of controls/switches
          Surface marks or conditions
          Work area layout
          Housekeeping
          Traffic patterns in use at the time of the incident
          Available illumination in use at the time of the incident
          Noise levels at the time of the incident
          Location of casualties and/or property damage
          Name, telephone number, and address of witnesses.
          Weather conditions
          Employee training
          Unusual circumstances

8.4       First Aid

8.4.1     General

Lafarge will provide first aid training as required by regulatory authority. Employees who have first aid
training are required to administer first aid treatment only within the scope of their training.

First aid supplies, equipment, and facilities will be provided by Lafarge as required by regulatory authority.

8.4.2     First Aid Reporting

     The employee rendering first aid to an injured party shall complete a first aid report and forward it to
      the Supervisor.
     The Supervisor shall review the report and add follow-up actions if needed before distributing the
      report to the appropriate Department and to the Local Safety Personnel.
     A copy of the report shall be returned to the first aid response employee.

8.5       Claims Management

      Prompt reporting in conjunction with diligent management of Lafarge Claims is imperative to protect
      Lafarge interests.

U.S.

     Any incident involving the death of an individual or critical injuries which could result in death, are to
      be immediately reported by phone to Corporate Risk Management Department in Reston by
      appropriate supervisor or manager.
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   Any incident which could result in adverse publicity should also be immediately reported by phone to
    Corporate Risk Management Department by appropriate supervisor or manager.

   Any General Liability or Auto Liability claim must be reported to Cunningham Lindsey Call Center,
    either by phone ( 800-560-8850 ) or fax (800-767-9907 )

   Potentially work related injury claims should be forwarded to the Local Safety Personnel in order to
    contact our Third Party Administrator, Cunningham Lindsey at the numbers listed above.

   Any suit papers are to be immediately forwarded to the Corporate Secretary’s office in Reston with a
    copy to the Corporate Risk Management Department for appropriate response.


CANADA

   Any incident involving the death of an individual or critical injuries which could result in death, are to
    be immediately reported by phone to Corporate Risk Management Department in Herndon by
    appropriate supervisor or manager.

   Any incident which could result in adverse publicity should also be immediately reported by phone to
    Corporate Risk Management Department by appropriate supervisor or manager.

   Potentially work related injury claims should be forwarded to the Local Safety Personnel for
    management through WCB.

   Any liability claim involving alleged bodily injury or is potentially greater than the local deductible
    should be reported to the local Underwriters Adjustement Bureau (UAB). They are the servicing
    agent for the insurance company.

   Any facility served with suit papers must immediately notify the local UAB office. If suit papers are the
    first notice of any occurrence, the alleged loss must be immediately reported to UAB, Corporate
    Secretary’s office in Montreal and the Corporate Risk Management Department in Herndon.
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SECTION 9                  RETURN TO WORK PROGRAMS

Lafarge has two programs that may be enacted if an Employee is injured; they are summarized in
Sections 9.1 and 9.2 below.

9.1       Modified Duty/Light Duty

9.1.1     Policy

     The Lafarge modified duty/light duty program is designed to speed and/or assist the Employee’s
      recovery and return to work while minimizing the loss of income.
     Lafarge agrees to make every reasonable effort to provide suitable modified work to any Employee
      who is unable to perform his/her normal duties as a consequence of injury or illness.
     The work must be productive and the result must have value.
     Every case will be assessed on an individual basis with the support of the involved Employee,
      Worker's Compensation Board, Physician and Lafarge.

9.1.2     Program

     Modified work is any job, task, function, or combination thereof that a worker who temporarily suffers
      from a diminished capacity may perform safely without risk of re-injury or exacerbation of disability or
      risk to others.
     The object of this program is to restore workers who have had injury or illness, through progressive
      re-integration, into his/her regular job wherever possible.
     If it is apparent the worker cannot do his/her regular job, Lafarge will look for ways of modifying the
      regular job so that it will comply with the worker's limitation.
     If it is not possible to modify the regular job, Lafarge will consider alternate jobs.
     Every case will be assessed on an individual basis with the support of the involved Employee,
      Worker's Compensation Board, Physician and Lafarge.
     Modified work should be acceptable to all parties.
     A plan with target dates and objectives will be made for all programs.
     Assessments will be done weekly.
     Modified work will be available on all shifts.
     If modified work is not practical, the worker remains off on leave.
     Modified work may include:
       Working fewer hours
       Taking more frequent rest breaks
       Obtaining assistance from a co-worker for more difficult tasks
       Job-responsibility sharing
       Physical changes to the work environment
       Assistive devices
       Assignment to another job or location
       Special project work
     In the case of permanent impairment, Lafarge will meet with the worker to consider what additional
      measures are necessary for placement of that Employee.
     Modified work is available to Employees who have been released by the consulting physician for
      return to work with restrictions based on the Employee’s capabilities.
     Modified work will continue until the consulting physician has released (in writing) the Employee to full
      work status with no restrictions.
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   If no modified or light duty work is available, the Employee may be required to take sick pay or go on
    FMLA until full work status has been achieved (US).
   Employees will be compensated for the hours of modified work performed as required by regulatory
    agencies.

9.1.3   Benefits

9.1.3.1 Employee

Injured workers benefit because Modified Work Programs allow them to return to the workforce as quickly
as possible thereby:

   Encouraging speedier rehabilitation
   Helping Employees maintain contact with co-workers
   Reducing the sense of estrangement
   Reducing the time needed for the worker to return to full work capacity
   Helping employees maintain their identity and self-respect
   Maintaining a job and employee benefits
   Providing gradual re-adaptation to the physical demands of the workplace

9.1.3.2 Employer

Employers benefit because Modified Work Programs get skilled workers back on the job as quickly as
possible after an accident thereby:

   Maintaining high productivity levels through the use of already trained workers
   Eliminating the non-recoverable costs of training new workers
   Reducing the costs of hiring and training replacement workers
   Reducing unnecessary lost time
   Maintaining goodwill and employee relations
   Assisting in meeting legal requirements

9.1.4   Responsibilities

9.1.4.1 Employee

   Report all accidents or illnesses immediately to their immediate Supervisor.
   Obtain medical attention and advise the Physician of modified work availability.
   Report back to their Supervisor after consulting with the Physician.
   Assist the Supervisor in completing the required accident investigation reports.
   Participate in the modified work program.
   Maintain close contact with immediate Supervisor and/or Local Safety Personnel regarding injury
    recovery and advancements made in return to full duty.
   Schedule medical appointments to minimize interference with assigned work duties.

9.1.4.2 Employee’s Representative and Co-Workers

   Welcome the returning worker and provide support and encouragement.
   Report to the Supervisor any difficulties which are perceived.
   Provide assistance for specifically designated tasks on a temporary basis.
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9.1.4.3 Supervisor

When an Employee returns to modified duties, it is the Supervisor's responsibility to:
 Maintain contact with absent Employees.
 Ensure that the Employee is given the correct duties in accordance with his/her restrictions.
 Check that the Employee is capable of performing the modified work as per the physician’s
   recommendations.
 Monitor the Employee’s progress on a daily basis.
 Ensure that no other tasks are being done other than those in accordance with the restrictions on the
   Recommended Job Restrictions Form.
 Complete modified work evaluations weekly.
 Consider moving the Employee to a different work location if the Employee’s limitations negatively
   impact the ability of his/her co-workers to perform their assigned duties safely.

9.1.4.4 Physician

   Where possible, complete the Physician’s Report to Employer and the Recommended Job Restriction
    form provided by the Employee and fax back them to the Local Safety Personnel.
   Clearly identify the functional impairment of the injured Employee and the time frame for recovery.
   Support the modified work program.
   Monitor the physical condition of the Employee and recommend modifications to the Employee’s
    program.

9.1.4.5 Employer

   Determine if regular work can be modified.
   Identify jobs that are suitable for modified work.
   Identify part-time positions for those unable to manage a complete shift.
   Identify special modified work jobs that can be created for a temporary period, to be used only for the
    modified work program.
   Liaise with the Joint Health and Safety Committee.
   Keep minutes of all meetings.
   Communicate the goals and objectives of the Modified Duty/Light Duty Program to all employees.
   Develop an individual program for each employee and keep him/her actively involved in the
    rehabilitation plan by setting goals, maintaining continuous contact and monitoring progress.

9.1.5   Procedures

9.1.5.1 Accident in the Workplace

   Any Employee who has a work accident causing injury or illness must report to his/her Supervisor
    immediately.
   The Supervisor will attend to the workers immediate first aid needs and arrange for escorted
    transportation to the local clinic. Where possible, the Supervisor will accompany the injured worker.
    Ambulance cases will go to the hospital.
   Supervisors will ensure that the employee is given the following modified duties forms to be
    completed by the attending physician:
     Letter to Attending Physician (Form 9.1-1)
     Physician’s Report to Employer (Form 9.1-2)
     Recommended Job Restrictions (Form 9.1-3)
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   The Supervisor will notify the Local Safety Personnel immediately.
   If the Supervisor is unable to accompany the Employee to the treatment facility, he/she will contact
    the facility by telephone and relay a message to the attending physician that an injured Employee is
    en route for treatment. The Supervisor will explain the nature of the injury and that modified work is
    available. The Supervisor will request the Physician to fax a copy of the completed Physician’s
    Report to Employer and Recommended Job Restrictions Form to the Local Safety Personnel.
   The Local Safety Personnel will advise the Supervisor of the Physician’s Recommendations.
   The Supervisor will review the physical limitations with the Employee and recommend the modified
    work that is available.
   The Employee accepts or rejects the modified work.
   On acceptance of modified work, the Supervisor will monitor the Employee's progress.
   In case of rejection of modified duties, without medical documentation, the Employee will be advised
    that his/her benefits may be reduced or ceased.
   A copy of the restriction form is to go to the WCB claims adjudicator. In case of dispute, decisions will
    be made with the input of the Company Physician relating to further job placement.
   The Supervisor will thoroughly investigate the accident and complete the WCB Report of Injury Form.

9.1.5.2 Follow-Up Procedure by Supervisor

If the Physician identifies on the Job Restrictions Form that a follow-up is required, the following
procedure shall be followed:
 The Supervisor will identify the assessment date and will provide the Employee with another Job
     Restrictions Form to be taken to the attending physician. The Physician will be requested to fax back
     the completed form to the Local Safety Personnel following the assessment.
 When the Employee returns, the Supervisor will review the Job Restrictions Form with the Employee
     and identify the modified work that is available compatible with his/her restrictions.

9.1.5.3 Procedures for Employees Absent from Work on WCB, STD, LTD

   All employees absent from work must keep in touch with their Supervisor at least once per week.
   Restriction forms must be filled out by the Physician on each visit and returned to the Local Safety
    Personnel.
   It is expected that any employee who is disabled will be visiting his/her Physician every week, or at
    least every two weeks. Where appropriate, contact frequency will be determined by the Supervisor.
   When necessary, the Supervisor will clarify modified work details with the Physician.
   If it is not possible to accommodate an Employee's restrictions, the Employee will remain on leave.
   If the Employee's condition deteriorates while on modified duties, the Supervisor will notify The Local
    Safety Personnel and the Employee will be reassessed by the treating physician as soon as possible.
   Until the employee has returned to full duties, continue to assess the Employee’s ability to perform
    the modified duties safely.

9.1.6   Suggested Modified Duties

The following are examples of modified duties and light duties:

9.1.6.1 Fuel Attendant

       Fuel of all vehicles as required.
       While vehicles are at the fuelling area, check and keep a record of any lights that need repair on
        the vehicles and report repairs needed.
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      While standing on the ground, do a visual inspection of each vehicle interior and exterior, record
       the condition of the vehicle interior and exterior.
      Ensure that the fuelling area is kept clean and free of debris.

9.1.6.2 Parts Runner

      Pick up and deliver parts needed and inter yard mail.
      In the event of large parts pick up, the parts will be loaded and unloaded by other persons.
      Assist the garage clerk or Supervisor.

9.1.6.3 Night Security

      Visit the various locations within the yard which must be checked at prescribed intervals.
      Report to the Supervisor at a prescribed time before the end of each shift.
      The Employee shall have a main post which will be suitably equipped.

9.1.6.4 Yard Maintenance

      Maintain the yard area as determined by the Supervisor, cutting lawns, trimming shrubs, weeding
       flower beds, washing windows and exteriors of buildings (not all of the jobs necessarily).

9.1.6.5 Equipment Maintenance

      Cleaning – inside and outside.
      Painting
      Vehicle inspections
      Truck washout
      Equipment operator
      Roadman or site plan coordinator

9.1.6.6 Clerical Duties

      Data Input - Financial, TMT
      Sorting of Delivery Tickets
      Tracking of Time Cards
      Inventory Control
      Training - Driver Mentor
      Order Taking/Telephone

9.1.6.7 Janitor

      Maintain the lunch rooms and drivers areas in a clean and tidy manner.
      Painting as instructed by the Supervisor.
      Keep all sidewalks and walkways clean and free of debris.

9.1.6.8 Vehicle Washer

      Wash and clean Company Vehicles.
      Answer garage telephones when needed.
      Keep garage and parts areas clean.
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9.2     FMLA (US)

Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA - US) is a program that provides an employee who has worked with
Lafarge for a minimum of 1,250 hours in the previous 12 months with continued group health coverage
while absent from work due to a work related injury or illness. Wages during this period will be paid at a
rate set by Workers’ Compensation Insurance after the first 3 days of absence from work. During this
time period, medical costs associated with treatment of the injury/illness will be paid by Workers’
Compensation Insurance. The maximum length of FMLA benefits is 12 weeks. At or before the end of
the 12 week period, the employee will be returned to work if the consulting physician has released the
employee for return to work and if a position for the employee is available.

Further information regarding FMLA is posted at Lafarge’s plants and offices. This information may also
be obtained from Human Resources.
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SECTION 10      HEALTH PROTECTION

10.1    Hearing Conservation Program

Loud or excessive noise is noise that meets or exceeds the 85 dba time weighed average (TWA) (where
85 db or 50% dose is action level for HCP). A generally accepted guideline that noise may be exceeding
allowable levels is when noise is loud enough to prohibit normal conversation at a distance of 3 feet (900
mm). Please refer to the MSHA Part 62 manual.
 If engineering and/or administrative controls are not practical, reasonable, or are not effective,
    employees will be required to wear hearing protection appropriate for the type and amount of noise
    exposure (*). Hearing protection may include earplugs and/or earmuffs and are devices or materials,
    capable of being worn on the head or in the ear canal, sold wholly or in part on the basis of its ability
    to reduce the level of sound entering the ear, and which has a scientifically accepted indicator of
    noise reduction value.
 Hearing protection is required when there is a potential to meet or exceed the 85 dba TWA. Note:
    Dual hearing protection is required at a TWA of 105 dBA, or equivalently, a dose of 800% (US) of that
    permitted by MSHA, integrating all sound levels from 90 dBA to at least 140 dBA. In addition, the
    mine operator must assure that no miner is exposed at any time to sound levels exceeding 115 dBA,
    as determined without adjustment for the use of any hearing protector.
 85 db or 50% dose is action level for HCP.
 90 db or 100 % dose is the PEL and hearing protection is required.
 105 db or 800% dose (or higher) requires mandatory use of dual hearing protection.
 Loud or potentially excessive noise exposures shall be reported to the Local Safety personnel, the
    local manager or the immediate supervisor upon occurrence.
 A noise dosimeter, sound level meter, or other acceptable noise measuring device will be used to
    check the intensity of noise in the work area over a normal work shift. Monitoring results will be
    compared to noise exposure limits published by regulatory agencies; mitigation procedures will be
    implemented as appropriate.
 Employees in the monitored work area will be informed of the noise monitoring results.
 Engineering controls shall be put in place to limit noise exposure where possible.
 Employees will be trained on the proper use, capabilities/limitations, and maintenance (if applicable)
    of the hearing protection before the protective device(s) is used. This training will also include the
    effects of noise exposure and the purpose of Lafarge’s Hearing Conservation Program. Employees
    will be retrained annually thereafter, as applicable.
 Employees who may be exposed to potentially excessive noise will be enrolled in Lafarge’s Hearing
    Conservation Program to monitor potential health effects from the noise exposure.

(*) Note: All feasible engineering and administrative noise controls designed to reduce employee’s noise
exposures to with in the Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) will be made without adjustment for the use of
any hearing protector.

10.1.1 Audiometric Monitoring

   Employees who may potentially be exposed to noise at or above the TWA of 85 dBA in an 8-hour
    period will participate in the audiometric testing program.
   Testing shall be performed by a licensed/certified physician or qualified individual at no cost to the employee.
   Employees will receive a baseline test and will be tested annually thereafter (at a minimum) or as
    required by the physician and/or the regulatory agency(s).
   The test results will be reviewed and evaluated by a certified professional.
   If an employee’s results show a standard threshold shift, the employee will be notified in writing within 21 days.
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10.1.2 Test Follow-Up

   The certified professional performing the test will notify the employee and the employer of the test results.
   If the test results do not indicate a standard threshold shift, no further action is required.
   If a standard threshold shift is indicated, the following action shall be taken:
          If the employee is not currently wearing hearing protection, hearing protection shall be issued
              to the employee. The employee shall be fitted with the hearing protection and shall be
              trained on proper use.
          Employees already using hearing protection shall be refitted and retrained and/or issued new
              hearing protection.
          The employee shall be referred to a physician for further hearing evaluation and an
              examination by a hearing specialist.

10.1.3 Recordkeeping

The following shall be maintained separately in employee medical files retained as per section 12:
 Exposure monitoring results.
 Audiometric testing results including:
         Employee name and job classification or assignment
         Testing date
         Reviewing physician’s or qualified individual’s name
         The physician’s assessment.
 Files shall be maintained according to the LNA records retention policy.

10.2    Respiratory Protection Program

Daily work activities at Lafarge have the potential to expose employees to respiratory hazards. This
section discusses the action(s) Lafarge will take to minimize the potential for adverse health affects to the
respiratory system.

10.2.1 Program Administrator

OSHA (US) and CSA Z94.4-93 requires that a designated Program Administrator (PA) must be assigned
to oversee the Respirator Protection Program. The PA shall be a qualified employee who is familiar with
OSHA’s respiratory protection regulations and the potential respiratory hazards associated with Lafarge
operations.

10.2.2 Medical Evaluation ( US –OSHA)

Employees required to wear respiratory protection in the performance of their assigned duties will be
medically evaluated before being issued a respirator and before being fit tested (US OSHA Standard).
Medical evaluation will be performed by a qualified physician in accordance with regulatory requirements.
The initial evaluation will be a physical examination. Subsequent evaluations will be either a
questionnaire or a physical examination based on the recommendation of the physician.

10.2.3 Engineering Controls

The first action to take to minimize the potential of dust or other contaminant exposure is to use
engineering controls. Engineering controls include use of water to suppress dust, ventilation to remove
dust or volatile organic compounds, use of a less hazardous substance, good house keeping, etc. Dust
may be swept up with a brush or broom but shall not be removed by blowing compressed air on it.
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10.2.4 Respiratory Protection

     If engineering controls do not adequately reduce potential exposures or if engineering controls are not practical/reasonable,
    employees may be required to wear respiratory protection. The type of respiratory protection that may be required to minimize
     potential dust exposure is a half mask with high-efficiency aerosol particulate (HEPA) cartridges or a disposable respirator.
     Respiratory protection for volatile organic compounds may require a filter specific to the potential contaminant. Employees
                                             required to wear respiratory protection will be:
      Enrolled in the company medical evaluation program. (US-OSHA)
      Issued a respirator.
      Trained on effectiveness of the respirator as well as the limitations.
      Trained on proper fit procedures.
      Trained to inspect, use, and maintain their respirators.

10.2.4.1 Selection and Purchase

Respiratory protective devices appropriate to the potential hazard will be selected by the local Safety
personnel. Employees will be given several models of respiratory devices in small, medium, and large to
select from. The model and size of device selected by the employee will be purchased by Lafarge and
that device assigned to the employee. The employee will be responsible for the device. Lafarge will
replace the device if the device is worn-out or damaged through normal use.

10.2.4.2 Training

Employees will receive training regarding the effectiveness and limitation of respiratory protection.
Employees will also be instructed on proper cleaning, inspection, maintenance, and use of the respiratory
protection device. This training will be updated annually or as needed.

10.2.5 Fit Testing

A fit test will be performed in accordance to regulatory requirements before employees are permitted to
wear respiratory protective devices. The Respiratory Fit Test Form # 10.2-1 is included in the forms
section. Employees who will be fit tested are required by OSHA (US) to be medically evaluated before
the fit test is performed at which time it will be determined by a qualified medical practitioner and/or doctor
whether any medical reason(s) exists that prevents the employee from using respiratory protection..
Employees are required to do a positive/negative pressure test every time they don a respirator. Those
employees required to use respiratory protection shall not have facial hair that impedes the seal.

Employees being fit tested will be required to perform several exercises during the fit test (regardless of
type of test performed) including:
 Normal breathing
 Deep breathing
 Turning head side to side
 Nodding head up and down
 Jogging in place
 Repeat normal breathing
 The subject shall talk out loud slowly and loud enough so as to be heard clearly by the test conductor.
    The subject should read the Rainbow Passage below:

When the sunlight strikes raindrops in the air, they act like a prism and form a rainbow. The rainbow is a
     division of white light into many beautiful colors. These take the shape of a long round arch, with its
     path high above, and its two ends apparently beyond the horizon. There is, according to legend, a
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       boiling pot of gold at one end. People look, but no one ever finds it. When a man looks for
       something beyond reach, his friends say he is looking for the pot of gold at the end of the rainbow.

10.2.6 Exposure Monitoring

Lafarge employees will be monitored for exposures as applicable to identified potential respiratory
hazards. Further information regarding exposure monitoring is presented in Section 10.3 of this manual.

10.2.7 Potential Respiratory Hazards

10.2.7.1 Dust

There is a potential for exposure to dust during daily operations at Lafarge sites, however, the potential is
reduced through use of water, bag house filters, etc. Dust collection and/or suppression methods will
minimize the potential exposure to dust at the work site.

10.2.7.2 Crystalline Silica

Silica is a component of aggregate. Freshly crushed rock has the highest potential for exposure to
crystalline silica because the rock dust has sharp edges that more readily attach to lung tissue. If
crystalline silica builds up in the lungs, it may result in silicosis, which diminishes lung capacity and is an
irreversible, cumulative disease that may go undetected for 15 to 20 years. Dust collection and/or
suppression methods may minimize the potential exposure to silica at the work site.

10.2.7.3 Volatile Organic Compounds

Employees assigned to work in a quality testing laboratory or in a shop have the potential for exposure to
volatile organic compounds such as trichloroethane, gasoline, cleaning solvents, etc. Proper use of
ventilation may minimize the potential for exposure to volatile organic compounds and should be tried first
before requiring employees to wear respirators. Another exposure control method that should be tried
before use of respirators is using a less hazardous substance if an alternative is available. Employees
should refer to the plants MSDS sheets for further information and warnings on products used at
their location

10.2.7.4 Silica Fume

To be developed.

10.3    Exposure Monitoring

Daily work activities at Lafarge operations have the potential to expose employees to dust, volatile
organic compounds, and noise; however, Lafarge has implemented the following procedures to monitor
the working environment.

10.3.1 Airborne

Where there is a potential for employee exposure to dust or other contaminants, Lafarge will conduct air
monitoring as appropriate and as required by regulatory authority. Sampling will be performed in the work
area and on personnel as appropriate. Collected samples will be analyzed for total dust, silica and/or
other constituents based on site conditions (e.g., sampling in a laboratory may include dust, silica, and/or
organic compounds potentially released during asphalt testing). Records shall be maintained regarding
environmental monitoring. Information to be included in the monitoring report is as follows:
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   Monitoring date
   Work performed
   Sampling and analytical methods
   Number, duration, and results of samples collected
   Type of respiratory protection used, if applicable
   Employee name.

10.3.1.1 Personal

Personal air monitoring will be performed by “hanging” an air sampling pump on the employee (or
employees) who have the greatest potential for exposure at an operations site. The pumps will collect the
total dust that the employee may have been exposed to on a cassette. The cassette will be submitted to
an accredited laboratory for analysis for total dust and percent silica. Organic compounds will be
collected in a sample tube and analyzed for compounds that may be present at the work site. Once the
laboratory results have been received, the local safety personnel for the site will report the results to the
employee(s) who wore the pump and to the employees working the same shift as the employee(s)
wearing the pumps. If the exposure meets, exceeds, or is close to regulatory limits, engineering controls
will be implemented or updated to further reduce the potential for exposure. If engineering controls are
not practical or not effective, employees working in the area will be required to wear respiratory
protection.

10.3.1.2 Area

Air sampling pumps may, occasionally, be used to sample the work environment to check general air
quality. This will be accomplished by setting up pumps in work areas and collecting a sample(s) for the
work shift. As with the personal air monitoring, the employees working in the area where sampling was
performed will be informed of the analytical results.

10.3.2 Heat and Cold Stress

Each facility is to establish and follow a site specific heat stress and cold stress procedure until uniform
corporation wide procedure is developed and incorporated into the subject manual. Further information
can be found in Section 4.2.10.
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SECTION 11      SAFETY AUDITS

11.1    Purpose

The purpose of conducting safety audit is to assist the facility in focusing on the safety requirements of
their operation, to encourage continuous improvement, to reduce the safety risk to employees and
contractors, to identify best practices, and to assess the liability risk to the company. The Lafarge safety
audit format has been designed around the elements of the Lafarge 15 point safety program. Therefore,
the audit should specifically:
 Detect weak, damaged, or worn components before they fail.
 Check that the equipment can be operated safely.
 Report and repair equipment defects.
 Report and mitigate potential work site hazards.
 Limit the potential for injury or illness.
 Limit downtime.
 Lower repair costs.
 Provide quality service and products to our customers.
 Comply with agency regulations.
 Identify and communicate new ideas and procedures across the group

11.2    Procedure

Audit teams should consist of 2-3 people from an outside location, depending on the size of the facility.
Larger locations may require more auditors depending on the availability of time and resources.

   Audit introduction
     An introductory meeting to be conducted with the facility manager, and key management staff
       and safety personnel, if they exist,
        to establish a contact person,
        to confirm the process,
        to arrange key manager interviews, and
        to arrange availability of documents.

   Audit
     Audits are to be independently conducted by the team. The audit team, at its discretion and for
       safety reasons, will seek to have tour assistance from facility personnel. The audit team will
       contact the appropriate area manager when they enter the different areas of the facility or
       terminal.
     The audit team will have free access to all areas of the facility and will be expected to consult with
       employees and contractors as it sees appropriate.
     The audit team will meet with appropriate management personnel to review practices and
       supporting documentation.
     The audit team will complete the internal audit form document as the formal record of the audit.
       The document will be completed fully, except for the action item completion dates.
     The audit team will ensure that it reviews the audit recommendations from the previous year’s
       audit to ensure compliance and completion.
     The use of photographs to demonstrate best safety practices and deficiencies is suggested.

   Audit Review
     The audit team will present its finding to the local management team. Audit points will be rated as to
       their importance. (Refer to Ranking Categories in Section 11.2)
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       The group will review the recommendations and the local management team will establish
        deadlines for actions on each item.
       In the event there is a disagreement regarding an audit item, the item will be submitted to the next
        level of management which will be involved in reaching a resolution.
       Audit points from the previous audit that continue to be outstanding will automatically be
        considered as major issues.

   Post Audit Review
     The audit review will be submitted to the next level manager and the next level safety personnel.
     The facility manager will be responsible to follow up on the progress on the audit
       recommendations and report this to the next level of management. The local manager will be
       responsible to report progress against the targeted schedule.
     The regional/corporate safety personnel will review the audit recommendations for common
       issues and possible synergistic opportunities, as well as identify and highlight best practices.
     Inspections and audits should be viewed as an educational tool for monitoring safety and
       compliance. Site inspections will be performed as required by regulatory agency and the
       necessity dictated by the nature of the operations.
     Form 11.1-1 should be used as the basis for the audit since it represents the components of the
       Lafarge 15 point safety program. Spot inspections are encouraged and can be performed at any
       time by management/supervisory personnel and/or by the safety staff.
     Unsafe conditions or acts that may cause immediate danger to life, health or the environment will
       be corrected immediately, when possible. If an unsafe condition can not be corrected
       immediately, the equipment/area shall be barricaded or otherwise removed from service until the
       condition has been remedied.
     The table below should be used as a guide for determining the hazard rating of an identified
       deficiency. The use of the hazard rating will assist in determining priorities once the audit is
       finished and recommendations are developed.

                                          Ranking Categories

1.Low Risk\Advise to improve                      Injury would not occur however a procedure
                                                  may be lacking such as missing telephone
                                                  numbers
2.Risk of minor injury                            An injury that may occur would result in first aid
                                                  treatment
3.Risk of disabling but not fatal                 Injury could cause lost time of one to three
                                                  days
4.Risk of severe injury but not fatal             Injury could result in permanent injury and/or
                                                  lost time greater than three days
5.High Risk of disabling or fatal                 Injury may result causing permanent disabling
                                                  injury. There is also cause to believe that a
                                                  fatality may occur if the situation is unchanged


The following three categories should be used to identify improvement type required.

1. Policy/Procedure – where improvements requiring writing or revising policies or procedures.
2. Training            – where policies and/or procedures are in place but the improvement needed is
   dependent on educating or disseminating information to employees
3. Expense             – where capital expenditures or other purchase of materials or equipment is
   required to affect the improvement. Procedures and training are assumed to be required as part of
   this category.
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11.3    Daily Site Inspections

Daily Safety Inspections (DSIs) are short, quick inspections that are performed on a daily (or shift) basis
to check for potential hazards in the work place before work is begun. The type of DSI will vary based on
the type(s) of work being performed but may include vehicle inspections, pit/quarry conditions,
trench/excavation stability, etc. Contact the Local Safety Personnel to select the inspections most
appropriate to work site operations.

11.4    Regulatory Audits – US

MSHA (US) is required by regulation to perform site inspections twice a year. OSHA (US) does not have
a set schedule for performing site inspections, however, they do respond to reports and complaints as
well as perform inspections based on incident rates and number of personnel on modified work due to a
work-related accidents/incidents. The following sections present guidelines on what to do when an
inspector shows up at your site.

11.4.1 MSHA (US)

   MSHA does not need a warrant to enter and inspect a site. An MSHA inspector can (and will!)
    inspect all or selected operations, actions, and/or equipment at the site
   Cooperate with the inspector.
   Be polite; do not argue with the inspector.
   Notify the Local Safety Personnel and the site manager/supervisor when the inspector arrives at the
    site.
   The site manager/supervisor and/or the Local Safety Personnel shall accompany the inspector; do
    not permit the inspector to inspect the site unescorted.
   Actions taken by the inspector, such as taking photographs and collecting air samples, should be
    duplicated by a Lafarge employee. (Collection of side-by-side air samples is critical for contesting
    citations).
   Take detailed notes during the inspection.
   Answer questions posed by the inspector but do not supply additional information voluntarily.
   Provide specific training certificates or other paperwork to the inspector upon request, but do not
    permit the inspector to go through the files. Do not permit the inspector to copy the files; MSHA is
    only permitted (by regulation) to review the files.
   Correct the items identified by the inspector as soon as possible.
   If issued, send a copy of the citation to the Local Safety Personnel, site manager/supervisor, and/or
    Regional Safety Personnel upon receipt. Once a citation has been received there is only a 10 day
    response period in which to request a conference to contest the citation.
   If an inspector indicates that a violation may result in further investigation which may include
    individual citations for management personnel or higher level fines, consult with the regional safety
    coordinator and/or appropriate legal counsel.

11.4.2 OSHA (US)

   OSHA is required to have a warrant to enter the site for an inspection. Request a copy of the warrant
    and ask why the inspector is at the site. If he/she doesn’t have a warrant, you are, legally, permitted
    to deny the inspector entrance to the site until a warrant is obtained; however, this is not advisable.
    Requiring the inspector to obtain a warrant may result in a more intense audit or other negative result.
   If the inspector is responding to an employee complaint, request a copy of the complaint.
   OSHA is not permitted to inspect areas or operations that are not on the warrant, however, if they
    observe a noncompliance action/item during their inspection, they are permitted to issue a citation. It
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    is best to take the inspector to the site/operation listed on the warrant by a route that will have the
    least opportunity for the inspector to “sight-see” during his/her inspection. (E.g., if the most direct
    route to the stockpiles is through the facility, take the long way around!).
   Cooperate, be polite, do not argue with the inspector.
   Notify the Local Safety Personnel and/or site manager/supervisor when the inspector arrives at the site.
   The site manager/supervisor and/or the Local Safety Personnel shall accompany the inspector; do
    not permit the inspector to inspect the site unescorted.
   Actions taken by the inspector, such as taking photographs and collecting air samples, shall be duplicated
    by a Lafarge employee. (Collection of side-by-side air samples is critical for contesting citations).
   Take detailed notes during the inspection.
   Answer questions posed by the inspector but do not supply additional information voluntarily.
   Provide specific training certificates or other paperwork to the inspector upon request, but do not
    permit the inspector to go through the files.
   Correct the items identified by the inspector as soon as possible.
   The inspector will interview employees regarding site safety. Lafarge management and supervisory
    personnel are not permitted to sit in on these interviews unless the employee requests their presence.
   The inspector will conduct an outbriefing at the end of the inspection. During the outbriefing, the
    inspector will summarize his/her findings.
   Citation issuance, if applicable, will occur at a later date. The citation(s) will arrive through certified mail.
   Send a copy of the citation to the Regional Safety Personnel upon receipt; there is a 10-day period in
    which to contest the citation.


11.5 Regulatory Audits - Canada

Each province has its own legislation pertaining to regulatory inspections of sites. There are no
requirements for a specific schedule. In all cases, the inspector will expect an employee safety
committee member and a management representative to participate in the process.

Location management need to be familiar with the applicable regulations of their jurisdiction. Any issues
arising from an inspection are to be reviewed with local and/or regional safety personnel.
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SECTION 12      RECORDS AND STATISTICS

12.1    Records

The following records must be maintained at the work site or in a central location as required by
regulatory agency or Lafarge:

   Minutes of safety meetings; including the subject of the meeting, the name of the meeting leader,
    printed name of attendees, and attendees’ signatures.
   Employee training records; including new employee orientation, MSHA/OSHA certifications, refresher
    classes, specialized training (e.g., ladder use, forklift operation, confined space entry, etc), plans, and
    postings.
   All documents submitted to or kept pursuant to the requirements of MSHA, OSHA, WHIMIS, or other
    Federal, State, Provincial or local health or safety agencies.
   Permits (e.g., confined space entry, hot work (where applicable), etc).
   Workers’ Compensation/WCB and CSST claims management records; including medical aid (a.k.a.
    physician report), progress reports, litigation.
   Records or studies of occupational accident, injury, illness, safety or chemical exposure
   First aid reports.
   Safety and Health Manual
   All related Safety and/or Health documents, correspondence, and memoranda of any type
   Any litigation, legal claims and administrative proceedings related to a health and/or safety matter.

12.2    Statistics

The following statistics are required to be maintained and updated monthly by Lafarge:

   Lost Time Accidents (LTAs)
   Frequency Ratio (LTAs times 200,000 work hours)/ actual man hours
   Severity Rate (days lost times 200,000 work hours)/ actual man hours
   Days without an LTA.
   Additional statistics as required (Medical Cases, First Aids)

12.3    Retention of Records

All documents identified in Section 12.1 and/or 12.2 should be retained according to the LNA records
retention policy.
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SECTION 13              SAFETY COMMIITTEE

Lafarge work sites shall establish and maintain a Safety Committee within each Plant location. Safety
Committees are required by regulation in Canada and their actions are, therefore, regulated by regulatory
agencies. Safety Committees are not required by regulation in the US but are a voluntary function.

13.1    Committee Functions

   Discuss and resolve safety and health concerns/issues as they are reported.
   Make recommendations to management to improve safety in the workplace.
   Provide consultation to management as required.
   Inspect the workplace on a monthly basis to identify potential hazards and to check that safety
    regulations are being followed.
   Assist with injury/illness investigations, attend employee work refusal conferences, and accompany
    regulatory inspectors during site inspections, if required.
   Maintain a written log of concerns/issues to check that the appropriate action is being taken and when
    such action will be completed.
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SECTION 14      SAFETY AWARENESS

14.1    Signs
        Lafarge work sites will display safety and health signs to raise employee awareness of and to
        identify potential site hazards as required by agency regulation. Additional signs will be displayed
        on how to mitigate site hazards as applicable.

14.2    Posters
        Lafarge recognizes the value of an effective safety poster campaign and encourages their use
        where appropriate.

14.3    Newsletters
        Lafarge operations are encouraged to include a safety article/presentation in their regional or
        divisional newsletters.

14.4    Mailings
        Direct mailings to employees is an effective means to communicate safety issues and should be
        used when appropriate.

14.5    Safety Bulletin Boards
        Lafarge work sites will have a safety bulletin board located in an area accessible to site
        employees. The bulletin boards shall be maintained and updated weekly.

14.6    Safety Reports and Statistics
        Routine safety reports and statistics shall be distributed and posted on the safety bulletin board
        upon receipt.

14.7    Safety Alerts
        Safety Alerts shall be used to rapidly communicate safety information within Lafarge North
        America. Copies of the Safety Alerts will be posted on the safety bulletin board upon receipt.

14.8    Audio Visual Aids
        Audio tapes, videos, and CD-ROMs are an effective way of training employees and improving
        safety awareness. Local safety personnel will maintain a listing of available audio visual aids that
        can be shared/loaned to other Lafarge North America operations. Use of the intranet, the
        internet, and video conferencing are encouraged to enhance communication between offices
        within Lafarge North America.

14.9    Awards and Recognition
        Lafarge supports a recognition program to encourage and recognize safe work behavior. Much
        discussion has ensued regarding a single recognition program for Lafarge as a company without
        a consensus of agreement. For 1999, Lafarge will continue to operate with safety recognition
        programs as selected by the Divisions.

14.10   Disciplinary Procedure
        Employees are required to comply with Lafarge's safe work practices and procedures.
        Failure to comply with Lafarge's safe work practices and procedures may result in disciplining
        actions as Lafarge deems appropriate.
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SECTION 15      PROGRAM REVIEW

This safety manual is designed to be a living document that can be changed or modified to meet changes
in the work environment and/or to comply with new regulatory requirements. Review and update of this
manual will occur every 3 years (minimum) or as needed to accommodate changes in regulations and/or
work practices. The review and updates will be managed by the Product Line Safety Task Group.
The Product Line Safety Task Group shall be made up of the following persons or their appointees:
      Vice President, Risk Management, Safety & Health – Chairman
      Director, Safety and Industrial Hygiene
      LCM Director, Health & Safety
      Cement Director, Health & Safety
      Gypsum Director, Health & Safety
  The procedure to change/modify this manual is as follows:

15.1    Process

   Suggestions/recommendations shall be submitted to the Regional Safety Personnel.
   Regional Safety Personnel will then forward appropriate suggestions/recommendations to the North
    American Corporate Office, Vice President, Risk Management, Safety & Health.
   The Vice President, Risk Management, Safety & Health and the Lafarge North America Product Line
    Safety Task Group will review the suggestions/recommendations and recommend appropriate action.
   The Product Line Safety Task Group will issue necessary manual updates incorporating
    recommended revisions to the Regional Safety Personnel for distribution within their respective
    regions.

15.2    Regional Issues

This manual has been written to provide general safety guidelines for Lafarge North America; however,
additions and adjustments may be required at a Regional level to comply with local regulatory
requirements. Section 16 of this safety manual has been left blank as a place for the Regions to present
local regulatory compliance issues. Regions are not permitted to edit or change the safety manual itself
but may use Section 16 as needed for regulatory compliance at individual sites.

15.3    Sources

The following is a list of some sources or processes that may be used to identify changes/modifications
that should be added to the safety manual through the process outlined in Section 15.1 or issues that
should be included in Section 16.

   Evaluation of new equipment, materials, or processes in the work areas.
   Employee recommendations for changes in the workplace.
   Investigation of local regulatory requirements.
   Periodic review of regulations to check on updates or changes.
   Meetings with vendors, contractor, and/or governmental representatives.
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SECTION 16              REGIONAL/DIVISIONAL PROCEDURES

Regional, Division, and/or site-specific safe work practices/procedures and emergency information shall
be placed in this section. This section will be completed by the Region or Division safety staff.
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SECTION 17      DEFINITIONS

This glossary of terms is intended to be a helpful guide to abbreviations and terminology used in our
business and the safety and health regulations. All of these terms are not used in this manual; however,
they are used in regulations or articles that you may read. This list covers terminology used in Canada
and the United States. A listing of acronyms is presented in Section 18 of this manual.

Accident: An unplanned interruption of an orderly process involving the motion of people, objects, or
substances.

Acceptable Entry (Confined Space): The conditions that shall exist in a confined space that will
minimize the potential for accident/incident during entry, performance of assigned duties while inside the
confined space, and exit from the confined space.

Access Control Point: An opening in the physical boundary between work zones used to regulate
movement of personnel or equipment between the zones.

Acclimatization: A process by which an employee adjusts to work under extreme conditions (e.g.,
temperature, altitude).

Action Level: A contaminant concentration at which additional measures are implemented to protect the
worker. The protective measures may include medical surveillance, training, and modification of the level
of protection.

Adequate: Sufficient, satisfactory, proportionate.

Administrative Controls: Methods of controlling employee exposures by job rotation, work assignment,
or time periods away from the hazard.

Air Blast (Blasting): Compression waves which travel through the air as a result of an explosion;
sometimes referred to as air waves or air blast over pressure.

Air Monitoring: Sampling for and measurement of potential contaminants in the atmosphere.

Air-Purifying Respirator: Respirators that use filters or sorbents to remove potential contaminants from
the air.

Air-Supplied Respirator: Respirators that provides a supply of breathable air from a clean source
outside of the potentially contaminated work area.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI): publishes consensus standards on a wide variety of
subjects, including safety equipment, procedures, etc. Contact: ANSI, Attn: customer Service, 11 West
42nd Street, New York, NY 10036. Telephone [212-642-4900] is staffed 0845 - 1645 Eastern Time.
ANSI has international distributors in England (American Technical Publications, Ltd., in Herts.), in Japan
(Japanese Standards Association, Tokyo), and in Canada (Standards Council of Canada, Ottawa).

Ampere (Blasting): Unit of electrical current produced by one volt acting through a resistance of one
ohm; strength of electrical current.

Ammonium Nitrate Fuel Oil (ANFO) (Blasting): Oxygen-balanced mixture of ammonium-nitrate and
fuel oil mixture, which when combined in the proper proportions is a widely used blasting agent.
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Appropriate: Suitable, proper.

Area Blast (Blasting): The airborne shock wave or acoustic transient generated by an explosion.

Assessment: The evaluation or appraisal of a process, program, or activity to evaluate compliance with
the relevant standard, order, rule, code, regulation, or other appropriate criteria.

Atmospheric Contaminant: Harmful, irritating, or nuisance material in air occurring in the form of a dust,
fume, gas, vapor, or mist.

Attendant (Confined Space): A trained individual stationed outside one or more permit spaces who
monitors the authorized entrants, and is alert to hazards that may occur. (Also known as the Safety
Watch).

Attenuation (Blasting): Gradual weakening or lessening in strength; refers to the natural decay of
seismic waves.

Authorized Entrant (Confined Space): A trained individual who is authorized by the employer to enter a
permit space.

Backbreak (Blasting): Rock broken beyond the limits of the back row of blast holes (in the design
pattern); located farthest from and parallel to the desired direction of displacement.

Bag House: Term commonly used for the housing containing filters used to collect fumes or dust.

Bench (Blasting): Horizontal step or surface into which vertical boreholes are drilled.

Bench Preparation (Blasting): Use of heavy equipment to grade and smooth the area to be used as a
bench, as well as providing access for the drill and the vehicles transporting explosives.

Biohazard: See Biological Hazard.

Biological Hazards: Agents presenting hazard to the well being of humans or other animals, either
directly through infection or indirectly through disruption of the environment. Hazards include plant
exposures (e.g., poison ivy and poison oak) and animal exposures (e.g., bee stings and snake bites).

Blast Area (Blasting): The area of a blast within the influence of flying debris, gases and concussion
from an explosion that may cause injury to property and persons.

Blast Site (Blasting): The area where explosive material is handled during loading. Includes the
perimeter of blast holes and a distance of 50 feet (15 m) in all directions from holes to be loaded.

Blaster (Blasting): The qualified person in charge of and responsible for the loading of explosives, firing
of a blast, and the blast crew.

Blasting Mats (Blasting): Protective material used to confine flyrock.

Body Waves (Blasting): Waves that travel through the interior of the material, e.g., seismic waves
moving through the earth.

Breathing Zone: Imaginary globe of a two foot radius surrounding the head.
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Bridging (Blasting): Condition which occurs when the explosive column in a borehole is separated either
by other material falling into the powder column or by the explosives getting wedged in the borehole and
creating a gap in the column.

Buddy System: A system for organizing employees into work groups such that each member of the work
group is designated to be observed by at least one other member of the group. The purpose of the buddy
system is to provide rapid assistance to employees in the event of an emergency.

Burden (Blasting): Distance from the borehole to the nearest free face.

Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS): a Federal Government agency based
in Hamilton, Ontario, offering a well regarded collection of MSDS on CD-ROM, as well as other H&S
related services. Telephone: 905-572-2981 FAX: 905-572-2206.

Canadian Standards Association (CSA): the national consensus standards association for Canada is
roughly the Canadian equivalent of ANSI in the US. It is located at 178 Rexdale Boulevard, Rexdale
(Toronto), Ontario, Canada M9W 1R3 (416) 747-4044.

Carcinogenic: Cancer producing.

Cast Booster (Blasting): Solid, extruded high-explosive cartridge usually with high strength and velocity
used to initiate other less sensitive explosives or blasting agents.

Center for Disease Control (CDC): Based in Atlanta, Georgia, this is the organization within the US
National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service which specializes in recognition, evaluation and
control of communicable diseases. NIOSH is part of CDC.

Chemical Abstract Service No. (CAS No.): Identification number for an identified chemical.

Chemical Hazard: The exposure of employees to a regulated or non-regulated hazardous material (solid,
liquid, and gas; natural and man-made), with the potential for causing harm to people, the environment, or
property when released.

Chute Blasting (Blasting): Blast designed to create a narrow channel.
                                                                               o           o
Combustible: Capable of burning with an open flame; has a flash point of 100 F (37.8 C).

Compliance (Blasting): Meeting or exceeding specific federal, state, provincial or local blasting
regulations.

Compression Waves (Blasting): Waves (e.g., sound waves) that are deformed by either being
compressed or expanded in the same direction as the wave is travelling.

Compressive Strength (Blasting): Strength under which a rock fails by crushing.

Confined Space: A space large enough to enter, has limited access/egress, and is not designed for
human occupancy. Confined spaces that meet the above listed criteria do not require a permit to enter.

Confined Space (Non-Permit): Does not contain nor does it have the potential to contain a hazardous
atmosphere.

Confined Space (Permit Required): A space that has one or more of the following characteristics:
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   Contains or has the potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere (e.g., tank with diesel residue,
    manhole with less than 19.5% oxygen, presence of more than 23.5% oxygen), or

   Contains a material that has the potential for engulfment (e.g., grain silo), or

   Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated (e.g., tanker truck
    with interior baffles, silo with sloping sides), or

   Contains any other recognized safety or health hazard (including electrical, chemical, mechanical,
    temperature extremes, etc).

Confined Space Team: Includes an attendant or safety watch, authorized entrants, and the entry
supervisor.

Contaminant: A harmful, irritating, or nuisance material that is foreign to the normal composition of a
substance.

Contact Dermatitis: Skin irritation caused by contact with a substance. May be the result of an allergic
reaction.

Controls: Changes in the work processes and/or working environment with the objective of controlling
the hazards either by eliminating the responsible agents, or reducing them to levels believed not to be
harmful to health, as well as by preventing exposure to workers.

Corrosive: A substance that is capable of causing physical change (e.g., deterioration or destruction) by
a chemical or electrochemical action as contrasted to erosion caused by mechanical action.

Coyote Blast (Blasting): Method of blasting in which large charges are fired in small floor-level tunnels
driven into the face of a quarry or slope.

Critical Operations: Those emergency operations necessary for the safe emergency shutdown of an
operation, site, task, or piece of machinery.

Critical Operations Personnel: Those personnel identified in writing and trained to accomplish
emergency shutdown operations. These personnel may be required to delay their own evacuation of the
site during an emergency.

Cutoff (Blasting): Misfire created by a break in the path of detonation.

Deck (Blasting): Process of loading a borehole with two or more charges, each separated from others by
means of inert material or air cushion; also refers to separate charges in a borehole.

Design Pattern (Blasting): Physical pattern marked at the blast site so that drilling of boreholes can be
performed accurately.

Detonator (Blasting): A device containing a detonating charge used to initiate an explosive. These
devices include electric and non-electric blasting caps and delay connectors used with detonating cord.

Dip (Blasting): Angle of rock structure from a horizontal plane that is measured perpendicular to the
strike.
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Disability Injury Index: The Lost Time Frequency Rate multiplied by the Severity Ratio for the same
period.

Displacement (Blasting): Actual distance the particle of ground or other material moves from its
equilibrium position during the passage of a wave.

Dust: Finely divided solid particles dispersed in air; formed by mechanical means such as grinding,
crushing, blasting, or drilling.

Emergency (Confined Space): An occurrence or an event internal or external to the confined space
(including failure of a hazard control or monitoring equipment) that could endanger the entrant(s).

Emergency (Site): A sudden and unexpected event, taking place on the site, and requiring urgent action
for control or remediation to minimize the potential danger to workers, the public, the environment, or
property.

Emulsion (Blasting): Explosive or blasting agent containing explosive compounds dissolved in small
water droplets and surrounded by an oil; an emulsifying agent is added to prevent separation of that
mixture.

Endbreak (Blasting): Rock broken beyond the limits of the boreholes located on the outermost sides of
the design pattern and perpendicular to the direction of displacement.

Engineering Controls: Methods of controlling employee exposure to safety and health hazards by
modifying the source of exposure or reducing the quantity of contaminants released into the work area.
Examples include piping, containment, ventilation, filtration, and shielding.

Engulfment: The surrounding and effective capture of a person by a liquid or finely divided (flowable)
solid substance that can be aspirated causing death by filling or plugging the respiratory system.
Engulfment can also exert enough force on the body to cause death by strangulation, constriction, or
crushing.

Entry Permit (Confined Space): The written document that authorizes and controls entry into a confined
space. The permit includes a systematic evaluation of the confined space, purpose of entry, authorized
personnel, potential hazards, work controls and required equipment.

Entry Supervisor (Confined Space): The person responsible for determining if acceptable entry
conditions are present at a permit space where entry is planned. The person (usually a manager or
supervisor) authorizing the entry, overseeing entry operations, and terminating the entry. The entry
supervisor may also serve as an attendant. The entry supervisor will receive confined space training
before he/she will be permitted to assume the duties listed above.

Ergonomics: Interactions between man and his working environment plus the stresses related to
environmental elements (e.g., atmosphere, heat, light, and sound) as well as tools and equipment in the
workplace.

Explosive Energy Level (Blasting): Energy required to break and heave rock efficiently to achieve
desired results.

Explosive Material (Blasting): Includes explosives (dynamite and other high explosives), water gels,
emulsion blasting agents, ANFO, and detonators.
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Faults (Blasting): Features with subsequent rock movement along the fracture zone on one or both
sides of fracture.

First Aid: One-time treatment and subsequent observation of minor scratches, cuts, burns, splinters, etc.
that do not require medical care. First aid is usually administered by a First Aid Attendant at the plant or
facility. The employee is able to continue work (either on his/her regular job or on modified duties) and
does not miss further work time beyond the day of the injury.

First Aid Frequency Rate: 200,000 multiplied by the number of first aid cases during a given period
divided by the total number of hourly and salaried hours worked during the period.

Flammable Limits: Minimum limit (lower explosive limit [LEL]) or maximum limit (upper explosive limit
[UEL]) at which a normally flammable substance will not flame or explode in the presence of an ignition
source. Units are expressed as a percent of gas or vapor in air by volume.
                                                         o       o
Flammable Liquid: A liquid having a flash point of 100 F (37.8 C) or less.

Flash Point: The lowest temperature at which a liquid gives off enough vapor to form an ignitable
mixture; expressed in terms of a percentage of vapor or gas in air by volume.

Flyrock (Blasting): Rock that is displaced out of the blast area, quarry, or pit or is thrown off the quarry
property as a result of blasting.

Foot Candle: A unit of measurement for illumination.

Fragmentation (Blasting): Process by which principles of blasting technology are practiced to break and
displace rockmass into a desirable muckpile.

Frequency (Blasting): Number of complete waves passing a certain point per second.

Frequency Rate: See Lost Time Frequency Rate, First Aid Frequency Rate and Total Accident
Frequency Rate.

Fume: Airborne particulate formed by the evaporation of a solid material (e.g., metal fume emitted during
welding).

Gas: A state of matter that has very low density and viscosity, can expand and contract greatly in
response to changes in temperature and pressure but which does not become liquid or solid at ordinary
temperature and pressure. Gases easily diffuse into other gases and readily and uniformly distribute
throughout any container.

Hard Seam (Blasting): Natural strata of rock that is markedly harder than the other rock surrounding it.

Harmful: Circumstance or condition that has the potential to cause injury or other adverse effect.

Hazard: An act, condition, or phenomenon posing a source of actual or potential physical, chemical,
radiological, or biological harm to a person, animal or the environment.

Hazard Assessment (or Evaluation): A process to assess the severity and likelihood of exposure to
known and/or potential occupational safety and health hazards at or in the work environment.
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Hazardous: The existence or potential existence of an unsafe/harmful condition, substance or
circumstance.

Hazardous Atmosphere: An atmosphere that may expose employees to the risk of death, incapacitation,
impairment of ability to self-rescue (that is, escape unaided from a confined space), injury, or acute illness
from one or more of the following causes:

   Flammable gas, vapor, or mist in excess of 10 percent of its lower flammable limit (LFL);
   Airborne combustible dust at a concentration that meets or exceeds its LFL; NOTE: This
    concentration may be approximated as a condition in which the dust obscures vision at a distance of
    5 feet (1.52 m) or less;
   Atmospheric oxygen concentration below 19.5 percent or above 23.5 percent;
   Atmospheric concentration of a substance for which a dose or a permissible exposure limit is
    published in Subpart G, Occupational Health and Environmental Controls, or in Subpart Z, Toxic and
    Hazardous Substances, of 29 CFR 1910. May result in employee exposure in excess of its dose or
    permissible exposure limit.

Hazardous Material (HAZMAT): A substance or compound that is capable of producing adverse effects
on the safety and health of humans, animals, or the environment.

Highwall (Blasting): Nearly vertical face at the edge of a bench, bluff, or ledge at an excavation.

Hot Work: Work that produces arcs, sparks, flames, heat, or other sources of ignition.

Hot Work Permit: The employer's written authorization to perform operations (e.g., riveting, welding,
cutting, burning, and heating) capable of providing a source of ignition.

Hours Worked (Hourly): All actual regular and overtime hours worked by hourly employees who are
normally located at a specific location.

Hours Worked (Salaried): Salaried hours are to be reported based on a normal working week for all
employees whose normal work office is at a specific location.

Igneous Rock (Blasting): Rock formed by solidification from a molten state.

Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH): A condition or exposure that poses an immediate
threat to life and health.

Incident: An accident or a near miss.

Inert: Inactive or non-reactive.

Internal Friction (Blasting): Ability or inability of interior rock surfaces to move or slide against each
other.

Joints (Blasting): Cracks or fractures in rock without subsequent displacement.

Key Personnel: Those personnel/organizations essential for the safe operation of a facility, site, project,
or task (a.k.a., essential personnel).

Laser Profiler (Blasting): Device used to accurately locate the toe, crest, and irregular face structures.
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LC-50: A concentration that is lethal to 50% of the test animals in a study. A point of comparison
between toxic materials with similar effects or target organs. Variants include LC-25 or LC-75 as well as
LC-Low (lowest detected lethal concentration).

Line Breaking: The intentional opening of a pipe, line, or duct that is or has contained flammable,
corrosive, or toxic material, an inert gas, or a fluid at a volume, pressure, or temperature capable of
causing injury.

Lockout/Tagout: A procedure for placing a lock or tag on an energy isolating device to indicate that the
process system or equipment can not be operated.

Longitudinal Wave Velocity (Blasting): Speed at which a rock will transmit compression waves.

Lost Time Accident: A work related incident, either an accident or an illness, which results in an
employee being unable to return to work on his/her next or subsequently regularly scheduled work day
beyond the actual day of the injury.

Lost Time Accident Free Days: Number of calendar days since the date of the last lost time accident.

Lost Time Days: The number of regularly scheduled work days lost by an employee as a result of a Lost
Time Accident. Lost Time Days continue to accumulate until the cost of the claim no longer impacts
Lafarge’s WCB Experience Rating or other insurance rate (usually a period of 2 to 4 years, depending on
the jurisdiction).

Lost Time Frequency Rate: 200,000 multiplied by the number of lost time accidents during a given
period divided by the total number of hourly and salaried hours worked during the period.

Lower Explosive Limit / Lower Flammable Limit and Upper Explosive Limit / Upper Flammable
Limit (LEL/LFL and UEL/UFL): describe the explosion or combustion limits, respectively for flammable
gas or vapor mixtures in air. E.g., a concentration below the lower flammable limit is not sufficient to
support combustion; above the upper flammable limit the mixture is too "rich" to burn.

Major Spill: The uncontrolled release of a hazardous substance into the environment that can not be
controlled or contained and that requires mobilization of emergency response personnel.

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS): provided by chemical manufacturers and required by OSHA and
provincial legislation to be made available to workers.

Matrix (Blasting): Primary aggregate in which another constituent is embedded or suspended.

Medical Aid: Medical treatment administered by a physician or by a registered professional person under
the standing orders of a physician. Medical aid does not include first aid treatment (one-time treatment
and subsequent observation of minor scratches, cuts, burns, or splinters which do not require medical
care) provided by a physician or by a registered professional person.

Metamorphic Rock (Blasting): Rock that has been subjected to strong physical or chemical forces such
as stress, heat, or prolonged chemical agents.

Misfire (Blasting): The complete or partial failure of explosive material to detonate after an attempt at
initiation. The term is also used to describe the product itself, the blast, or a part of the blast which failed
to fire.
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Mist: Suspended liquid droplets generated by condensation from the gaseous to liquid state or by
breaking up a liquid into a dispersed state.

Modified Duties: Temporary duties assigned to an employee after an accident while the employee is
unable to carry out his/her previous duties.

Modified Duties Ratio: 200,000 multiplied by the number of modified duties days during a given period
divided by the total number of person hours worked during the period.

Muck Pile (Blasting): Broken material resulting from an explosive blast.

Mud Seam (Blasting): Naturally occurring cavity in a rock formation filled with dirt or other soft and
unconsolidated material.

National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH): an arm of the US Centers for Disease
Control. NIOSH researches and suggests guidelines for exposure control but is not a regulatory agency.

Near Miss: An occurrence that did not result in an accident but that might have resulted in an accident
under different circumstances.

Noise: Unwanted sound.

Noise Reduction Rating (NRR): used as a laboratory-based indicator of the relative effectiveness of
hearing protectors.

Occupational Physician: A physician in good standing who undertakes the responsibilities of practicing
preventive medicine in industry for an occupational group.

Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA): a division of the US Department of Labor.
Regulates job safety issues, including chemical handling and storage. Does not have authority in
aggregate or mine activities.

Offset Markers (Blasting): Identifiable markers used to locate precise reference points.

Ohmmeter (Blasting): Device used to check the continuity of a blasting circuit and measure its
resistance. (Only special blaster’s ohmmeters are to be used for blasting activities).

Oxygen Deficient Atmosphere: An atmosphere containing less than 19.5% oxygen by volume.

Oxygen Enriched Atmosphere: An atmosphere containing more than 23.5% oxygen by volume.

Particle Velocity (Blasting): Velocity at which a point moves as a wave passes through it.

Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL): The employee's permitted exposure to any material listed in Table
Z-1, Z-2, or Z-3 of OSHA Regulations found at 29 CFR 1910.1000, Air Contaminants.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): Clothing and equipment used to shield or isolate individuals
from the chemical, physical, and biological hazards that may be encountered at a hazardous waste site.
PPE protects the respiratory system, skin, eyes, face, hands, feet, head, body, and hearing.

Physical Controls: Physical barriers put into place to limit personnel exposure to hazards.
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Physical Hazards: Work-related sources of actual or potential danger (e.g., machinery, trip and fall,
hoisting and rigging, shoring and trenching) to which employees may be exposed.

Practical: Capable of being done, practicable. Also a worker or person who, by reason of training or
experience, is familiar with the work and the hazards involved. A person who is registered or duly
licensed as such under the provisions of the “Engineering Profession Act” of British Columbia.

Primer (Blasting): Cartridge or package of high explosive with the detonator inserted that used to initiate
the main explosive or blasting agent charge.

Qualified Person: A person who, by training, education, and/or experience, is knowledgeable in the
operation to be performed and is competent to judge the hazards involved.

Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): The NIOSH equivalent of OSHA PELs and ACGIH
TLVs to be used in the absence of PELs and TLVs.

Rescue Service: Offsite personnel designated to rescue employees from permit spaces, or other
hazardous areas when an onsite rescue team is not available.

Resistance (Blasting): Opposition to the flow of current through a conductor; measured in units of ohms.

Retrieval System (Confined Space): The equipment (including a retrieval line, chest or full-body
harness, wristlets, if appropriate, and a lifting device or anchor) used for non-entry rescue of persons from
permit spaces.

Safety Can: An approved container of not more than 5 gallons (19 liters) that is constructed with a spring-
closing lid and spout cover and is so designed that it will safely relieve internal pressure when subjected
to fire exposure. It is also constructed with a flame arrestor.

Safe Work Practice: The detailed steps required to perform a task safely.

Sedimentary Rock (Blasting): Rock formed by the accumulation, compaction and successive layering of
loose rock, chemically precipitated material, or inorganic material.

Seismic Wave Velocity (Blasting): Speed at which the seismic waves travel through the ground.

Severity Ratio: 200,000 multiplied by the number of lost time days lost during a given period divided by
the total number of person hours worked during the period.

Shot (Blasting): Term used to describe the actual blast, the specific site where explosives are loaded, or
the muckpile produced by the blast.

Site: An area where work is being performed and where the potential of exposure to contaminants exists
that may require the use of chemical protective clothing and/or radiological protective clothing and/or
respirators.

Site-Specific Training: Predefined training, unique to a particular site.

Slurry (Blasting): Explosive material containing a liquid, oxidizers, and fuel, plus a thickener.

Spill: The uncontrolled release of a hazardous substance into the environment.
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Standard Entry Procedure (Confined Space): A procedure for entry into confined spaces that utilizes
the complete array of entry measures. Characterized by use of trained personnel, atmospheric testing
before and during entry, use of proper protective equipment, and completion of the entry permit.

Static Electricity (Blasting): Electric charge that is built up, stored, or at rest on a person or object.

Stemming (Blasting): Clean crushed stone loaded on top of the explosive column in a borehole. This
material provides confinement of the explosive energy, which in turn allows the same energy to break
rather than to possibly produce flyrock and cause unwanted airblast.

Storage: The temporary placement of a hazardous material in a location that provides some protection to
personnel or the environment.

Supervisor: A person who instructs, directs, or controls workers in the safe performance of their duties.

Support Zone: Uncontaminated area where workers are unlikely to be exposed to hazardous substances
or dangerous conditions.

Tamping Pole (Blasting): Tool made of non-sparking material used to compact stemming in borehole.

Task: A well defined unit of work having an identifiable beginning and end with two or more elements. A
task is a series of jobs performed in support of a particular project.

Threshold: The level where the first effects occur or a noticed (as in sound).

Threshold Limit Value (TLV): An exposure limit established by the American Conference of
Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) under which most people can work consistently for 8 hours a
day, day after day, with no harmful effect.

Threshold Limit Value-Short-Term Exposure Limit (TLV-STEL): The concentration to which workers
can be exposed continuously for a short period of time without suffering from irritation, chronic or
irreversible damage, or narcosis.

Threshold Limit Value-Time-Weighted Average (TLV-TWA): The time-weighted average concentration
for a normal 8-hour workday and a 40-hour workweek to which nearly all workers may be repeatedly
exposed, day after day, without adverse effects.

Total Accident Frequency Rate: 200,000 multiplied by the total number of accidents that result in lost
time, modified duties or medical aid during a given period divided by the total number of hourly and
salaried hours worked during the period.

Toxic Atmosphere: An atmosphere containing a concentration of a substance above the published or
otherwise known safe levels, such as the Threshold Limit Value, Permissible Exposure Limit,
Recommended Exposure Limit, or an Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health concentration.

Unconsolidated Material (Blasting): Dirt or other loose material.

Vapor: The gaseous form of a substance that is normally in a solid or liquid state; increasing pressure
and decreasing temperature will return the vapor to it’s original state.

Velocity (Blasting): Speed or rapidity; a term used in many blasting contexts. May be measured
confined or unconfined.
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Work: The process of performing a defined task or activity; e.g., research and development, operations,
maintenance and repair, administration, software development and use, inspection, safeguards and
security, data collection, and analysis.

Work Plan: Part of a comprehensive Site Safety and Health Program that addresses the tasks and
objectives of site operations, including logistics and resources.

Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS): This is a program that is legislated by
the Canadian government that requires, among other things, the creation and availability of material
safety data sheets. Many functions associated with Federal OSHA in the US are controlled at a Provincial
level in Canada.
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SECTION 18   ACRONYMS
o
    C        degrees Celsius
o
    F        degrees Fahrenheit

%            per cent

<            less than

>            greater than

ADA          American Disabilities Act (US)

a.k.a.       also known as

ANFO         ammonium nitrate fuel oil

ANSI         American National Standards Institute

ASOP         Annual Safety Operating Plan

ASTM         American Society for Testing and Materials

ATF          Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (US)

BCSP         Board of Certified Safety Professionals

CAS          Chemical Abstract Service

CCOHS        Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety

CDC          Center for Disease Control

CDL          Commercial Driver’s License (US)

CFR          Code of Federal Regulations (US)

CPR          Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation

CRSP         Canadian Registered Safety Professional (Designation is issued by the Association of
             Canadian Registered Safety Professionals)

CSA          Canadian Standards Association

CSP          Certified Safety Professional (Issued by the Board of Certified Safety Professionals)

CSST         Commission Santé et Sécurité au Travail

dBA          decibels on the A scale

DOT          Department of Transportation (US)
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DSI       Daily Safety Inspection

e.g.      for example, example given

ERP       Emergency Response Plan

etc.      et cetera

FAX       facsimile

FMLA      Family Medical Leave Act (US)

GFCI      ground fault circuit interrupter

HA        hazard analysis

HBV       hepatitis B virus

HEPA      high-efficiency particulate aerosol (or air)

HIV       human immunodeficiency virus

HR        Human Resources

JSA       Job safety analysis

kPa       kilopascal

kV        kilovolt

lbs       pound

LEL       lower explosive limit

LFL       lower flammable limit

m         meter

mm        millimeter

mR        millirontgen

MOT       Ministry of Transportation (Canada)

MSDS      Material Safety Data Sheet

MSHA      Mine Safety and Health Administration (US)

MSHA ID   Mine Safety and Health Administration identification number (US)

N         newton
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NIOSH   National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health

NFPA    National Fire Protection Association (US)

NRC     Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US)

NRR     Noise Reduction Rating

OSHA    Occupational Safety and Health Administration (US)

PCB     polychlorinated biphenol

PEL     permissible exposure limit

pH      degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution; 7 is neutral

PPE     personal protective equipment

ppm     parts per million

ROPS    rollover protection system

RF      radio frequency

SCBA    self-contained breathing apparatus

TLV     threshold limit value

UEL     upper explosive limit

UFL     upper flammable limit

US      United States

WCB     Workers’ Compensation Board (Canada)

WHMIS   Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (Canada)

WSIB    Workplace Safety Insurance Board

				
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