World War I

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					World War I
    Nationalism and Internal Dissent
   Liberals believed that a peaceful Europe
    would be based on international fraternity
    – Their idea of “nation-states” created
      competition not cooperation
            nation-state regarded itself as sovereign, which
        Each
        made war an ever-present possibility
    – Ethnic groups still wanted their own nation
        Slavs,   Poles and the Irish
    – Imperialism brought rivalry among the
      countries
         Labor Movements
 Nationalistfeelings were not the only
 internal problems
  – Socialist labor movements became more
    powerful and more common
     Some historians believe that the statesmen
     opted for war in order to stop a possible
     revolution
              Militarism
 Thedevelopment of mass armies
 heightened tensions
  – Conscription was established in most
    Western countries except for the U.S
    and Britain
  – The Russian army grew to be the largest
    army
 Politicalleaders often made decisions
 based on military purposes and not
 political ones
         The Outbreak of War
   The decisions by European leaders in the
    summer of 1914 directly contributed to
    WWI
                   The Balkans
   Rivalry between
    Austria-Hungary &
    Russia over the
    Balkans heightened
    tensions in the area
    – Serbia, with Russia,
      wanted to create an
      independent Slavic
      state
    – Austria-Hungary wanted
      to prevent this in order
      to keep their own Slavic
      minorities
             The Black Hand
   Gavrilo Princip, a
    Bosnian activist,
    working for a
    Serbian terrorist
    group, The Black
    Hand, assassinated
    Archduke Francis
    Ferdinand, heir to
    the Austrian throne
       Sparking the Powder Keg
   The Austrian
    government saw
    this as a time to
    “render Serbia
    impotent once and
    for all by a display
    of force.”
             The Blank Check
   Austria sought help
    from Germany in
    case Russia joined
    sides with Serbia
    – Germany offered
      Austria a “blank
      check,” giving them
      full support in
      whatever they
      needed.
               Ultimatum
 Austria   gave Serbia an ultimatum
  – Their list of demands was so extreme
    that Serbian officials couldn’t accept
 Austria   declared war on Serbia(1)
         Russia Enters the War
 Tsar Nicholas II, concerned about a
  war against both Austria and
  Germany, moved his full forces
  towards the battlefront(2)
 Germany declared war on Russia(3)
      France and the War
 Germany  planned a defense against
 France in case they entered the war
 – France had made an alliance with Russia
   in 1894
             Germany’s Plan
   General Alfred von
    Schlieffen created
    a plan for the
    mobilization of his
    troops against
    Russia and France
          The Schlieffen Plan
   Germany declared
    war on France after
    mobilizing troops
    through the neutral
    Belgium(4)
        Britain and the War
 Britaindeclared war on Germany for
 violation of Belgium’s neutral
 rights(5)
  – By August 4, 1914, all of the Great
    European powers were at war
Europe at War
1914-1915: Illusions and Stalemate
 War  started in 1914 due to the
 stirrings of national antagonisms
 before war
 – Feeling just, there were calls for defense
   against aggressors
                 Nationalism
 Enthusiasm  for war came from a
 belief that a quick victory was at
 hand
  – Believed it would take little time to
    destroy a nation’s economy
  – Illusions that it released people from
    dull bourgeois life
     It   was an adventure
            Schlieffen Plan
 Germany  hoped for a quick victory
 with the Schlieffen Plan
 – Would encircle the French army through
   Belgium
    Came  within 20 miles of Paris
    Quickly mobilized British troops joined
     France
                 Digging In
        army could force the other
 Neither
 one back
  – Led to the digging of trenches for
    shelter
     Extended  from the English Channel to
      borders of Switzerland
     “Western Front”
       – Neither side moved for four years

 Russia   moved in the east
Western Front
        Changing Alliances
 Austriawas defeated by the Russians
 and driven out of Serbia
  – Italy betrayed Germany and Austria by
    joining the Entente
  – Bulgaria joined the Alliance, attacked
    and defeated Serbia
Eastern Front
             Trench Warfare
   Used as elaborate systems of
    defense protected by:
    –   Barbed wire
    –   Concrete machine-gun nests
    –   Mortar batteries
    –   Heavy artillery
   Troops lived in trenches separated
    by no man’s land
Trench Cross Section
             How to Fight?
 Trench   warfare baffled leaders
  – Trained by wars of movement and
    maneuvers
 Generals attempted to breakthrough
  by running through no man’s land
 Would pelt enemy lines with bullets
  and have soldiers run across no
  man’s land towards the enemy
        Daily Life in the Trenches
   Battlefields
    consisted of:
    –   Barbed wire
    –   Shell holes
    –   Mud
    –   Dead & dying men
    –   Poison gases
                        Death
   Death was ever present in the trenches
    – Remains of soldiers
    – Stench of decomposing bodies
   Life in trenches included:
    –   Breakfast
    –   Inspection
    –   Sentry duty
    –   Restoration of trenches
    –   Care of personal items
    –   Dull, lice-ridden, muddy, dusty living
        conditions
            Live and Let Die?
   Realizing that
    neither side was
    winning they used
    a live and let live
    system
    – Would not shell the
      latrines or attack
      during breakfast
    – Would even make
      noise before
      smaller raids
            Stalemate and Allies
   Each side sought an advantage by gaining
    new allies
    – The Ottoman Empire joined the Alliance
    – Italy joined the Entente
   Other parts of world joined their mother
    countries
    –   Middle East
    –   India
    –   Australia
    –   New Zealand
   The Entente took over all of Germany’s
    colonies
           Lawrence of Arabia
   The British started
    revolts in the
    Middle East to
    break down the
    Ottoman Empire
    – T.E. Lawrence,
      “Lawrence Of
      Arabia”
    Entry of the United States
       States remained neutral but
 United
 obviously favored the British side
  – The British Isles became war zone
  – Any ship in it was in danger of being
    torpedoed
        Sinking of the Lusitania
   Americans became
    angry when
    Germany sank the
    Lusitania
    – A passenger liner
      with 100 Americans
      onboard
 America Enters, Allies Losing
 The Entente started losing as Italian
  armies were losing
 The Russian Revolution led to a
  Russian withdrawal
 America entered war as a result
  unrestricted submarine warfare in
  1917
  – Gave the Entente the power boost they
    needed
 The Home Front: The Impact of
          Total War
 WWI transformed the governments,
 economies and societies of the
 European nations involved in the war
 – Needed organization of men & material
 – Centralization of government powers
 – Economic regimentation
 – Manipulation of public opinion to keep
   war effort strong
    Total War: Political Centralization
     and Economic Regimentation
   Patriotism fueled
    the enthusiasm for
    war in the
    beginning
    – But the war
      dragged on longer
      than expected
        Compulsory Work
 Governments   needed different ways
 to fuel their war machines with men
 and materials
 – Mass conscription replaced volunteers
    Some   made military service compulsory
 – Skilled workers needed to produce
   munitions were not in the army
    Some   made labor compulsory
     Government Regulations
 Controlled prices
 Rationing of food
  and materials
 Regulation of
  imports and
  exports
 Nationalization of
  transportation
  systems
Public Order and Public Opinion
   As the war
    progressed civilian
    morale dropped
    – British passed
      Defense of the
      Realm Act (DORA)
        Silenced   dissenters
The Social Impact of Total War
 Labor unions benefited from working
  together with the government
 Women had gained new jobs in
  banking and heavy industry
  – In Britain 1,345,000 women obtained
    new jobs
  – In France 684,000 women obtained new
    jobs
                    Women
   However, new jobs
    did not change the
    perception of
    women
    – After the war they
      lost all the jobs
      they had gained
        World War I and Death
   WWI did not effect
    class conflict due
    to the fact that as
    many
    – Aristocrats died as
      much as peasants
      (percentage wise)
      Reasons for the Russian
           Revolution
 The Revolution of
  1905 failed to
  bring real changes
 Tsar Nicholas II
  still had the
  support of the
  army and
  bureaucracy
        Always Be Prepared
 WWI magnified Russia’s problems
 and brought challenges to the tsar
 – Unprepared militarily and
   technologically for war
    Tsar   took personal charge of the military
 – Lacked the ability to train the military
 – Russian industry was unable to make
   enough weapons for the army
    Causing   severe losses on the Eastern Front
          Russian Government
   Nicholas II revoked
    all the concessions
    he made in 1905
    – The surge of
      patriotism that
      occurred during the
      outbreak of WWI
      was crushed
        Thegovernment
        didn’t trust their own
        people
               Reactions
 Peasantdiscontent grew due to
 worsening conditions
  – Industry only concentrated on war
    production upsetting workers
  – Aristocrats were upset at the
    incompetent and inefficient bureaucracy
    that controlled the military and politics
         Tsarina Alexandra
 Her son Alexis was
  a hemophiliac that
  could not be cured
  by doctors
 Rasputin, a
  Siberian peasant,
  was able to cure
  him
                     Rasputin
   Belonged to a
    religious sect that
    indulged in sexual
    orgies
    – The ability to cure
      Alexis allowed him to
      gain favor with
      Alexandra
   This allowed to him
    to interfere in
    government affairs
    until he was
    assassinated
         The March Revolution
   A series of strikes
    broke out in the
    capital of Petrograd
    (St. Petersburg)
    – Due to the
      introduction of
      bread rationing
        Tocontrol
        skyrocketing prices
     Women Take to the Streets
   With the number of
    women working in
    Petrograd factories
    doubling since 1914,
    they took to the
    streets
    – Demanded “Peace and
      Bread” and “Down with
      Autocracy”
          Known as the
           International Women’s
           Day
        The Revolution Begins
 Thewomen were joined by other
 workers
  – They succeeded in closing all of
    Petrograd’s factories
 NicholasII ordered troops to
 disperse the crowd by firing upon
 them
  – The troops joined the demonstration
    instead
                     Its Not A Duma
                     Well, really it is
   The (formally dissolved) Duma met to
    create a provisional government
    – Urged the Tsar to abdicate the throne and he
      did so
    – Implemented a liberal agenda of freedom of:
        Speech
        Press
        Religion
        Assembly
        Civil   Rights
   Represented the needs of the middle class
    and the aristocracy
Protect Mother Russia’s Honor
   Determined to
    carry on the war to
    preserve Russia’s
    honor
    – The workers and
      the peasants above
      all else wanted to
      end the war
            The Soviets
 Had to compete with another group
 trying to gain power, the Soviets
 – Wanted to establish peasant socialism
   by seizing landed estates and creating a
   rural democracy
 – Also used political terrorism to
   accomplish their goals
 – Represented the radical interests of the
   lower classes
               Mensheviks
   The Mensheviks
    wanted to create a
    mass electoral
    socialist party
    based on a western
    model
                  Bolsheviks
   The Bolsheviks
    wanted to create a
    mass violent
    revolution
    – Led by Vladimir
      Ulyanov (V.I. Lenin)
     Conspiracy to Conspire
 After the Provisional government was
 formed Lenin and his wife were
 “shipped” to Russia in a “sealed
 train”
  – His arrival started a new stage of the
    Russian Revolution
                      April Thesis
   His “April Thesis”
    presented a blueprint
    for revolutionary action
    based on his own
    version of Marxism
    – Said it was not necessary
      to have a bourgeois
      revolution in order to
      achieve socialism
    – Instead Russia could
      move directly into
      socialism
   His slogan was “Peace,
    Land and Bread”
   Bolsheviks Spell Doom for the
      Provisional Government
 The provisional government was
 trying to maintain their power over
 Russia while the Bolsheviks tried to
 win over the masses
  – Attempted a new military offensive on
    the Eastern Front in July
 Masses   of peasant soldiers left
  – They returned home
  – Began seizing land with their families
     The Bolshevik Revolution in the
               Beginning
   Alexander Kerensky
    was the Prime
    Minister of the
    Provisional
    Government
    – He falsely accused
      the Bolsheviks of
      attempting to
      overthrow the
      provisional
      government
    – Lenin had to flee
      Finland
    Overthrowing the Government
   Lenin persuaded the
    Bolsheviks to
    overthrow the
    provisional government
    – Leon Trotsky helped
      Lenin organize the
      Military Revolutionary
      Committee to overthrow
      of the government
    – They took over in two
      days (October
      Revolution) with hardly
      any bloodshed
        Aftermath of the Coup
      used his new power create the
 Lenin
 Congress of Soviets
  – Represented local soviets from all over
    the country
 Thereal power was passed to the
 People’s Commissars
  – Was headed by Lenin
                        Lenin
 Herealized the importance of
 winning mass support quickly so he
 started fulfilling promises
  – First he nationalized land
        Allowed   peasant seizure of land
         – Assured the Bolsheviks of peasant support
  – Then he turned over control of factories
    to workers (temporary)
               Alexandra Kollontai
   She was a supporter of
    revolutionary socialism and
    pushed for a Bolshevik
    program for women’s rights
    and social welfare
    – Established the Palaces for the
      Protection of Maternity and
      Children
    – Provided health care
    – Legalized divorce
    – Made marriage a civil act
    – Urged the equality of men and
      women
    – Permitted abortions
   Established the Zhenotdel
    (Women’s Bureau of the
    Communist Party)
    Lenin’s Promise Interrupted
 These reforms were undone by the
  Communists in order to concentrate on
  the survival of their newly formed regime
 The communist government signed the
  Treaty of Breast-Litovsk with Germany
    – Gave up east Poland, Ukraine, Finland, and the
      Baltic Provinces
    – The promised peace didn’t happen after this as
      Russia soon entered a civil war
                   Civil War
 Opposition      to the Bolsheviks came
 from:
  – The aristocracy, still loyal to the Tsar
  – As well as the Mensheviks
  – Members of the Entente (Allied Powers)
    sent troops to different parts of Russia
     In   order to bring Russia back into the war
           Bolsheviks Win
    Bolshevik Red Army fought the
 The
 Mensheviks (white) for four years
  – They regained the Ukraine, Georgia,
    Armenia and Azerbaijan
    Reasons for the Bolshevik Triumph
   The Red Army
    became well-
    disciplined,
    formidable fighting
    forces due to
    organization under
    Leon Trotsky
    – Reinstated draft and
      gave command to
      former Tsarist army
      officers
    – Insisted on rigid
      discipline
               who did not
        Soldiers
        comply were executed
                Interior Defense
   Had the advantage
    of interior lines of
    defense
    – Were able to move
      troops rapidly from
      different battlefields
   Menshevik Disadvantages
 Thedisunity of the anti-communist
 forces weakened the efforts of the
 Mensheviks
  – Made it difficult to achieve military
    cooperation
 TheMensheviks were unable to
 agree upon a common goal
  – The Bolshevik’s sense of purpose gave
    them a reason to fight
         War Communism
 TheBolsheviks instituted “War
 Communism” in order to ensure
 regular supplies for the Red Army
  – Nationalization of banks and industries
  – Forced requisition of grain from
    peasants
  – Centralization of government under
    Bolshevik control
                 The Cheka
   Replaced the old
    Tsarist secret
    police with the
    Cheka
    – Secret police used
      for terror
    – Used to destroy
      those who opposed
      the new regime
            Russian Patriotism
   The intervention of
    foreign armies
    enabled the
    Bolsheviks to
    appeal to Russian
    patriotism
    – The Allied Powers
      did not hide their
      anti-Bolshevik
      feeling
 Communist Success in Russia
 Thecivil war created a Bolshevik
 regime that transformed Russia into
 a bureaucratically centralized state
 dominated by single party
  – Became hostile to the Allied Powers
     Due    to their assistance to their enemies
        during the civil war
    New Hopes for Germany with a
        Russian Withdrawal
   German leaders
    proposed a grand
    offensive in the
    west to break the
    stalemate
    – Advanced to the
      Marne River but
      French and
      American forces
      defeated them at
      Second Battle of
      Marne
             Suing for Peace
   General Ludendorff
    informed his
    leaders that the
    war was lost
    – Germany sued for
      peace
    – Kaiser William II
      fled the country
   An armistice was
    signed on
    November 11,
    1918
           Austria-Hungary
            forces broke up the
 Nationalistic
 Austro-Hungarian Empire
  – The empire was replaced by
    independent republics for ethnic
    minorities
     Austria

     Hungary

     Czechoslovakia

     Yugoslavia
        Avoiding the Mistakes of the
            Congress of Vienna
   U.S. President
    Woodrow Wilson
    attempted to shift
    war aims to a
    higher ideal by
    creating the
    “Fourteen Points”
        Woodrow Wilson
– Wanted to create a new world order
  based on democracy and international
  cooperation
   Create   a League of Nations
– Wanted to rid the world of the secret
  agreements that caused World War I
   Many   countries still kept secret agreements
              Britain’s Plans
   Prime Minister, of
    Britain, David
    Lloyd George won
    the election on the
    platform of making
    the Germans pay
    – Only total victory
      over Germany could
      compensate for the
      war’s losses
             France’s Plans
   Premier, of France,
    Georges
    Clemenceau
    believed the
    French experienced
    the brunt of
    aggression and
    deserved revenge
    and future security
       Georges Clemenceau
 Wanted   to demilitarize Germany
 – It posed a long-term threat
 Make   Germany pay for cost of the
 war
 – As well as war reparations
 Wanted   a separate Rhineland
 – A buffer zone between France and
   Germany
     Domination at the Paris Peace
             Conference
   U.S. Representative –
    Woodrow Wilson
   French Representative
    – Georges
    Clemenceau
   British Representative
    – David Lloyd George
   Russia was unable to
    attend due to the
    revolution
   Germany was not
    invited
     The Final Peace Settlement
   There were five
    different treaties,
    one with each
    defeated nation
    –   Germany
    –   Austria
    –   Hungary
    –   Bulgaria
    –   The Ottoman
        Empire
               Treaty of Versailles
   Treaty of Versailles was signed with Germany on
    June 28, 1919
    – Article 231 (a.k.a. the Guilt Clause) – blamed Germany
      for starting the war
          Ordered Germany to pay reparations for all damage to
           Allied governments
          Germany had to reduce its army to 100,000
          Cut back its navy
          Eliminate its air force
    – Had to return Alsace and Lorraine to France
    – Give a section of Prussia to the new Polish state
    – German had to demilitarize the Rhineland
          Remove all armaments and forts as far as 30 miles east of
           the Rhine River
                   Other Treaties
   Other treaties redrew the
    map or Eastern Europe
    – Germany and Russia lost
      considerable territory
    – The Austro-Hungarian
      Empire disappeared
   New states were created
    –   Finland
    –   Lativa
    –   Lithuania
    –   Estonia
    –   Poland
    –   Czechoslovakia
    –   Austria
    –   Hungary
                 The Balkans
   Territorial
    rearrangements
    were also made in
    the Balkans
    – Romania acquired
      land from Russia,
      Hungary and
      Bulgaria
    – Serbia formed the
      major part of the
      new Slavic state of
      Yugoslavia
      End of the Ottoman Empire
   The Ottoman Empire
    was broken up
    – France took control
      of Lebanon and Syria
    – Britain acquired Iraq
      and Palestine
    – The U.S. opposed
      these annexations
      Settlements Under Attack
   These peace
    settlements came
    under attack by
    defeated nations
    – Felt the treaties
      were shortsighted
         The League of Nations
   Gave some the
    hope that future
    conflicts would be
    solved peacefully
    – The U.S. Senate
      never ratified the
      Treaty of Versailles
        Prevented the U.S.
        from joining the
        League of Nations
             U.S. Senate
 The Senate rejected an alliance with
 Britain and France
  – Wanted to limit U.S. involvement in
    future European wars
  – Britain also removed itself from an
    alliance with France
  – Left France to stand alone against
    Germany

				
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