Computer automated microelectronics manufacturing by Iet36H

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									           Electronic Engineering Department

  King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang

                       Lecture # I

01044050       MICROELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING

                 2nd    Semester 2006
http://www.kmitl.ac.th/~kbittibh/microelect.html




http://www.rit.edu/~lffeee/emcr731.htm(Dr. Lynn Lecture Notes)
OBJECTIVES


PROVIDE EXPERIENCE FOR STUDENTS IN APPLYING KNOWLEDGE FOR
MICROELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING


PROVIDE A REAL LIFE WORK IN AN MICROELECTRONICS
MANUFACTURING


PROVIDE A BASELINE FOR RESEARCH IN MANUFACTURING


ALLOWS FOR BETTER CONTROL OF THE LABORATORY PROCESSES,
IMPROVES QUALITY, REDUCES MANUFACTURING CYCLE TIME


BETTER SATISFY OUR CUSTOMERS
MICROELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING
       IS DIFFERENT THAN
 MICROELECTRONICS FABRICATION
MICROELECTRONICS FABRICATION


THE DESIGN AND REALIZATION OF A SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE FOR
CIRCUIT.
THE GOAL IS ACHIEVED IFONE DEVICE OR CIRCUIT IS MADE TO WORK.
RESEARCH IS CENTERED ON NEW TECHNOLOGIESAND MATERIALS,
SMALLER AND FASTER DEVICES, NOVEL CIRCUITS, ETC.


MICROELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING


THE REALIZATION OF LARGE NUMBERS OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES
OR CIRCUITS.
THE GOAL IS ACHIEVED IF LARGE NUMBERS OF CIRCUITS ARE MADE, AT
LOW COST, WITH HIGH YIELD AND QUICK TURN AROUND.
RESEARCH IS CENTERED ON MANUFACTURING METHOLOLOGY,
OPERATIONS RESEARCH, STATISTIAL PROCESS CONTROL, FACTORY
SIMULATION, ETC.
NUMBER OF STUDENTS GRADUATING EACH YEAR WITH EDUCATION IN
            MICROELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING


  LESS THAN 100/YEAR AT THE GRADUATE AND UNDERGRADUATE
TYPICAL UNDERGRADUATE MICROELECTRONICS EXPERIENCE


                                  MANUFACTURING CONTENT


VLSI DESIGN (DIGITAL SYSTEMS)          NONE
ANALOG I.C. DESIGN(ELECTRONICS)        NONE
I.C. PROCESSING LECTURE                NONE
I.C. FABRACATION LABORATORY            SMALL
DEVICE PHYSICS                         NONE
MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING CONTENT THAT IS MISSING


OPEATIONS RESEARCH:
      FACTORY FLOOR SIMULATION
      WORK IN PROGRESS TRACKING
      TOTAL CYCLE TIME MANAGEMENT
      MATERIALS RESOURCE PLANNING
      SCHEDULING
      PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE
STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL:
         DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS
         STATISTICAL THINKING
         TIME SERIES ANALYSIS


COMPUTER AUTOMATION:
         CAD, CAM, CIM
         SEC I, II
         ROBOTICS
         AI, EXPERT SYSTEM


OTHER:
         LITHOGRAPHY
CAD, CAM, CIM IN THE MICROELECTRONICS INDUSTRY


THE DESIGN OF THE INTEGRATED CIRCUIT, INCLUDES LAYOUT EDITORS
SUCH AS ICE, CHIPRAPH, DESIGN RULE CHECKERS, SWITCH LEVEL
SIMULATORS, TIMING VERIFICATION, CIRCUIT SIMULATORS(PSPICE),
SHEMATIC CAPTURE, TEST GENERATION


ALSO- THE DESIGN OF THE FABRICATION PROCESS, INCLUDES PROCESS
SIMULATORS SUCH AS SUPREM ROMANS II, BISIM, SAMPLE, PROLITH,
DREAMS, PROSIM, DEPICT 2 etc.


CAM – COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING
FACTORY SIMULATION, PLANNING AND SCHEDULING OF WORK IN
PROCGRESS, THE OPERATION OF THE FABRICATION PROCESS, INCLUDES
LOT CONTROL, DATA COLLECTION, STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL,
DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS, FACILITIES, MONITORING, RECIPE
MODIFICATION AND DOWNLOADING, YIELD MODELING, FLEXABLE
MANUFACTURING, ROBOTICS, AI, EXPERT SYSTEMS
CIM – COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING
CONCEPT IN WHICH COMPUTERSOFTWARE AND HARDWARE IS
INTEGRATED THROUGHOUT A MANUFACTURING FACILITY TO PROVIDE
INTEGRATION AMONG FUNCTIONS SUCH AS ENGINEERING AND
RESEARCH, PRODUCTION PLANNING, PLANT OPERATIONS, SHIPPING,
RECEIVING, BUSINESS MANAGEMENT, MARKETING, EVERYTHING
Work flow through NMOS process, is about 60 steps.
This illustrates the manufacturing problem industrial engineering. There is also a
yield loss at each step.

      1                                                   2
                                                  3
                    4       5
                                           8

                    6       7                     9      10


                                                         11
    13      14             17      18

                                                         12
    15      16
                           19      20


                           21
             Computer automated microelectronics manufacturing
                                Capabillites


Control Equipments Access and Monitor Equipment Status
Monitor Clean Room Environment
Measure Performance
Provide a Laboratory to Test Manufacturing
Control Equipment(Download Recipes)
Collect in-Process Test Data
Collect Final Test Data
Statistical Process Control
Schedule Operations
Materials Planning
Operator Prompts
Control Robotic Systems
Manual Input and Auto Input Notebooks
                                    SUMMARY


Product Technology - is not the primary factor in competitiveness that it oncewas


Manufacturing       - is now at least as important


The world semiconductor will be won by those who can manufacture
CONCLUSIONS


The universities in the United States can be world leaders in Microelectronics
manufacturing education and research
World leadership in manufacturing research des not guarantee
manufacturing competitiveness


THE UNIVERSITIES ROLE
Give new importance to manufacturing(New courses and new programs)
Get manufacturing into the B.S. level programs so that when they become
engineers in industry, they are prepared to be world leaders in
manufacturing.


INDUSTRY ROLE
Give new importance to manufacturing engineering(attractive career paths)
Need to redefine jobs and retrain employees
          MICROELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING INCLUDES


SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY
DEVICE FABRICATION
SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING
LITHOGRAPHY
MATERIALS SCIENCE
SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY


OXIDATION/DIFFUSION
LPCVD
PLASMA ETCH
RAPID THERMAL ANNEAL
SPUTTERING
ION IMPLANT
LITHOGRAPHY
DEVICE FABRICATION


ELECTRONIC DEVICES
        MOS STRUCTURES
        DIODE, RESISTORS
        TRANSISTORS
        GATES, RING OSCILLATORS
        ANALOG OTA’S


MICROELECTROMECHANICAL
        SENSORS, ACTUATORS


OTHER
SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING


WIPTRACKING
PROCESS ENGINEERING
STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL
CYCLE TIME
DEFECT REDUCTION & YIELD ENHANCED
TQM, CP, CPK
LITHOGRAPHY


EXPOSURE TOOLS
COAT AND EEVELOP TOOLS
RESIST MATERIALS
      POSITIVE NOVALAC RESISTS
      NEG CHEMICALLY AMPLIFIED
      CONTRAST ENHANCEMENT
      DYED, ARC
      MULTILAYER
      TOP SURFACE IMAGING
MODELING
PHASE SHIFT
DUV
MATERIALS SCIENCE


SURFACE ANALYSIS
      SEM, TEM
      AUGER, SIMS
      XPS, ESCA
MATERIALS PROCESSING
      METALS(SPUTTERING)
      CVD(LPCVD)
      PLASMA
      RAPID THERMAL
BASIC EDUCATIONAL FACILITY


3-6 TUBES FURNACE
RESIST SPINNER
BAKE OVEN OR HOT PLATE
CONTACT PRINTERS
WET ETCH HOOD
EVAPORATIOR
OPTICAL MICROSCOPE
4PT PROBE, GROOVE
SUPREM II
CMOS CAPABLE EDUCATIONAL FACILITY


BASIC FACILITYPLUS ALL BELOW
LPCVD POLY AND NITRIDE
WAFER COAT//DEVELOP SYSTEM
STEPPERS
PLASMA ETCHOR RIE
SPUTTERING
ION IMPLANT
SEM, NANOSPEC
SUPREM III, IV, PSPICE
A UNIVERSITY MICROELECTRONICS CIM SYSTEM CAPABILITIES


CONTROL EQUIPMENT ACCESS
MONITOR EQUIPMENT STATUS
LOT TRACKING
OPERATOR INSTRUCTIONS
EQUIPMENT OPERATION MANUALS
SCHEDULEING
MANUAL INPUT AND AUTO INPUT DATA COLLECTION
STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL
MONITOR CLEANROOM ENVIRONENT
MATERIALS PLANNING
DOWNLOAD RECIPES TO EQUIPMENT
CONTROL ROBOTIC SYSTEMS
EXPERT SYSTEMS
MICROELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING PLAN
INSTALL HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE FOR RESOURCE PLANNING TO KEEP
INVENTORY OF CHEMICALS, WAFERS AND GASES.
UNPACK AND PLACE EQUIPMENT
PROVIDE ELECTRICITY AND COMMUNICATIONS HOOK UP
LAY CABLE TRAYS
PURCHASE AND INSTALL CONNECTORS AND CABLE
OBTAIN TRAINING FOR SYSTEM OPERATOR
SET UP BAR CODE SYSTEM FOR WAFER LOTS
SET UP BAR CODE DETAILS FOR PIECES OF EQUIPMENT AND PEOPLE
INSTALL ALL SOFTWARE
CUSTOMIZE WIPTRACK SOFTWARE
      INPUT PROCESS SEQUENCE
      INPUT OPERATOR INSTRUCTIONS
      INPUT EQUIPMENT OPERATOR MANUALS
INTERFACE SYSTEM TO INDIVIDUA PIECES OF EQUIPMENT FOR CONTROL
PROCESS DETAILS


PHOTORESIST COAT AND DEVELOP TRACK SYSTEM
EXPOSURE TOOL(STEPPER) WITH INTERFACE
ION IMPLANTER
MASKMAKIN
SPUTTERING SYSTEM
WAFER CLEANING SYSTEM
LPCVD POLY AND NITRIDE
FURNACE WITH AUTO LOADING AND SECS INTERFACE
SEMICONDUCTOR INDUSTRY OVERVIEW
                             HISTORY


1942   VERY PURE SILICON AND GERMANIUM
1947   PN JUNCTION DIODES INVENTED
1947   THE JUNCTION TRANSISTOR IS INVENTED AT BELL LABS BY
       HARDEEN, BRATTIN AND SCHOCKLEY
1950   SINGLE CRYSTALS BY TEAL AND LITTLE AT BELL LABS
1954   TEXAS INSTRUMENTS INTRODUCES COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION
       OF THE TRANSISTOR
1958   INTEGRATED CIRCUITS INVENTED BY KILBY AT TI
1960   FIRST PLANER INTEGRATED CIRCUITS INVENTED BY NOYCE AT
       FAIRCHILD
1962   FIRST COMMERCIAL INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
            WORLDWIDE INDUSTRY RANKINGS

PETROLEUM REFINING                     $ 941,825
MOTOR VEHICLES AND PARTS               $ 796,129
ELECTRONICS                            $ 640,101
FOOD                                   $ 382,422
CHEMICALS                              $ 374,627
METALS                          $370,693
INDUSTRIAL AND FARM EQUIPMENT          $197,303
COMPUTER(OFFICE EQUIPMENT)             $ 179,789
AEROSPACE                              $ 166,558
FOREST PRODUCTS                        $ 142, 556
PHARMACEUTICALS                        $ 116,081
BEVERAGES                              $ 96, 278
BUILDING MATERIALS                     $ 93,825
METAL PRODUCTS                         $ 88,783 BILLIONS
           WORLDWIDE ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY

CONSUMER ELECTRONICS                $ 60.7
ACTIVE COMPONENTS                   $ 47.6
PASSIVE COMPONENTS                  $ 48.6
MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT               $ 47.3
PROFESSIONAL ELECTRONICS            $ 94.9
TELECOMMUNICATIONS                  $ 58.0
AUTOMATION                          $ 46.6
DATA PROCESSING                     $ 191.5
SOFTWARE                            $ 123.8
OFFICE AUTOMATION                   $ 26.0


TOTAL $ 640.1 BILLION
        WORLD’S TOP 20 ELECTRONICS COMPANIES

      COMPANY         COUNTRY         SALES
IBM CORP              U.S.           $ 62,710
MATSUSHITA            JAPAN          $ 31,319
NEC CORP              JAPAN          $ 24,975
TOSHIBA CORP          JAPAN          $ 22,674
HITACHI CORP          JAPAN          $ 22,055
PHILIPS NV            N’LANDS        $ 21,594
SEIMENS AG            W. GERMANY     $ 19,825
FUJITSU LTD           JAPAN          $ 18,477
SONY CORP             JAPAN          $ 16,904
GENERAL MOTORS        U.S.           $ 16,880
AT&T                  U.S.           $ 16,612
CGE                   FRANCE         $ 13,307
      WORLD’S TOP 20 ELECTRONICS COMPANIES

   COMPANY          COUNTRY         SALES

DIGITAL EQUIPMENT    U.S.          $ 12,943
GENERAL ELECTRIC     U.S.          $ 12,369
MITSUBISHI          JAPAN          $ 11,862
XEROX                U.S.          $ 11,602
THOMSON CSF         FRANCE         $ 11,175
UNISYS               U.S.          $ 10,097
MOTOROLA             U.S.          $ 9,620
CANON               JAPAN          $ 9,593
WORLD’S TOP 20 SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURERS

   COMPANY

NIPPON ELECTRIC              $ 5,015
TOSHIBA                      $ 4,930
HITACHI            $ 3,974
MOTOROLA                     $ 2,963
FUJITSU                      $ 2,787
TEXAS INSTRUMENTS            $ 2,579
MITSUBISHI                   $ 2,430
INTEL                        $ 1,882
MATSUSHITA                   $ 1,716
PHILIPS                      $ 1,618
NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR       $ 1,365
SANYO                        $ 1,301
SGS-THOMSON                  $ 1,260
SAMSUNG                      $ 1,230
SIEMENS                      $ 1,194
OKI SEMICONDUCTOR            $ 1,154
ADVANCED MICRO DEVICES       $ 1,100
SONY                         $ 1,077
AT&T                         $ 873     MILLION
            TOP 10 EQUIPMENT MAKERS 1988

NIKON                 $ 520 MILLION
TOKYO ELECTRON        $ 508
ADVANTEST             $ 385
APPLIED MATERIALS     $ 381
GENERAL SIGNAL        $ 375
CANON                 $ 290
VARIAN                $ 211
PERKIN ELMER          $ 205
TERADYNE              $ 190
LTX                   $ 180
MARKET SHARE AND TOTAL SALES 1989


U.S. 43% MARKET SHARE    SALE OF $ 28.6 BILLION
JAPAN 39% MARKET SHARE   SALE OF $ 26 BILLION
REST OF WORLD 15%        SALE OF $ 12.6 BILLION
TOTAL $ 67.2 BILLION
FOREIGN SEMICONDUCTOR FABS IN THE U.S.


NEC          - ROSEVILLE, CA
FUJITSU      - GRRECIAN, OR
SONY         - SAN ANTONIO, TX
MITSUBISHI   - RESEARCH TRIANGLE, NC
MATSUSHITA   - PUWALLUP, WA
SHARP        - SEATTLE, WA
TOSHIBA      - SUNNYVALE, CA
HOYA(MICROMASK) – MOUNTAINVIEW, CA
TOPPAN       - DALLAS, TX
TECHNOLOGY EVOLUTION


INTRO DRAM    FEATURE       PROCESS   DEFECT    LITHO
YEAR   DENSITY       SIZE   STEPS     DENSITY TOOL
       MBITS MICRONS                     /CM2   COST
                                                MIL $
1985       1 1.00           230       0.80      0.8
1988       4 0.75           270       0.45      1.0
1991      16 0.50           380       0.32      3.0
1994      64 0.35           490       0.23      5.5
1997     256 0.25           590       0.16      7.0
2000     1000 0.15          700       0.05      10.0
TECHNOLOGY BY 2000


I.C. FACTORY COST $1 BILLION
GIGABIT DRAMS
100 MILLION TRANSISTOR I.C.’S
LESS THAN 0.15 MICRON FEATURES
LESS THAN 0.05 DEFECTS/CM2
250 MZ
2 BILLION INSTRUCTIONS/SEC
3 VOLTS
1 INCH BY 1 INCH CHIPS
400 LEADS
25 WATTS/CHIP
25 WATTS/CHIP
NEW DESIGN TOOLS FOR 1 BILLION TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS


NEW STRUCTURES, SUPERLATTICES
QUANTUM-COUPLED DEVICES
         INTEGRATED CIRCUIT MANUFACTURING


A VARIETY OF SEQUENTIAL STEPS WHICH RESULTS IN HUNDREDS
OFTHOUSANDS OF TRANSISTORS BEING MADE AT THE SAME TIME ON
EACH CHIP


STEPS ARE:
DEPOSITION   - CVD, LPCVD, METALLIZATION
SURFACE ALTERING – DIFFUSION, ION IMPLANTATION OXIDATION
PHOTOLITOGRAPHY –
ETCHING – WET CHEMICAL, PLASMA ETCH
CLEANING -
SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING 1991


PARTIAL CIM
CASSETTE TO CASSETTE
LIMITED AUTOMATIC MATERIALS MOVERS
OUTPUT PARAMETER SPC
EXSITU METROLOGY
BATCH PROCESSING
CLASS 10 TO 1 VLF
LIMITED INTEGRATED PROCESS TOOLS
90% FAB YIELD
60% SORT YIELD
40% EQUIPMENT UTILIZATIONS
2X THEORETICAL CYCLE TIME
0.5 DEFECTS PER CM2 AT 1 MICRON
150-200 MM WAFER SIZE
SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING


MICROCONTAMINATION AND DEFECT CONTROL REQUIREMENTS WILL
ESCALATE EXPONENTIALLY


A 0.3 MICRON CHANNEL IS ONLY 3000 ATOMS LONG
A 20 ANGSTROM THICK OXIDE FOR A CAPACITOR IS ONLY 4 MOLECULES
THICK iiii


A 60 ANGSTROM THICK OXIDE FOR GATE IS ONLY 12 MOLECULES THICK iiii
YIELD =      NUMBER OF WORKING CHIPS
              TOTAL NUMBER OF CHIPS


YIELD =      NUMBER OF STEPS
             AVERAGE YIELD/STEP




98% AVERAGE YIELD PER STEP AND 100 STEPS GIVES 13% OVERALL YIELD
SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING

AT A COST OF $1 BILLION FOR NEW FABS ASSET UTILIZATION WILL BE
THE KEY TO COMPETITIVE MANUFACTURING


EQUIPMENT RELIABILITY/UPTIME MUST BE MAXIMIZED, 100% TOTAL
PREVENTATIVE MAINTANENCE
INTER-BAYAND INTRA-BAY AUTOMATION WILL BE NEEDED
ADVANCED WIP TRACKING TO ELIMINATE QUEUES
AUTOMATED TOOLS AND RECIPE HANDILING
EXTEND THE USEFUL LIFE OF TOOLS
HUG THE 100% LOADING CAPACITY
INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DESIGN


1 MICRON LINE REPRESENTED BY TWO PENCIL MARKS 1/10 INCH APART


THIS IS 2500 TIMES ACTUAL SIZE


THUS A 1/2 x ½ INCH CHIP DRAWN 2500 TIMES ACTUAL SIZE WILL BE MORE
THAN 100 FEET BY 100 FEET


COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN STATIONS(CAD)
TESTING


6 INCH DIAMETER WAFER HAS A SURFACE AREA OF PI r2 = Pi X 9 OR ABOUT
30 SQ. IN.
EACH .1 BY .1 INCH CHIP HAS AREA OF 0.01 THUS 3000 CHIPS PER WAFER
TO TEST


INDUSTRY STARTS TYPICALLY 5000 WAFERS PER WEEK THUS THERE ARE
15,000 CHIPS TO TEST PER WEEK


IF WE TEST EACH CHIP IN 1 SECOND ITWOULD TAKE 4200 HOURS TO TEST
ALL THE CHIPS MADE IN ONE WEEK(OR 100 TESTERS)
            EXTERNAL FACTORS


        TARIFFS, TRADE AGREEMENTS
       TAXES, GOVERNMENT INCENTIVES
RESTRICTIONS/CONTROL/GOVERNMENT REPORTING
       CAPITAL AVAILABILITY AND COST
         ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS
  200 mm FABS FOR THE 90’S


DIE/WAFER FOR BIG CHIP SIZE


     25 mm BY 25 mm DIE
GIVES 25 DIE ON 200 mm WAFER
GIVES 13 DIE ON 150 mm WAFER


           INTEL
            AMD
        MOTOROLA
            IBM
            DEC
     200 mm FABS FOR THE 90’S


        ECONOMIC FACTORS


        5000 WAFERS/WEEK
        10 mm BY 10 mm Die
             $ 50/CHIP
          REVENUE/YEAR
         200 mm FAB GIVES
324X5000X50X$50 = $4.05 BILLION/YEAR
    200 mm FABS FOR THE 90’S


       ECONOMIC FACTORS


 WORLD SEMICONDUCTOR SALES
        $ 80 BILLION/YEAR


$80 B/ $4 B = 20 FABS IN THE WORLD
SEMICONDUCTORMANUFACTURING WAFER TRANSPORT AND
STORAGE


650 LOAD/UNLOAD TRANSACTIONS PER PROCESS
6.8 MILLION/YEAR
DISTANCE TRAVELLED – 6 MILES THROUGH PROCESS
TIME IN FAB – 40 DAYS
RUN BOX OPENED/CLOSED - 320 TIMES THROUGH PROCESS
WEIGHT/LOT = 16 LBS(8” WAFERS)
SIZE OF LOT 10”x10”x10”
COST VALUE/LOT $25,000
SALES VALUE/LOT $ 100,000 TO $ 1,000,000
AVERAGE VALUE OF WIP INVENTORY $6 TO $60 MILLION
13 PEOPLE TO JUST DO MOVE, LOAD, UNLOAD


0.7 MICRON PROCESS, 5000 WAFER STARTS/WEEK, 25 WAFERS/LOT
HISTORY OF SEMICONDUCTOR

								
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