Conflict and Negotiation in the Workplace

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					C H A P T E R: T H I R T E E N



                  Conflict and
                  Negotiation
                  in the Workplace



                                 13
Conflict at TELUS

Its advertisements say “the
future is friendly,” but TELUS
management and union
leaders have been feuding
ever since TELUS merged
with BC Telecom to become
Canada’s second largest
telecommunications
company.

                                 Calgary Herald/Janelle Schneider




                       2
Conflict Defined

 The process in which
 one party perceives
 that its interests are
 being opposed or
 negatively affected by
 another party.


                          Calgary Herald/Janelle Schneider




                   3
The Conflict Process



               Conflict
             Perceptions
Sources of                   Manifest    Conflict
 Conflict                    Conflict   Outcomes
               Conflict
              Emotions



                      Conflict
                  Escalation Cycle



                      4
Organizational Conflict Outcomes

Potential benefits
    Improves decision making
    Strengthens team dynamics

Dysfunctional outcomes
    Diverts energy and resources
    Weakens knowledge management
    Increases frustration, job dissatisfaction,
     stress, turnover and absenteeism



                        5
Task vs Socioemotional Conflict

Constructive (task-related) conflict
  Conflict is aimed at issue, not parties
  Helps recognize problems, identify solutions, and
     understand the issues better
    Potentially healthy and valuable

Socioemotional (relationship) conflict
  Conflict viewed as a personal attack
  Introduces perceptual biases
  Distorts information processing


                        6
Minimizing Socioemotional Conflict

Emotional intelligence
    Better able to regulate emotions
    View others’ emotions as information

Cohesive team
    More trust and latitude
    Understand other team members better
    Motivated to minimize escalating conflict

Supportive team norms
    Appreciate honest dialogue without personal affront
    Some norms might discourage displaying negative
     emotions



                            7
Conflict at Air Canada

Conflict between the “Original Air
Canada” pilots and former
Canadian Airlines pilots over
seniority rights has created
tension and ill-feelings. “We will
not mingle with those people [Air
Canada pilots] and the feeling is
mutual,” says a former Canadian
airlines pilot now working at Air
Canada.


                                     CP/Ryan Remiorz




                           8
Sources of Conflict

  Incompatible     • One party’s goals perceived to
     Goals           interfere with other’s goals



                   • Different values/beliefs
 Differentiation   • Explains cross-cultural and
                     generational conflict


                   • Conflict increases with
       Task          interdependence
 Interdependence   • Higher risk that parties interfere with
                     each other
                                                        more

                       9
Sources of Conflict (con’t)

    Scarce
                     • Motivates competition for the resource
   Resources


                • Creates uncertainty, threatens goals
Ambiguous Rules • Without rules, people rely on politics


                     • Increases stereotyping
 Communication       • Reduces motivation to communicate
   Problems          • Escalates conflict when arrogant



                         10
Conflict Management Styles
High
                Forcing                      Problem-Solving
Assertiveness




                             Compromising




                Avoiding                           Yielding

Low                                                    High
                           Cooperativeness
                               11
Emphasizing Superordinate Goals

 Emphasizing common objectives
  rather than conflicting sub-goals
 Reduces goal incompatibility and
  differentiation




                 12
Reducing Differentiation

Remove sources of different values and
beliefs

Move employees around to different jobs,
departments, and regions

Other ways to reduce differentiation:
  Common dress code/status
  Common work experiences



                    13
Better Communication/Understanding

Employees understand and appreciate each
other’s views through communication
  Relates to contact hypothesis
Two warnings:
  1. Apply communication/understanding after
  reducing differentiation
  2. A Western strategy that may conflict with
  values/traditions in other cultures



                     14
Other Ways to Manage Conflict

 Reduce Task Interdependence
   Dividing shared resources
   Combine tasks
   Use buffers

 Increase Resources
   Duplicate resources

 Clarify Rules and Procedures
   Clarify resource distribution
   Change interdependence
                       15
Bargaining Zone Model

          Your Positions
Initial      Target                Resistance



                             Area of
                            Potential
                           Agreement



                      Resistance            Target           Initial
                                      Opponent’s Positions




                            16
Situational Influences on Negotiation


                                             Location

                                             Physical Setting

                                             Time Passage and
                                             Deadlines

                                             Audience
       © Corel Corp. With permission.




                                        17
Effective Negotiator Behaviours

                                        Preparation and goal
                                        setting

                                        Gathering information

                                        Communicating effectively

                                        Making concessions

      © Corel Corp. With permission.




                                       18
Types of Third Party Intervention

      High
             Mediation               Inquisition


 Level of
 Process
 Control


                                     Arbitration

       Low      Level of Outcome Control     High



                     19
C H A P T E R: T H I R T E E N



                  Conflict and
                  Negotiation
                  in the Workplace



                                 13

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Description: Prof Rushen's notes for MBA / BBA students