King Tut & King Menes

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					King Tut & King Menes

           By:
      Sergio Gomez
            &
     Abraham Medina
                    King Menes
• For a long time, Menes was considered as
  imaginary as the god-kings who preceded
  him.
• Learned men called him an eponym, an ugly
  name which means that the people of
  Memphis, having forgotten who built their city,
  invented a builder from the city's name, and
  declared it the work of king named
  "Memphes" or "Menes."
• But in this case, at least, the learned men
  were wrong, for lately, in that stupendous
  graveyard along the Nile, the tomb of Menes
  has been found with many interesting relics,
  both of him and of his ancestors.
    King Menes & the Sphinx
• Just recently too, scientists
  have talked of the possibility of
  a passage leading inside the
  sphinx, that most rugged and
  ancient of all the Egyptian
  monuments.
• They believe the sphinx may be
  a religious memorial erected by
  Menes' orders.
• So Menes was as real flesh-and-
  blood a person as you an I, even
  if there are some six or seven
  thousand years between him
  and us.
            King Menes’ Rein
• Menes's reign of Egypt from
  3407 to 3346 BC was treated as
  the dawn of Egyptian civilization
  in many classical histories.
• In earlier Egyptian lore he was
  called Ohe and Mena, "The
  Fighter," and then was referred
  to as "The Established."
• He is remembered as the
  conqueror who first united
  Egypt under one rule and
  established the famous capital
  of Memphis, the seat of Egypt's
  unparalleled cultural
  achievements during the time of
  the Pharaohs .
                  King Menes
• In the fourth century B.C.,
  Ptolemy II Philadelphus
  ordered the priest Manetho
  to compile a complete
  history of Egypt for his
  great library at Alexandria.
• Menes was the earliest
  man that he mentioned by
  name, as the first king of
  the First Dynasty of Upper
  and Lower Egypt.
               King Menes
• The "hazy outline of the general
  drift of events" in predynastic
  Egypt has been a major topic of
  discussion for J. Modern
  archaeological findings have
  since displaced Menes as the first
  name in Egyptian history, and
  though experts today agree that
  Mena is the correct name for one
  of the first kings of Upper and
  Lower Egypt.
• There is some doubt that Menes
  was the military "Unifier of the
  Two Lands."
                King Menes
• Menes , fl. 3200 BC, king of
  ancient Egypt, of the first
  dynasty, the first Egyptian ruler
  for whom there are historical
  records.
• According to tradition, he seems
  to have united the southern and
  northern kingdoms and to have
  settled on a new capital, later
  known as Memphis.
• One theory identifies Menes with
  King Narmer, whose famous slate
  palette is in the Cairo museum.
                King Menes
• Menes left the temples
  and festivals of Set in
  place, and assumed the
  other gods of the north
  as well.
• His wise actions make it
  clear that the
  worshipers of Horus
  had no intention of
  wiping out the
  advancements of the
  Set-people, but
  attacked in order to
  establish a premise for
  the civilizations to
  merge, albeit under
  Horus's control.
                 King Menes
• It was not until the fifth
  king of the unified
  kingdom, King Semti,
  that the combined
  hieroglyph meaning
  "King of the South,
  King of the North" was
  put into use, indicating
  that the First Dynasty
  kings did establish their
  power in the north
  gradually, and not in a
  single, decisive,
  imperialistic step .
        King Menes’ discovery
• Many people believe that Aha was
  actually King Menes of Memphis. Menes
  was the founding king of the 1st Dynasty,
  and was the first king to unify Upper and
  Lower Egypt into one kingdom.
• Ancient Egypt's most predominant form
  of civilization began with his crowning,
  and did not end permanently until the
  beginning of the Roman era, which
  started with Augustus Caeser. Menes
  founded the city of Memphis, and chose
  as its location an island in the Nile, so
  that it would be easy to defend.
• He was also the founder of Crocodopolis.
  During his time, the Egyptian army
  performed raids against the Nubians in
  the south and expanded his sphere of
  influence as far as the First Cataracts.
      Evidence of King Menes
• The most famous piece of evidence
  concerning the "Unifier of the Two
  Lands" is a predynastic slate palette
  found among the ruins of Nekhen
  (Hierakonpolis) and entitled
  'Narmer.'
• The slate depicts a king wearing the
  signature White Crown of the south
  with a mace held over his head,
  preparing to club a kneeling figure
  wearing the Red Crown of the
  north.
      Evidence of King Menes
• Scholars all agree that Narmer was the
  king who took control of the north, but
  because it was traditional for Egyptian
  kings to be known by as many as five
  names, some Egyptologists are
  comfortable with the simple explanation
  that Menes and Narmer were two names
  used by the same man.
• The complications with the
  archaeological record arose when a
  piece of ivory label was found near
  Thebes, bearing the first and only
  contemporary mention of the fabled
  Menes .
        King Tut Was Found
• The mummy of King Tut was
  found in 1922 by Howard
  Carter and Lord Carnarvon.
• Lord Carnarvon was a rich man
  who owned the right to dig in
  the Valley of the Kings where
  Tutankhamun was found.
• Lord Carnarvon was letting
  Carter dig for a king named
  Tutankhamun who's name
  Carter had read on some stone
  walls.
          King Tut Was Found
• Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon
  searched for five years for
  Tutankhamun in the valley of the
  kings yet they found nothing.
• Lord Carnarvon was giving up hope
  after five years, so Carter offered to
  pay for the workers, and Lord
  Carnarvon agreed to this.
• After four days of work under
  Carter's pay they found the steps
  leading to the entrance to the tomb.
• It took Lord Carnarvon two weeks to
  get from England to the valley of the
  kings.
• When Lord Carnarvon got to the
  scene they began futher excavation.
      Why King Tut Was Famous
• The most famous of all the kings
  found in the Valley of the Kings was
  Tutankhamun, also known as King
  Tut.
• He died in mid-January, 1343 B.C.
• It is thought that he was murdered
  by an official because his skull was
  bashed in and only a person of
  great importance could get near
  enough to harm him.
• He is so famous because his tomb
  was in almost perfect condition. His
  tomb had been robbed once very
  soon after he was put in, but
  everything lost was replaced as
  soon as possible.
                   King Tut’s Tomb
• The first room they came to was a
  fake and it had a hidden door that led
  to the main chamber.
• From the main chamber two rooms
  split off. There was a storage room
  and the burial chamber where the
  mummy was laid.
• Many people died of the so-called
  curse on King Tut's tomb but we no
  know that bacteria sealed in the tomb
  fed on the food in the tomb and killed
  the workers when it got in their lungs.
• Carter to the light I was struck dumb
  with amazement".
• A winged scarab beetle spells out the
  hieroglyphs " Neb, Kheperu and Re’’
  which mean Tutankhamun.
             King Tut’s Death
• The suggestion caused a
  controversy among Egyptologists
  and scientists.
• If he were murdered, who did it?
• Was it Aye, Tutankhamen's vizier
  who ascended to the throne after
  his death and married his wife?
• Or was it Horernhab, the army
  officer who became king after
  Aye’s short four-year rule?
• Some archaeologists suggested
  that Aye and Horemhab might
  have shared the guilt, working in
  cahoots to kill the boy .
             King Tut’s X-ray
• Early this year, a new X-ray
  analysis cast more light on the
  subject, this time suggesting
  that Tutankhamen may have
  been murdered in his sleep.
• The examination was
  conducted by a trauma
  specialist at Long Island
  University, USA, "The blow
  was to a protected area at the
  back of the head which you
  don't injure in an accident,
  someone had to sneak up
  from behind," said the
  specialist .
                      King Tut
• X-rays also show a thickening of
  a bone in the cranium which
  could occur only after a build-up
  of blood.
• This would indicate that the king
  might have been left bleeding for
  a long time before he actually
  died.
• In short, scientists suggest that
  the king was most probably hit
  on the back of his head while
  asleep and that he lingered,
  maybe for as long as two
  months, before he died .
                King Tut’s Analysis
• In 1968, when the new analysis was
  carried out on the mummy, it was
  suggested that Tutankhamen was
  hit on the head and murdered by
  either Aye or Horemhab.
• Tutankhamen had no enemies; on
  the contrary, he was loved by the
  priests and the population because
  he re-established the stale religion
  of Amun-Re after the religious
  revolution under Akhenaten, and re-
  opened all temples.
• Moreover," Salah added, "Aye and
  Horemhab would have had no
  reason to kill Tutankhamen because
  he was young and did not hold
  much authority .
                King Tut’s Titles
• Beneath each are texts stating:
  'Horemhab with gods' and El-Saghir
  points out that studies on both these
  statues reveal that they have the
  same physiognomy as Tutankhamen
  as well as evidence that the original
  texts were erased to inscribe the new
  ones.
• Analysis on the faint traces of the
  former show some parts of
  Tutankhamen's titles. "And as for
  Aye," El-Saghir continues, "there is
  insufficient evidence that he is guilty.
• He was the high priest and was,
  moreover, the one who wrote
  Tutankhamen's negative confession
  and performed his "opening of the
  mouth’ ceremony .
King Tut’s Forensic Examination
• Forensic examination carried out
  by Egyptian experts on
  Tutankhamen’s mummy also have
  revealed that he may have been
  poisoned and it is now suggested
  that the blow to the back of the
  head might have happened after
  his death, during mummification.
• "His body might have been
  dropped on the floor, his head
  hitting the flagstones; there is no
  trace of bleeding around the
  blow," say experts.
           King Tut’s Search
• In 1922 Howard Carter was
  exploring the Valley of the
  Kings in Egypt, with his friend
  and financial backer George
  Herbert, the 5th Earl of
  Carnarvon.
• After a 15 year search, they
  opened the fabulous tomb of
  King Tutankhamun, the most
  spectacular tomb found to date,
  and now known as KV62.
             King Menes found
• According to Menetho, Menes
  founded a dynasty of eight kings
  from this.
• Manetho gives Menes a reign of
  about sixty years (sixty-two
  years according to Africanus,
  sixty according to Eusebius).
• His principal achievement is
  said to have been the foundation
  of Memphis, on land reclaimed
  from the Nile by means of the
  construction of an immense
  dike.

				
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