NETSIG-VSTO by wangping12


									.NET SIG Presentation on
  Visual Studio Tools for Office – A Primer
     Anthony Maimone & Ted Ogrean
About Us

• Anthony
  – Developer
  – Product Lead for the Office Business Applications
  – 5 years experience at Hyland Software
• Ted
  – Development Manager
  – Product Lead for SharePoint Integrations
  – 6 years experience at Hyland Software
What are we covering?

•   The Basics of VSTO
•   Ribbon Extensibility
•   Office Application Specifics
•   Event Handling
•   Deployment Options
•   Lessons Learned
The Basics

• Visual Studio Tools for Office (VSTO)
  – Create applications that extend Microsoft Office
    2003, 2007, and 2010 using managed code.

  – Think of as a bridge between VS and Office

  – Visual Studio 2003, 2005, 2008, 2010

  – VSTO 2003, 2005, 2005 SE, 3.0, 4.0
     • We are going to stick with 3.0 and 4.0
The Basics
• VSTO 3.0 Prerequisites
  – Operating System
     • Windows 7, Server 2003, Server 2008, Vista, XP

  – .NET Framework 3.5 or 3.5 Client Profile

  – Microsoft Office 2007

  – Visual Studio 2008

  – Office Primary Interop Assemblies (PIAs)
The Basics
• VSTO 4.0 Prerequisites
  – Operating System
     • Windows XP SP 3 or greater

  – .NET Framework 3.5, 4, or 4 Client Profile

  – Microsoft Office 2007 or Office 2010

  – Visual Studio 2010

  – Office Primary Interop Assemblies (PIAs)
The Basics

• VSTO compatibility and Add-in functionality

VSTO/VSTO      Developed against Office 2007            Developed against Office 2010
  runtime                                                                                   .NET version   Available as
  version   Document-level      Application-level     Document-level    Application-level

                              Word, Excel, Outlook,                                                          Built into
                               PowerPoint, Visio,                                                          Visual Studio
 VSTO 3.0    Word, Excel       InfoPath, Project,          —                   —             .NET 3.5          2008
                                SharePoint 2007                                                            Professional
                                   Workflows                                                                and above

                                                                                                             Built into
                                                                          Word, Excel,
                              Word, Excel, Outlook,                                                        Visual Studio
                                                                            Outlook,         .NET 3.5
 VSTO 4.0    Word, Excel       PowerPoint, Visio,      Word, Excel                                             2010
                                                                       PowerPoint, Visio,      or 4.0
                                InfoPath, Project                                                          Professional
                                                                        InfoPath, Project
                                                                                                            and above
Demo Solution

 Lets see what a complete VSTO add-in based
            application looks like
The Basics

• Project Types
  – Application
     • Add-ins
  – Document
     • Excel or Word
     • Excel Workbook
     • Word Document
The Basics

• Project Framework
  – Really easy to start a new project
  – New Project
     • <Language> | Office | select Add-in from list
     • Create a new ribbon type class
        – Designer or XML
        – If XML, follow the Ribbon XML steps to get ribbon to load
  – Handle events
  – Begin building your ribbon and handling
New Project Stub

  Create a New VSTO Add-in for Word Demo
The Basics

• Application Level Add-in
  – Accessing the Object model of the Office host
  – Customizing UI of the application
  – Custom task panes (Excel, InfoPath, Outlook,
    PowerPoint, Word)
  – Exposing objects of your Add-in to other Office
     • AddInBase.RequestComAddInAutomationService
The Basics

• Application Level Add-in
  – Registry Keys
     • HKCU\Software\MS\Office\Word
     • HKLM\Software\MS\Office\Word
  – Deployment Manifest
     • An XML file that describes a
       ClickOnce Deployment
     • Identifies the current ClickOnce
  – Application Manifest
     • An XML file that identifies (SxS)
       assemblies, bound at runtime
The Basics

• Document Level Add-in
  – When the document is opened, the code
    extension loads.
  – Automate the application by using its object
  – Add controls to the surface of the document.
  – Manage certain aspects of the document while on
    a server without Microsoft Office installed.
  – Customize the UI of the application for the
    specific document
    • Custom Xml parts
Ribbon Extensibility

   Ribbon Designer and Ribbon XML Demo
Ribbon Designer

• Pros                     • Cons
  – Context                  – Error handling
  – Simple                   – Encourages code
  – Intuitive                  behind
  – Drag and Drop            – Limited features
                               • No Backstage access
  – Designer support
                               • Cannot repurpose
  – Similar to Win Forms         built-in commands
  – No need to type out        • Cannot define context
    xml                          menus
  – Can export to Ribbon
Ribbon XML

• Pros                          • Cons
  –   More Extensibility          – Single callback file
  –   Flexible                         • Per Add-in
  –   Faster                      –   No context
  –   More Powerful               –   Limited hooks
  –   More features               –   Tough to Debug
       • Customize Quick          –   Need to Learn
         Access Toolbar (QAT)         Ribbon XML
       • Context menus
       • Backstage (2010)
       • Repurpose built-in
Office Application Specifics

• Object Models
   – Classes and interfaces provided to interact with
     the Office Applications
   – Each model is contained in the Primary Interop
     Assembly or PIAs
      • More information on these a little later
      • Microsoft.Office.Interop.Word
   – Each applications object model is different
   – Contains hundreds of objects
Office Application Specifics

• Outlook
   – Application Object
      • The highest level object representing the Outlook App
   – Explorer Object
      • The Main Outlook Window
      • Displays the content of a folder (mail, tasks, appt.)
      • Ribbon ID = Microsoft.Outlook.Explorer
   – Inspector Object
      • Represents a window that displays a single item.
      • 23 total items each with a different Ribbon identifier
         – Ex. Mail Compose, Mail Read, Contact, Distribution List,
           Meeting Request, Task, etc.
Office Application Specifics

• Outlook continued
   – Context Menus
     • Using Ribbon XML, you have the ability to add options to
       the context menu
        – Folder, Store, Mail Item, Appointments, etc.
   – The Reading Pane
     • Allows users to view the selected item in the Explorer
     • We handle dragging and dropped items to a folder
     • Can cause problems with events
        – The BeforeItemMove event does not get thrown when an
          item is already open in the Reading Pane.
Office Application Specifics

• Excel
   – Application
      • The Excel application itself, options that are applied
        currently, and current users’ objects
   – Workbook
      • A single workbook in the Excel application
   – Worksheet
      • A worksheet within a workbook.
   – Range
      • Represents a cell, row, column, selection or block of
        cells for manipulation within Excel.
Office Application Specifics

• PowerPoint
   – Application
      • Represents the PowerPoint application and it’s the
        parent of all other objects
      • Control’s the PowerPoint environment
         – Application Events
             » AfterNewPresentation, PresentationClose, etc.
   – Presentation
      • Represents a presentation and all of its content
         – Presentation methods and properties
             » Save, SaveAs, FullName, Path
Office Application Specifics

• Word
   – Application
      • Represents the Word application and is the parent of all
        other object
      • Controls the Word environment
         – Application events
             » DocumentBeforeSave, DocumentOpen, etc.
   – Document
      • Represents a document and all of its content
         – Document methods and properties
            » Close, Save, SaveAs, FullName, etc.
Office Application Specifics

• Excel vs. PowerPoint vs. Word
   – Word is an SDI application
   – Excel and PowerPoint are MDI applications
      • MDI applications and task panes
         – Mapping of task panes for each document
         – Based on Window and Workbook Activate and Deactivate
   – Each object model is different
      • Be careful not too assume that Excel, PowerPoint, and
        Word all behave the same
      • Ex. Save method looks similar, but parameters and
        behavior are different for each application
Event Handling

   Office Interop         VSTO

      Unmanaged /
                        Managed Code
      COM Interop

                        Hosts Managed
    Office Automation
Event Handling

• Office Primary Interop Assemblies (PIAs)
  – Enables managed code to interact with Microsoft
    Office application’s COM-based object model
     • Properties
     • Events
     • Add-in load and shut down
  – Uses a Runtime Callable Wrapper (RCW) to
    handle interaction and memory model
  – Visual Studio creates a reference when a new
    Office Project is created
Event Handling

• Office Primary Interop Assemblies (PIAs)
  – Included with Visual Studio
  – Must be installed and registered on end-user
    computers to run Office solutions targeting .NET
  – When targeting .NET 4.0, PIAs can be embedded
    into your solution (Embed Interop Types property)
  – 32 or 64 bit are available.
     • AnyCPU for both
  – Provides Intellisense and code samples
Event Handling

     Unmanaged                                  Managed
                                 RCW   INew


    Unmanaged /
                              INew            Managed Code
    COM Interop
Event Handling

• Memory Model
  – Managed
     • Nondeterministic lifetime
        – Follows .NET Garbage Collection rules
     • RCW handles marshaling multiple clients
     • Keeps an internal reference count
  – Unmanaged
     • Deterministic lifetime
        – Follows COM rules
     • Single reference count
Event Handling

• Save Event
  – WorkbookBeforeSave( Excel.Workbook Wb, bool SaveAsUI,
    ref bool cancel)
  – DocumentBeforeSave( Word.Document Doc, ref bool
    SaveAsUI, ref bool Cancel)
  – PresentationBeforeSave( PowerPoint.Presentation Pres, ref
    bool Cancel)
  – In your best interest to NOT override or cancel the
    Save event.
     • Interfere with macros, other Add-ins, etc.
     • Auto Save cannot be distinguished from Save
Event Demo

             Save Event Demo

  – Generic Windows installer
  – Must check prerequisites VSTO and .NET
    framework prior to installing Add-in

• ClickOnce
  – Create self-updating Windows-based applications
  – Installed and run with minimal user interaction
    from web, network share, or media (CD)
  – Major issues overcome
     • Updating application, impact on the user’s machine,
       security permissions (CAS)
  – Must install prerequisites through a separate
     • Created a separate MSI to check for VSTO installation

• VSTO deployments are generally only for the
  Current User
  – Can be made for All Users on a given machine
     • When installing, must use the HKLM registry path
        – HKLM\Software\MS\Office\Word\Addins
     1. You need administrative privilege on the machine in
        order to install an All User add-in.
     2. An all user add-in cannot be deployed through
        ClickOnce and must be deployed through a Windows
        Installer MSI.
        – manifest = “C:\Program
     3. Trusting the Add-In for all users
Lessons Learned

• Create separate add-ins for each Office application
   – This is the general idea behind VSTO
• Be very careful of start-up and load times
  • Lazy initialization is your friend
• If you let a COM object leave scope, do not release it.
  Better yet, don’t let COM objects leave local scope.
• Do not release a COM object if you are not the
• When using a foreach loop to iterate over COM
  objects, release each item properly
Lessons Learned

• Be explicit with your code. Each “.” may
  create another reference that needs to be
  – Example (VB)
     •   var app = new Application();
     •   app.Workbooks.Add();
     •   app.Visible = true;
     •   app.Quit()
  – app.Workbooks creates a RCW reference that we
    cannot release.
Lessons Learned

• Office PIAs do not always clean up event
  – Can lead to Office application not closing properly
     • Major issue with Terminal Services or Citrix
  – Created our own Interop project for each version
     • Referenced each Office Interop
        – Excel, PowerPoint, Word
     • Extended each set of events and events provider
        – Properly release each COM Object passed as a parameter
  – Fixed our issues with event interfaces not
    properly being cleaned.
Lessons Learned

• Converting Ribbon Designer to Ribbon XML
  – Follow the rules in the new ribbon file.
  – After copying over your handlers or click events
     • Change from private to public
     • Change parameters to proper Ribbon XML
        – Generally to IRibbonControl control
Lessons Learned

  – Environment variable, set to 0 (zero)
  – Displays VSTO errors as a message box
     • Extremely useful when debugging.
  – Environment variable, set to 1 (one)
  – Writes the errors to a log file
     • Exists in the folder with the deployment manifest or
  – Add-in name.vsto.log
Lessons Learned

• After upgrading from VSTO 4.0 to 4.0 SP1,
  our add-ins are failing to load?
  – If you generate your own installer files, you
    specify how to write the manifest key to the
     • manifest = “C:\Program
  – In SP1, that path changed to be
     • “file:///C:Program Files\...”

• VSTO 3.0 -
• VSTO 4.0
• Office Development in VSTO -
• Office Development in Visual Studio 2010 -
•   Features Available by Office Application and Project Type - –
• Outlook 2010 User Interface -
• Custom Task Panes Overview -
  us/library/aa942864.aspx -

• Word Object Model Overview -
• Excel Object Model Overview -
• PowerPoint 2010 Developer Reference -
• Outlook 2010 Object Model -
• ClickOnce Security and Deployment -
• Walkthrough: Creating your first Word Add-in

• Office Fluent User Interface Control Identifiers -
• RequestCOMAddinAutomationService -
• Deploying your VSTO add-in to All Users -
• VSTO SP1 Fastpath issue -

• Customizing the 2007 Office Fluent Ribbon for Developers 1/3 -
• Deploying a Customized Ribbon and Quick Access Toolbar -
• Customizing Context Menus for Office 2010 -
• Customizing the Office 2010 Backstage View -
time to make a difference.

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