Longitudinal Examination of Depression and Negative Feedback

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					                                                    The Development of Autonomy with Friends:                                                                                                                            Copies of this poster & related
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     research

                                              Predictions from Relationships with Friends and Mothers                                                                                                                         will be available at:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            www.teenresearch.org
                                                               Kathleen Boykin McElhaney, F. Christy McFarland & Joseph P. Allen


          Introduction & Hypotheses                                                                                                                                Method
 The development of autonomy in close relationships is a key                      Sample: 138 adolescents (65 male, 73 female)
 developmental task of adolescence.                                                Procedures: Adolescents participated in revealed differences tasks with both their mother (age 13) and a same-sex friend of their choice
 The development of autonomy within peer relationships has                        (age 14). At age 16, they again participated in a revealed differences task with a friend. Paper and pencil questionnaires about the quality
 received relatively little empirical attention, despite concerns                  of adolescents’ relationships with friends and with their mothers were also gathered across ages.
 about related topics as peer pressure, leaders vs. followers, and                 Observational Measures (Autonomy and Relatedness Coding System; Allen et.al, 2000)
 judgment and decision-making.                                                     Adolescents’ Expressions of Autonomy with Friends: Stating and/or explaining opinions with confidence
 Research on parent-teen relationships indicates that autonomy                    Maternal/Friend Undermining of Autonomy: Pressuring to go along, using personal characteristics as a basis for opinions
 develops best within the context of relationships that are high in                Self-Report Measures
 support but low in psychological control.                                         Pressure from Peers: Adolescents’ reports of concerns regarding fitting in with friends and peers. Example: “Some teens don’t usually do
                                                                                   whatever their friends do, but other teens do usually do whatever their friends do.” (10 items)
 High levels of trust and low levels of psychological control and                 Trust of Friends: Friends’ reports of level of trust in relationship with the target teen. Examples: “My friend understands me” and “My
 undermining of autonomy within mother-adolescent relationships                    friend listens to what I have to say” (10 item subscale, Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment/IPPA; Armsden & Greenberg, 1987)
 will predict increasing expression of autonomy with friends.                      Trust of Mothers: Teens’ reports of level of trust in relationship with their mothers (10 item subscale, IPPA)
 High levels of trust and low levels of pressure and undermining                  Maternal Psychological Control: Teens’ reports of mothers’ psychological control and manipulation. Example: “My mother tells me all
 of autonomy within friendships will also predict increasing                       the things she has done for me” (10 item subscale, Child Report of Parenting Behavior Inventory/CRPBI; Schaefer, 1965)
 expression of autonomy with friends.

                                                                                                     Results & Conclusions
Table 1: Prediction from Friendship Variables                                  Table 2: Prediction from Relationships with Mothers                                               Table 3: Final Combined Model
     Adolescents’ Observed Expression of Autonomy                                     Adolescents’ Observed Expression of Autonomy                                                      Adolescents’ Observed Expression of Autonomy
                  with Friends (Age 16)                                                            with Friends (Age 16)                                                                             with Friends (Age 16)
                                     b          Total                                                                                b                 Total                                                                          b                Total
                                   Final   DR 2   R2
                                                                                                                                   Final      DR2       R2                                                                          Final      DR2      R2
Adolescents’ Observed Expression                                               Adolescents’ Observed Expression                                                                  Adolescents’ Observed Expression
of Autonomy with Friends (14)    .29*** .12*** .12***                          of Autonomy with Friends (14)                     .27*** .12*** .12***                            of Autonomy with Friends (14)    .25*** .12*** .12***
Friends’ Observed Undermining of                                               Mothers’ Observed Undermining of                                                                   Friends’ Trust in Adolescents (14) .36***
Autonomy (14)                    .06                                           Autonomy (13)                                     -.24**
Friends’ Trust in Adolescents (14)     .36***                                  Adolescents’ Trust of Mothers (13)                -.14                                            Mothers’ Observed Undermining
                                                                                                                                                                                 of Autonomy (13)                                  -.16*
Adolescents’ Experience of Peer                                                Maternal Psychological Control (13) -.22*                    .11** .23***                         Maternal Psychological Control
Pressure (14)                          -.04         .12*** .24***                                                                                                                (13)                                              -.18* .21*** .33***


            When teens have trusting friendships, and when their mothers show few behaviors undermining autonomy and are low in psychological control,
                     they become increasingly able to confidently assert themselves during discussions with their friends from age 14 to age 16.

                          We would like to thank the National Institute of Mental Health for funding awarded to Joseph P. Allen, Principal Investigator, (Grants #R01-MH44934, and R01-MH58066) to conduct and write-up this project.

				
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