Assumptions of the Cognitive Perspective by Zcc38aCl

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									   Assumptions of the Cognitive Perspective
1. There is a biological basis for all behavior, but
   they have a focus on how the brain translates into
   the mind. They think about thinking.
2. The mental processes of the mind can be studied
   scientifically.
3. Behavior change is explained in terms of cognitive
   or mental processing. Mental Processes are:
     A. How we gain information about the world
     B. How information is represented and transferred to
     knowledge in the mind.
     C. How internal representation directs behavior.
                      Lev Vygotsky
• Discussed the interrelation of thought and language.
• He emphasized the role of the environment, especially the
  social world of people, in intellectual development. But he
  also said that each person has a ‘Zone of proximal
  development’ or ‘zone of potential’. He got into trouble for
  that…
• Stages of language and thought development:
   – Prelinguistic phase… babbling… (before the age of 2) thought and
     language develop separately.
   – After age 2, language and thought meld. Thought becomes verbal,
     and speech becomes rational
   – Social environment can accelerate or decelerate language
     development (Vygotsky was Russian…)
   – Speech develops first… external speech (egocentric speech used to
     communicate) then comes the internal speech.
            Hart & Risley, 1995
Cumulative Vocabulary of 3 year olds:
• Children from professional families knew 1100 words
• Children from working class families knew 700 words
• Children from welfare families knew 500 words
Baker, Simmons, & Kame’enui, 1997

• The number of new words students learn
  depends on how much vocabulary they
  already have.
• 2 words a day for students with a limited
  vocabulary… 8 words per day for a student
  with a rich vocabulary
• Results in 750 new words vs. 3000 per year!
         Language and Cognition
• Lev Vygotsky: language creates thought.
• Educational research of late tells us that organizing
  thoughts into written language actually develops the
  thoughts… writing does not merely record what is in the
  brain. It actually forms what is in the brain…
• More vocabulary means more intelligence… They say
  that kindergartners need a vocabulary of at least 1000
  words to start school. (Many do not have this… also, the
  more words you have, the more you can learn!)

								
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