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									                                       PSY110 Psychology
                                      Chapter 7 Study Guide

Name: __________________________ Date: _____________


Module 21


    1. The branch of psychology that studies such phenomena as thinking, language,
       reasoning, and judging is
       A) developmental psychology.
       B) neuroscience.
       C) cognitive psychology.
       D) motivational psychology.


    2. Kyle is interested in how people solve complex problems, such as how to repair a
       broken clock. Kyle is likely a
       A) cognitive psychologist.
       B) personality psychologist.
       C) developmental psychologist.
       D) clinical psychologist.


    3. Jared believes that greyhounds, golden retrievers, and Chihuahuas share common
       features. For Jared, these objects belong to the same
       A) prototype.
       B) concept.
       C) heuristic.
       D) schema.


    4. A(n) _____ is a mental image of the most representative or typical example of a
       concept.
       A) prototype
       B) heuristic
       C) schema
       D) algorithm


    5. A cognitive shortcut that may or may not lead to a correct answer is a(n)
       A) syllogism.
       B) transformation rule.
       C) heuristic.
       D) algorithm.




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 6. Cognitive psychologists have identified three types of problems that people often try to
    solve. Of the following, which is not one of these primary types?
    A) arrangement problems
    B) problems of inducing structure
    C) heuristic problems
    D) transformative problems


 7. If you are monitoring the difference between your current state and a desired goal, then
    you are using a(n)
    A) algorithm.
    B) means-end analysis.
    C) schema.
    D) syllogism.


 8. Insight learning among chimpanzees was first studied by
    A) B. F. Skinner.
    B) Wolfgang Köhler.
    C) Max Wertheimer.
    D) Robert Sternberg.


 9. A person who is functionally fixated
    A) often develops novel solutions to problems.
    B) thinks about objects in terms of their typical use.
    C) thinks in ways that are not constrained by mental sets.
    D) thinks in divergent ways.


10. Mental sets refer to the tendency
    A) to think in new and creative ways.
    B) for old patterns of problem solving to influence how we solve new problems.
    C) to search for evidence that confirms our expectations.
    D) for new memories to block the recall of information that we learned years ago.


11. A liberal person reads only liberal publications, and she changes the channel when
    conservative talk-shows are aired on television. Such behaviors would probably lead to
    a
    A) confirmation bias.
    B) self-fulfilling prophecy.
    C) state of functional fixedness.
    D) state of divergent thinking.




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   12. The hallmark of creativity is
       A) logical thinking.
       B) divergent thinking.
       C) convergent thinking.
       D) thinking with mental sets.


   13. Divergent thinking requires that a person develop
       A) unusual but appropriate solutions to a problem.
       B) solutions that are based on logic and knowledge.
       C) as many solutions as possible to a problem.
       D) cognitively simple solutions to a problem.


   14. Convergent thinking requires that a person develop
       A) as many solutions as possible to a problem.
       B) cognitively simple solutions to a problem.
       C) unusual but appropriate solutions to a problem.
       D) solutions that are based on logic and knowledge.


Module 22


   15. The smallest unit of speech that affects the meaning of what people say is a
       A) phoneme.
       B) syllable.
       C) word.
       D) sentence.


   16. You read the sentence, "Defects may birth smoking cause," and you know that it does
       not make sense.
       It has violated the rules of
       A) syntax.
       B) diction.
       C) semantics.
       D) phonology.


   17. The system of rules that govern how people communicate their thoughts is called
       A) phonology.
       B) grammar.
       C) the lexicon.
       D) semantics.




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18. The average baby begins to babble at
    A) 3 months of age.
    B) 6 months of age.
    C) 12 months of age.
    D) 18 months of age.


19. Which of the following statements best represents telegraphic speech?
    A) "Mamma."
    B) "I want to eat."
    C) "I took a bath."
    D) "Sleep bed."


20. A child learns the rule that adding d to the end of a word forms the past tense. She then
    makes the statement, "I taked a cookie." The child has
    A) misunderstood phonology.
    B) overgeneralized the rule.
    C) made a syntax error.
    D) made a semantic error.


21. The belief that children acquire language through reinforcement and conditioning is
    consistent with
    A) learning theory approaches.
    B) language-acquisition device theory.
    C) the linguistic-relativity hypothesis.
    D) immersion programs.


22. Noam Chomsky believed that the human brain is equipped with a neural system that
    allows people to
    develop and understand language. He called this system the
    A) semantic production system.
    B) phonological driver.
    C) language-reinforcement system.
    D) language-acquisition device.




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   23. Research on the effects of music show that
       A) infants respond more emotionally to their mothers' singing than to their mothers'
           speech.
       B) music may improve people's spatial reasoning abilities.
       C) music does not influence people's emotions.
       D) A and B


   24. The linguistic-relativity hypothesis asserts that
       A) children use different styles of language depending on their audience.
       B) proper language use varies across different racial groups in the United States.
       C) language shapes how people in particular cultures perceive the world.
       D) language is shaped by how people in particular cultures perceive the world.


   25. ______ suggest that people should maintain their original cultural identity and integrate
       into their adopted culture.
       A) Assimilation models
       B) Alternation models
       C) Melting-pot models
       D) Fusion models


Module 23


   26. People in western cultures typically view intelligence as the ability to
       A) survive on the streets.
       B) form categories and debate rationally.
       C) relate to other people.
       D) take other people's perspectives.


   27. People in eastern cultures typically view intelligence as the ability to
       A) survive on the streets.
       B) form categories and debate rationally.
       C) relate to other people.
       D) solve complex problems.




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28. In early theories of intelligence, "g-factor" referred to a
    A) single factor that was the foundation of performance on all aspects of intelligence.
    B) single factor that was the foundation for intelligence related to geometric spatial
         tasks.
    C) variety of factors that became the basis of musical intelligence.
    D) label that psychologists used to indicate gifted students.


29. A person's culture appears to have a strong effect on his or her
    A) fluid intelligence.
    B) crystallized intelligence.
    C) semantic intelligence.
    D) kinesthetic intelligence.


30. Including such characteristics as musical ability and interpersonal relationships in
    definitions of intelligence is consistent with a theory of multiple intelligences
    formulated by
    A) Howard Gardner.
    B) Alfred Binet.
    C) David Wechsler.
    D) Charles Murray.


31. A person who is in touch with his or her emotions and internal states has high
    A) intrapersonal intelligence.
    B) interpersonal intelligence.
    C) naturalist intelligence.
    D) bodily intelligence.


32. According to Robert Sternberg, intelligence that is related to overall success in daily
    living is
    A) emotional intelligence.
    B) interpersonal intelligence.
    C) practical intelligence.
    D) logical-mathematical intelligence.


33. A person who has strong empathy, self-awareness, and social skills probably has high
    A) practical intelligence.
    B) emotional intelligence.
    C) fluid intelligence.
    D) naturalist intelligence.




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34. The first intelligence tests were created by
    A) Alfred Binet.
    B) David Wechsler.
    C) Gerald Stanford.
    D) Francis Galton.


35. Which of the following is the preferred method for computing intelligence scores today?
    A) Intelligence quotients
    B) Deviation IQ scores
    C) Mental age indices
    D) Stanford-Binet averages


36. The most widely used intelligence test in the United States today is the
    A) Stanford-Binet IV.
    B) MMPI.
    C) Sternberg Emotional Intelligence Scale.
    D) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III.


37. A person takes an intelligence test for which she must provide word definitions,
    demonstrate comprehension of concepts, assemble objects, and arrange pictures in a
    meaningful order. She is probably taking the
    A) Practical Intelligence Scale.
    B) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III.
    C) Stanford-Binet IV.
    D) Minnesota Multiphasic Intelligence Test.


38. A psychology major completes a test that measures all her knowledge of psychology.
    Her score will be used to determine whether or not she is accepted into graduate school.
    She is probably taking a(n)
    A) crystallized intelligence test.
    B) practical intelligence test.
    C) achievement test.
    D) aptitude test.


39. Many intelligence tests that are published in popular magazines and on the Internet have
    poor reliability. This means that these tests
    A) do not measure intelligence in consistent ways.
    B) do not actually measure intelligence.
    C) can only predict performance on certain types of tasks, such as romantic success.
    D) cannot distinguish between crystallized and fluid intelligence.




                                           Page 7
40. When a psychology exam has questions on the chemical composition of aspirin, the
    temperature at which iron melts, and the dangers of hydrochloric acid, it is not a _____
    measure of your psychology knowledge.
    A) valid
    B) reliable
    C) standardized
    D) A and B


41. When a test has norms that allow comparisons to be made among test-takers, it is
    referred to as
    A) adaptive.
    B) standardized.
    C) cultural-fair.
    D) sensitized.


42. A person who has significant limitations in conceptual and practical adaptive skills
    would be classified as
    A) gifted.
    B) mentally retarded.
    C) sociopathic.
    D) physically handicapped.


43. Most people with mental retardation have IQ scores that
    A) range between 55 and 69.
    B) range between 40 and 54.
    C) range between 25 and39.
    D) are below 25.


44. When a child is born with an extra chromosome, he or she will develop
    A) multiple sclerosis.
    B) paraplegia.
    C) Down syndrome.
    D) Sudden infant death syndrome.




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45. People who are intellectually gifted (IQ scores greater than 130) make up about ____ of
    the population.
    A) 2-4%
    B) 10-12%
    C) 18-20%
    D) 24-26%


46. Research suggests that people who are intellectually gifted tend to be
    A) shy.
    B) socially maladjusted.
    C) outgoing.
    D) intelligent in all areas.




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