King Tut & King Menes
• For a long time, Menes was considered as
imaginary as the god-kings who preceded
• Learned men called him an eponym, an ugly
name which means that the people of
Memphis, having forgotten who built their city,
invented a builder from the city's name, and
declared it the work of king named
"Memphes" or "Menes."
• But in this case, at least, the learned men
were wrong, for lately, in that stupendous
graveyard along the Nile, the tomb of Menes
has been found with many interesting relics,
both of him and of his ancestors.
King Menes & the Sphinx
• Just recently too, scientists
have talked of the possibility of
a passage leading inside the
sphinx, that most rugged and
ancient of all the Egyptian
• They believe the sphinx may be
a religious memorial erected by
• So Menes was as real flesh-and-
blood a person as you an I, even
if there are some six or seven
thousand years between him
King Menes’ Rein
• Menes's reign of Egypt from
3407 to 3346 BC was treated as
the dawn of Egyptian civilization
in many classical histories.
• In earlier Egyptian lore he was
called Ohe and Mena, "The
Fighter," and then was referred
to as "The Established."
• He is remembered as the
conqueror who first united
Egypt under one rule and
established the famous capital
of Memphis, the seat of Egypt's
achievements during the time of
the Pharaohs .
• In the fourth century B.C.,
Ptolemy II Philadelphus
ordered the priest Manetho
to compile a complete
history of Egypt for his
great library at Alexandria.
• Menes was the earliest
man that he mentioned by
name, as the first king of
the First Dynasty of Upper
and Lower Egypt.
• The "hazy outline of the general
drift of events" in predynastic
Egypt has been a major topic of
discussion for J. Modern
archaeological findings have
since displaced Menes as the first
name in Egyptian history, and
though experts today agree that
Mena is the correct name for one
of the first kings of Upper and
• There is some doubt that Menes
was the military "Unifier of the
• Menes , fl. 3200 BC, king of
ancient Egypt, of the first
dynasty, the first Egyptian ruler
for whom there are historical
• According to tradition, he seems
to have united the southern and
northern kingdoms and to have
settled on a new capital, later
known as Memphis.
• One theory identifies Menes with
King Narmer, whose famous slate
palette is in the Cairo museum.
• Menes left the temples
and festivals of Set in
place, and assumed the
other gods of the north
• His wise actions make it
clear that the
worshipers of Horus
had no intention of
wiping out the
advancements of the
attacked in order to
establish a premise for
the civilizations to
merge, albeit under
• It was not until the fifth
king of the unified
kingdom, King Semti,
that the combined
"King of the South,
King of the North" was
put into use, indicating
that the First Dynasty
kings did establish their
power in the north
gradually, and not in a
imperialistic step .
King Menes’ discovery
• Many people believe that Aha was
actually King Menes of Memphis. Menes
was the founding king of the 1st Dynasty,
and was the first king to unify Upper and
Lower Egypt into one kingdom.
• Ancient Egypt's most predominant form
of civilization began with his crowning,
and did not end permanently until the
beginning of the Roman era, which
started with Augustus Caeser. Menes
founded the city of Memphis, and chose
as its location an island in the Nile, so
that it would be easy to defend.
• He was also the founder of Crocodopolis.
During his time, the Egyptian army
performed raids against the Nubians in
the south and expanded his sphere of
influence as far as the First Cataracts.
Evidence of King Menes
• The most famous piece of evidence
concerning the "Unifier of the Two
Lands" is a predynastic slate palette
found among the ruins of Nekhen
(Hierakonpolis) and entitled
• The slate depicts a king wearing the
signature White Crown of the south
with a mace held over his head,
preparing to club a kneeling figure
wearing the Red Crown of the
Evidence of King Menes
• Scholars all agree that Narmer was the
king who took control of the north, but
because it was traditional for Egyptian
kings to be known by as many as five
names, some Egyptologists are
comfortable with the simple explanation
that Menes and Narmer were two names
used by the same man.
• The complications with the
archaeological record arose when a
piece of ivory label was found near
Thebes, bearing the first and only
contemporary mention of the fabled
King Tut Was Found
• The mummy of King Tut was
found in 1922 by Howard
Carter and Lord Carnarvon.
• Lord Carnarvon was a rich man
who owned the right to dig in
the Valley of the Kings where
Tutankhamun was found.
• Lord Carnarvon was letting
Carter dig for a king named
Tutankhamun who's name
Carter had read on some stone
King Tut Was Found
• Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon
searched for five years for
Tutankhamun in the valley of the
kings yet they found nothing.
• Lord Carnarvon was giving up hope
after five years, so Carter offered to
pay for the workers, and Lord
Carnarvon agreed to this.
• After four days of work under
Carter's pay they found the steps
leading to the entrance to the tomb.
• It took Lord Carnarvon two weeks to
get from England to the valley of the
• When Lord Carnarvon got to the
scene they began futher excavation.
Why King Tut Was Famous
• The most famous of all the kings
found in the Valley of the Kings was
Tutankhamun, also known as King
• He died in mid-January, 1343 B.C.
• It is thought that he was murdered
by an official because his skull was
bashed in and only a person of
great importance could get near
enough to harm him.
• He is so famous because his tomb
was in almost perfect condition. His
tomb had been robbed once very
soon after he was put in, but
everything lost was replaced as
soon as possible.
King Tut’s Tomb
• The first room they came to was a
fake and it had a hidden door that led
to the main chamber.
• From the main chamber two rooms
split off. There was a storage room
and the burial chamber where the
mummy was laid.
• Many people died of the so-called
curse on King Tut's tomb but we no
know that bacteria sealed in the tomb
fed on the food in the tomb and killed
the workers when it got in their lungs.
• Carter to the light I was struck dumb
• A winged scarab beetle spells out the
hieroglyphs " Neb, Kheperu and Re’’
which mean Tutankhamun.
King Tut’s Death
• The suggestion caused a
controversy among Egyptologists
• If he were murdered, who did it?
• Was it Aye, Tutankhamen's vizier
who ascended to the throne after
his death and married his wife?
• Or was it Horernhab, the army
officer who became king after
Aye’s short four-year rule?
• Some archaeologists suggested
that Aye and Horemhab might
have shared the guilt, working in
cahoots to kill the boy .
King Tut’s X-ray
• Early this year, a new X-ray
analysis cast more light on the
subject, this time suggesting
that Tutankhamen may have
been murdered in his sleep.
• The examination was
conducted by a trauma
specialist at Long Island
University, USA, "The blow
was to a protected area at the
back of the head which you
don't injure in an accident,
someone had to sneak up
from behind," said the
• X-rays also show a thickening of
a bone in the cranium which
could occur only after a build-up
• This would indicate that the king
might have been left bleeding for
a long time before he actually
• In short, scientists suggest that
the king was most probably hit
on the back of his head while
asleep and that he lingered,
maybe for as long as two
months, before he died .
King Tut’s Analysis
• In 1968, when the new analysis was
carried out on the mummy, it was
suggested that Tutankhamen was
hit on the head and murdered by
either Aye or Horemhab.
• Tutankhamen had no enemies; on
the contrary, he was loved by the
priests and the population because
he re-established the stale religion
of Amun-Re after the religious
revolution under Akhenaten, and re-
opened all temples.
• Moreover," Salah added, "Aye and
Horemhab would have had no
reason to kill Tutankhamen because
he was young and did not hold
much authority .
King Tut’s Titles
• Beneath each are texts stating:
'Horemhab with gods' and El-Saghir
points out that studies on both these
statues reveal that they have the
same physiognomy as Tutankhamen
as well as evidence that the original
texts were erased to inscribe the new
• Analysis on the faint traces of the
former show some parts of
Tutankhamen's titles. "And as for
Aye," El-Saghir continues, "there is
insufficient evidence that he is guilty.
• He was the high priest and was,
moreover, the one who wrote
Tutankhamen's negative confession
and performed his "opening of the
mouth’ ceremony .
King Tut’s Forensic Examination
• Forensic examination carried out
by Egyptian experts on
Tutankhamen’s mummy also have
revealed that he may have been
poisoned and it is now suggested
that the blow to the back of the
head might have happened after
his death, during mummification.
• "His body might have been
dropped on the floor, his head
hitting the flagstones; there is no
trace of bleeding around the
blow," say experts.
King Tut’s Search
• In 1922 Howard Carter was
exploring the Valley of the
Kings in Egypt, with his friend
and financial backer George
Herbert, the 5th Earl of
• After a 15 year search, they
opened the fabulous tomb of
King Tutankhamun, the most
spectacular tomb found to date,
and now known as KV62.
King Menes found
• According to Menetho, Menes
founded a dynasty of eight kings
• Manetho gives Menes a reign of
about sixty years (sixty-two
years according to Africanus,
sixty according to Eusebius).
• His principal achievement is
said to have been the foundation
of Memphis, on land reclaimed
from the Nile by means of the
construction of an immense