KINGDOM CLASSIFICATION AND ITS DIFFERENT SUBKINGDOMS KINGDOM MONERA – BACTERIA KINGDOM PROTISTA – ALGAE, PROTOZOAN, SLIME MOLDS KINGDOM FUNGI – YEASTS, PENICILLIUM BACTERIA – only organisms that are made up of prokaryotic cells. - peptidoglycan (cell wall) - reproduce asexually (binary fission) 3 BASIC SHAPES: 1. COCCI – spherical bacteria 2. BACILLI – rod-shaped bacteria 3. SPIRILLA – spiral shaped bacteria SUBKINGDOM MONERA 1. ARCHAEBACTERIA – can live in extreme environments Ex. Halophiles (salt-loving bacteria) anaerobic methane bacteria (oxygen- deprived swamps) thermoacidophiles (hot and acidic sulfur springs 2. EUBACTERIA – composition of cell (true nucleus) and reaction to gram stains are positive (75% are gram negative). Ex. spirochetes, chlamydias, lactobacillus PROTISTA – unicellular eukaryotes - do not fully exhibit the characteristic of plants, animals and fungi (polyphyletic group). - said to be free-living (fresh H20, salt H20) - others are parasitic (endoparasite and ectoparasite) PROTOZOANS – live primarily through heterotrophic mode of nutrition. 3 types according to locomotory structure: 1. PSEUDOPODIA – “false feet” - facilitates creeping movements and feeding among sarcodines. 2. CILIA – short-hair like projections that cover the unicellular bodies of ciliates. 3. FLAGELLA – whil-like structures used for locomotion among flagellates. SARCODINES – commonly known as amoebas. - uses pseudopodia to facilitate movement. - undergoes “phagocytosis” as its process of engulfing food. - undergoes binary fission for asexual reproduction. CILIATES – commonly refer to parameciums - cilia is used as part of its locomotory movement to a particular direction or direct food particles into their oral grooves or mouth parts. FLAGELLATES – unicellular and heterotrophic. Ex. Trypanosoma gambiense, euglena SPOROZOANS “spore” – infectious form in which organism is transmitted from one host to another. Spores are specialized cells for reproduction, oftentimes called as gamete or sex cells. A spore differs from a gamete by not having any sexual characteristics. • Spores do not have structures for movement, however they develop apical complexes that aid them in penetrating their hosts. Ex. Plasmodium vivax • P. vivax spends its life cycle inside an Anopheles minimus mosquito. FUNGI (EUMYCOTA) organelles are membrane-bound. Genetic materials are seperated from the cytoplasm by means of a nuclear membrane Do not have chlorophyll and cannot manufacture their own food. Heterotrophic organisms Cell walls are made up of chitin (complex carbohydrates that comprises the exoskeleton of many animals like insects. Unicellular (yeast), multicellular (bread molds and mushrooms) Mycelia (thread-like bodies) Hyphae (threads of filaments) 3 Kinds of Bread Mold 1. RHIZOIDS – descending hyphae 2. STOLONS – horizontal hyphae 3. SPORANGIOPHORES – ascending hyphae. MYCORRHIZAE Refers to a symbiotic relationship between plant roots and fungi. Fungi classification is based on their reproductive structures. KINGDOM ANIMALIA Symmetry – basis of distinguishing the arrangement of body parts around a center point or line. 1. Assymetrical – no particular pattern - face all directions at once. - Ex. protozoans 2. Radial symmetry – body parts are arranged around a central axis. - Ex. starfish 3. Bilateral symmetry – have a definite surface. - ½ of its body represents a mirror image of the other half. - has a definite surface: 1. dorsal – top surface 2. ventral – bottom surface 3. anterior – front part 4. posterior – back part Germ Layers – are body layers where various organs and tissues develop. 1. ectoderm – outer layer 2. mesoderm – middle layer 3. endoderm – inner layer diploblastic – animals with 2 germ layers (ectoderm and endoderm) - ex. porifera and cnidarians triploblastic – animals with mesodermal layer. - common examples are platyhelminthes, nematoda, mollusca, annelida, arthropoda, echinodermata and chordate Body Cavity (coelom) 1. acoelomates – w/o cavity between the gut and outer body wall. 2. pseudocoelomates – incompletely lined with tissues from the mesoderm. 3. eucoelomates – true coelom, completely lined with tissues derived from the mesoderm. Segmentation – presence of repeating segments in the animals’ body plan. Ex. snakes and termites INVERTEBRATES Phylum Porifera (sponges) - body is full of holes or pores. - most are hermaphrodites. - spicules serves as their skeleton - water is expelled through its osculum. Phylum Cnidaria (coelenterates) - present with sac-like cavities and long flexible tentacles. - stinging cells = cnidocytes - exhibits radial symmetry and 2 body forms: 1. medusa form – umbrella-like 2. polyp form – tubular foot which attaches to the sea floor. - ex. jellyfish, hydras, sea anemones Phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms) - only 1 opening for receiving food and expelling waste. - bilaterally symmetrical 3 major types: 1. planaria – free living 2. flukes 3. tapeworms - remarkable power of regeneration. - ex. Fasciola hepatica – adult liver fluke Taenia saginata – tapeworm Phylum Nematoda (roundworms) - parasitic in nature. - digestive system consists of a tube called alimentary canal. - round bodies covered with tough cuticles that tapers on both ends. - it has 2 openings: 1. mouth – anterior end 2. anus – posterior end - ex. Turbatrix aceti, Ascaris lumbricoides (intestinal worms in pigs and humans) Phylum Mollusca – “soft” body is made up of calcium carbonate. 3 groups: 1. gastropods – single valve; prominent head and usually coiled. - ex. snails 2. bivalves - clams 3. cephalopods – streamlined, bilaterally symmetrical and tough body. - head is surrounded by tentacles. - ex. Octopus, squids, cuttlefish Phylum Annelida – ring-like segments along the animals body. Ex. Lumbricus terrestris – most popular annelid Hirudo medicinalis - “leech” - used in primitive medicine for sucking blood from patients suffering from hematoma. Phylum Echinodermata – radially symmetrical; spiny-skinned animals. ex. hedgehog, sea urchins 2 types of development: 1. deuterostome – development of anus first before the mouth. 2. protostome – development of mouth first before the anus. Phylum Arthropoda - (joint-legged animals) - largest of all phylums. - exoskeleton is made up of chitin. 3 distinct features: 1. head 2. thorax 3. abdomen * cephalothorax – fusion of the head an the thorax among arachnids and crustaceans. 3 major groups: 1. insecta – only invertebrates that can fly. Ex. Dragonfly, grasshopper, butterfly, fly, termites. 2. Arachnida – distinct feature is cephalothorax. - no antennae. ex. Spiders, mite, ticks 3. Crustacea – cephalothorax in body division. Ex. Crab, lobster, shrimp. Protective coloration – colors of its body blends with the environment. Protective mimicry – shapes of insects make them look like objects in their surroundings. PHYLUM CHORDATA • “notochord” – a string-like structure which supports the body of young chordates. • Exhibits cephalization – main sense organs are located in the head. – Class Chondrichthyes – cartilaginous fishes. ex. Shark, stingray – Class Osteichthyes – bony fishes (bangus). Class Amphibia - (double life) - only with 3-chambered circulatory system - has a powerful leg for movement on land as well as in water. Ex. Frogs, toads Class Reptilia – more adapted to land compared to amphibians. - ancient reptiles includes the dinosaurs. Ex. Snakes, crocodiles, lizards CLASS AVES (birds) • Feathered vertebrates • Lacks teeth but jaws are covered by a horny beak. • 4- chambered heart. • Bones are lightweight and filled with air, usually an adaptation for flight. CLASS MAMMALIA - vertebrates whose young are nourished by mother’s milk. - presence of mammary glands which secretes milk to feed its young. - body hair helps protect the skin from injury and insulates the body. - most are viviparous (young are born after developing inside the mother’s body) - well-developed brains which enables them to adapt to the environment. - only animals that have an outer ear that collects sound and transmits it to the middle and the inner ear. KINGDOM PLANTAE PLANT CHARACTERISTICS 1. MULTICELLULAR 2. PHOTOSYNTHETIC 3. COMPLEX LIFE CYCLE (ASEXUAL – SPOROPHYTE; SEXUAL – GAMETOPHYTE) 2 MAJOR DIVISIONS 1. ATRACHEOPHYTA (NON-VASCULAR PLANTS) - NO VASCULAR TISSUES - NO TRUE ROOTS, STEMS AND LEAVES - ABSENCE OF VASCULAR TISSUE FOR TRANSPORT OF FOOD AND WATER. - DIRECT ANCESTORS OF AQUATIC ALGAE. - GENERALLY TERRESTRIAL. 3 DIVISIONS OF NON VASCULAR PLANTS 1. BRYOPHYTA – TRUE MOSSES, Sphagnum 2. ANTHOCEROTOPHYTA – HORNWORTS Anthoceros 3. HEPATOPHYTA – LIVERWORTS, Riccia, Marchantia DIFFERENCE IN GAMETOPHYTE SHAPE 1. Bryophytes – leaf-like in shape. (most common) 2. Anthocerotophytes – horn-shape 3. Hepatophytes – liver-shape IMPT. OF NON-VASCULAR PLANTS PRODUCERS PREVENTS SOIL EROSION CONTRIBUTES TO SOIL FORMATION Sphagnum – used as packaging material for fragile objects (water-holding capacity) 2. TRACHEOPHYTES (VASCULAR PLANTS) - PRESENCE OF VASCULAR TISSUES - WITH TRUE ROOTS, STEMS AND LEAVES. - VASCULAR TISSUES PRODUCE LIGNIN (STRENGTHEN THE CELL WALLS) WHICH IS ENCASED IN A WAXY WATER-PROOF SUBSTANCE CALLED CUTIN. FERNS (DIVISION PTERIDOPHYTA) • SHADE-LOVING PLANTS • LARGE IN SIZE BUT SHORT IN LENGTH, • LEAVES (FRONDS) ARE ANCHORED DIRECTLY TO THE SOIL OR TREE TRUNK. • FERNS AND MOSSES BOTH ARE PRESENT WITH SPORES. • THEY HAVE VASCULAR TISSUES, STEMS AND TRUE ROOTS AND LEAVES. IMPORTANCE OF FERNS 1. ACT AS PRODUCERS IN THE ECOSYSTEM. 2. USED AS FERTILIZERS AS SOURCE OF NITROGEN. GYMNOSPERMS • termed as “naked seeds” • woody plants with seeds that are encased by fruits. It has 4 divisions: 1. CONIFEROPHYTA – prefer low temp. (pine trees) 2. CYCADOPHYTA 3. GINKGOPHYTA 4. GNETOPHYTA • Naked seeds are usually found on the surfaces of cone scales. IMPORTANCE OF GYMNOSPERMS 1. SOURCES OF FOOD FOR ANIMALS 2. PROVIDES HABITAT TO WILDLIFE 3. EROSION CONTROL ANGIOSPERMS (FLOWERING PLANTS) • most common plant • Flowering plants produces seeds that are enclosed in a fruit. • well-developed roots, stems and leaves. • reproductive organs are usually protected within a flower. • ex. Poinsettia 4 SETS OF FLOWER ORGANS 1. ESSENTIAL PARTS - Stamen (male) - Pistil (female) 2. ACCESORY PARTS - sepals - petals - corolla (group of petals) IMPORTANCE OF FLOWERING PLANTS 1. Provides food and shelter to organisms. 2. Maintains the CO2 level in the atmosphere. 3. Good sources of timber, food, medicines, fiber and other economically important products. KINGDOM PROTISTA DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS PROTISTS EUKARYOTIC UNICELLULAR , in some cases, COLONIAL AUTOTROPHS, some are HETEROTROPHS MOTILE • Organisms belonging to Kingdom Protista can either be called or belong to group of – Animal – like protist :Protist with animal characteristics – Plant – like Protist : Protist with plant like characteristics – Fungus – like Protist:m Protist with fungus like characteristics PLANT LIKE PROTIST • The main organisms belonging to this group are the ALGAE • Simple photosynthetic algae • They are classified based on the dominant pigment that they produced. SIGNIFICANCE OF PROTIST • Serve as phytoplanktons (floating plants). They occupy as a base for food pyramid in aquatic ecosystems. They are responsible for practically the total food source of the organisms on the Earth. • Maintenance of atmospheric gases. • Caulerpa sp. Serve as a food source as seaweeds. • Agar from Rhodopyta use to make gulaman • Carrageenan as thickening for ice cream DISADVANTAGES OF PROTIST • Algal bloom or RED TIDE • Cause by rapid growth of dinoflagellates to a density large enough to somehow change the color of the water to red. • It releases toxic substances causing fishes to die. ANIMAL – LIKE PROTIST • They are classified based on their locomotory organs. • There cells are not protected by a rigid cell wall. SARCODINES • These are protozoans that uses pseudopodia as a form of locomotion • “Pseudo” means false and “podia” means feet or false feet. • Feet because it is used for locomotion and false because they are not permanent, they formed when needed and disappear when not in use CHARACTERISTICS OF AMOEBA • Do Phagocytosis • Free living, found in shallow waters • Asexual reproduction (Binary fission) • One specie is parasitic Entamoeba hystolytica • PHYLUM FORAMINIFERANS and RADIODURANS • Mostly marine sarcodines. Foraminiferans are protected by calcium carbonate and Radiodurans are protected by silica shells. CILIATES • PHYLUM CILIOPHORA – These are organisms that use ciliates or numerous hairlike cilia. – The movement of the cilia are so precise that they move in one direction. – They have an oral groove or mouth – They have a macronucleus – Free living; unicellular. FLAGELLATES • PHYLUM ZOOMASTIGOPHORA – These are organisms that uses one or more threadlike flagellates for movement. – Unicellular, has nucleus, heterotrophic – Some live in single while are in colonies. Some are free-living and some are parasitic. • Trychonympha campanulata – Protist living in termites intestines to digest the cellulose from wood. SPOROZOANS • PHYLUM APICOMPLEXA – These are protist that reproduce through production of spores. – Spores are single cell, that breaks and a new individual was produced through the presence of water. – It is different from gametes or sex cells because it has no sex. – They don’t have locomotory organ they just transferred through their spores. PLASMODIUM VIVAX • These are protist that causes malaria by passing its spores from one host to another through bloodsucking animal like mosquitoes. • It is spread by female Anopheles minimus FUNGUS – LIKE PROTIST Mxomycota: SLIME MOLDS • Slime Mold The plasmodial slime mold is a mucouslike plant that creeps along slowly in leaf litter or over decaying logs. This primitive organism feeds on bacteria, fungal spores, yeast cells, and decaying plant and animal matter by engulfing the food much like an amoeba engulfs its prey. Under the right conditions, it transforms into a reproductive stage, producing tiny, stalked, spherical structures called sporangia, which eventually split open to release spores.
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