Hydrogen Economy by kY08Z6M

VIEWS: 8 PAGES: 37

									Hydrogen Economy



           Travis Bayer
           Energy Law,
           2010
               Overview

• Hydrocarbon Economy vs. Hydrogen
  Economy
• Past excitement vs. Current focus
• Hydrogen Basics
• How we produce it
• How we can use it
• Costs
• The future?
 Current Hydrocarbon Economy
Fossil Fuels
• Pollution
  –Local
  –Global
• Energy Dependent
• Cost
 – Supply
 What about a different solution?
Benefits of Hydrogen
• Replace a limited fuel supply
• Security
• Clean?
• Possible safety from cyber-attacks?
     Excitement in early 2000s
• President Bush’s Hydrogen Fuel Initiative in
  2003
• EPAct of 2005
• 2006 Advanced Energy Initiative
• EISA
                           But…
Secretary of Energy, Steven Chu:
“We asked ourselves, ‘Is it likely in the next 10 or 15, 20 years
  that we will convert to a hydrogen car economy?




The answer, we felt, was ‘No.’”
           Hydrogen Basics
• Most Abundant Element
• Almost always found in compounds
  – E.g. H20
• High specific energy
• An energy carrier, not a form of primary
  energy
         What we use it for today
•   Producing Ammonia for crop fertilizers – 60%
•   Hydrocracking – 23%
•   Methanol – 9%
•   Miscellaneous
     – Includes space programs!
 How do we produce Hydrogen?
• Breaking down compounds
  – Fossil Fuels
  – Water Electrolysis
      Production: Fossil Fuels
• 48% Natural Gas, 30% Oil, 18% Coal
  – Natural Gas Steam Reforming:
     • CH4 + H2O + Energy → CO + 3 H2
     • CO + H2O → CO2 + H2




  – Kvaener-process:
    • CnHm + Energy → nC + 1/2mH2
Steam Reforming
  Production: Water Electrolysis
Electrical power sources are connected to two
  electrodes which are placed in water:
       – Anode (oxidation): 2 H2O(l) → O2(g) + 4 H+(aq) + 4e−
       – Cathode (reduction): 2 H+(aq) + 2e− → H2(g)

Most of the 4% produced by electrolysis is a
 side product in the production of industrial
 chlorine
        Electrolysis Efficiency
• Consumes about 50kWh of electricity per kg
  of Hydrogen produced
  – Energy efficiency is in the range of 50-80%
Renewable Sources and Electrolysis:
    The Carbon Free Solution?
• Solar
  – E.g., Daniel Nocera
• Wind
  – E.g., Xcel and NREL
Green Dream
                    Solar
• Under the Recovery Act, Sun Catalytix
  received $4 million through ARPA-E
  – Claims near 100%efficicency
                      Wind




Approval Granted in 2007, already making fact
findings
    Hydrogen’s role in our energy
              system
• Hydrogen Fuel Cells
• Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine
           Hydrogen Fuel Cells
•   Basics
•   Different Varieties
•   Efficiency
•   Possible Uses
    – Vehicles
    – Stationary Sources
             Fuel Cell: Basics
• Electrochemical energy production
  – Not exactly like batteries
• Reliable
  – 99.999% reliable in ideal conditions



     Basic Design:
          Fuel Cell: Varieties
• Fuel Cells are defined by the electrolyte used
  – Mobile: Proton exchange membrane fuel cell
  – Stationary: PAFC
  – Many others
PEMFC & PAFC Diagram
          Fuel Cell: Efficiency
• High Theoretical Electrical Output Efficiency
• In practice, about 40-50% efficient
• Compare to practical efficiencies of:
  – Internal Combustion Engines: about 20%
  – Lithium-ion battery: about 90%

• Still, a Hydrogen fuel cell requires about 2.5x
  more energy to make it than it provides in its
  service life.
      Fuel Cell: Possible Uses
• Vehicles
  – No longer US administrations target, but:
  – Ford Airstream Concept car:



  – 2008 Honda FCX Clarity:
       Fuel Cell: Possible Uses
• Stationary Sources
  – Cogeneration in Homes and Offices
     • Don’t need pure hydrogen, and don’t use platinum in
       anode
     • PAFC fuel cells can provide efficiencies close to 80%
     • New focus on SOFC
  – Mixed Source plants – Renewable + Fuel Cell
  – Distributed Generation?
             Hydrogen ICE
• Possible, but recall that fuel cells are more
  efficient than combustion engines.
                   Costs
•   Storage
•   Hydrogen Production
•   Cell Production
•   Distribution
•   Bottom line
              Costs: Storage
• Liquid H
  – Too expensive
• Compressed Gas
  – Container issues
• Stored as a chemical hydride
• Absorb in a solid storage material
  – Nanotubes?
   Costs: Hydrogen Production
• 1 kg of H is roughly equivalent to 1 gallon of
  gasoline
• Baseline cost of water electrolysis is
  currently about $6.25/kg of H
  – DOE goal of $3.10 by 2012
• Steam Reformation of Natural Gas is
  around $1.50/kg right now
  – Highly dependant on natural gas prices
    Costs: Fuel Cell Production
• Platinum very expensive
  – A commodity, like natural gas, fluctuates in
    price
    Costs: Fuel Cell Production
• Cost of most widely deployed stationary fuel
  cells: $4,500 per kilowatt
  – Cost of diesel generators: $800-1,500 per kilowatt
  – Cost of natural gas: $400 per kilowatt
  – DOE fuel cell goal: $400 per kilowatt
• Cost of automobile fuel cells: $61 per kilowatt
  – Cost of internal combustion engine: $25-35 per
    kilowatt
  – DOE fuel cell goal: $30 per kilowatt
  Costs: Hydrogen Distribution
• Hydrogen Pipelines + Refueling Stations
  – Embrittlement issues
     • Solvable problem
• California Hydrogen Highway
  – The Chicken and the egg problem
  – GM still thinks feasible
     • With governmental incentives
  – Happening in other countries
      Where does that leave us?
• Fuel cells in cars?
  – GM v. Chu
                 DOE Goal
• Lower Fuel Cell Costs to as low as $400 per
  kilowatt by 2020
  – Keep in mind, Secretary Chu’s focus is on
    stationary fuel cells


• EPAct of 2005 tax incentives
• State financial incentives
• State RPS
     Where does that leave us?
• Fuel cells in stationary sources?
• Private and Academic research?
  – GM and other automakers pushing towards
    Hydrogen? Can they do that without
    government support?
  – New electrolytes and catalysts that can lower
    costs?
                                THE END
•   Sources:
•   NREL:
•   http://www.nrel.gov/hydrogen/proj_wind_hydrogen_video.html
•   http://www.nrel.gov/hydrogen/pdfs/47302.pdf
•   DOE data:
•   http://fossil.energy.gov/programs/powersystems/fuelcells/index.html
•   GM Study: http://www.h2andyou.org/pdf/GM-SH%20HYDROGEN%20INFRA%20PAPER.pdf
•   Wikipedia: http://www.wikipedia.com
•   Energy, Economics, and the Environment: class textbook
•   Howstuffworks.com: http://auto.howstuffworks.com/fuel-efficiency/alternative-fuels/fuel-
    cell4.htm
•   Scientific America: http://www.scientificamerican.com/blog/post.cfm?id=rip-hydrogen-economy-
    obama-cuts-hyd-2009-05-08
•   Fuelcells.org: http://www.fuelcells.org/BusinessCaseforFuelCells.pdf
•   Report to Congress: http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/epact_743_fuel_cell_school_bus.pdf
•   http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/fuelcells/fc_challenges.html

								
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