Developing High-Performance Teams

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					C H A P T E R: T E N



                 Developing
                 High-Performance
                 Teams



                             10
Celestica’s High-Performance Teams




                                      Don Golding


   These rework team members at Celestica’s
   manufacturing facility in Toronto completely
   redesigned the cell’s work process, reflecting
   their company’s movement toward self-directed
   work teams.


                    2
Self-Directed Teams Defined




                                       Don Golding


   Formal groups that complete an entire piece of
   work requiring several interdependent tasks
   and have substantial autonomy over the
   execution of these tasks.



                    3
Self-Directed Work Team Attributes

                    Completes an
                    entire piece of
                         work

 Receives team-                          Team assigns
 level feedback                             tasks to
  and rewards     Self-Directed            members
                  Work Teams

       Responsible for           Controls work
         correcting             input, flow, and
         problems                   output


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Sociotechnical Systems Elements

Primary work unit
  completes an entire work process
  fairly independent from other work units
Sufficient autonomy
  freedom to divide up and coordinate work
  empowers team members
Control key variances
  team controls factors affecting work quality/quantity
Joint optimization
  balancing social and technical systems


                            5
  SDWTs at Standard Motor Products

Standard Motor Products
successfully introduced self-
directed work teams
(SDWTs) at its Kansas plant,
but some supervisors had
difficulty changing from a
command-and-control to
mentor/facilitator
management style.

                                Courtesy of Standard Motor Products




                       6
Challenges to SDWTs

Cross-cultural issues
   Difficult to implement in some cultures
Management resistance
   Concerned about losing power, status, jobs
   Shift from command/control to mentor/facilitator
Employee and labour union resistance
    Employees uncomfortable with new roles, skills
    Union concerns: More stress, lost work rules


                       7
Virtual Teams Defined

 Teams whose members operate across
 space, time, and organizational boundaries
 and are linked through information
 technologies to achieve organizational
 tasks.




                  8
Why Virtual Teams?

Increasingly possible because of
    Information technologies
    Knowledge-based work
Increasingly necessary because of
    Knowledge management
    Globalization




                 9
High-Performance Virtual Teams

 Virtual teams perform better with

     Team       • Creative combination of
  Environment     communication channels


                • Structured tasks
   Team Tasks   • Moderate interdependence


                • Smaller size than traditional
   Team Size      team performing similar tasks

                                                  more

                    10
High-Performance Virtual Teams (con’t)

Virtual teams perform better with

    Team        • Good communication and cross-
  Composition     cultural skills in team members


    Team        • Some face-to-face meetings to
  Processes       assist team development


                • Important in all teams, but
  Team Trust      especially virtual teams




                    11
Trust Defined

  A psychological state comprising
  the intention to accept vulnerability
  based upon positive expectations
  of the intent or behaviour of another
  person.




                 12
Three Levels of Trust


High
         Identity-based Trust


        Knowledge-based Trust


         Calculus-based Trust
Low

               13
Three Levels of Trust (con’t)

Calculus-based trust
  Based on deterrence
  Fragile, limited, dependent on punishment
Knowledge-based trust
  Based on predictability and competence
  Fairly robust, develops over time
Identification-based trust
  Based on common mental models and values
  Increases with person’s social identity with team



                            14
Propensity to Trust

Some people are inherently more willing to
trust others
Propensity to trust influenced by personality,
values, and socialization experiences
Also varies with emotions at the moment




                    15
Swift Trust in Teams

People typically join a virtual or conventional
team with a moderate or high level of trust
Explanations for this swift trust:
  people usually believe their teammates are
     reasonably competent (knowledge-based trust)
    people tend to develop some degree of social
     identify with the team

But swift trust is fragile


                       16
Team Decision Making Constraints


Time constraints
  Time to organize/coordinate
  Production blocking
Evaluation apprehension
  Belief that other team members are silently
   evaluating you

Conformity to peer pressure
  Suppressing opinions that oppose team norms


                      17
Team Constraints: Groupthink

Tendency in highly cohesive teams to
value consensus at the price of decision
quality
More common when the
  Team is highly cohesive
  Team is isolated from outsiders
  Team leader is opinionated
  Team faces external threat
  Team has recent failures
  Team lacks clear guidance

                      18
Team Constraints: Group Polarization


Tendency for teams to make more extreme
decisions than individuals alone
Riskier options usually taken because of
prospect theory effect fallacy -- dislike losing
more than they like winning




                     19
Group Polarization Process

                              Team discussion
                                 processes

                  High risk                     High risk

                              Social support

                               Persuasive           Individual opinions
                               arguments            after meeting
   Individual opinions
   before meeting                Shifting
                              responsibility
                                                Low risk
                  Low risk




                               20
General Guidelines for Team Decisions


• Team norms should encourage critical
  thinking
• Sufficient team diversity
• Ensure neither leader nor any member
  dominates
• Maintain optimal team size
• Introduce effective team structures


                    21
NASA Encourages Constructive Conflict




                                          Courtesy of Johnson Space Center


  NASA replaced the assigned seating rectangular table at the
  Johnson Space Center with a C-shaped arrangement where
  people sit wherever they want (shown in photo). The table is
  intended to avoid hierarchy so NASA managers can have
  more constructive debate.



                          22
Constructive Conflict




                                         Courtesy of Johnson Space Center


  Occurs when team members debate their different
  perceptions about an issue in a way that keeps the
  conflict focused on the task rather than people.

  Problem: constructive conflict easily slides into
  personal attacks

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Rules of Brainstorming

1. Speak freely
2. Don’t criticize
3. Provide as many ideas as possible
4. Build on others’ ideas




                     24
Evaluating Brainstorming

Strengths
    Produces more innovative ideas
    Strengthens decision acceptance and team cohesiveness
    Sharing positive emotions encourages creativity
    Higher customer satisfaction if clients participate

Weaknesses
    Production blocking exists
    Evaluation apprehension exists in many groups
    Fewer ideas generated than when people work alone




                          25
Electronic Brainstorming

 Participants share ideas using software
 Usually in the same room, but may be
  dispersed
 Question posted, then participants submit
  their ideas or comments on computer
 Comments/ideas appear anonymously on
  computer screens or at front of room



                   26
Evaluating Electronic Brainstorming

Strengths
    Less production blocking
    Less evaluation apprehension
    More creative synergy
    More satisfaction with process

Weaknesses
    Too structured
    Technology-bound
    Candid feedback is threatening
    Not applicable to all decisions




                            27
Nominal Group Technique


           Individual         Team       Individual
            Activity         Activity     Activity

                              Possible
           Write down                     Vote on
Describe                     solutions
            possible                     solutions
problem                      described
            solutions                    presented
                             to others




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Team Building

Any formal intervention directed toward
 improving the development and functioning
 of a work team
Accelerates team development
Applied to existing teams that have
 regressed in team development




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Types of Team Building

Role definition
Goal setting
Problem solving
Interpersonal process




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Making Team Building Effective
Some team building activities are successful,
but just as many fail because:

Team-building activities need to target
specific team problems
Team building is a continuous process, not a
one-shot inoculation
Team building needs to occur on-the-job, not
just away from the workplace


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C H A P T E R: T E N



                 Developing
                 High-Performance
                 Teams



                             10

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Description: Prof Rushen's Notes for MBA and BBA students