Ontologies in Spatial Data Infrastructures

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					Ontologies in Spatial Data
     Infrastructures

            Doug Nebert
 Federal Geographic Data Committee
             Reston, VA
           November 2009
Background
   Confused to about the meaning and utility of
  “spatial ontology” as this could be construed
  extremely narrowly as an enhanced gazetteer
  (problem solved!)




                                                  2
(Max Egenhofer)




                  http://www.spatial.maine.edu/~max/spatializingOntologies.swf

                                                                                 3
How do geospatial communities
use ontologies?
  Gazetteer, place name hierarchies
  Spatial operations
  Spatial relations, associations
  Vocabularies
  Spatial feature typology




                                      4
Gazetteer interfaces




                       5
Gazetteers
  Include a set of landmark feature types and
  the names/identities of individual features
  within a type
  Geographic hierarchy may be managed or
  implied
  Alternate, official, historical, and other variant
  names may be managed
  Can be useful for orientation, refining search,
  providing geographic context

                                                       6
Which New York?




                  7
Spatial operations and relations
 In the context of performing geospatial
 analysis there is an ontology of operations
 (concepts) that are based on mathematical
 proofs
 There are contextual relational terms as well:
     Near, far, adjacent
     Passes under, over, through
     Neighborhood, region
     Along, beside



                                                  8
Egenhofer 4-intersection matrix
Mathematically defines topological relations between
objects and creates an actionable vocabulary




                 disjoint     contains    inside      equal
                                       ¬       ¬ 
                (         ) (¬ ¬   )(  ¬     ) ( ¬    )


                 meet         covers     coveredBy       overlap
                 ¬          ¬ 
                (     ) (   ¬ ¬    ) ( ¬ ¬
                                             ¬   ) (   ¬ ¬
                                                         ¬ ¬     )   9
Vocabularies
   use of enumerations and code lists
  within a geospatial community is
  common to standardize and categorize
  resources
     Place code identifiers
     Coordinate reference systems
     Parameter (Attribute) value types
     Service types, standards, URNs


                                          10
Geo-enabled data and codes
  There is abundant statistical data stored
  in tables with codes for the geography
  of interest:
     Address: street, city, state
     ZIP Code or ZIP+4
     State/County/City code or name
     Congressional District



                                              11
12
H1N1 (PAHO)




          13
14
15
Feature (class) catalogue




                            16
17
                                                                                                 Wenwen Li, GMU



Semantic Based Knowledge Reasoning for Intelligent
Search: Building a common GEOSS Ontology
                                             Abstraction of             Building            Domain
        Conceptualization Facet mapping
                                          Classes and Attributes     Interrelationship   Ontology Model



   Integral                                                              Current Knowledge Base:
                                                                   500 Terminologies and Interrelationships
        http://testbed.gmu.edu/geoss/geoss_all.owl
                                                                   37 Logic Restrictions
   Components                                                          (35 Existential and 2 Universal)


        CEOS-Earth Observation Parameter
        INSPIRE-Theme
        INSPIRE-Spatial Ontology Type
GEOSS Ontology Snapshot




     Ontology (Theme)   Ontology (Spatial Object Type)


                                                         19
GEOSS Ontology Snapshot-Contd.


                                        Ontology (CEOS)




                   Cloud Type of CEOS
                                                     20
Ontology Improved Search




                           21
Geo-bridge for Meta-Catalogue
                                    Wenwen Li, GMU




 Standards:
     Web Catalogue Service (CSW)
      – GOS, ESG
     Customized API – ECHO
     Web Interface – GCMD,
      NCDC
 Seamless Communication
     XML-encapsulated Request
     KVP-based Request
 Service Parser
     HTML parser
     XML parser
 Key Techniques
   Ajax: Asynchronous
    JavaScript
  and XML
   Multi-Threads




                                            22
Managing heterogeneity in GEO
   The construction of a common feature
  type/property ontology that joins terms from
  multiple discipline ontologies will allow for use
  and discovery of information across multiple
  domains and GEO “Societal Benefit Areas”
  Managing “observable” properties will allow
  joins between user or application
  requirements and available data and service
  resources


                                                      23
Bridging communities
 Arctic Spatial Data Infrastructure will support
 multi-disciplinary and multi-lingual map data
 search, management, and access
 Supports the Group on Earth Observations
 and the Arctic Council
 Candidate vocabularies:
     GEMET multi-lingual environmental thesaurus
     INSPIRE Feature Concept Catalog
     CEOS/NASA/NOAA Observation Types
     SWEET Ontology
     NASA GCMD/IDN Science Keywords


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