Teaching grammar in a communicative , motivating way by 9c3iWdTt

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									               Caleb Prichard
准教授、共立女子大学、文芸学部
  cprichard@kyoritsu-wu.ac.jp
Today's plan



Theories about grammar instruction

Lesson planning

Grammar activities
 Who   “invented” the “rules”?




    “Grammar” is a number of unconscious patterns
     developed over centuries by millions of speakers
     of a language to organize words in
     communication
 Who   “invented” the “rules”?




    “Grammar” is group of unconscious patterns
     developed over centuries by millions of speakers
     of a language to organize words in
     communication
 More important in productive skills
 (writing/speaking) or receptive skills
 (reading/listening)?

    role in speaking
    role in listening
    role in writing
    role in reading
 More important in productive skills.
 More important in written language (more
  complex, more accuracy).

    1. writing
    2. speaking
    3. reading
    4. listening
In Japanese JHs and HSs….
Enough? Too much?


Effective?
    What are problems with grammar instruction:
  in traditional language instruction   (grammar translation)   ?
  In communicative teaching?
    yesterday go Tokyo. Boyfriend
 “We
 me…together. Movie see. Fun time!”

 “Hit   Jim, John.”
 L1   Transfer



What are differences between Japanese &
 English grammar?
 Error   analysis



 Find the most frequent errors…
    in student work.
    a corpus.
 The   Natural Order Hypothesis

Which is acquired first? last?

Articles        Plural -s   Irregular past tense

Possessive 's     3rd person singular -s

Be verb          Progressive -ing
The Natural Order Hypothesis

Which is acquired first? last?

Early: Possessive 's      Be verb Progressive -ing

Middle: Plural -s      3rd person singular -s

Late: Articles   Irregular past tense

                               Tono (2002), Ikeda (2004)
 Frequency   of use

Which is used more?
 present perfect (have/has -en/-ed)    -OR-
 past perfect (had -en/-ed)?

In passive sentences, do we more often use
  “…by ______.” ?
        15-20% of the time
Teach common rules that the students
are ready for and have had trouble
with
 The    Natural Approach    (Krashen, 1982)

     Learn language naturally by reading/listening


 Explicit   Instruction
     Teach grammar rules, explanation, drills, tests


A    combination
Each activity should match at least one of the
following to be effective & to increase/maintain
students’ motivation:

cooperative:   students share or work with others
challenging: a game, task, or puzzle to increase
 motivation
relevant: related to students’ interests and/or needs
personal: use the language to share experiences,
 feelings, or opinions
authentic: should include real examples, if possible
         the structure naturally through
 Introduce
 communication or a task

 Presentthe grammar with student
 involvement

 Include   structured drills & games

 Input   (reading & listening)

 End   with freer communication activities
       Ask the class (or have them ask each other) questions
        trying to elicit the target structure

(past tense) – “Ask people in your group about
their weekend. See who had the best weekend.”

   (comparatives) – if the students like sports:
     “Who will win the Tokyo Giants game
      tonight?” …. “Why?”

         -OR-

“Which singers should be on Kohaku this year?”
       Try to elicit the forms / have the students guess the rule
        from examples
        + involve the students
        + make them active, lifelong learners
        + see what they know

(comparatives)   - (On the board or in an
interesting reading passage) more interesting,
bigger, more intelligent, smarter….
    “Can you figure out when to use –er and when
    to use more ____?”

       Introduce the form of the structure, the meaning, and
        when it is used
 Activities in which there is a short answer
 (a word or a sentence) to practice the
 grammar repetitively before freer, more
 communicative activities. Aim for
 competitive, personal, or challenging
 activities.
 Tennis(present perfect) – Say a verb, and
 your partner changes it to the participle form
 (-en/-ed)

 Tic-tac-toe(past tense) – Change the verb
 into the past tense & use it in a sentence
 about you
       Cheat       Fall Asleep        Argue

        Fight          Steal        Break Up
       Gossip         Break           Snore
 Charades    (acting) / pictionary (drawing)

    (adverbs) - A verb card says “running” and the
     adverb card says “quickly!” You have to act it out
     to try to make your partners guess “You are
     running quickly!”


    (comparatives) - The card says “bigger” and you
     have to draw a picture to have your group guess
     the correct comparative.
 Trivia   questions

     (past tense or passive) –


“Who created fireworks?”
“Fireworks were created by the….”

     (future) –


Where / be / 2014 World Cup?
 Learngrammar (use) & reinforce rules naturally
 by reading or hearing it. Make it authentic,
 relevant, challenging

     An article or listening activity related to students’
     interests or needs
    Introduce a puzzle or mystery


(comparatives) - Somebody stole the school
mascot that is kept in a secret mini-storage
room. There was blood and hair on the top of
the doorway to the storage room. The doorway
was 20 cm wide and 185 cm high. Kenji is 180
cm and he is quite thin. Masami is taller than
Kenji but not as tall as Masataka. Masataka is
not as fat as Kenji, and Masami is fatter than
Kenji. Who probably stole the mascot? Why?
           where students speak or write a lot,
 Activities
 use the language creatively, and have high
 motivation.

    for cooperative, personal, relevant, or
 Aim
 competitive activities.
 Brainstorm as many sentences as possible
 using the structure to win
    (past modals – “must have”, “might have”) World
     Records :


 “In 1888, a 15 year old girl yawned
 continuously for a period of five weeks.”

 “Bill Cook and his fiancé exchanged 6,000
 love letters in 4.5 years in the 1940s.”
 Brainstorm   as many sentences (example 2)

    (should/could/would) Advice – Use real problems
     from the web or students, and offer advice.


From student: “My mom makes me come home
  by 8PM. What can I do to get her to let me
  stay out longer?”

From web: “My boyfriend wants to break up….
  How can I keep him?”
 Interestingconversational questions using the
 target structure

     (“would”) Unbelievable chances


 “How would your life have been different if
 you had been born a girl /boy?”

 “If you won 1,000,000 yen, what would you
 do?”
 Guess   who/ what?

    (comparatives)



“He is not as tough as Matsui, but he is faster
 and more handsome than Matsui. He came to
 the US earlier than Matsui, but later than
 Nomo. Who is he?”
 Introduce  the structure naturally through
  communication or a task
 Present the grammar with student
  involvement
 Include structured drills & games
 Input (reading & listening)
 End with freer communication activities


    Don’t forget to review & contrast different
     rules with each other!
    Testing? Needed, but can also be
     communicative
Communicative principles:

cooperative:   students share or work with others
challenging: a game, task, or puzzle to increase
 motivation
relevant: related to students’ interests and/or
needs
personal: use the language to share experiences,
 feelings, or opinions
authentic: should include real examples, if
 possible
   Introduction (past perfect)



        “Good morning. Listen up. Please open to page
        15. We will study past perfect.”
    Presenting grammar rules (past tense)
    Lecture

       “We usually put –ed at the end of the verbs.
        Sometimes this makes a /t/ sound. Repeat: finish,
        finished, crash, crashed, cook, cooked.
        Sometimes this makes a /-id/ sound. Repeat:
        bunt, bunted. Sometimes it makes a /-d/ sound.
        Repeat: cram, crammed…- hey, Takuro, wake
        up!!!”
Drills   (verb agreement) Fill in the blank

     Tim ___________ (love) action movies.

     Jim and Jenny usually ___________________
      (play) tennis on the weekend.
Drills   (passive) Translation task

     シカゴのスミスタワーはコンクリートで作られた
      。
     タコスはジョンに食べられた。
     Drills (past tense)
    Change these verbs into the past tense: go,
    drink, fly, drink, eat
   Communicative activity (future tense)
    Writing

       Write about your future (10 years from now) in
        five sentences. Hand it in next Tuesday.


   Communicative activity (past tense) Writing

       Write about five sentences about 5 crazy or
        interesting things you have done.
Communicative principles:

cooperative:   students share or work with others
challenging: a game, task, or puzzle to increase
motivation
relevant: related to students’ interests and/or
needs
personal: use the language to share experiences,
feelings, or opinions
authentic: should include real examples, if
possible
Is   error correction needed?
     Some early research suggested not helpful.
     Current research shows that it can help.


When     is it needed?

     CONSIDER: Student Proficiency (Accuracy v.
      Fluency) / The Learning Style of the Student /
      The Purpose of the Assignment / The Type of
      Error / The Context of the Error
Correct errors:

For students who are: fluent, confident

For errors that: have been learned, are
learnable, and/or affect communication

In situations that: are not public, do not
interrupt communication
 How?
    Explicit correction (fix & explain)
    Correction (no explanation)
    Marked, but not corrected (in writing, circled or
     underlined)
    Coded (in writing, “SV”, “error #7”, etc.)
    Recast (in speaking; e.g. “Oh, you went there
     yesterday. How fun!”)
    Clarification (“What do you mean? You are going,
     or you sometimes go?”)
    Nothing
 Which do you do?
 What are the advantages of each?
               Caleb Prichard
准教授、共立女子大学、文芸学部
  cprichard@kyoritsu-wu.ac.jp

								
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