Nazis Revision � key questions by 5ISezJz9

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									 Nazi Germany
Revision Booklet




 For WJEC
History Course
     By Miss Cranton

            1
                                   Contents
3. The Nazis revision checklist –what do you need to revise most?

                               The Rise of the Nazi party
4. What was the impact of the Weimar Period on the rise of the Nazi Party?
5. How did the Nazi Party develop between 1920 and 1923?
6. What were the consequences of the Munich Putsch Nov 1923?
7. How did the Nazi Party Change 1924-1932?
8. What was the impact of the 1929 Wall Street Crash and the Great Depression?
9. Why was the Nazi party successful after 1930?
10. How did the events of July 1932 to Jan 1933 bring Hitler to power?
11. Why was the enabling act important for Hitler?
12. What was the importance of the Night of the Long Knives?
13. Consolidation of Power 1933-34 Summary
14. Rise and consolidation summary / key people
                           Sources questions help and advice
15.How to answer the sources questions - hints and tips.
16.How to answer the ‘How useful is this source’ question.
17.How to answer the ‘Why do these sources have different views’ question.
18.Examples of possible sources questions.
                                   Life in Nazi Germany
19.Life in Nazi Germany
20.Tacking unemployment in Nazi Germany
21.Women in Nazi Germany
22.Youth in Nazi Germany
23.The Nazi police state
24.Control of central and regional government
25.Propaganda and censorship
26.Racial policy
27.Measures take against the Jews
28.Kristallnacht
29.Nazis and the Church
                                   Knowledge Questions
30.Knowledge questions
31.Knowledge questions
32.Knowledge questions - how to answer a two-sided argument
33.Key words
                                   General hints and tips
34.Tips on learning dates
35.Tips on writing essays
36.More tips on writing essays
37.Yet more essay writing tips
38.Useful phrases when writing history essays



                                         2
                      The Nazis Revision – key questions
Key questions                                                                   red amber green

Section A – The Rise of the Nazi Party and its consolidation of power
– sources       questions
WHAT WAS THE IMPACT OF THE WEIMAR PERIOD ON THE RISE
OF THE NAZIS?
What were the problems of the Weimar Republic?
How did the Nazi Party develop 1920-23?
What were the consequences of the Munich Putsch Nov 1923?
How did the Nazi Party change 1924-1932?

HOW AND WHY DID HITLER GET APPOINTED AS CHANCELLOR IN
JAN 1933?
What was the impact of the Wall Street Crash and the Great Depression?
Why was the Nazi party successful after 1930?
What was the role of Hitler in increasing support for the Nazis?
How did the events of July 1932-Jan 1933 bring Hitler to power?

HOW DID THE NAZI PARTY CONSOLIDATE THEIR POWER 1933-34?
What was the significance of the Reichstag fire?
Why was the enabling act important for Hitler?
How did the Nazis remove opposition to their regime?
What was the importance of the Night of the Long Knives?
Why was the support of the army important for Hitler?

Section B – changing life for the German People 1933-39
– knowledge questions

HOW DID THE NAZIS’ SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC POLICY AFFECT
LIFE IN GERMANY?
What measures were used to control the economy, reduce unemployment and
control the workforce?
What was the role of women?
How successful were these policies?
How did the education and youth movements control the young?
How successful were these policies?

HOW DID THE NAZIS’ POLITICAL POLICY AFFECT LIFE IN
GERMANY?
What was the police state?
How did the Nazis extend their control over central and local government?
How were propaganda and censorship used?

HOW DID THE NAZIS’ RACIAL AND RELIGIOUS POLICY AFFECT
LIFE IN GERMANY?
What was the Nazis’ racial policy?
Why and how did the Nazis persecute the Jews?
How did the Nazis change relations with the Catholic and Protestant churches?
                                                     3
 WHAT WAS THE IMPACT OF THE WEIMAR PERIOD ON THE RISE
                                     OF THE NAZIS?
An overview
   1918 End of World War I – Germany surrenders and signs an armistice ending
     the fighting. Germany became a republic (it did not have a king (Kaiser)
   1919 Germans are forced to accept the Treaty of Versailles
   Many Germans felt the Weimar politicians were to blame for their problems
   In the years straight after the war there is hyperinflation (the price of goods
     skyrockets) and armed uprisings( e.g. the Munich Putsch 1923)
   1924-1929 under Chancellor Gustav Stressman things got much better
   But in 1929 the Wall Street crash caused huge problems and within four years
     the Nazis were in control of Germany.
                     What were the problems of the Weimar Republic?

   The idea that the German army had not been defeated in World War I but had been ‘stabbed
    in the back’ and forced to surrender by the Weimar politicians.
   The politicians who signed the armistice were called ‘November criminals.’
   So from the start many Germans therefore hated the new Weimar Republic, especially
    the leaders of the army and judges and civil servants.
   There were so many attacks on the new government it could not be formed in Berlin as it was
    too dangerous so it was formed in the town of Weimar.
   Everyone over 20 could vote - This was the first time Germany had been a democracy.
    Everyone could vote for the President
   Article 48 said – ‘if it’s a matter for public safety and order, the president alone may take
    necessary measures to restore public safety and order’. The President in an emergency could
    make laws using article 48 without parliament voting.
   They had proportional representation – which meant a large number of parties and not
    one party won a majority. Therefore there would have to be a coalition government.
   1918 – 1923 there was a lot of unrest in Germany including the Spartacist uprising and the
    Kapp Putsch and the Munich Putsch
   The Treaty of Versailles was signed in 1919 – it was very harsh on Germany
        o Lost 13% of its land
        o Had to accept ‘war guilt’ – blame for starting the war
        o Had to pay reparations / compensation of £6600 million
        o Could not join the league of nations
        o Could only have a small army – no tanks or aircraft or submarines
   Reparation payments helped to create the period of hyperinflation in 1923. The price of
    goods rose very, very rapidly. The French also sent its troops into the Ruhr.
   In 1923 Stressman became Chancellor. He was very successful and introduced a new
    currency and got loans from the USA (Dawes Plan 1924 and later the Young Plan 1929)
    This enabled economic recovery. During this period there was less support for extreme
    parties like the Nazis and the communists.
   In 1925 Hindenburg was elected President



                                               4
              How did the Nazi Party develop between 1920 and 1923?

   In 1919 Drexler formed the German Workers Party – DAP in Munich
   It was right wing and nationalist
   Stressed the idea of the ‘pure German people’
   But had some socialist / left wing ideas at this point e.g. limiting company profits
   Hitler spied on the party for the army- and ended up joining. It only had 50 members
   Hitler soon found he was good at public speaking

 In 1920 Drexler and Hitler wrote the 25 point programme – a list of their ideas. This
  included the idea that the government would nationalise big businesses.
 The party’s name changed to National Socialist German Workers Party –NSDAP
 Hitler became leader in 1921 – due to his speeches and success in getting new members.
  He had the title Fuhrer (leader) – he had to have total power over the party this was called
  the Fuhrerprinzip.
 Hitler created the Swastika as the symbol of the party and the one-armed salute

 The Sturmabteilung (SA) was formed and led by Ernst Rohm in 1921 – its members were
  known as brown shirts. The SA disrupted communist and socialist party
  meetings.
 There were about 55,000 members by Nov 1923.

 Hitler’s speeches had common themes
     o Germans had been stabbed in the back
     o Hatred of Weimar government and November criminals
     o Disgust at Treaty of Versailles
     o Hatred of Jews and Communists
     o Jews were to blame for all Germany’s problems

 When hyperinflation hit Germany in 1923 Hitler decided the Nazi
  party was strong enough to over throw the regional government
  in Munich (in Bavaria) and then march to Berlin. This uprising is called the Munich
  Putsch
     …………………………………………………………………………………….

    Some more key words
       Democracy – people can vote and have a share in government
       Dictator – One man like Hitler rules a country
       Reparations – money paid by Germany for damage done by WWI
       Stab in the back – Germany would not have lost WWI if not for soft democratic
         politicians
       November Criminals – people who signed the Treaty of Versailles
       Communists – want to share out the country’s wealth to the workers, to take
         people’s private property
       Hyperinflation – prices and wages sky rocket, money lost its value
       Propaganda – trying to control people’s thoughts and beliefs

                                             5
         What were the consequences of the Munich Putsch Nov 1923?
Reasons for the Munich Putsch
   Nazi party membership had grown
   Mussolini had achieved power in Italy with a private army and support of the regular army
     Hitler felt he could do the same.
   He believed he would have support of the government of Bavaria headed by Gustav von
     Karhr and the police chief Seisser, and army chief von Lossow who had never fully
     supported the Weimar Republic.
   Hitler hated the Weimar republic
   German humiliation following French occupation of the Ruhr area
   Felt others hated Weimar republic and would support him
   Blamed Weimar for hyperinflation
   Wanted to remove the Treaty of Versailles
   SA could be used as armed support




Events of the Munich Putsch
   In Nov 1923 Hitler and 600 Nazis seized the Bavarian leaders and at gun point they
     promised to support the uprising. The next day Siesser and Lossow changed their
     minds and called in the police and troops.
   The Nazis only had 2000 rifles and were not match for the police and army. Hitler’s
     plans fell apart. 16 Nazis died.
   Hitler was arrested 2 days later. The Nazi party was banned.

Consequences of the Munich Putsch
   Hitler was put on trial for treason.
   The trial gave Hitler nationwide publicity in the national press.
   The judges were sympathetic and allowed him to make long speeches about why he
     hated the Weimar Republic, November Criminals, the Treaty of Versailles and Jewish
     communists who had betrayed Germany and how he was simply trying to restore
     Germanys greatest. He became famous.
   The Judges only sentenced him to 5 years in Landsberg prison. He
     only served 9 months.
   Whilst in Prison he wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle). The key
     ideas in this were
        o Creation of Volksgemeinshaft (people’s community)
        o Lebensraum (living space)
        o Abolition of the Treaty of Versailles
        o Jews to blame for everything

                                              6
          How did the Nazis Party Change between 1924-1932?
 Nazi party declined while Hitler was in prison
 When he was released from prison Hitler got the ban on the Nazi party lifted.
 In 1924 the party was re launched. Hitler decided he would use legal methods to
  gain power.
 Hitler pushed the idea of the Fuhrerprincip – one strong leader. Hitler won over his
  rivals for the leadership such as Goebbels or removed opponents.
 Hitler created his own body guard the SS
 He set up the Hitler Youth (Hitler Jugend)
 The 25 point programme was altered to say private land and businesses would
  only be taken by the government from Jews. There would be no nationalisation.
 Hitler tried to win the votes of city people and farmers
 The party grew in size – it was a nationwide party.
 But the Nazi party only won 12 seats in parliament in the 1928 election. It had
  had 32 seats in 1924.

     HOW AND WHY DID HITLER GET APPOINTED
           CHANCELLOR IN JAN 1933?
 Germany was able to have an economic recovery
  under Chancellor Stressmann and all was
  generally well.
 But the 1929 Wall Street Crash in America
  would have a big impact on Germany.
 US loans to Germany were called in – they wanted
  their money back.
 Unemployment in Germany increased – by
  1932 there were about 6 million unemployed
  in Germany.

 The Weimar government had to use article 48
 Economic problems created political problems – extreme parties
  got more support.
 By 1932 the Nazis party had become the largest party in Germany.
 Following political scheming by politicians like Bruning, von
  Schleicher and von Papen and Hindenburg Hitler became
  Chancellor in Jan 1933.

                                         7
   What was the impact of the 1929 Wall Street Crash and the Great
   Depression?

 1924 to 1929 Germany’s economy had been doing well but it was all based on loans
  from the USA.
 The 1929 Wall Street Crash in America would have a big impact
   on Germany. US loans to Germany were called in – they wanted their
   money back.
 The death of successful Weimar Politician Stressmann added to the crisis.
 Unemployment started to rise because exports fell, employers sacked workers,
  factories closed. The fall in food prices hit farmers hard.
 Some Germans could not pay their rent and were living in the streets.

 The unemployed and the hungry wanted solutions and looked to
  parties like the Nazis.
 In 1932 6 million people were unemployed. This meant 4 out
  of every 10 German workers.
 Note –hyperinflation was not the problem in 1929 –
  unemployment was the problem.
 The middle class feared a communist revolution (they were
  worried the communists would take all of their private property.) The German
  communist party (KPD) like the Nazis party was growing as they too promised a way
  out of the depression.

   The impact of the economic crisis on the Weimar Government

 The economic crisis created problems for the Weimar government – they could
  not agree how to tackle unemployment and poverty.
 In 1930 Bruning became Chancellor – he did not have a majority in parliament – so
  Hindenburg had to use Article 48 to make laws. Many historians see this as the end
  of democracy.
 As Bruning did not have a majority he called an election in Sept 1930 – the Nazis
  won 107 and became the second largest party.
 Bruning had to carry on relying on Hindenburg to pass laws – his cuts in government
  spending earned him the nickname ‘hunger Chancellor.’
 This was the 2nd economic crisis under the Weimar government and the people were
  ‘doubly bitter.’
 There was chaos and violence on the streets between the communists and the
  Nazis.




                                         8
                  Why was the Nazi party successful after 1930?

Nazis increased their support by using propaganda.
   They used a variety of methods e.g. mass rallies, posters and radio, the Nazis ran 120
      newspapers.
   Goebbels ensured the Nazis message was simple and frequently repeated.
   Goebbels played on people’s fears of communism
   Nazis tried to appeal to all sections of society.
   The Nazis’ message was – Weimar government has caused the crisis and weak
      coalition governments offer no solution. The Nazis would unite Germany. They
      blamed problems on November Criminals, Treaty of Versailles and offered the Jews
      as scapegoats.
   Hitler said Jews where to blame for Germany’s problems. They:
          o Were involved in evils of capitalism and communism
          o Helped cause unemployment
          o Conspired in Germany’s defeat
          o Were involved in a revolution for the state to take private property
In the1932 presidential election Hitler stood against Hindenburg.
    The Nazis were quick to use modern technology e.g. the aeroplane to fly Hitler
      between cities.
    Hitler was recognised as a national figure in politics.
    Hitler was quite successful in winning a large number of votes in each round but
      Hindenburg won.
The Nazis could not have campaigned without financial backers.
    The Nazis got funds from leading industrialists including Thyssen, Krupp and
      Bosch.
    Industrialists were terrified of the communist threat and also concerned about the
      growth of Trade union power.
    Nazis developed close links with the National Party DNVP and its leader was a
      newspaper tycoon and let the Nazis print articles in national press.
The Nazis used their private army the SA to disrupt the meetings of opponents
especially communists.
    Rohm became leader of the SA in 1931.
    These men were ‘bully boy’ thugs who took part in street fights.
    The communists too had their own private army – the Red Front Fighters.
    Hitler wanted to show the German people he could stamp out communism.
What was the role of Hitler in increasing support for the Nazis?
    Hitler had developed the art of public speaking
    He presented the party as law abiding and democratic after the Munich Putsch
    Hitler could be all things to all people, he was a war hero, the saviour, the ordinary
      man in the street
    His vision was to make Germany the strongest nation in the world.
    Hitler had charisma and most other politicians lacked it
    Created image his whole existence was given over to Germany.

                                              9
      How did the events of July 1932-Jan 1933 bring Hitler to Power?

   A general election was called for July 1932
   The was much violence – about 100 people were killed and over a thousand were
    wounded in clashes between political parties
   In the July 1932 election the Nazis won 230 seats and were now the largest party
    in the Reichstag.
   But President Hindenburg refused to make Hitler chancellor.

   Von Papen became the Chancellor and called new elections for November
    1932.The Nazis vote fell and they only got 196 seats but were still the largest party.
    with 33% of the vote.
   Von Papen the Chancellor lost the support of Hindenburg, and he made von
    Schliecher Chancellor.
   Von Papen was determined to regain power. With the help of industrialists he was
    able to convince Hindenburg to make Hitler Chancellor of a coalition government
    and Von Papen to be vice chancellor.
   Von Papen said he would be able to control Hitler - ‘He would make Hitler squeak.’
   On 30 Jan 1933 Hitler became Chancellor of Germany.
   He was leader of the largest party, and had been invited to be leader by the President.
   He had achieved his aim of becoming Chancellor by legal and democratic means.

      HOW DID THE NAZIS PARTY CONSOLIDATE THEIR
                    POWER 1933-34?

   In the period Jan 1933 to Aug 1934 Hitler and the Nazis secured
    control of all aspects of the German state.
   By August 1934 Hitler had combined the posts of Chancellor and
    President and became Fuhrer
   He was secure in the knowledge that the army supported him.
   The banning of political parties, the control of the media, trade unions
    and the police ensured that there was little or no opposition to the Nazi
    regime.

What was the significance of the Reichstag fire?
     When Hitler became Chancellor there were only 2 other Nazis in the cabinet of 12.
     Hitler’s position was not strong. He did not have a majority in the Reichstag.
     Hindenburg hated Hitler.
     Hitler straight away called an election for March. He hoped to get a majority.
     There was violence and terror again – about 70 deaths.
     Again Hitler got lots of money from Industrialists
     Goebbels used the media to put the Nazis’ message across.
                                            10
   One week before the election on 27 Feb the Reichstag building
    was set on fire.
   The Nazis arrest Marinus von der Lubbe a communist,
   The Nazis claimed the communists were about to stage a takeover.
   A lot of people believe that the Nazis themselves started the fire.

Why was the enabling act important for Hitler?

   Following the Reichstag fire Hitler got Hindenburg to sign a decree for the
    protection of the people and the state. This suspended all civil rights, allowed the
    Nazis to imprison opponents and ban communist newspapers.

   March 1933 election the Nazis won 288 seats. They had still not won a majority
    despite imprisoning communists and socialists.

   Hitler wanted to pass an enabling law that would give him and his government
    full powers for the next 4 years. The bill was passed because:
       o Communists were not allowed to vote
       o SA intimidated people
       o He made promises to the Catholic and Centre party
       o Anyone absent was counted as present

   The Enabling bill was passed and became law on 23 March 1933
   It was the end of Weimar democracy.
   It is seen as the ‘corner stone of the third Reich’
   It quickly ended civil rights, led to censorship, the ending of trade unions, the
    ending of all parties except the Nazi party.
   Hitler therefore created a dictatorship.

How did the Nazis remove opposition to their regime?

   Hitler wanted to bring Germany in line with Nazi ideas. This policy was called
    Gleichschaltung.
   It would mean that every aspect of social, political and economic life of a German
    citizen was controlled and monitored by the Nazi party.

     1933 Trade unions were banned.
     The Nazi Labour Front replaced them.
     Wages were decided by the labour front DAF
     Strikes were illegal

   Anyone who argued would be sent to new prisons – concentration camps
   The first concentration camp opened in Dachau in March 1933
   The communist party was banned after the Reichstag fire
                                           11
   Other political parties were closed down or disbanded themselves.
   In July the Law against the Formation of Political parties was passed which made
    the Nazi party the only legal political party in Germany.
   In November election the Nazis won!

   Hitler removed the control of state governments (lander) and he centralised how
    the country was run

What was the importance of the Night of the Long Knives?

   On the Night of the Long Knives Hitler removed political and military rivals in the
    SA. Hitler saw the SA as a big threat.
   Another reason he did this was he wanted to win the support of the army.
   Rohm wanted to make the army part of the SA. He also did not like Hitler’s closeness
    to big industrialists and army leaders and wanted the government to help ordinary
    Germans / workers more.
   Also the SS Hitler’s personal body guard led by Himmler wanted to break away from
    the SA.
   Hitler took action in June following information from Himmler that Rohm was about
    to seize power.
   On 30th June 1934 Rohm and the main leaders of the SA
    were shot by members of the SS. Other political
    opponents were killed. 400 people were murdered.
   Hitler removed all would-be opponents to him and gained
    the support of the army.
   The SA now had a minor role.
   If there had been any doubt it was now clear Hitler
    would use fear and terror to rule.

Why was the support of the army important for Hitler?

   Hitler was keen to have the support of the army.
   Rohm wanted to make the army part of the SA. Hitler knew the army would not like
    this. The army felt threatened by the SA.
   Hitler knew opposition from generals could mean a challenge to his own position.
   The support of the army was gained from the Night of the Long Knives.

   Following the death of Hindenburg in Aug 1934 the
    army swore allegiance to Hitler (made a promise to
    follow Hitler).
   Hitler combined the roles of Chancellor and
    President and was now Fuhrer
   He became commander in chief of the armed forces.
   In a referendum in Aug 90% of voters agreed with his
    action.
                                          12
                 Consolidation of Power 1933-34 Summary

Germany turned from a democracy into a totalitarian country.
Hitler became a Dictator.

Feb 1933 Reichstag Fire
 Blamed on Communist Van der Lubbe
 Hitler got emergency powers decree from Hindenburg – cut free speech, allowed
  imprisonment without trial

March 1933 Enabling Act
 Allowed Hitler to make laws without the support of the Reichstag parliament. He
  used it to
     o Get Jews and opponents out of government jobs
     o Ban trade unions, make strikes illegal
     o Ban all other political parties – create a ONE PARTY STATE
     o Censor the press

June 1934 Night of the Long Knives
      o Hitler used SS to murder 400 SA leaders including Rohm
      o Hitler won over the army and removed a threat to his power

Aug 1934 Death of Hindenburg
     o Hitler combined the role of Chancellor and President
     o Hitler became FUHRER (leader)
     o The army promised to obey Hitler


                       HITLER WAS NOW A DICTATOR




                                         13
The rise of the Nazi Party and its consolidation of power, c.1929-
1934

Key questions

What was the impact of the Weimar period on the rise of the Nazis?
    • The political and economic problems of Weimar
    (weaknesses of Weimar government; the impact of the Treaty of Versailles)
    • The early development of the Nazi Party
    (the consequences of the Munich Putsch; Hitler and 'Mein Kampf'; impact of
    Wall St Crash on Nazi support)
How and why did Hitler get appointed Chancellor in January 1933?
    • Political scheming, 1929-1932
    (the end of Parliamentary democracy; coalitions of Von Bruning, Von Papen &
    Von Schleicher)
    • The reasons for Nazi electoral success
    (such as: the impact of Depression; Hitler's appeal and promises; fear of
    Communism; role of SA; use of propaganda)
How did the Nazis consolidate their power during 1933-1934?
    • Hitler as Chancellor
    (the significance of the Reichstag fire; the March election; the Enabling Law;
    suppression of civil liberties)
    • The move to dictatorship
    (the events and consequences of the Night of the Long Knives; Hitler becomes
    Fuhrer)
    …………………………………………………………………………………………..

     Key People
        Stressman- leading and successful Weimar Politician 1924-1929
        Hitler – Leader of the Nazi party
        Goebbels – In charge of Nazi propaganda
        Rohm – leader of the SA
        Hindenburg – President of Germany 1925-1934
        Von Bruning – Weimar politician and a Chancellor in the 1930s
        Von Schleicher – Weimar politician, Chancellor before Hitler
        Von Papen – Weimar politician, became Hitler’s vice-president
        Himmler – Leader of the SS




                                        14
                     The exam paper –Sources Questions
                              Hints on how to answer questions

Sources questions make up half of your exam paper on the Nazis!
   • That’s ¼ of your GCSE exam – it’s worth knowing how to answer different types of questions!
   • Section A – is compulsory source questions 25 marks
   • Section B – is knowledge recall / essay questions 25 marks

1a. What does Source A show you about…….? 2 marks
Testing comprehension of a source
          – Look at picture pick out details and highlight
          – Use written information as well
          – Do not use own knowledge – no marks for it
          – You need to pick out at least 2 relevant points which are well developed and supported
          – About 4 sentences in length
          – 2-3 minutes

1b, Use source …. and your own knowledge to explain why….(4 marks)
Testing - Comprehension of a source and recall of knowledge
   • Read the source, highlight key points
   • In your answer try to rephrase and explain these points in your own words
   • Add your own knowledge to expand these points
   • Add in other relevant points not in the source
   • For top marks you need to do 2 things - refer to the information from the source and add to this with
       information from your own knowledge of the topic area.
   • About 8 sentences in length 4-6 minutes

1c - How far does source …. Support …… (5 marks)
Testing – analysis and evaluation of a source and the recall of own knowledge.
   • Look at / read the source. Highlight key points.
   • Explain these points in your own words linking them to the question
   • Add in own knowledge to expand these points – points which are not in the source
   • For top marks give a reasoned judgement linked to the question. The source does / does not support
       the view that… because…
   • About 10-12 sentences in length 7 minutes




                                                    15
1d- How useful is source… to an historian studying ……
Explain your answer using your own knowledge? (6 marks)

Analysing and evaluating the usefulness of a source.
It could be a primary (from the time) or a secondary (later) source.
You need to think about the
                              Content              What?
                              Author               Who? When?
                              Purpose              Why? Who said what to who and why?
                              Is it biased/ one sided?

The source is always useful!
Start with - Source … is useful because……
However, there can be problems with the source / limitations / what does it not say? / does it give the whole
picture?
    1. What does it tell you? Explain the content in your own words - 2-3 sentences.
                   • Source A is useful because it tell me…. it suggests….. .
    2. Who?– author
            – Important person? Job?
                   • Source A is useful as it is written by … who is really important because…
                   • The source tells you what a normal person experienced.
            – Trustworthy? Biased? Neutral? One-sided?
                   • This is a reliable source because …..
                   • Remember a biased / one-sided source is still useful. It explains one point of view.
                   • This is one-sided because ….. it only explains ….. point of view
            – In the know? First hand knowledge? Informed? Knowledgeable?
                   • The author of this source is clearly knowledgeable because….
                   • Source A is limited because… might not know the full picture because…
    3. When?
            – At the time? Primary? Knows what happened?
                   • Further, this shows what people believed at the time.
            – Later? Secondary? Forget facts? Rose-tinted glasses? Hindsight? Good overview?
                   • Also, it is written by an historian - they can see the whole picture.
                   • However, the source has been written years later so they might have
                      forgot some facts.
    4. Why written? Who is it aimed at? Propaganda? One-sided? Biased? To inform? Justify what they
        did? To keep a record?
                   • What is more the source only shows one side it is being written because…
                   • In addition, this may not be true as … is trying to justify their actions
    5. For top marks limitations – what does it not say? Provide context
   6. Use own knowledge to support your points
Top marks – you must write about Content, Author and Purpose. If you only write about the content you
will not get more than ½ marks.




                                                     16
1e. Why do source … and … have different views about……?
In your answer you should refer to both the content of the source and the
author (8 marks)
Testing understanding of different points of view
   • You need to talk about the content, author and purpose (see question d)
What do the sources say? How is it different?
   •   Read both sources with care, underlining or highlighting important details.
   •   You can also scribble notes in the margin around the source and how it fits in with the period.
          – Does it confirm what you know?
          – Does it only refer to part of the answer and are some important points missing?
          – Does it agree or disagree with what is said in the other source?

This will help you compare sources in terms of their content value.
You need to explain how the two views are different.

   •   Now think about things other than the content/what it says.
           – Who wrote it?
                  •   Why would they have different views?
                  •   Are they both equally well informed?
                  •   Are they explaining their own actions?
                  •   Are they biased? One-sided?

           – When was it written? Where was it written?
                  •   Are the authors writing at different times?
                  •   Is one a secondary source, the other a primary?
                  •   Could one author have forgotten information?
                  •   Do they have the value of hindsight?
                  •   Would they both know the whole picture at the time?
                  •   Would they be influenced by propaganda?
                  •   Could they tell the truth? Was there censorship?

           – Why was it written?
                  •   Are both authors telling the truth? The whole picture?
                  •   Does this make it biased? One-sided? Propaganda?

       You need to use your own knowledge to explain your points
   •   For top marks you need to produce a balanced answer with good support from both sources and your
       own knowledge, together with a detailed consideration of the attributions (who wrote it, when, why)
       of each source.




                                                     17
                               Examples of the sources questions
                   The Rise of the Nazi Party and its consolidation of power –
1a. What does Source …..show you about…….? 2 marks
What does source G tell you about inflation in Germany in the years 1919-23?
What does source A tell you about the SA?
What does source A tell you about those who were involved in the Munich Putsch?
What does source B tell you about the situation in Germany in 1932?
What does source A tell you about Hitler’s campaigning methods?
What does source B show you about support for Hitler in Aug 1934?
What does source C show you about the Reichstag fire?
What does source D show you about the Night of the Long Knives?

1b, Use source …. And your own knowledge to explain why….(4 marks)
Use source B and your own knowledge to explain why there were problems with the Weimar constitution.
Use source C and your own knowledge to explain why the Treaty of Versailles caused territorial problems
for Germany.
Use source A and your own knowledge to explain why the trial was so important to Hitler.
Use source E and your own knowledge to explain the impact of unemployment of some of the men in
Germany?
Use source A and your own knowledge to explain why many German people decided to vote for the Nazi
Party.
Use source C and your own knowledge to explain why the Great Depression affected life in Germany?
Use source C and your own knowledge to explain Hitler’s intentions upon being appointed Chancellor in
1933
Use source C and your own knowledge to explain how Hitler used the army to increase his power.

1c - How far does source …. Support …… (5 marks)
How far does source F support the view that the Treaty of Versailles was hated by most Germans?
How far does source B support the view that the failure of the Putsch was a turning point in Hitler’s plans to
achieve power?
How far does source B support the view that Germany entered a period of severe depression during the early
1930s?
How far does source K support the view that the political scene in Germany was becoming more violent
during the early 1930s?
How far does source B support the view that Hitler’s friendship with Hindenburg and Papen was not very
strong?
How far does source B support the view that parliamentary democracy had ended in Germany by 1933?
How far does source B support the view that Hitler gained from the Night of the Long knives?

1d- How useful is source… to an historian studying …… Explain your answer using
your own knowledge? (6 marks)
How useful is source A to a historian studying politics in Germany in 1919?
How useful is source A to a historian studying Germany’s reaction to the Treaty of Versailles?
How useful is source B to an historian studying Hitler’s political ideas in 1919?
How useful is source A to an historian studying the appeal of Hitler?
How useful is source C to an historian studying why some Germans might have supported Hitler in the
Munich Putsch?
How useful is source E to an historian studying the political situation in Germany in 1932?
How useful is source D to an historian studying the reasons why some German people were attracted to the
Nazi Party?
How useful is source B to an historian studying how the Nazis attempted to win political support?
How useful is source A to an historian studying Hindenburg’s attitude to the Nazis party?
How useful is source A to an historian studying Hitler’s reaction to the Reichstag fire?
                                                     18
How useful is source A to an historian studying Hitler and his problems with the SA?

1e. Why do source … and … have different views about……?
In your answer you should refer to both the content of the source and the
author (8 marks)
Why do sources A and B have different views about the impact of the Munich Putsch?
Why do sources A and B have different views about the reasons why people voted for the Nazis Party?
Why do sources C and D have different views about Hitler’s personal appeal?
Why do sources C and D have different views about the role of Hitler?



         Section B Changing Life for the German People 1933-39
Overview
   Young people were important to the Nazis – they were seen as the future of Germany.
     Their education and activities were carefully controlled.
   The Nazis dramatically changed the role of women. They wanted them to go back to a
     traditional role in the home and produce children.
   Hitler wanted to reduce unemployment and control the workforce. Hitler wanted to
     control the economy more and more especially Goering’s four year plan attempted to
     create autarky (self-sufficiency).

  What measures were used to control the economy, reduce unemployment
                      and control the workforce?

    When Hitler became Chancellor there was unemployment of about 6 million.

The National Labour Service Corps (RAD)
   To provide young men with labour jobs.
   After 1935 it was compulsory for all men aged 18-25 to serve in the RAD for 6
     months.
   Workers lived in camps, wore uniforms, received low pay and carried out military
     drill as well as work.

Job Creation schemes
   Hitler spent millions on job creation schemes (37 billion in 1938)
   Paid money to private companies e.g. builders to create jobs
   Massive road building scheme created 7000 km of autobahns (motorways)
   Other public work schemes included building hospitals, schools and houses.

Measures to control the economy
   Schacht was made Economic minister in 1934.
   He used deficit spending (got the country into debt to create jobs and help the
     economy). He used Mefo Bills to pay for things. These were credit notes that would
     be paid back with interest in 5 years’ time to people.
   Schacht resigned in 1937.

                                                    19
    In 1936 Goering created a 4 year plan for the economy. This tried to ensure that
     Germany achieved autarky (self-sufficiency) and did not need to import raw
     materials from abroad. E.g. the chemical company IG Farben was paid to try and
     develop a way of getting oil from coals. However, these attempts were not successful
     in reducing the amount Germany imported.



Invisible unemployment
    The Nazis’ unemployment figures did not include
          o Jews sacked from their jobs
          o Unmarried men under 25 who were pushed into National Labour schemes.
          o Women who were dismissed from their jobs
          o Opponents of the Nazis’ regime in concentration camps.
    Figures also included part time workers as being fully employed.

Rearmament
   Hitler wanted to build up the armed forces to be ready for a war. This reduced
     unemployment.
   Conscription (forcing men to join the army) in 1935 reduced unemployment. The
     army grew from 100,000 in 1933 to 1,400,000 by 1939.
   Coal and chemical use doubled 1933-39, oil, iron and steel use trebled as part of
     rearmament drive (used to build tanks for example.)
   26 billion marks were spent in 1939 were spent on building tanks, aircraft, ships

Controlling the workforce
    The Nazis were determined to control the workforce to stop strikes and make sure the
     country could re-arm. This was done with 2 organisations - the Labour Front and
     Strength through Joy.
Strength through Joy (KDF)
    Set up to replace trade unions
    Aimed to improve workers leisure time. Sponsored concerts, theatre visits, museum
     tours, sporting events, weekend trips, holidays and cruises. All were provided a
     low cost to workers.
    Beauty of Work – was a department of the KDF which tried to improve working
     conditions by building canteens, swimming pools, sports facilities etc.
The German Labour front DAF
    In 1933 the Nazis banned all trade unions to end strikes.
    They were replaced by the German Labour Front under its leader Robert Ley
    Wages were decided by the German labour Front
    Workers had a work book which recorded their record of employment. You could
     not work without it.
    Would have been hard to get a job if you did not join the DAF
    Membership required a fee

                                           20
Volkswagen Scheme
   The ‘people’s car’ scheme.
   Workers pay 5 marks a week towards a Volkswagen car.
   But it was a swindle – not a single customer got a car – no money was refunded.

Official unemployment was almost 0 in 1939


                        What was the role of Women?
In the period of the Weimar government (1920s) women had made much progress towards
equality. They;
          o Could vote
          o Be part of the Reichstag (1/10 of members)
          o Have careers (law, medicine and teaching).
          o They drank, smoked, were slim,
          o Fashion conscious. Wore short skirts had short hair and makeup.

Nazi Ideals for women
         o Did not wear makeup
         o Was blonde, heavy hipped and sporty
         o Wore flat shoes and a long full skirt
         o Did not smoke
         o Did not work
         o Did all the cooking and cleaning
         o Brought up the children
         o Had no interest in politics
    Women should stick to Kinder, Kuche, Kirche(children, kitchen, church)

                               Changes under the Nazis
Marriage and the family
Nazis were worried that the birth rate was falling and not enough German (Aryan) babies
were being born.
   Massive propaganda campaign to encourage motherhood and large families
   1933 Law for the Encouragement of Marriage. Gave loans to couples who married,
      if the woman left her job. The couple could keep ¼ of the money for each child born
      up to 4 children.
   The Motherhood Cross was awarded to women with large families on the Hitler’s
      Mother’s birthday.
   The law was changed in 1938 – you could get divorced if a couple could not have
      children.
   Set up Lebensborn (life springs) programme. Specially chosen unmarried women
      could ‘donate a baby to the Fuhrer’ by becoming pregnant by ‘racially pure’ SS men.
   German Women’s Enterprise organisation arranged talks etc. on Motherhood.


                                             21
Jobs
    In 1933 Nazis wanted women to give up work
    Women doctors, teachers and civil servants were forced to leave their jobs.
    But in 1937 Nazis had to change their policies – so Germany could re-arm and men
     could join the army. They abolished marriage loans. This change was not very
     successful, by 1939 far fewer women were working than they had been when Hitler
     came to power.

         How did education and youth movements control the Young?
For Hitler it was really important that the young believe Nazi Ideals – they were the future.

Education
   Teachers – had to join the Nazi Teachers league and had to push Nazi ideals in the
     class room. They had to swear an oath of loyalty to Hitler
   Textbooks – were rewritten to fit the Nazis’ views.
                Mein Kampf was read in school.
   Hitler wanted fit and healthy people so 15% of the school day was spent doing PE
   Boys were prepared for the army
   Girls learnt needlework and cookery
   A new subject ‘race science’ was introduced. To put across the Nazis’ views. They
     were taught Aryans were better than inferior races like the Jews. They were taught
     how to measure their skulls and group people into races.
   Started with saying ‘Heil Hitler’
   Maths lessons included plotting the routes of bombs. History lessons taught the evils
     of the Treaty of Versailles and the evils of communism.

The Hitler Youth
    Nazis also wanted to control young people’s spare time - this was achieved through
      the Hitler youth.
    All other youth groups were banned
    From 1939 you had to join the Hitler Youth
    By 1939 there were 7 million members.
Boys
    Age 10 joined German Young People (Jungvolk).
    Age 14-18 they joined Hitler Youth (Hitler jungend)
    Learnt Nazi songs and ideas
    Did athletics, went hiking and camping, marched, did map reading and learnt
      military skills.
    Went on summer camps and enjoyed comradeship.
Girls
    Age 10 joined Young Girls (Jungmadel)
    Age 14-18 League of German Maidens
    Did a lot the same as the boys. Except focus was no learning skills they needed for
      motherhood and did much less military training.

                                              22
How successful were these policies?

    Many young people joined the Hitler youth
    It was not popular with some of its members.
    Some youth challenged Nazis ideas by playing their own music (Jazz and swing),
     wearing their choice of clothes and growing hair long. One group was called the
     Edelweiss Pirates.

            How did Nazis Political Policy Affect Life in Germany?

Overview
    To maintain a dictatorship and for Hitler to be in total control there had to be fear
     – to make the people too frightened to oppose the Nazis state.
    This was achieved by establishing a ‘police state’ – including a secret police
     (Gestapo) the SS, Nazis control of law courts and concentration camps.
    Hitler also wanted people to believe in and support Nazis ideals. This was done
     with the clever use of propaganda, censorship controlling all parts of the media, arts
     and entertainment.

What was the Police State?
   State used force and terror to control people and create fear.
   The SS and Gestapo were the main organisations that created fear they were both ran
     by Himmler.

SS (schutzstaffel)
    Formed in 1925 as Hitler’s personal body guard – total obedience to Hitler
    Wore back and after 1929 lead by Himmler
    Had to be fine examples of the Aryan race expected to marry racially pure Aryan
      wives
    After Night of Long Knives in charge of removing all opposition to the Nazis
Gestapo (Secret police)
    Supervised by Himmler’s deputy Reinhard Heydrich
    Could arrest and imprison anyone suspected of opposing the Nazis
    Would send suspects to concentration camps
    By 1939 about 160,000 were under arrest for political crimes.
The Legal system
    Law courts were made Nazi
    Judges had to become members of the National Socialist League for the Maintenance
      of Law and be loyal to the Nazis
    In 1933 the German lawyers front was established
    Judges were checked to see that punishments were harsh enough and Hitler would
      alter sentences if he felt they were too soft.
By 1934 Hitler controlled the Reichstag, the army, the legal system. There were Nazi
police and secret organisations.
It was almost impossible for anyone to escape the power and the grip of the Nazis.
                                            23
Concentration Camps
   New Nazi prisons were called ‘concentration camps’
   1933 the 1st concentration camp was opened at Dachau, others followed
   Each prison was grouped and had a different colour triangle e.g. Jews = yellow
   People were treated horribly – hard labour, torture. Used as slave labour e.g. making
     weapons.
   Few survived the experience
   How did Nazis extend their control over central and local government?

The Fuhrer
      All power came from Hitler
      In was in total control of the Nazi state
      He increasingly made the laws
      Hitler always had the final say
    Germany was governed by ‘the will of the Fuhrer.’
After the Enabling law Hitler made sure every part of the German political system was
under his control – national and local.

Reichstag (parliament)
   Enabling took away their power to make laws
     and gave it to Hitler the Chancellor
   Enabling law was renewed every 4 years
   The Reichstag hardly ever met
   Used to applauded Hitler’s speeches

The Cabinet
   Hardly met
   By 1938 only contained Nazis

Reich Chancellery
   Took over the work of the cabinet
   Lead by Lammers – who had great influence on
     Hitler and wrote many laws

The Civil Service (people who work for the
government)
    Many civil servants had not liked the Weimar government and were happy to work for
     the Nazis
    In 1939 anyone who worked for the government had to be a Nazi

State (local) government
    In 1933 Hitler closed down all state parliaments
                                            24
    They were reorganised so Nazis had the majority in each state
    The country was divided into Gau (regions) each headed by a Reich Governor
     (Gauleiter)
    These Nazis Gauleiter had the power to appoint and sack state officials and make state
     laws.



                  How were propaganda and Censorship used?

      In 1933 Goebbels set up the Ministry for Popular Enlightenment and Propaganda
      To control thoughts, beliefs and opinions of the German People
      It was important that most people believed in the ideals of the Nazi Party
      All aspects of the media were censored and skilfully manipulated by Goebbels.
      Censored = anything the Nazis did not like was removed

Newspapers
   Non Nazi newspapers closed down
   Newspapers were told what they could write
   German people could only read what the Nazis wanted them to know
   If a newspaper editor did not comply he was sent to a concentration camp

Radio
   All radio stations were under Nazi control
   Cheap mass produced radios were sold
   Loudspeakers placed in the streets
   It was important the Nazis’ message was heard
   Hitler and Goebbels regularly made speeches

Cinema
    Goebbels knew films were popular – audiences of 250 million in 1933
    All film plots shown to Goebbels first
    Realised overly political films were boring
    Love stories and thrillers were given pro-Nazi slants. E.g. HitlerjungeQuex. Tells the
     story of a boy, who broke away from communist family, joins Hitler Youth then is
     murdered by the communists.
    All films came with a 45 minute newsreel which glorified Hitler and the Nazi
     achievements

Rallies
   Yearly a mass rally was held in Nuremburg to show the power of the Nazis state
   Spectacular parades were held
   Local marches and rallies held by SA and Hitler Youth


                                            25
Posters
   Cleverly put across Nazi messages

Books
    All books were censored and controlled to put across Nazi messages
    In 1933, encouraged by Goebbels, students in Berlin burnt books by communists, anti-
      Nazis and Jews
    Many writers forced to write books which praised Hitler
Jokes – it was against the law to tell an Anti-Nazi joke. Bad joke =prison.

                        What was the Nazis’ Racial Policy?

    Hitler had used the Jews for years as the ‘scapegoats’ (people to blame) for
     Germany’s problems. Including defeat in WWI and the Treaty of Versailles.
    In power they wanted to turn more and more German’s against the Jews and justify
     persecution.
    Nazis wanted to create a pure German state.
    Treated all non-Germans, especially Jews, as inferior
    Hitler said God had a special purpose for the Aryans.

Master Race
   Hitler believed the Germans were a pure race of Aryan descent
   They were blond, blue eyed, tall, lean, athletic
   People fit to master the world
   But the race had been contaminated by ‘subhumans’

Subhumans
   Jews were subhumans or untermenschen (something less than human)
   Jews were evil money lenders
   Jews were evil and wanted to destroy civilisation

Making the Master Race
   Selective Breeding
        o Stop anyone who was not Aryan having children
        o SS (all Aryan men, tall, fair haired, blue eyed) had to marry Aryan women
   Destroy the Jews

                            Why did the Nazis persecute the Jews?

    Nazis not the first to think Jews were different and treat them badly these anti-
     Semitic ideas go back to the middle ages
    Jews had a different religion and way of life
    Some Christians blame Jews for the execution of Christ
    Some Jews became rich money lenders and people were jealous of them

                                           26
    Hitler spent time in Vienna Austria where there was a lot of anti-Semitism (Jew
      hating)
    As a tramp he was jealous of rich Jews
    In the 1920s Hitler blamed Jews for all Germany’s problems (defeat WWI, Treaty
      of Versailles, 1923 hyperinflation, 1929 depression)
    Hitler wanted to create a racially pure state. This did not include the 100,000 Jews
      living in Germany. He wanted to destroy the Jews
However, Hitler had NO MASTER PLAN FOR DOING THIS, before WWII a lot of anti-
Jewish was not coordinated.

Anti –Semitism in schools

    The policy of destroying the Jews did not start as soon as Hitler came to power
    Hitler needed to get the support of the Germany people for this policy
    He did this by propaganda and education
    Young people were encouraged to hate Jews by teachers in lessons, in text books
     in school.
    There was anti-Semitic material in every classroom.
    The Ministry of Education controlled textbooks and teaching materials.
    In 1938 Jewish children were expelled from German schools.
School children were taught
    Jews are even worse than blacks.
    Jews are ugly and look untrustworthy
    Jews are responsible for defeat in WWI, Treaty of Versailles and the Depression
    All Jews are communists

                           Measures taken against the Jews
1933
    SA organised boycott of Jewish shops. Painted ‘Jude’ (JEW) on the window and
      persuaded people not to enter.
    Thousands of Jewish lawyers, civil servants and teachers were sacked
    New Law - Jews cannot work for the government
    Jews cannot inherit land
1934
     Jews are banned from public spaces (parks, swimming pools, playing fields etc.)
1935
     Jews can no longer join the army
     Restaurants were closed to all Jews in Germany
     Nuremburg Laws. A series of measures against the Jews. It meant
          o Jews lost their citizenship
          o Jews could not marry or have sex with German citizens
1936
    Professional activities of Jews were banned or restricted – this affected vets, dentists,
      nurses, accountants
    Nothing was done against the Jews during the Olympics.
                                              27
1937
      More and more Jewish businesses are taken over
1938
    Jews had to carry identity cards
    Jewish doctors, dentists could not treat Aryans
    Jewish men had to add name ‘Israel’ to first name and women ‘Sarah’ to
     humiliate them further
    Jews had letter J stamped on their passports
    Nov 1938 Kristallnacht

                            Nov 1938 - Kristallnacht

    A Polish Jew named Herschel Grynszpan shot a German official in an embassy in
     Paris. As a protest against the treatment of his parents in Germany as they had been
     deported to Poland.
    Goebbels used this as an excuse to organise anti-Jewish demonstrations
    There were attacks on Jewish shops, property, homes and synagogues.
    So many windows were broken it became known as Kristallnacht (Night of the
     broken glass)
    About 100 Jews were killed
    About 20,000 Jews were sent to concentration camps.

    Many Germans were disgusted at Kristallnacht
    So Hitler and Goebbels wanted it not to seem like the work of the Nazis but a
     spontaneous act of the German people.

1938 After Kristallnacht

    Hitler blamed the Jews themselves for causing the attacks.
        o He fined the Jews 1 billion Reichmarks as compensation for the damage
        o He said Jews can no longer own or manage a business or shop.
        o Jews can no longer employ workers
        o Jewish children can no longer go to Aryan schools.

1939
    Reich office for Emigration was formed under Reinhard Heydrich.
    SS now had the job of getting the Jews out of Germany by forced emigration (forced
     deportation).
    They wanted other countries to take the Jews
    Jews had to hand over gold and jewellery to the government
    Jews were evicted (forced out) of their homes and forced into Jewish areas or
     ghettos
    Jews had to hand over their radio sets so they could not hear foreign news.


                                            28
How did the Nazis Change relations with the Catholic and Protestant Churches?

Nazi Ideas                                   Christian ideas
   Strength and violence is good               Love and forgiveness
   Hate the weak                               Help the weak
   Aryans are better than other races          Everyone is equal before God
   Hitler is like God                          Belief in God

However, at first Hitler did not attack the church. As
   2/3 of Germans were Protestant and a 1/3 Catholic. The church had too much support.
   Lots of Christians believed the Nazis were better than the communists
   Lots of Christians liked the Nazi ideas on family more than the Weimar period of
    women smoking and wearing short skirts

Catholic Church
   Hitler saw the Catholic Church as a threat. They supported the Pope more than
     Hitler. They had their own schools and Youth groups whose message was different to
     the Hitler Youth. Many Catholics supported the Centre party not the Nazi party.
   In 1933 Hitler decided to work with the church and signed a concordat or
     agreement.
         o Church would stay out of politics. Hitler would leave the Church alone.
   Hitler broke this agreement. He arrested priests. Any priest who criticised the
     Nazis ended up in concentration camps. Catholic schools were closed. Catholic youth
     groups were closed. Monasteries were closed.
   In 1937 Pope Pius XI made a famous statement ‘with burning anxiety’ attacking
     the Nazis. As a result 400 priests ended up in concentration camps like Dachau.

Protestant Church
   Many Protestants were against the Nazis.
   They were led by Pastor Martin Niemoller.
   In 1934 they set up the Confessional Church which opposed Hitler
   In 1937 Niemoller was sent to a concentration camp.
   The Confessional Church was banned.

National Reich Church
    Some Protestants liked Hitler
    They were called ‘German Christians’
    Wore Nazis uniforms and gave ‘Heil Hitler’ greeting
    Their slogan was ‘The swastika on our chests and the cross in our hearts’
    In 1933 different Church groups joined together and formed the ‘National Reich
      Church’
    Their leader was Ludwig Muller (Reich Bishop)
    Bible was replaced by Mein Kampf
    The cross on the altar by a sword.
In 1935 a Ministry of Churches was set up and all Church schools were closed.
                                           29
      Knowledge questions -Life in Nazi Germany 1933-39
Changing life for the German people, 1933-1939 - Key questions
How did Nazi economic and social policy affect life in Germany?
     • Tackling economic problems
     (measures to reduce unemployment; trade unions and the DAF; the Strength through Joy
     Movement [KdF])
     • The treatment of women and young people
     (the Three Ks; women and work; controlling education; the Hitler Youth Movement)

How did Nazi political policy affect life in Germany?
     • Extending political control
     (the use of the SS and the Gestapo; control of the legal system; control over central and
     regional government)
     • The use of propaganda and censorship
     (Goebbels and propaganda; the use of rallies, radio and cinema; censorship of newspapers
     and the arts)
How did Nazi racial and religious policy affect life in Germany?
     • Nazi racial policy
     (the Master Race and ideas of Aryan superiority; the increasing persecution of the Jews
     between 1933 -1939)
     • The treatment of religion
     (Nazi views on religion; relations with the Catholic and Protestant churches; the National
     Reich Church)


2a. What does source A show you about…..? (2 marks)
What does source A show you about the role of women in Nazi Germany?
What does source A show you about the methods used by the Nazis to reduce unemployment?
What does source A show you about the role of women in German society?
What does source A show you about the Hitler Youth?
What does source A show you about the Police state?
What does source A show you about Nazi Police methods?
What does source A show you about Nazi courts?
What does source A show you about censorship in Nazi Germany?
What does source A show you about Nazi attitudes to the Jews?
What does source A show you about treatment of Jewish children?

Testing comprehension of a source
         – Look at a picture, pick out details and highlight
         – Use written information as well
         – Do not use own knowledge – no marks for it
         – You need to pick out at least 2 relevant points which are well developed and
           supported
         – About 4 sentences in length 2-3 minutes

2b. Describe……… (5 marks)
Describe how Hitler reduced unemployment in Germany between 1933 and 1939.
Describe the work of the German Labour front.
Describe the attitude of the Nazis towards the role of women.
Describe the role of women in Nazi Germany.
Describe the role of the ‘Strength Through Joy’ KDF organisation.
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Describe what happened to trade unions under the Nazis.
Describe how the school curriculum changed under the control of the Nazis.
Describe the activities of the Hitler Youth movement.
Describe the work of the concentration camps.
Describe how the Nazis exercised control over central and local government.
Describe the methods used by the Nazis to control the media in the years 1933-39.
Describe Nazi racial theory.
Describe the treatment of Jews in Nazi Germany
Describe the Nuremburg Laws
Describe what happened on Kristallnacht
Describe how churches were affected by Nazi Policy

Hints
    BE RELEVANT – ANSWER THE QUESTION
    Try and make your points in date order / the order they happen
    Use the question to start your answer. E.g. ‘The treatment of Jews in Nazi Germany
      was….’
    Add DETAIL – DATES, EVENTS, NAMES, KEY WORDS, LAWS,
      ORGANISATIONS, NUMBERS
    More detailed you are the higher mark you get!
    Aim to write at least 2 full length paragraphs.
    Aim to include at least 5 key points that are supported and developed.

2c. Explain……… (4 marks)
Explain how the Nazis tried to solve Germany’s economic problems after 1933
Explain why the Nazis wanted to control education.
Explain how the life changed for young people in Nazi Germany.
Explain why some teenagers rebelled against the Hitler Youth movement.
Explain how important education was as a means of spreading Nazi ideas.
Explain how young people reacted to the Nazi regime.
Explain how the Nazis affected the position of women in Germany 1933-1939
Explain why the Nazis restricted women’s working lives.
Explain why the SS and the Gestapo played an important role in the Nazi police state.
Explain why it was important for the Nazis to control the arts.
Explain how the Nazis’ use of propaganda help them control the German people.
Explain how the Nazis were able to control Germany.
Explain why there was so little opposition to Nazi rule 1933-1939.
Explain why the Nazis persecuted the Jews.
Explain why the position of Jews changed during the years 1933-39.
Explain why Hitler wanted to control the Church in Germany.

Hints
    Give a NUMBEROF DIFFERENT REASONS (4+) which are well explained
    The more reasons you give for something the higher mark you get
    Reasons MUST be supported by relevant DETAIL - DATES, EVENTS, NAMES,
      KEY WORDS, LAWS, ORGANISATIONS, NUMBERS
    Don’t make general comments!
    Give examples to support points.
    BE RELEVANT – ANSWER THE QUESTION.
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2c. Use your own knowledge to construct a two –sided argument
Was censorship and propaganda the main method used by the Nazis to control the German
people? Explain your answer fully. You should give a two-sided answer to this question:
    Discuss the role played by censorship and propaganda to control the German people.
    Discuss other methods used by the Nazis to exercise control
Give a judgement.

Was the boycott of Jewish shops the worst problem faced by Jews in Germany in the years
1933-39?
You should give a two-sided answer to this question:
    Discuss the seriousness of the boycott as a problem facing Jews in Germany.
    Discuss other problems which affected Jews living in Germany.
Give a judgement.

Think about.
Did Hitler have total control of the German people by 1939?
Did life get better for most Germans 1933-39?
Was high employment levels the main reason there was limited opposition to Hitler 1933-
39?
Was the Gestapo and the SS the main method used to control the German people?
Were Hitler’s Youth and education policies effective?
Did the Nazis improve the lives of young people in Germany 1933-39?
Were the Nazis successful in dealing with Germany’s economic problems?

Hints
   You must WRITE A TWO-SIDED BALANCED ARGUMENT
   You need to use capital letters and formal English
   Use DETAILS support your points – NAMES, DATES, KEY WORDS, EVENTS,
      LAWS, ORGANISATIONS, NUMBERS
   Aim to link paragraphs e.g. ‘other factors include’, ‘also important’, ‘in addition to’,
      ‘however.’
   DON’T MAKE GENERALISED COMMENTS
   MAKE A JUDGEMENT AT THE END – rank your points in order of importance,
      say what is the most important reason.
   Aim to write 1-2 sides of a page




              GOOD LUCK with the revision
              Email me with any quick questions


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                                                     Key words
Must know
Anti-Semitism – hatred of the Jews
Aryan – the ‘pure’ German race, not a Jew
Communism – belief that there should be no private property, the government owns all businesses
Conscription – compulsory military service – people are forced to join the army
Depression – when the economy is in decline and there is high unemployment
Fuhrer – leader
Gestapo – secret police
Ghetto – an area of a city where a minority live like the Jews
Heil Hitler – salute to Hitler
Hitler Youth – an organisation set up to make the young people believe Nazi ideals
Hyperinflation – when money loses value and the price of goods goes up very quickly
Industrialist – someone who runs a factory or industry
Coalition government – a government of two or more political parties
Kristallnacht – ‘Night of the Broken glass’ when Jewish windows were smashed
Nationalise – for the government to take over a private business
Reich – means Germany or Empire
Reparations – war damages (money) to be paid by Germany after WWI
SS – Schutzstaffel – Hitler’s private body guard, ran concentration camps, very wide powers
Swastika – the symbol of the Nazis party
Trade Unions – protect and improve workers’ rights, organise strikes
Wall Street Crash – 1929 – started collapse of the USA economy
Should know
Proportional representation – number of votes linked to the number of seats in the Reichstag.
   It leads to lots of different political parties and coalition governments.
NSDAP- Nazi Party
Fuhrerprinzip- the idea the Nazi party should have one leader obeyed by all
Autarky – self-sufficiency, not needing goods from foreign countries
Capitalism – when businesses are owned privately and people can make a profit
Kaiser – German Emperor or King
RAD – The labour Front
Radicalism – belief in more extreme change
Republic – a country with no King or Queen
Socialist – like a communist – believes the state should own business
Could know
Nationalist Party ( DNVP) a right wing political party in Germany who from a coalition with the Nazis after Jan 1933
Bolsheviks – like the communists
Bolshevik revolution – when the communists took over Russia
Dawes Plan – A plan to help reduce Germany’s reparation payments
Gleichschaltung- bringing people to an identical way of thinking and behaving , Co-ordinating the German people
together
KPD – German Communist Party
Lander – regional states in Germany
League of Nations – a body set up to keep the peace after WWI
Pograms – an organised massacre of the Jews
Wehrmacht – German army
Young Plan – Helped reduced Germany’s reparation payments in 1929
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                 HOW DO I LEARN DATES?
  Where might you need to use dates? You want to show the examiner:
     That you can DESCRIBE things in history. You do not need to know the date for
       every fact. Weasel phrases (time connectives) such ‘then’ and ‘shortly afterwards’ are
       usually quite good enough, and the most that you will normally need is ‘In 1939…’.
     That you can EXPLAIN things in history. Here, you will need to provide a bit of evidence
       the most you will usually need here is a year
     That you can ANALYSE SOURCES, using your own knowledge. Again, rarely will a
       specific date be essential to the argument.


So do not to get too hung up on trying to remember lots of
dates. You DO NEED to know what is happening at a certain
time, but you rarely need to know the exact date that it was
happening. There are other things (e.g. lists of causes/
stories of key events) which are more important

   GOOD ADVICE
   1, Start by going through your topics and making lists of the dates you
   think you must remember.
   2, Prune your list to the number of dates you think you can remember.


                   HOW DO YOU LEARN THEM?
  Here are some ideas
      Lists. Write things like that down in lists, then read/look away to put them out of your mind,
        then check if you know them, covering up one side then the other to see if you can remember
        etc

      Revision Cards– date on one side, event on the other. You can go through the cards
        whenever you have a moment (as you sit on the bus going home) seeing if you can remember
        what is on the other side

      Record them – dictate them, leaving short gaps in between. Play them back to yourself
        over headphones, trying to fill the gaps before the tape does.   Or recite them as a sing-song
        ‘poem’.

      Draw them - draw your dates onto timelines, using bright colours and pictures. Design
        each timeline differently, so that it has a different ‘hook’ for your visual memory to hang it on.

  Post it notes – tie the different dates to different places. E.g. write date+event cards, and blutack
     them to various places around the house (along the top of your wardrobe/ the back of the toilet
    door). Start by actually GOING TO those places to learn the dates. THEN try to imagine yourself
                    going to those places, and rehearse the dates in each location.




                                                     34
              HOW DO I WRITE A HISTORY
                   EXAM ESSAY?
  PLAN YOUR ESSAYS CAREFULLY
 Sort out what you want to say before you start writing – think about how to
 answer the question, what are the key words / points? Scribble a list of your
 main points and work out the best order. This will help you organise your
 work into typically 3 to 5 main paragraphs. Also, jot down the key facts you want
 to use. However, you can only afford a couple of minutes at most for this.

If you fail to plan, you plan to fail!
Planning may seem like a tedious waste of your precious exam time, but you won’t be saying
that when you get half way through your essay and realise it’s 500 words of total rubbish.
Think about it.


  BE RELEVANT
 Don’t just chuck in everything you know. You have to try to be relevant and
 accurate.

  WRITE CLEARLY
 It’s obvious if the examiner can’t read it, you can’t get marks for it. They only
 have a few minutes to mark each exam paper.

  USE GOOD ENGLISH.
 Use formal language. This is not a text message to your mates - you are writing
 to an examiner. It may help to think you are talking to the Queen. So, for
 instance, it’s not cos it’s because. You also get marks for spelling, grammar
 and punctuation. Learn the spellings of key words.


                                            HINT
         INTRODUCTION                       Think of an essay as a good burger.

                                            The meat, lettuce, tomato (your main
            MAIN POINTS
                                            points) needs bread (your introduction
                                            and conclusion) to hold it together.
            CONCLUSION




                                           35
   WRITE AN INTRODUCTION
  Your introduction should be fairly brief. Don’t spend too long on it. You should
  consider including one or more of the following features in any introduction you
  write;
         o Explain in your own words the meaning of any key words or phrases in
           the title, especially if it is a key word
         o Give a very brief description of any person or organisation mentioned
           in the title, explaining their importance
         o ‘Set the scene’ for the essay by referring to any background details or
           relevant events immediately before the period you are discussing.
         o Give the examiner some idea of what your answer is going to be by
           referring briefly to the points you will discuss in detail in your main
           paragraphs.
  An introduction should be no more than about 5 sentences.

   USE PARAGRAPHS
      o Each paragraph should deal with just one substantial point. At the
        start of the paragraph you should write a sentence which states clearly
        what that big point is
      o Then there might be many different examples to explain or justify
        that point.
      o The paragraphs in the middle will contain most of the factual material
        you need (e.g. names, dates, places, examples).

                You get marks for showing that you can organise your work.
If you realise you have not used paragraphs and you have time add in // to show where
they should be.


   GIVE BOTH SIDES OF THE ARGUMENT
  No matter what you think, or how strong your own opinion is. You must always
  cover both sides of the argument. Often, if you don’t, you will lose half the marks.

   WRITE A CONCLUSION
  This is, of course, your last paragraph. In it you should come to a decision and
  say what your overall opinion is.
  It is usually better to give a conditional or balanced answer. Try to think about
  the extent to which you think something. (e.g. He was successful up to a point,
  however...’
  To back up your opinion, which should follow logically from what you have
  already discussed in the main paragraphs of the essay, you should refer back to
  the most important of the points you made earlier, but without simply repeating
  yourself.

       It’s very hard to get a top grade without writing a conclusion

                                            36
Try and avoid using ‘I’. You don’t need to say I think... your name is on the essay they know
it’s your opinion, just go right ahead and say your point. It just sounds more mature with
out the ‘I’. For instance, you don’t need to say ‘I think he was successful’, just say ‘He was
successful.’


  If you have time check you have included all the points in your plan. Also read
   through your work to see if it makes sense.


IF SOMETHING GOES WRONG.
  If you learn these skills by practising writing essays at home you won’t have
   to worry so much in the exam. As they say practice makes perfect!

  If it’s just a fact you’ve got wrong, then go back and cross it out neatly. If
    there’s room, write the correct fact above the mistake – if not put a * beside
    the mistake. Find a space. Put another asterisk there along with the correct
    fact written out neatly.

  It’s always a great idea to leave a few lines after each question, and a line
   between paragraphs to put in any after thoughts or corrections.

  If you realise in an essay that your argument is wrong, then don’t cross it
   all out. Work out where you went wrong and then add another paragraph to
   the end, explaining why your first argument was wrong, and giving the
   right argument instead – you will gain marks for recognising your mistakes
   and for correcting it.

  Planning essays first can avoid mistakes!




                                             37
          WHAT ARE GOOD PHRASES TO USE IN
                 HISTORY ESSAYS?
                            In addition....As well as.....Also.....

           Furthermore....Moreover....                                  What is more...

                  This meant that.....This led to ...Consequently...

                            As a result.....Therefore.....Thus....
Whereas......on the other hand......in contrast...

...for example...           ..for instance.... ...illustrates......is reflected in...

                                 However,...............We find......
                                               One finds.....

                                   In conclusion...Overall...
                                         The main reason...

                           ...states that...                ...shows that...

...... suggests that........ .......strongly suggests.......
...........might suggest.........

                                       The language used....

    ....would have us believe.....                               ....would have us doubt......

             .......might show.......      .... indicates.. ........might indicate.....

                                     .... paints a picture of....


                                        MORE HINTS
Imagine you are talking to the Queen, if you would not say it to her with a plum in your mouth
don’t say it in your history essay! That means no stuff, cos, u, or anything like that.

Try and avoid using ‘I’. You don’t need to say I think... your name is on the essay, they know it’s
your opinion, just go right ahead and say your point. It just sounds more mature without the ‘I’.



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