Psychological Processes (PowerPoint)

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					Psychological Processes

    Prof. Rushen Chahal
     What are these processes?
 This refers to the psychological processes
  that govern buying behaviour of individuals
  and groups
• Information Processing
• Learning
• Influencing attitudes and Behaviour
        Information Processing
• Exposure – achievement of proximity to a
  stimulus to activate the senses
• Attention- allocation of processing capacity to
• Comprehension – interpretation of stimulus
• Acceptance – persuasive impact of stimulus
• Retention – transfer of stimulus interpretation to

       Given exposure to a stimulus of
   sufficient strength, a person’s sensory
  receptors are activated and a message is
sent to the brain. This is called a sensation,
 which happens after crossing a threshold
            Threshold levels
• Lower/absolute threshold – stimulus
  intensity below which sensation would not
• Terminal threshold – above which
  additional doses of stimulus intensity has no
  effect on sensation
• Difference threshold – smallest change in
  stimulus intensity that would get noticed
              Weber’s Law
• The change in stimulus intensity required to
  be noticeable is not on the amount but on
  the percentage change from the original
               K = Δ I/I
     where K is a constant
     ΔI = change in stimulus intensity
      I = original stimulus intensity
• Preattentive processing – limitation of
  processing capacity. 1st stage
• Attention – allocation of processing
  capacity to stimulus. 2nd stage
    Personal determinants of attention

•   Need/Motivation
•   Attitudes
•   Adaptation level
•   Span of attention
    Stimulus determinants of attention
•   Size             •   Directionality
•   Colour           •   Movement
•   Intensity        •   Isolation
•   Contrast         •   Novelty
•   Position         •   Learned ‘stimuli’
                     •   Attractive

  The interpretation of the stimulus.
To derive meaning from the stimulus.
       How does this happen?
• Stimulus categorization – classifying
  stimulus using concepts stored in memory
• Stimulus elaboration – integration between
  new knowledge and knowledge stored in
• Stimulus organization – how people
  organize and rearrange stimuli into a
  meaningful whole (Gestalt psychology)
Personal determinants of Comprehension

•   Linguistics        • Motivation
•   Order effects      • Hunger
•   Context            • Expectation or
•   Miscomprehension     perceptual set
                       • Stimulus determinants

This is the persuasive impact of the
       Acceptance depends on
• Cognitive responses – SAs and CAs
• Affective responses - feelings that are
  elicited by the stimulus

Transfer of stimulus interpretation
  and persuasion into long term
Methods for enhancing retention
• Interrelation between stimulus elements
• Use concrete words rather than abstract
• Encourage self referencing
• Mnemonics – jingles, rhymes, music,etc.
• Repetition
  Memory is space allocated in the brain to store
  processed information and retrieve it as when
  Our brain consists of two hemispheres
• Left brain – logical, abstract and conceptual
• Right brain – creative, intuitive, imaginal
• The connection is through the corpus callosum
  Normally people are ‘left’ or ‘right’ brain
         Memory consists of
• Sensory memory – iconic (visual), echoic
  (auditory) – 0.25 sec
• Short term memory - < 30 sec
• Long term memory

    This is the process by which
   experience leads to changes in
knowledge , attitudes and behaviour.
   Learning takes place through
• Cognitive learning – from changes in
  knowledge and information processing
• Behavioural learning – observing behaviour
  and changes in behaviour

 Most consumer behaviour is learned behaviour
          Cognitive learning
• Rehearsal – mental repetition of information
• Elaboration – the degree of integration
  between the stimulus and existing
  knowledge that occurs during information
  processing. It is influenced by the
  motivation and ability of the individual

When you are unable to retrieve or
access information stored in long
          term memory
         Types of forgetting
• Decay – memory trace will fade with
  passage of time
• Interference – caused by learning new
  information over time.
• Retroactive inhibition – recently learned
  information prevents retrieval of previously learnt
• Proactive inhibition – prior learning prevents
  hinders retrieval and learning of new information
• Momentary forgetting – when information is
  present but retrieval is difficult because of
  limitations in accessibility
   Determinants of information accessibility

• Amount of information stored in memory within
  the same ‘content’ domain
• Particular retrieval cues available at that time eg.
  Pops, jingles, key words,etc.
 Measures of Cognitive learning
• Recognition – from multiple choice
• Recall – qualitative answers
 Measures of cognitive learning
• Aided recall
• Unaided recall
• Day after recall (DAR)
        Behavioural learning
• Classical conditioning
• Operant conditioning
• Shaping
  Classical conditioning

Unconditioned   Unconditioned
stimulus        response

 Conditioned     Conditioned
 stimulus        Response
 Determinants of Classical Conditioning

• Strength of unconditioned stimulus
• No. of pairings or strength of association

When the conditioned stimulus is
 unable to evoke the conditioned
response. This will happen if the
association with the US is broken
           with the CS

   When for an existing stimulus –
response relationship, a new stimulus
   similar to the stimulus is used to
    bring about the same response
 The process by which an individual
   learns to emit a response to one
stimulus but avoids making the same
    response to a similar response
   Operant Conditioning

Instrumental learning concerned with
how the consequences of a behaviour
     will affect the frequency or
  probability of the behaviour being
 Operant conditioning can take place through

• Positive reinforcement
• Negative reinforcement
       Applications in Marketing
•   Sampling
•   Trials
•   Demonstrations
•   Test drives
    Research has proved that there is 60% more
    penetration when free sampling is done.
The process which encourages marketers to
think about what behaviours must precede
the ultimate act of purchase and how these
 prerequisite behaviour can be encouraged
    through appropriate reinforcements
      Vicarious learning

 This is the process of learning through
  observing the action of others and the
  consequences of those behaviours. It
includes elements of both cognitive and
          behavioural learning.

Description: Prof Rushen's notes for MBA / BBA students