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Communicating in Teams and Organizations

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					C H A P T E R: E L E V E N



                 Communicating
                 in Teams and
                 Organizations


                             11
Blogging as Org Communication




                                              Ian Smith/Vancouver Sun

 “[Blogging] is a fantastically effective listening device,”
 says Tim Bray, the Vancouver-based director of Web
 technologies at Sun Microsystems. “There's an
 immediacy of interaction you can get with your audience
 through blogging that's hard to get any other way, except
 by face-to-face communication.”


                           2
Definition of Communication




                                      Ian Smith/Vancouver Sun


The process by which information is transmitted and
understood between two or more people
Transmitting the sender’s intended meaning (not just
symbols) is the essence of good communication


                      3
Four Functions of Communication




                                  Ian Smith/Vancouver Sun

  Coordinating work activities

  Fulfilling drive to bond

  Knowledge management

  Decision making

                         4
Communication Process Model

      Sender                            Receiver
                      Transmit
                      Message
                                  Receive
 Form      Encode                            Decode
                                  encoded
message    message                           message
                                  message


                          Noise

 Decode     Receive                Encode      Form
feedback   feedback               feedback   feedback
                      Transmit
                      Feedback



                      5
City of Liverpool Bans E-mail

                                              Civic leaders at Liverpool
                                              City Council have
                                              banned e-mail one day
                                              each week because they
                                              fear that the electronic
                                              medium is undermining
                                              face-to-face
                                              communication among
                                              employees.
      ©UK Out Epa-Photo/PA Files/Phil Nobl.




                                         6
Benefits of Email

                                               1.Preferred medium for
                                                 coordinating work
                                               2.Tends to increase
                                                 communication volume
                                               3.Significantly alters
                                                 communication flow
                                                  Less face-to-face/telephone
                                                  More upward communication
                                               4.Reduces some selective
       ©UK Out Epa-Photo/PA Files/Phil Nobl.
                                                 attention biases


                                          7
Problems with Email

                                              1.Communicates emotions
                                                poorly
                                              2.Impersonal medium
                                                  reduces politeness and
                                                  respect (flaming)

                                              3.Inefficient for ambiguous,
                                                complex, novel situations
                                              4.Increases information
      ©UK Out Epa-Photo/PA Files/Phil Nobl.     overload



                                         8
Other Electronic Communication

Instant messaging
  More efficient than email
  Allows simultaneous communication events
  Real-time communities through clustered
  communication

Blogging (web logs)
  Seem more personal than large meetings
  Empower employees to share information
  Ability to archive information


                    9
Nonverbal Communication

 Actions, facial gestures, voice intonation,
  silence, etc.
 Transmits most info in face-to-face meetings
 Influences meaning of verbal and written
  symbols
 Less rule bound than verbal communication
 Important part of emotional labour
 Automatic and unconscious


                       10
Emotional Contagion

The automatic process of “catching” or sharing
another person’s emotions by mimicking their facial
expressions and other nonverbal behaviour
Emotional contagion serves three purposes:
    Provides continuous feedback to speaker
    Increases emotional understanding of the other person’s
     experience
    Communicates a collective sentiment -- sharing the
     experience




                           11
Hierarchy of Media Richness
     Rich


               Overloaded
                 Zone


   Media
Richness



                                             Oversimplified
                                                 Zone


     Lean

                                                      Nonroutine/
            Routine/clear        Situation            Ambiguous

                            12
Contingencies of Media Richness

For electronic media, richness is also
influenced by communicator’s previous
experience:
With the medium
  Experience enables user to “push” amount of
   message through that medium

With the receiver
  With experience, both parties have similar
   “codebooks”



                      13
Communication Barriers

Perceptions

Filtering

Language
  Jargon
  Ambiguity
Information Overload




                  14
Information Overload
                Episodes of
                information
                  overload



                              Employee’s
                              information
                              processing
                                capacity

        Information Load




            Time
                15
Managing Information Overload

Solution 1: Increase information processing capacity
    Learn to read faster
    Scan through documents more efficiently
    Remove distractions
    Time management
    Temporarily work longer hours

Solution 2: Reduce information load
    Buffering
    Omitting
    Summarizing




                           16
Thumbs Up to the Boss!

                                 In Australia, a co-worker asked
                                 Patricia Oliveira why she
                                 laughed when he gave the
                                 thumbs up that everything is OK.
                                 She explained that this gesture
                                 “means something not very nice”
                                 in her home country of Brazil.
                                 After hearing this, several co-
                                 workers gave the boss a lot
                                 more thumbs up signs!
      ©Mark M. Lawrence/Corbis




                                 17
Cross-Cultural Communication

                                 Verbal differences
                                     Language

                                 Nonverbal differences
                                     Voice intonation
                                     Interpreting nonverbal
                                      meaning
                                     Importance of verbal versus
                                      nonverbal
                                     Silence and conversational
                                      overlaps
      ©Mark M. Lawrence/Corbis




                                 18
Gender Communication Differences

   Men                                 Women
 Report talk                             Rapport talk

 Gives advice                  Gives advice indirectly
 quickly and directly                 and reluctantly

 Conversations are                 Conversations are
 negotiations of status              bonding events

 Less sensitive to                  More sensitive to
 nonverbal cues                      nonverbal cues




                          19
Getting Your Message Across

Empathize

Repeat the message

Use timing effectively

Be descriptive

                         © Photodisc. With permission.




                    20
Active Listening Process & Strategies

                          Sensing
                    • Postpone evaluation
                    • Avoid interruptions
                    • Maintain interest




                          Active
                         Listening
    Responding                              Evaluation
 • Show interest                      • Empathize
 • Clarify the message                • Organize information




                             21
MBWA at Hiram Walker


Ian Gourlay, CEO of Hiram
Walker, values management
by walking around (MBWA)
because face-to-face
communication helps him to
understand what is really
happening in the company.

                             Windsor Star Group




                     22
Communicating in Hierarchies

1. Work space design

2. E-zines, blogs, wikis

3. Employee surveys

4. Direct communication
   with management

                               Windsor Star Group




                      23
Organizational Grapevine

Early Research Findings
    Transmits information rapidly in all directions
    Follows a cluster chain pattern
    More active in homogeneous groups
    Transmits some degree of truth

Changes Due to Internet
    Email becoming the main grapevine medium
    Social networks are now global
    Public blogs and forums extends gossip to everyone




                             24
Grapevine Benefits/Limitations

Benefits
  Supplements information
  Strengthens corporate culture
  Relieves anxiety
  Signals that problems exist
Limitations
  Distortions might escalate anxiety
  Perceived lack of concern for employees when
   company info is slower than grapevine



                      25
C H A P T E R: E L E V E N



                 Communicating
                 in Teams and
                 Organizations


                             11
C H A P T E R: E L E V E N



                 Chapter Eleven
                 Extras



                             11
Guessing E-Mail Emoticons

 :-)   Happy

 :-}   Smirk

<:-)   Dumb question

:-X    OOPS!

 :-j   Tongue in cheek

 {}    Hug

                  28

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Description: Prof Rushen's notes for MBA / BBA students