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Pathologies and Anomalies: Any anomalous conditions or are being developed and refined to approximate facial pathology present on the skeleton will be noted. features using computer databases and imaging techniques. Forensic Osteological Anomalies and pathologies may be documented in Investigations Laboratory antemortem medical records, known by friends and family, Trauma Analysis and may give clues as to lifestyle or habits, which can Skeletal trauma analysis includes interpretation of sharp, FOIL provide useful information to help locate and identify gunshot, blunt trauma, and postmortem damage. The missing people. location of trauma is documented and, if possible, timed as antemortem, perimortem, or postmortem. Anthropologists Positive Identification are frequently consulted to identify presence and type of Positive identification provides an undisputed link between trauma to the skeleton, determine the number and sequence the bones of an unknown person to a known person of gunshot wounds/ blunt trauma, identify site of impact through a match of unique characteristics. Skeletal sources and direction of force, discriminate between antemortem of positive identification include comparison of ante- and trauma, perimortem trauma and postmortem damage postmortem radiographs that capture unique features of an Forensic anthropologists do not determine manner or cause individual skeleton. Unique skeletal features include, but of death. The medical examiner/coroner use our findings are not limited to, sinus patterns in the skull, trabecular to assist their determination. bone patterns, medical implants, healed trauma, anomalies Department of Anthropology and pathologies. Interval Since Death Estimation Social Sciences 1 Anthropological methods may be used to reconstruct University of California Santa Cruz Probable Identification events that occurred after death and estimate the Santa Cruz, CA 95064 Photo / Video Superimposition: Comparing the skull to postmortem interval. Estimates are based on the context LAB: 831-459-1481 photographs or video captured images can facilitate that the body was discovered and the condition of the FAX: 831-459-5900 probable identifications or exclusions. This method uses a remains. Decomposition follows predictable general good photograph or video captured image of the person patterns under given conditions, however the rate at which (preferably showing teeth) and a picture of the skull taken a body passes through these stages is variable. Estimation Primary Investigator: in the same orientation. The known and the questioned of postmortem interval is not an exact science, but Dr. Alison Galloway email@example.com images are superimposed on each other and the estimates do provide a general time frame. Estimates are Contact: 831-212-9479 correspondence of anatomical landmarks is compared. typically given as a minimum to maximum time range, such as ‘one to three months’. Secondary Investigators: Facial Reconstruction: Facial reconstruction (a.k.a. facial Chelsey Juarez, MA firstname.lastname@example.org approximation) is traditionally used as a last resort to Lauren Zephro, MA, CLPE email@example.com develop case leads and generate public interest. This method uses skull shape, biological profile and any Thank you for considering FOIL for your forensic Secondary Investigators in Training: associated evidence (like recovered hair) to approximate anthropological needs. If you have any questions, Luke Carlson, MA firstname.lastname@example.org what the person might have looked like. The traditional please feel free to contact our laboratory. Cris Hughes, MA email@example.com method of facial reconstruction uses clay to create a three- dimensional sculpture built on the skull. Methods are also FOIL is comprised of forensic anthropologists Service Fees: Biological Profile: Sex, Age, Stature, Ancestry, who specialize in the analysis of human skeletal material FOIL acts a public service to the surrounding counties. Anomalies and Pathologies resulting from unexplained or questionable deaths in a A suggested fee is negotiated on a case by case basis. Sex: The best indicator of sex on the adult skeleton is the medicolegal context. We have a four-six week turn shape of the pubic bone of the pelvis. In the addition to the around time for analysis and case report completion. pelvis, characteristics of the sacrum, long bones, and skull However, this time frame may be shorter or longer are used to estimate sex in adult remains. In infants and depending on the services requested and the nature of the The following provides a brief description of the analyses juveniles, estimation of sex is more difficult and is subject case. FOIL is equipped to maintain chain of custody on all provided and performed by the forensic anthropologists at to a lower degree of accuracy due to the absence of many case materials submitted. FOIL. of the secondary sex characteristics that emerge in Is it Human? adolescence. Alison Galloway is a Professor of Anthropology A forensic anthropologist will be able to determine if a at the University of California, Santa Cruz and the primary bone is human, regardless of the size of the fragment. Age: In adults, the most accurate indicators of age-at-death investigator of FOIL. With 25 years experience in the field Large fragments can be identified by shape, and in most are the pubic symphysis of the pubic bone, the auricular of forensic anthropology, she teaches in this area at the cases, identified to species. Small bone fragments can be surface of the ilium, and the sternal end of the fourth rib. . undergraduate and graduate levels. She has handled cases identified as human or non-human by examining the bone In addition, the general condition of the skeleton, such as from Arizona and Tennessee before coming to California. or the microscopic bone structure. Under many presence of arthritis, lipping of the vertebral bodies or Currently, her casework draws from the central coast of circumstances, clear photographs of the questioned bone osteoporosis can be used for general age estimates. In California along with its Central Valley and extreme north. taken with a scale can be e-mailed to a forensic young adults and teenagers, the pattern of epiphyseal She is board certified by the American Board of Forensic anthropologist for identification to expedite your fusion of the skeleton and eruption of the teeth are used to Anthropology, a fellow of the American Academy of investigation. estimate age. In the fetus, infants and children, dental Forensic Sciences and an associate member of IAI. Is it Forensic? development, epiphyseal fusion, ossification patterns and Historic, pre-historic Native American, and human remains length of the long bones are used to determine age. Provided Services for Skeletal Remains at FOIL: of non-forensic importance are commonly encountered as Assessment of biological profile questioned specimens. Other types of non-forensic cases Stature: Stature in adults is estimated by measuring long Trauma analysis include anatomical specimens, trophy skulls and scattered bone length and extrapolating the measurements to Pathology analysis cremated remains. A forensic anthropologist can readily estimate living height. Fragmentary bones may also be used to approximate living stature. In teenagers and Postmortem Interval Estimation identify these remains. Until the bones are determined to children (who are not fully grown) stature estimates are not Crime scene recovery and/or excavation be of non-forensic importance, the bones and location accurate. Stature estimates are sex and population specific. Human vs. animal determination should be treated as a crime scene and the coroner should Estimates are given as an interval. Identification based on the skeleton be notified immediately. Ancestry: Ancestry is difficult to access from skeletal We do not provide DNA analysis, autopsy services, or Crime Scene Investigation FOIL can contribute vital information in the recovery and remains. There are no “pure” races and bureaucratic trace evidence analysis. We highly encourage counties to assessments of ancestry or cultural identification may not collect their own trace evidence as the laboratory is not investigation of scattered, buried, extensively burned or decomposed bodies/bones. Crime scenes in which a reflect biology. Characteristics of the teeth, facial skeleton, equipped to properly handle or store trace evidence. cranium, and femur are most useful for determination of forensic anthropologist would be vital include decomposed bodies, scattered remains, graves, mass disasters, fires, ancestry. Measurements of adult skeletons can also be explosions or car crashes with burned bodies. used to estimate ancestry.
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