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					                                                                                Delgado 1

            Readers’ Advisory for Elementary School Students
                          Annotated Bibliography
                                      Lisa Delgado

My study is about improving readers’ advisory for elementary school students with an
emphasis on developing effective and efficient methods for students to share
recommendations for books they have read and liked. My goal is for students to develop
strategies for selecting books they will enjoy.

[old: My study is about finding an effective and efficient method to provide readers’
advisory for elementary school students which includes students being able to
contribute to the content.]

Avid readership: Wired for Words on-line book club. (2005). School Libraries in
      Canada, 25(1), 65-75. Retrieved July 2, 2008, from Academic Search
      Complete database.

This article is a transcript of a roundtable discussion of Canadian teacher-librarians.
Their discussion includes reflections on their role as reading advisors, reading habits of
their students, and the use of an online book club for kids called Wired for Words.

Article classification: Prescriptive/Anecdotal

Connection to interest area:
  Wired for Words is a readers’ advisory website that allows moderated reviews by
  student readers.

Essential elements:
   Kids love to review the books, share their reviews with other readers, and read
     the books reviewed.
   Librarians create displays of books recommended on Wired for Words website.
   Wired for Words promotes avid readership not reading intervention or learning to
     read; it focuses on “reading for enjoyment.”

Carter, B. (2000). Formula for failure. School Library Journal, 46(7), 34-37.
       Retrieved June 22, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Advice on helping students develop into lifelong reading is provided which includes
giving students choice in what they read and allowing them to read materials that fall
above and below their reading level. Librarians are strongly encouraged to find books
that “speak” to children “rather than those that might improve them” by moving them

                                                                                   Delgado 2

through increasingly difficult leveled texts. Librarians play an important roll in helping
children select books they want to read through readers’ advisory.

Article classification: Opinion

Connection to interest area:
  This article provides good arguments for why readers’ advisory is needed and why
  we shouldn’t “rely on numerical levels to recommend books.”

Essential elements:
   “Reading levels and readability formulas do not create lifelong readers… [and]
     don’t belong in the library.” Lifelong readers make their own choices about what
     they want to read.
   Children need help selecting books they will enjoy so they will continue to read.
   Readers’ advisory does not mean recommending books because of their
     numerical level.

Edmunds, K. M., & Bauserman, K. L. (2006). What teachers can learn about
     reading motivation through conversations with children. The Reading
     Teacher, 59(5), 414-424. Retrieved June 23, 2008, from Academic Search
     Complete database.

“This article presents a study which investigated the role of motivation in reading
development and achievement. It provides a review of previous literature on the role of
motivation in general and in reading, an overview of the study participants, a discussion
on the methodology, and details of the research findings which include the different
patterns that emerged regarding children's motivation to read. It also offers suggestions
that may support teachers who want to motivate students to read.”

Article classification: Research Study Lite

Connection to interest area:
   My project is about helping students find books they will want to read.
   Children in the study found out about books they wanted to read most frequently
     through friends and were motivated to read by sharing books. My project can
     facilitate this process.
   Children in the study were excited more frequently by books that were of
     personal interest to them, that had book characteristics they enjoyed, and that
     they were able to self-select. My applied project will help them find books that
     meet these criteria, so they can select books that interest them.

Essential elements:
   A national teacher survey showed developing an interest in reading is their top
     priority for reading research.

                                                                               Delgado 3

      Personal interest, choice, information gained, and book characteristics excited
       students about reading.
      Children most often found out about books they wanted to read from friends.

Fontichiaro, K. (2008). Is LibraryThing actually useful in a library media center?
      School Library Media Activities Monthly, 24(5), 28-29.

This article describes the basics of the Web 2.0 tool LibraryThing and suggests ways it
could be used in a school library, but warns searching for recommendations may lead to
books not intended for children.

Article classification: Conceptual

Connection to interest area:
   The tool I envision is similar to LibraryThing but limited to kids in my school.
   I am curious if LibraryThing can be adapted to meet my needs.

Essential elements:
   LibraryThing can be used as a free alternative to What Do I Read Next
     subscription service. You don’t have to add your own books to search for
     recommended books.
   LibraryThing widgets can be added to a blog, e.g. share new books.
   Recommendations may turn up books not intended for children.

Gilmore-See, J. (2007). Kids 2.0. School Library Media Activities Monthly, 24(3),

This article provides an examination of the philosophies behind Web 2.0 tools to explain
why they are successful with millennial generation library patrons.

Article classification: Conceptual

Connection to interest area:
   I hope to find a Web 2.0 tool to use for readers’ advisory so students can
     contribute content.
   The article provides reasons a 2.0 tool is desirable.

Essential elements:
   Digital natives desire device independence, editable content, and trust the
     wisdom of crowds.
   Digital immigrants worry about content.
   Today’s students want to do more than just view information.

                                                                               Delgado 4

Greaney, S. (1999). Student book choices: What influences their choices? The
     New England Reading Association Journal, 35(2), 12-15. Retrieved July 1,
     2008, from Education Full Text database.

“A study examined student book choice influences. Students in grades 3-8 responded to
a questionnaire. It was found that most students rated the topic of the book as most
influential; that girls were more likely to be influenced by the book's blurb; that boys
were more influenced by the book's cover, author, and topic; that students identified as
high ability readers were more likely to be influenced by the book's topic and blurb; that
students identified as average and low readers were more likely to be influenced by the
book's cover; and that every grade was primarily influenced by the book's topic.
Additional results, discussion of the findings, and classroom implications are provided.”

Article classification: Research Study Lite

Connection to interest area:
   I need to know how children are selecting books.
   It is important to see if studies are consistent or have new points to make.
   It is helpful to know what students need to learn more about to help them make
     better book selections.

Essential elements:
   The topic of a book was most influential in book selection; genre and series were
     also used. [All of these will be important search avenues for my students.]
   High readers were influenced by topic then blurb; average and lower readers
     were influenced more by cover.
   Discussions about books and thoughtful ways to select books are important.

Harris, C. (2006a). A matter of (radical) trust. School Library Journal, 52(11), 24.
       Retrieved June 22, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

“The author reflects on the issue of protecting children from harmful and endangering
Internet content... Particular focus is given to Library 2.0, a new concept of library
services that encourages interaction through blogging and other online tools, and how
those tools can be abused. The author contends that some measure of moderated trust,
not radical trust, must be settled upon as a compromise, which includes reviewing
content before it is published online.”

Article classification: Opinion

Connection to interest area:
   If I use a Web 2.0 tool for readers’ advisory, I have to decide who can post and if
     posts will be reviewed first.

                                                                                   Delgado 5

      Christopher Harris is a leader in the field offering advice on the type of tool I
       might use.

Essential elements:
   Trust is a fundamental concept of Web 2.0/Library 2.0.
   “…when you work in a school library, radical trust is just not an option” because
     educators are legally bound to protect students from harm.
   Harris recommends reviewing content provided by users before posting.

Harris, C. (2006b). School library 2.0. School Library Journal, 52(5), 50-53.
       Retrieved June 22, 2008, from Education Full Text database.

School libraries must keep up with interactive technologies if they are to remain
effective. Several examples of and suggestions for Web 2.0 use in the school library
media center are provided, including the idea of virtual bookshelves of students’ favorite
books with ratings and comments.

Article classification: Conceptual

Connection to interest area:
   I am interested in using Web 2.0 technology for readers’ advisory.
   Harris describes a tool like I want to create or use and suggests other 2.0 tools
     for sharing books that I may want to consider.

Essential elements:
   Harris has a vision of a tool like I want- virtual bookshelves with ratings,
     comments, and tags providing multiple access.
   He suggests additional Web 2.0 tools to use for sharing books- blogs and
     podcasts and provides examples of how they can be used.
   Use of open source software is an alternative.

Koskinen, P. S. (Ed.), Palmer, B. M., Codling, R. M., & Gambrell, L. B. (1994). In
      their own words: What elementary students have to say about motivation
      to read. The Reading Teacher, 48(2), 176-178. Retrieved July 1, 2008, from
      Academic Search Complete database.

Third and fifth grade students were given questionnaires and interviewed to determine
their reading preferences, habits, and behaviors in an effort to determine motivating
factors for reading. Across reading proficiency and motivational levels, four factors were
identified: “prior experiences with books, social interactions about books, book access,
and book choice” (p177).

                                                                               Delgado 6

Article classification: Research Study Lite

Connection to interest area:
   As a media specialist I want my students to read even when they don’t have to.
   The purpose of readers’ advisory is to help students locate books they will want
     to read.
   I need to understand what contributes to students’ motivation to read.

Essential elements:
   Students were motivated by prior experiences with books including series books
     and opportunities to read books of their own choosing. [I need to be sure to
     include series information or sequel information in readers’ advisory.]
   They were also motivated by social interaction with books. The students placed a
     high priority on reading books they heard about from their teachers, friends, and
   Book access was important. This study emphasized classroom libraries, but I
     believe a good readers’ advisory tool will help students feel less overwhelmed by
     the amount of books in the library and give them “access” to books they will
     enjoy. (Classroom libraries have already been pre-selected or targeted for them,
     while the school library provides many books to meet many needs making it
     harder for some students to find a book.)

Kragler, S., & Nolley, C. (1996). Student choices: Book selection strategies of
      fourth graders. Reading Horizons, 36, 354-365. Retrieved July 1, 2008, from
      Education Full Text database.

“The book selection strategies of fourth grade students involved in a literature-based
reading program were investigated. Findings suggest that 27 percent of books were
selected on the basis of recommendation, 23 percent on the basis of the book's physical
characteristics, 16 percent on the basis of topic, 14 percent on the basis of a particular
selection strategy, 13 percent on the basis of author or characters, and 4 percent on the
basis of familiarity through television or film. Sixty-two percent of book selections were
at an independent reading level, 25 percent were at an instructional reading level, and
18 percent of choices were at the frustration level.”

Article classification: Research Study Lite

Connection to interest area:
   To select effective ways of providing readers’ advisory, I need to understand how
     students self-select library books whether it is for recreational reading or for
     instructional purposes.
   This study provided insight on how fourth grade students chose books for a
     literature based reading program in which they not only had to pick a book they

                                                                              Delgado 7

       wanted to read, but also a book that was at an appropriate instructional reading
      When students come to my library, sometimes they are selecting books for
       recreation and other times they are selecting books for instructional purposes.

Essential elements:
   The teacher provided mini-lessons on book selection and genres.
   Students were more concerned about the topic of their books than instructional
     appropriateness. Most students chose books at their independent reading level
     followed by instructional reading level then frustration level.
   The top reason for selecting a book was peer or teacher recommendation.
     Secondary reasons for selecting a book included (in order of frequency):
     appearance of book, topic, appropriate reading level, author, and

Parks, M. (2004). Choosing books that are just right. Retrieved July 1, 2008, from
      University of North Carolina, Learn NC: K-12 Teaching and Learning

“This teacher research study examines how students select books for independent
reading and how teachers can help them make choices more appropriate to their
reading levels.”

Article classification: Research Study Lite

Connection to interest area:
   Students are frequently sent alone to the library to select books for independent
   Readers’ advisory should include helping students find books they need as well
     as what they want.

Essential elements:
   Few of her 4th graders could choose books on their independent reading level
     with weaker readers having the hardest time.
   Direct instruction on strategies to use for selecting books was needed.
   Recommended book lists were targeted to specific kids based on reading ability,
     but no mention of level was made to kids or parents.

Peterson, G., & McGlinn, S. H. (2008). Building a community of readers:
      BookSpace. Computers in Libraries, 28(4), 6-11, 52. Retrieved July 1, 2008,
      from Academic Search Complete database.

                                                                                    Delgado 8

“The article focuses on the development of the BookSpace web site by Hennepin County
Library (HCL) in Minneapolis, Minnesota. BookSpace was chosen as the new name, and the
domain name "" was acquired to ensure easy access to the site. BookSpace
was launched on February 14, 2007, in conjunction with an "I Love to Read" marketing
promotion. The team's vision was to create a site that blended traditional staff-produced and
subscription-based reader's advisory resources with user-contributed content and community-
building social features. BookSpace pages include new title lists, book club resources, audio
and e-audio sources, and research tools.”

Article classification: Prescriptive/Anecdotal

Connection to interest area:
   Online resources for readers’ advisory, which includes user contributed content,
     are described.
   Ideas are provided for readers’ advisory that I could adapt to my resources and

Essential elements:
   This library created many different ways for patrons to contribute content to their
     website including response to blogs, reading lists, and comments within the
     online catalog.
   Patrons can create booklists that can be kept private or made public. [Destiny
     has this feature too, which I should promote.]
   They have a high maintenance type of website but offer suggestions for smaller

Reuter, K. (2007a). Assessing aesthetic relevance: Children’s book selection in a
      digital library. Journal of the American Society for Information Science &
      Technology, 58(12), 1745-1763. Retrieved July 1, 2008, from Academic
      Search Complete database.

“…Some researchers have suggested that supporting children's strategies for book
selection is crucial to encouraging children to engage with books, indicating that
improving these strategies might increase the amount of reading they do. In response,
this study explores how elementary-school children select books for recreational
reading using a digital library. The work extends traditional models of relevance
assessment with reader-response theory, employing the concept of “aesthetic
relevance”: the potential of a document to provide a suitable reading experience.
Individuals define aesthetic relevance in personal terms and apply it as they assess
documents, much as they do in traditional relevance assessment. This study identified a
total of 46 factors organized along seven dimensions that influence children's
assessment of the aesthetic relevance of books during selection…Recommendations
drawn from the findings are offered to improve systems design and literacy education in

                                                                                  Delgado 9

order to enhance children's access to books and to promote recreational reading.

Article classification: Research Study

Connection to interest area:
   Students in the study were using a digital tool to select books they wanted to
   The factors students used in the digital tool to select the books were identified
     and organized by frequency. This will provide insight on what should be included
     in my tool.
   The importance of teaching students how to select books for pleasure reading
     was also discussed.

Essential elements:
   Students are not being taught how to select books for pleasure reading.
   Emerging readers were very concerned about accessibility of the text- level of
     difficulty, length, text density while book titles were particularly important to older
   Topic/subject and genre were more important to older students than younger
     students. Boys were particularly interested in subjects of books.

Reuter, K. A. (2007b). Children selecting books in a library: Extending models of
      information behavior to a recreational setting. Retrieved July 2, 2008, from
      Digital Repository at the University of Maryland website:

“Literacy researchers suggest that book-selection strategies are part of successful
literacy development, and in several research studies children reported that finding
books they like is the biggest barrier they face to reading… [T]his study undertook a
qualitative investigation of primary-school children's selection of books for recreational
reading in a public library over the summer. Book selection was examined from the
perspective of library and information science (LIS) models of information behavior and
relevance assessment. To expand LIS research into the recreational realm, the study
also drew upon reader-response theory in education and uses-and-gratifications theory
in communications. Using a multiple-case study design, the study collected
questionnaire, interview, and observation data from 20 7- to 9-year-old children and
their parents during several sessions at their homes and at the public library… The
central aspects influencing children's selection of books were contents and reading
experience... children rarely acknowledged receiving formal instruction in book selection
…The findings have implications for strategies to encourage effective book selection
through library instruction… as well as for approaches to improve library services and
systems, such as readers' advisory, shelf arrangement, and digital libraries.”

                                                                             Delgado 10

Article classification: Research Study

Connection to interest area:
   The ultimate purpose of my project is to help students select books they will
     enjoy reading, so it is important to know how they do this on their own.
   This study found the students had not been shown how to effectively select
     books for recreational reading. The researcher makes suggestions on what this
     instruction should include and what librarians should do to facilitate children’s
     selection of books.

Essential elements:
   Little or no instruction is being provided to students on how to select books for
     recreational reading.
   The children did not seek help from the librarians for readers’ advisory. They
     asked for help only in locating a specific book. They may not have known to ask
     for help selecting a good book.
   Factors students used to select books are compiled in this study. This includes
     what students said they did as well as observations on how they actually did it.

Swartz, M. K., & Hendricks, C. G. (2000). Factors that influence the book selection
      process of students with special needs. Journal of Adolescent & Adult
      Literacy, 43(7), 608-618. Retrieved July 1, 2008, from Academic Search
      Complete database.

“Presents a study which examined the factors that influence the book selection process
of [middle school] students with special needs.” Results were found to be similar to
typically developing students with the exception of length being important to several of
the special needs students.

Article classification: Research Study Lite

Connection to interest area:
   Our school has several special needs homerooms as well as several
     mainstreamed special needs students.
   I want to be conscious of any adaptations needed.

Essential elements:
   Topic/subject matter was mentioned most frequently as a selection criterion of
     the special needs students in this study.
   Length of the book was mentioned by 2/3rd of the students; most preferred 100
     pages or less. [This sounds like an important descriptor to include.]
   Factors influencing student selection of books for the special needs students
     were similar to those of typically developing students with the exception of more
     emphasis on length of the book.

                                                                             Delgado 11

Wyatt, N. (2007). 2.0 for readers. Library Journal, 132(18), 30-33. Retrieved June
      22, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

This article explains how new Web 2.0 tools are changing readers’ advisory by allowing
librarians and patrons to add annotations, ratings, tags, book suggestions, etc. to book
records in online catalogs and other online tools. Effective users of the tools and
libraries currently using this technology are highlighted. Web resources such as
LibraryThing, GoodReads, Shelfari are also mentioned.

Article classification: Conceptual

Connection to interest area:
   Describes the type of services I want to provide.
   Provides resources to explore for possible use with my students.

Essential elements:
   Web 2.0 technologies for readers’ advisory currently exist and libraries are
     beginning to utilize it- examples are provided.
   Reader’s annotations can be added to the online catalog or can be housed on
     external sites.
   Examples are provided for readers’ advisory librarians to use LibraryThing, etc.
     to manage readers’ advisory information even when they don’t promote it with
     their patrons.

Summary of article types:
16 total articles
 8 Research Study or Research Study Lite
 4 Conceptual
 2 Opinion
 2 Prescriptive/Anecdotal

                                                                          Delgado 12


                         Criteria                           Value   Assessment
Components are complete:

[   ] Restatement of interest area (1pt)
[   ] At least 16 articles reviewed (3pts)
[   ] Half are research study reports (2pts)                        LJD    MAF
[   ] Each annotation includes (3pts):                       10      10

             APA citation
             Overview or abstract
             Indication of type of article
             Connection to your interest area
             Reduction to 1-3 essential relevant

[   ] Rubric with self-assessment (1 pt)

List is arguably relevant to your interest area.                    LJD    MAF
                                                             4       4
APA: I will closely examine your citation formatting in
this assignment.
                                                                    LJD    MAF
       4 pts: citations are complete; ordered correctly;    4       4
        perfect or nearly so
       3 pts: citations are complete, ordered correctly,
        and consistent between citations
       2 pts: citations are complete
       1 pt: citations are consistent

Mechanics (other than APA):
[ ] spelling, grammar, etc.                                         LJD    MAF
[ ] concise (bullets are good!)                              2       2

Total                                                               LJD    MAF
                                                             20      20


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