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Foundations of Team Dynamics

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					C H A P T E R: N I N E



                  Foundations of
                  Team Dynamics



                               9
Teamwork at Pearson Int’l Airport

Events surrounding and
following the Air France
crash at Toronto’s
Pearson International
Airport illustrate the
importance of teams in
complex organizational
activities.

                            CP Photo/Franck Gunn




                       2
What Are Teams?

• Groups of two or more
  people
• Exist to fulfill a purpose
• Interdependent -- interact
  and influence each other
• Mutually accountable for
  achieving common goals
• Perceive themselves as a
  social entity                CP Photo/Franck Gunn




                           3
Groups vs Teams

All teams are groups.
Some groups are just people
assembled together.
Teams have task interdependence
whereas some groups do not (e.g.,
group of employees enjoying lunch
together).

                 4
Types of Teams and Groups

             Permanent       Temporary


Formal     Production team    Task force
Teams      Management team    Skunkwork




Informal      Friendship      Commuter
 Groups         group           group




                   5
Why Informal Groups Exist

1. Innate drive to bond
2. Social identity
    We define ourselves by group memberships

3. Goal accomplishment
4. Emotional support




                     6
Why Rely on Teams

Compared with individuals working alone,
teams tend to
  Make better decisions
  Make better products and services due to more
   knowledge and expertise
  Increase employee engagement




                    7
Team Effectiveness Defined

Fulfills objectives assigned to the team
Fulfills satisfaction and well-being of team
members
Maintains team’s survival




                    8
Team Effectiveness Model

 Organizational and                                   Team
                          Team Design
 Team Environment                                 Effectiveness

                      •Task characteristics
• Reward systems
                      •Team size              • Achieve
• Communication
  systems             •Team composition         organizational
                                                goals
• Physical space
                                              • Satisfy member
• Organizational                                needs
                        Team Processes
  environment
                                              • Maintain team
• Organizational
                      •Team development         survival
  structure
                      •Team norms
• Organizational
                      •Team roles
  leadership
                      •Team cohesiveness



                            9
Team’s Task and Size

Task characteristics
  Better when tasks are clear, easy to implement
  Share common inputs, processes, or outcomes
  Task interdependence
Team size
  Smaller teams are better
  But large enough to accomplish task



                      10
Levels of Task Interdependence

High                               A
       Reciprocal
                             B          C




                         A          B           C
       Sequential



                                 Resource
        Pooled
Low                          A      B       C



                    11
Team Composition at Bioware

                                          Bioware looks for people like
                                          Sophie Smith (shown here)
                                          who are highly talented and
                                          work well in the Edmonton
                                          electronic games company’s
                                          team-oriented culture. “We
                                          look carefully for signs that
                                          may indicate the person is not
                                          a team player," says Ray
                                          Muzyka, who shares the CEO
                                          role with Greg Zeschuk.
        Straughn Butts/Edmonton Journal




                                12
Team Composition
                                         1. Motivation
                                              To perform task
                                              To work cooperatively the
                                               team

                                         2. Competencies
                                              Skills and knowledge to
                                               perform the task
                                              Ability to work effectively with
                                               each other

                                         3. Homogeneous or
                                            heterogeneous, depending on
       Straughn Butts/Edmonton Journal
                                            task requirements


                               13
Homogeneous vs. Heterogeneous Teams

Homogeneous Teams                Heterogeneous Teams

Less conflict                     More conflict

Faster team development           Longer team development

Performs better on                Performs better on complex
cooperative tasks                 problems

Better coordination               More creative

High satisfaction of team         Better representation
members                           outside the team




                            14
 Stages of Team Development

                                 Performing


                     Norming


          Storming

                            Existing teams
Forming                     might regress      Adjourning
                            back to an
                            earlier stage of
                            development
                       15
Team Norms

Informal rules and expectations team
establishes to regulate member behaviours

Norms develop through:
  Initial team experiences
  Critical events in team’s history
  Experience/values members bring to the team



                     16
Changing Team Norms

 Introduce norms when forming teams

 Select members with preferred norms

 Discuss counter-productive norms

 Reward behaviours representing desired
 norms

 Disband teams with dysfunctional norms



                  17
Conformity to Team Norms
      100
                       Day 12:
                         Peer
                       pressure                         Day 28:
       75
Units                   begins                         Employee
Pressed                                               has doubled
                                                      performance
per Hour
       50


                Day 1:              Day 20:
       25      Employee            Employee
               begins job            begins
               with team          working alone
           0     4     8    12        16   20   24   28   32   36   40
                                  Production Days
                                 18
Team Roles
Role: Set of behaviours people are expected
to perform by holding certain positions.
  Formally assigned or informally acquired based
     on personality preferences

Belbin’s Team Role Model
  Nine team roles -- all needed for optimal team
     performance.
    People choose preferred role based on their
     personality.
    Some roles should be strongest at certain times.


                       19
Team Cohesiveness at Lighthouse




                          Photo: Robert Hirtie. Courtesy of Atlantic Business Magazine & Lighthouse Publishing


 The staff at Lighthouse Publishing in Bridgewater, Nova
 Scotia, is a highly cohesive group that successfully keeps its
 much larger competitors off-guard. This cohesiveness has
 particularly come through when faced with new and
 unexpected challenges, such as new products or machine
 breakdowns.


                             20
Team Cohesiveness Defined




                        Photo: Robert Hirtie. Courtesy of Atlantic Business Magazine & Lighthouse Publishing



 The degree of attraction people feel toward the team and
 their motivation to remain members.
 Calculative: Members believe the team will fulfill goals
 and needs.
 Emotional: Team is part of person’s social identity.


                           21
Influences on Team Cohesiveness

                 Member
                 Similarity

  External                         Team
 Challenges                        Size
               Increasing
                  Team
   Team       Cohesiveness        Member
  Success                        Interaction

                Somewhat
               Difficult Entry


                   22
Team Cohesiveness Outcomes

1. Want to remain members
2. Willing to share information
3. Strong interpersonal bonds
4. Resolve conflict effectively
5. Better interpersonal relationships




                    23
Cohesiveness and Performance

Team Norms
  Support     Moderately
                             High task
 Company       high task
   Goals                    performance
             performance




Team Norms    Moderately
  Oppose                     Low task
               low task
 Company                    performance
             performance
   Goals

              Low Team       High Team
             Cohesiveness   Cohesiveness


                  24
The Trouble With Teams

Individuals better/faster on some tasks
Process losses - cost of developing and
maintaining teams
Companies don’t support best work
environment for team dynamics
Social loafing




                    25
How to Minimize Social Loafing

Make individual performance more visible
  Form smaller teams
  Specialize tasks
  Measure individual performance

Increase employee motivation
  Increase job enrichment
  Select motivated employees



                     26
C H A P T E R: N I N E



                  Foundations of
                  Team Dynamics



                               9

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Description: Prof Rushen's notes for MBA / BBA students