Praxis Report Final by Zcc38aCl

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									Office of the Dean
Teachers for a New Era




                Praxis Results for Academic Year 2005-2006

Students in the Teacher Preparation Program of the University of Connecticut’s
Neag School of Education (NSoE) are required to pass part of the Praxis series
to obtain certification in the field of education in Connecticut. The purpose of this
report is to summarize the scores from the Praxis assessments.

                                   Background
Connecticut participates in two of three assessments developed by Educational
Testing Service: Praxis I and Praxis II. The Praxis I is taken by students without
adequate scores (i.e., SAT) before being admitted into the Teacher Preparation
Program. The Praxis II assessment is actual a battery of assessments by area of
specialty to measure basic academic knowledge and skills, as well as general
pedagogical and content area knowledge.

                                      Method
Participants

Some students take Praxis I. Results are used as part of their application
process for the NSoE Teacher Preparation Program for the Integrated
Bachelor’s/Master’s Teacher Education (IB/M) and the Teacher Certification
Program for College Graduates (TCPCG).

The vast majority of students in the IB/M and TCPCG complete the Praxis II
examination regardless of their future career plans to become certified or to
teach in other states. Students enrolled with a concentration in agricultural and
world languages are not included. Those in world languages complete an
assessment from the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages,
administered through Language Testing International, which consists of two
parts: oral proficiency interview and writing proficiency interview.

Instruments

The Praxis series of assessments are standardized measures developed by
Educational Testing Service to ensure that prospective teachers demonstrate
adequate skills, knowledge, and competencies to become professionals in field


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of education. The teacher licensure assessments are divided into three
components: 1) Praxis I: Pre-Professional Skills Tests, 2) Praxis II: Subject
Assessments, and 3) Praxis III: Classroom Performance Assessments. The
Praxis III is not required for teacher certification in the State of Connecticut.

      Praxis I. The Praxis I measures basic academic knowledge and skills to
evaluate individuals for entry into teacher education programs. The assessments
are available in paper-based or computer-based formats; the number of items
and administration varies for the two formats.

The paper-based tests are selected by a student when registering for the Pre-
Professional Skills Tests in reading and mathematics which consist of 40
multiple-choice questions with 60 minutes of testing time. The writing test
consists of 38 multiple-choice questions and 1 essay question with two 30-minute
sections of testing time.

Computer-based tests are offered by appointment through a national network of
Prometric™ Testing Centers and select colleges and universities. Each part of
the computer-based test is two hours long to allow for tutorials and the collection
of background information from test takers. However, the actual testing time for
each part of the test is as follows:

                                    No. of          No. of
                Component          questions        minutes
                Reading                46              75
                Mathematics            46              75
                Writing                44              38
                Writing             1 essay            30

The computer-based tests are also offered as a combined test that is delivered
as a single testing session. The combined test will consist of four separately
timed sections: reading, mathematics, multiple-choice writing, and essay writing.
The testing session for the combined test is set for 4 1/2 hours.

In either type of test, paper-based or computer-based, all test takers receive a
score regardless of the number of questions answered. The multiple choice
questions and an essay component yield scores with a range from 0 to 200. The
minimum passing score in writing and mathematics is 171; the minimum passing
score in reading is 172. This score is based on the number of questions that
answer correctly with no penalty incurred or subtraction for answering a question
incorrectly.

Students seeking formal admission to a Connecticut college or university teacher
preparation program, or seeking certification in Connecticut, must fulfill the
academic skills requirement by taking and passing all Praxis I components
or by qualifying and obtaining a Praxis I waiver. A waiver for the Praxis I can be



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sought through the Connecticut State Board of Education for students who meet
the requirements such as the SAT cut-score.

       Praxis II. The Praxis II is a cadre of assessments that seek knowledge of
specific subjects that K-12 educators will teach, as well as general and subject-
specific teaching skills and knowledge. The Praxis II includes:

      Subject assessments which measure general and subject-specific
      teaching skills and knowledge. They include both multiple-choice
      and constructed-response test items.

      Principles of learning and teaching tests which assesses general
      pedagogical knowledge at four grade levels: Early Childhood, K-6,
      5-9, and 7-12. These tests use a case study approach and feature
      constructed-response and multiple-choice items.

      Teaching foundations tests which assesses pedagogy in five areas:
      multi-subject (elementary), English, Language Arts, Mathematics,
      Science, and Social Science. These tests feature constructed-
      response and multiple-choice items.

The Praxis II is available only in paper-based format and consists of multiple
choice, constructed-response, and case-study questions. Praxis II are taken at
testing locations located in various states and regions. Praxis II consists of one,
two, or four hours in length. Like the Praxis I, scores range from 0 to 200;
however, cut-offs for passing scores vary depending on the subject area of the
Praxis II. Additionally, no waiver option is available for any of the Praxis II
assessments.

Praxis III comprises a system for assessing the skills of beginning teachers in
classroom settings. Praxis III is developed for use in teacher licensing decisions
made by states or local agencies empowered to license teachers. The Praxis III
system utilizes a three-pronged method to assess the beginning teacher's
evidence of teaching practice. This includes direct observation of classroom
practice, review of documentation prepared by the teacher, and semi-structured
interviews. In Connecticut, the BEST system is used and so the Praxis III is not
required.

Procedures

Students in the NSoE Teacher Preparation Program are divided into specific
certification areas including elementary education, secondary education (English,
history, science, mathematics), special education and music education. They
take the corresponding Praxis II assessments.

Timelines for completion of the Praxis II assessments vary by certification area.
For example, students in the special education program typically complete the
Praxis after their 5th year of study whereas students in the secondary education
programs usually complete the Praxis before onset of the student teaching


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requirements. Students in the elementary education program tend to complete
the content assessments of the Praxis before the student teaching experience
and tend to take the pedagogical assessments during the internship year.


                                         Results
Summary results, sent to NSoE and the Connecticut Board of Education from
Educational Testing Service, reflects all scores obtained within the academic
year. The score report is provided only for those assessments completed by at
least five students. Scores are distributed by gender, race/ethnicity, education
level, and major. The number of students, the median score, and the average
score range for each group is summarized in charts and trends described. For
the purpose of this current report, scores are further disaggregated by gender
and race/ethnicity is provided with adequate participant rates.

Praxis I

During the testing period beginning September 1, 2005 and ending August 31,
2006, 66 to 202 took the Praxis I assessments. Table 1 contains the numbers of
examiners at NSoE who took Praxis I. The median and range the range of scores
of the middle 50% of the examiners – from the 25th percentile to the 75th
percentile – is presented. Also indicated is the medium score for all examiners,
both later acceptance and declined by the program.

           Table 1
           Praxis I Assessments by NSoE Participation Rates and Medians versus All
           Examiners Median Rates

           Assessment                               NSOE                     All
                                           N       Median       Range    Examiners
           PPST Reading                    70      180.5       178-183      178
           PPST Writing                    66       177        175-180      175
           PPST Mathematics                69       180        175-184      178
           C-PPST: Reading                192       181        177-183      178
           C-PPST: Writing                194       176        174-178      174
           C-PPST: Mathematics            202       179        174-183      178


Scores from the paper-based form of the Praxis I were mainly uniform across
subject area and student demographics. The number of students completing
each assessment was roughly equivalent (mathematics N=69; reading N=70;
writing N=66). More females than males completed each of the assessments
(mathematics=78% female; reading=78% female; writing=77% female).
However, males (median=184) had a slightly higher median score than females
(median=178) in the area of mathematics. Overall, slightly higher median scores
were obtained in reading (median=180.5) and mathematics (median=180) than in
writing (median=177). Finally, the majority of students completing the
assessments were white (mathematics=77% white; reading and writing=79%
white).



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Table 2
Praxis I: Academic Skills Assessment Paper-based Format of NSoE Students

                               Gender                        Race/Ethnicity
 Mathematics            Male   Female Overall   White   Black   Hispanic Asian                             Other
  N                       13      54      69      47       5        4       3                                2
  Median                 184     178     180     179     174        *       *                                *
  Avg Range            180-187 174-182 175-184 175-183 170-181      *       *                                *
 Reading
  N                      12       55     70       49                         4           4             3     2
  Median                182.5    180    180.5    181                         *           *             *     *
  Avg Range            181-184 177-183 178-183 179-183                       *           *             *     *
 Writing
  N                       12      51      66      46                         3           4             3     2
  Median                 176     177     177     177                         *           *             *     *
  Avg Range            176-178 174-180 175-180 175-181                       *           *             *     *

Note. Missing data has been omitted. * Designates no data provided because of no or few numbers.



Scores from the computer-based form of the Praxis I are fairly uniform across
subject area and student demographics. The number of students completing the
reading (N=192) and writing (N=194) assessments was roughly equivalent but
slightly more people completed the mathematics assessment (N=202). More
females than males completed the each of the assessments (mathematics=78%
female; reading=77% female; writing=77% female). Again, males (median=183)
had a slightly higher median score than females (median=178) in the area of
mathematics and, overall, slightly higher scores were obtained in reading
(median=181) and mathematics (median=179) than in writing (median=176).
Finally, the majority of students completing the assessments were white
(mathematics and writing=84% white; reading=86% white).

Table 3
Praxis I: Academic Skills Assessment Computer-based Format of NSoE Students

                             Gender                         Race/Ethnicity
 Mathematics          Male   Female Overall   White   Black Hispanic Asian                                 Other
  N                     43     159     202     171     10        12        3                                 6
  Median               183     178     179     180    172.5    175.5       *                                 *
  Avg Range          179-185 173-182 174-183 176-183 167-177 170-179       *                                 *
 Reading
  N                     43     149     192     165      6       11                                 3        7
  Median               182     180     181     181    180.5    182                                 *        *
  Avg Range          179-184 177-183 177-183 178-183 178-184 168-183                               *        *
 Writing
  N                     44     150     194     164      9       11                                 4        6
  Median               176     176     176     177     175     173                                 *        *
  Avg Range          173-178 174-183 174-178 174-179 172-175 166-180                               *        *

Note. Missing data has been omitted. * Designates no data provided because of no or few numbers.




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A comparison of scores generated from the computer-based form with those
from the paper-based form shows that more students took the computer-based
form in each subtest area (CPPST: mathematics N=202, reading N=192, writing
N=194; PPST: mathematics N=69, reading N=70, writing N=66). However, there
does not appear to be a difference in the scores obtained in computer-based
versus paper-based formats. Students scored equivalently, regardless of format
(CPPST: mathematics median=179, reading median=181, writing median=176;
PPST: mathematics median=180, reading median=180.5, writing median=177).

During the testing period beginning September 1, 2005 and ending August 31,
2006, 45 different Praxis II assessments were completed by a range of 1 to 202
students in the NSoE Teacher Preparation Programs. (Also included are
individuals from Speech Pathology.)

Praxis II

Table 4 contains the numbers of examiners at NSoE who took Praxis II over the
academic year. The median and range the range of scores of the middle 50% of
the examiners – from the 25th percentile to the 75th percentile – is presented.
Also indicated is the medium score for all examiners. Scores with a group size
less than five – that is, 18 tests - are not presented.

All of NSoE medians are above than of all examiners except General Science
Content Essay. In this assessment the median for NSoE is at the median for all
examiners.

Table 4
Praxis II Assessments by NSoE Participation Rates and Medians versus All Examiners’ Median
Rates

                                                           NSoE                     All
Assessment
                                                 N      Median        Range     Examiners
Elem Ed Curr Instruc Assessment                  57      187        181-191        177
Elem Ed Content Area Exercises                   57      165        160-169        157
Emementary Ed: Content Knowledge                  7      171        167-179        163
Early Childhood Education                         1
Eng Lang Lit Comp Content Knowledge              55       181       173-187         176
Eng Lang Lit Comp Essays                         47       165       160-170         155
Eng Lang Lit Comp Pedagogy                        1
Middle School English Language Arts               1
Mathematics: Content Knowledge                   37       151       144-167         142
Math Proofs Models Problems Part 1                2
Mathematics pedagogy                              1
Middle School Mathematics                         8     170.5       167-185        161
Social Studies: Content Knowledge                42     171.5       164-181        165
                                                          NSoE                      All
Assessment
                                                 N      Median        Range     Examiners
Business Education                                1
Music Concepts and Processes                     15       165       155-165         155



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Music Content Knowledge                     15     177      169-185      165
Family and Consumer Sciences                 1
Biology Content Knowledge CT                23     168      163-179      159
Chemistry Content Essays                     6     160      155-170      155
Chemistry Content Knowledge CT               6     174      150-190      161
Physics Content Essays                       7     160      155-170      155
Physics Content Knowledge CT                 7     158      146-172      150
Reading Specialist                           1
Speech Language Pathology                    8     725      720-740      660
SE Knowledge Based Core Principles          10     170      163-182      162
Ed of Exceptional Students: Core CK          9     177      174-184      172
School Psychologist                          7     780      720-800      700
School Guidance and Counseling               1
General Sci Content Knowledge part I         1
General Science Content Essay                5     140      135-145      140
General Sci Content Knowledge                4
Middle School Science                        3
Principles Learning and Teaching K-6         1
Principles Learning and Teaching 7-12        3
Health Education                             1
Earth Science Content Knowledge              5     172      154-175      165


Available scores from the Praxis II apply to three main categories: 1) Elementary
Education, 2) English Language Literature and Composition, and 3) Social
Studies. The first, Elementary Education, can be further divided into 1) Content
Area Exercises and 2) Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment tests. Due to the
small number of male students completing these assessments (N=3 and N=2,
respectively), median scores and their average range were only provided for the
female students. An equivalent number of students took each test overall (N=57)
and students generally scored higher in Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment
(median=187) than the Content Area Exercises (median=165). Finally, the
majority of students completing the assessments were white (Content Area
Exercises=75% white; Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment=79% white).

Second, English Language Literature and Composition can also be further
divided into 1) Essays and 2) Content Knowledge Tests. Overall, more females
completed each assessment (Essays=66% female; Content Knowledge=67%
female). More students completed the Content Knowledge Test (N=55) than the
Essays (N=47). Overall, students also scored higher on the Content Knowledge
Test (median=181) than the Essays (median=165).              Additionally, males
(median=183) scored slightly higher on the Content Knowledge test than females
(median=178). Finally, the majority of students completing the assessments were
white (Essays=76% white; Content Knowledge=71% white).




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Table 5
Praxis II: Subject Assessments—Elementary Education

                                              Gender                                Race/Ethnicity
 Content Area Exercises            Male     Female      Overall      White      Black     Hispanic    Asian    Other
    N                               3         53         57           43          1          2         2         1
    Median                           *        165         165         165           *           *          *     *
    Avg Range                        *      160-170     160-169     160-170         *           *          *     *
 Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment
    N                                2           54          57          45         1           1          1    1
    Median                           *        186         187         187           *           *          *     *
    Avg Range                        *      179-191     181-191     181-191         *           *          *     *

Note. Missing data has been omitted. * Designates no data provided because of no or few numbers.




Table 6
Praxis II: Subject Assessments—English Language Literature and Composition

                                         Gender                                     Race/Ethnicity
 Essays                     Male          Female      Overall      White      Black     Hispanic     Asian      Other
    N                        12             31         47           36          1          1           0          3
    Median                  165            165         165         165          *          *           *             *
    Avg Range             160-170         155-170     160-170     155-170       *          *           *             *
 Content Knowledge
    N                        15             37          55          39         2           2          0              3
    Median                  183            178         181         179          *          *           *             *
    Avg Range             177-188         166-186     173-187     173-186       *          *           *             *

Note. Missing data has been omitted. * Designates no data provided because of no or few numbers.


The third relevant Subject Assessment, Social Studies, differed from the other
assessments in that more males (N=55) completed the test than females (N=40).
Male students (median=174) also scored slightly higher than female students
(median=166). Finally, the majority of students completing this assessment were
white (78%).


Table 7
Praxis II: Subject Assessments—Social Studies

                                           Gender                                   Race/Ethnicity
 Content Knowledge            Male          Female      Overall      White     Black     Hispanic    Asian     Other
    N                          23             17         42           33         1          1          0         1
    Median                     174            166        171.5        172           *       *          *         *
    Avg Range                167-188        158-181     164-181     164-181         *       *          *         *

Note. Missing data has been omitted. * Designates no data provided because of no or few numbers.




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A comparison of all available scores from the Praxis II reveals some interesting
trends. First, analysis of the overall median scores indicates that students
received the highest scores in Elementary Education: Curriculum, Instruction and
Assessment (median=187) and the lowest overall scores on Elementary
Education: Content Area Exercises (median=165) and English Language
Literature and Composition: Essays (median=165). Second, analysis of the
overall rate of completion reveals that the greatest number of students completed
the Elementary Education assessments (N=57) while the least number of
students completed the Social Studies assessment (N=42). Further, the
Elementary Education assessments were completed by the greatest number of
females (Content Area Exercises=93% female; Curriculum, Instruction and
Assessment=95% female) whereas the Social Studies assessment was
completed by the greatest number of males (55%).

                                   Summary
Students completed Praxis I and Praxis II assessments during the 2005-2006
academic years and a summary report of the resulting scores. Results from the
summary report provide information relative to the number of students
completing assessments and comparisons of scores across gender and
race/ethnic groups both within and across assessments.

The Praxis I assessments may be administered in paper-based or computer-
formats. While more students completed the computer-based format, no
differences were observed in median scores between the two formats. Finally,
males tended to have slightly higher scores than females, especially in the
Mathematics assessments. For Praxis II, in general, more females completed the
assessments than males (with the exception of the Social Studies Subject
Assessment) and the majority of students completing the assessments were
white. These results are consistent with sex and race/ethnicity ratios in student
enrollment in the teacher education programs. All but one assessment evidenced
NSoE results were above the median for all examiners.

All score comparisons should be interpreted with caution as no statistical tests
were run on any of the data. Information regarding the significance of any
differences in scores is not available at this time. Future reporting of Praxis
results for 2006-2007 will include comparisons to the 2005-2006 scores.
Additional analyses will also be considered.




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