6D Read by HC120207012236

VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 29

									Pathways for Learning: K-6
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 I. COURSE OF STUDY CONTENT STANDARD

    1.   Interpret and construct meaning by applying appropriate strategies to
         materials across the curriculum.



II. ALABAMA HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION EXAM (AHSGE) STANDARDS
    AND OBJECTIVES

    I-1, I-2, II-1, II-3, II-4, IV-1, IV-2, IV-3



III. OVERVIEW/PREPARATION

    Review with students reading strategies used in previous lessons; for
    example, making initial predictions, interpreting author’s meaning, or noting
    sequence of events.



IV. TIME ALLOTMENT

    60 minutes



 V. MATERIALS NEEDED

    Class set of newspapers
    Sticky notes
    Pen or pencil




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VI. ACTIVITIES

   The following activities may be done by individual students or in groups:

   1. Read different sections of the newspaper and discuss with students the
      appropriate reading strategies needed for various sections.

   2. Use the “Letters to the Editor” section to determine the author’s
      purpose. Record the purpose on a sticky note.

   3. Use the sports section and read the headlines to predict what will be
      contained in the article. Record predictions on a sticky note. Read the
      article and determine if the predictions were correct.

   4. Select comic strips from the newspaper. Cut each strip into individual
      frames and place in an envelope. Tell students to arrange each strip in
      the correct sequential order. Have students justify their sequencing.

   5. Use a news story to determine cause and effect, main idea, word meaning
      using context clues, and fact versus opinion. Record findings on sticky
      notes.

   Note: Have groups report their findings at the end of each activity.




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 I. COURSE OF STUDY CONTENT STANDARD

    2.   Read with ease textual, functional, and recreational materials
         encountered in daily life.



II. ALABAMA HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION EXAM (AHSGE) STANDARDS
    AND OBJECTIVES

    I-3, II-1, II-2



III. OVERVIEW/PREPARATION

    Review types of reading (functional, textual, and recreational).

    Functional:       a type of reading using materials encountered in everyday
                      life, both inside and outside of school, including directions,
                      forms, labels, personal notes, and advertisements

    Textual:          a type of reading using appropriate expository material with
                      content from natural, physical, and social science, as well as
                      other nonfiction general information materials

    Recreational:     a type of reading used for enjoyment or literary merit,
                      including folktales, historical fiction, contemporary fiction,
                      humor, and poetry



IV. TIME ALLOTMENT

    45 minutes



 V. MATERIALS NEEDED

    Examples of functional, textual, and recreational reading materials




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VI. ACTIVITY

   1. Instruct students to gather one example of each type of reading
      material (functional, textual, and recreational) and bring it to class.

   2. Divide students into cooperative learning groups.

   3. Instruct students to share examples and tell why each example
      represents a particular type of reading.

   4. Have students extend the discussion by naming the examples from the
      group that would be appropriate for more than one type of reading.




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 I. COURSE OF STUDY CONTENT STANDARD

    5.   Recognize various forms of literature according to characteristics.



II. ALABAMA HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION EXAM (AHSGE) STANDARDS
    AND OBJECTIVES

    III–2, III-3



III. OVERVIEW/PREPARATION

    Provide students with examples of various genres or forms of literature.
    Discuss characteristics of the examples provided.



IV. TIME ALLOTMENT

    One class period (per activity)



 V. MATERIALS NEEDED

    Magazines
    Art supplies
    Glue
    Paper plates




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VI. ACTIVITIES

   1. Have students make collages of a particular type of literature using
      phrases, words, or pictures that tell about the type of literature.
      Require that no background shows on the poster or project.

   2. Have students make “Reading Rays” to show characteristics of various
      forms of literature. To do this, have students use a paper plate with the
      name of the literary form as the center. Have them make the “rays” by
      using strips of paper that start at the center and extend outward.
      These “rays” should identify the characteristics. (They can also be used
      for a certain book instead of a particular form of literature.)

   3. Have students illustrate scenes in a book and explain why the illustration
      is characteristic of the type of literature selected.




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 I. COURSE OF STUDY CONTENT STANDARD

    5.   Recognize various forms of literature according to characteristics.



II. ALABAMA HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION EXAM (AHSGE) STANDARDS
    AND OBJECTIVES

    III–2, III-3



III. OVERVIEW/PREPARATION

    The activities suggested in this section may be used with students
    throughout the year. The purpose of the projects suggested in the activity
    section is to provide students with multiple opportunities to apply knowledge
    of types of literature and elements of story by means of creative products.
    Students may be provided copies of the TYPES OF LITERATURE handout
    and the STORY ELEMENTS handout to use as references.



IV. TIME ALLOTMENT

    Throughout the year



 V. MATERIALS NEEDED

    Examples of various types of literature
    Art supplies
    TYPES OF LITERATURE (See handout provided.)
    STORY ELEMENTS (See handout provided.)




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VI. ACTIVITIES

   Have students read a selected story. Use one or more of the suggested
   activities below to allow students to apply the information from the story.

    1. Have students rewrite or retell the story from a specific character’s
       point of view.

    2. Tell students to change the story to a television broadcast.

    3. Have students rewrite the story as a newspaper article.

    4. Have students rewrite the story as an advertisement (television or
       print).

    5. Tell students to change the story to music, using types such as rap,
       rock, or country.

    6. Instruct students to make a collage of a character, setting, or main
       idea.

    7. Have students rewrite the story in poetry form.

    8. Instruct students to make a class mural of the story.

    9. Have students write the story in the form of a letter or letters.

   10. Have students create a classroom museum with the characters
       becoming statues who come alive to retell their parts of the story.

    11. Have students make a museum chest with articles related to the story.

   12. Tell students to interview other students in the role of a character.

   13. Have students hold a dialogue or debate between characters.




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14. Have students make illustrations of scenes. Discuss how illustrations
    can affect readers’ opinions and thoughts.

15. Have students make displays, projects, or bulletin boards of the story.

16. Have students do individual or group presentations of the story.

17. Encourage students to present video projects on the story.

18. Have students dress in costume representing the story.

19. Have students make time lines, if appropriate, for the story.

20. Have students perform dramatizations, role plays, or pantomimes of the
    story.

21. Tell students to retell the story as time travelers.

22. Have students design book covers or advertisements for the story.

23. Have students rewrite a story as a radio play complete with sound
    effects.




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                        TYPES OF LITERATURE
ESSAY -- An essay is a short nonfiction work about a particular subject.

FABLE -- A fable is a brief story or poem, usually with animal characters, that teaches a
lesson, or moral. The moral is usually stated at the end of the fable.

BIOGRAPHY -- A biography is a form of nonfiction in which a writer tells the life story of
another person.

AUTOBIOGRAPHY -- An autobiography is a form of nonfiction in which a writer tells his
or her own life story.

FICTION -- Fiction is prose writing that tells about imaginary characters and events.
Short stories and novels are works of fiction.

FOLK TALE -- A folk tale is a story composed orally and then passed from person to
person by word of mouth.

LEGEND -- A legend is a widely told story about the past, one that may or may not have a
foundation in fact.

MYTH -- A myth is a fictional tale that explains the actions of gods or heroes or the
origins of elements of nature.

POETRY -- Poetry is one of the three major types of literature, the others being prose
and drama. Poetry is usually shorter than the other forms and more care is usually given
to word selection and order and placement of lines. It often rhymes, though not
necessarily.

PROSE -- Prose is the ordinary form of written language. Most writing that is not poetry,
drama, or song is considered prose. It includes fiction and nonfiction.

SCIENCE FICTION -- Science fiction is writing that tells about imaginary events that
involve science or technology.

SHORT STORY -- A short story is a brief work of fiction.




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                          STORY ELEMENTS
Character -- A person or an animal that participates in the action of
             a work of literature

Mood -- The feeling or atmosphere that a reader senses while
        reading or listening to a work of literature

Plot -- The sequence of actions and events in fiction or drama

Point of View -- The perspective from which a story is told

Setting -- The time and place of a work of literature

Theme -- The main idea or underlying subject of a work of literature

Tone -- The author’s attitude that a work of literature expresses
        to the reader through its style




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 I. COURSE OF STUDY CONTENT STANDARD

    6.   Determine the author’s purpose.



II. ALABAMA HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION EXAM (AHSGE) STANDARDS
    AND OBJECTIVES

    II-2, II-4



III. OVERVIEW/PREPARATION

    Discuss with students that before an author starts writing, he/she must
    first determine the purpose for which he/she will write. The author will try
    to persuade, inform, or entertain the reader. In some cases, the author’s
    purpose may not be directly stated.



IV. TIME ALLOTMENT

    30 minutes



 V. MATERIALS NEEDED

    Copies of “The Boy Who Cried Wolf” by Aesop




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VI. ACTIVITY

   1. Have students read “The Boy Who Cried Wolf.”

   2. Discuss possible reasons why the author decided to write a story about
      not telling the truth. Ask questions that will help students determine
      the purpose of the story.

   3. Ask students to make predictions about the effects of not telling the
      truth in the following situations:

      A.   A fire
      B.   Being sick
      C.   Your homework
      D.   (Other situations may be added.)




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 I. COURSE OF STUDY CONTENT STANDARD

    7.   Recognize the characteristics and cultural influences of works of
         literature representative of various eras.



II. ALABAMA HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION EXAM (AHSGE) STANDARD
    AND OBJECTIVE

    III–2



III. OVERVIEW/PREPARATION

    Students should be aware of expressions from literature that have become
    part of everyday life. Guide students to discover sources of commonly used
    expressions and their meanings.



IV. TIME ALLOTMENT

    Throughout the year



 V. MATERIALS NEEDED

    Examples of various forms of literature and commonly used expressions (See
    suggested list on the following page.)




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VI. ACTIVITY

   1. Have students choose one of the books, stories, or expressions listed
      below and conduct research in that area. If a book or story is selected
      students should read the book or story and identify an expression found
      within it.

   2. Tell students to write a short explanation (one or two paragraphs)
      identifying the expression used and explaining its meaning.

   3. Tell students to find other examples and explain their choices.

   LITERATURE/EXPRESSIONS SUGGESTED:

      The Little Red Hen
      The Emperor’s New Clothes
      The Midas Touch
      Pandora’s Box
      “Casey at the Bat”
      Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
      “The Boy Who Cried Wolf”
      Aesop’s Fables
      Poor Richard’s Almanac
      “Knight in shining armor”
      “Mighty Casey struck out.”
      “How does your garden grow?”




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 I. COURSE OF STUDY CONTENT STANDARD

    7.   Recognize the characteristics and cultural influences of works of
         literature representative of various eras.



II. ALABAMA HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION EXAM (AHSGE) STANDARD
    AND OBJECTIVE

    III-2



III. OVERVIEW/PREPARATION

    Discuss historical time periods with students to make them aware of the
    social, cultural, political, and economic setting in which a book is written.



IV. TIME ALLOTMENT

    Five class periods



 V. MATERIALS NEEDED

    Historical books (Example: books by Laura Ingalls Wilder)




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VI. ACTIVITIES

   The following activities are suggestions to use with students:

   1. Read a selected historical book with or to students.

   2. Discuss with students the different spellings of words encountered.
      Examples: plough/plow, colour/color.

   3. Provide a classroom museum for items (appropriate to the historical
      period of the selected text) brought in by students.

   4. Have each student make a craft item representative of the time period.
      (Examples: homemade butter, quilts, and tin-punch ornaments made
      from lids of orange juice cans)

   5. Have students prepare and eat a meal appropriate to the time period.

   6. Provide a dress-up day for students to dress as characters from the time
      period selected.

   7. Have students role-play scenes and discuss story elements.




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 I. COURSE OF STUDY CONTENT STANDARD

    7.   Recognize the characteristics and cultural influences of works of
         literature representative of various eras.



II. ALABAMA HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION EXAM (AHSGE) STANDARD
    AND OBJECTIVE

    III-2



III. OVERVIEW/PREPARATION

    Characterization is often easier for students than setting because basic
    human characteristics have remained more universal. Students can often
    relate to how and why people in stories act as they do. However, the life
    experiences of characters often differ widely from experiences of modern
    readers. It is, therefore, extremely important to develop time and place of
    stories and to give students some insight into how setting affects the
    experiences and hopes of characters.



IV. TIME ALLOTMENT

    Throughout the year



 V. MATERIALS NEEDED

    Various literature selections
    Art materials




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VI. ACTIVITIES

   The following activities may be done by individual students or in groups:

   1. Have students focus on dialogue or special language that represents a
      time period.

   2. Have students compare and contrast time periods with modern times and
      possible future times. Ask questions like “Could this story be written in
      another time period and still convey the main theme?” An example could
      be the comparison of the newer movie version of Romeo and Juliet with
      an earlier version.

   3. Have students make a time line of important story events.

   4. Have students make a map of important story locations.

   5. Tell students to rewrite a story or biography as a play. (This requires
      students to write out story elements such as character, plot, or dialogue
      for the scenes.)

   6. Have students make real costumes or draw appropriate ones. (An entire
      set can be made or drawn. This requires research into setting and
      mood.)

   7. Instruct students to make new illustrations for scenes in a book and
      justify why their drawings or cutouts set a better scene or mood.

   8. Have students plan a festival to include food, costumes, and games that
      are representative of a specific time period. (Example: a Medieval
      Festival)




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 I. COURSE OF STUDY CONTENT STANDARD

    7.   Recognize the characteristics and cultural influences of works of
         literature representative of various eras.



II. ALABAMA HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION EXAM (AHSGE) STANDARD
    AND OBJECTIVE

    III-2



III. OVERVIEW/PREPARATION

    Discuss characteristics of various eras.



IV. TIME ALLOTMENT

    Block of time for a unit study or project



 V. MATERIALS NEEDED

    Literature representative of various time periods
    Videos representative of various time periods




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VI. ACTIVITIES

   The following activities may be done by individual students or in cooperative
   groups.

   1. Have students make a time line of different types of literature and their
      characteristics. Discuss the cultural and political events of the time
      periods.

   2. Have students compare and contrast an older version of a movie or book
      with a newer version. Examples include Romeo and Juliet, Anne of Green
      Gables, and Titanic.

   3. Tell students to rewrite old fairy tales, using modern terminology.

   4. Have students evaluate how women and African-Americans were
      portrayed in older movies and books.

   5. Have students develop questions and interview older people regarding
      literature. Questions should include opinions, favorite types of books,
      school requirements, and possibly questions about theme, plot, setting,
      and characters. Include questions about the differences between books
      “back then” and now. Include questions about “sayings” with which older
      people might be familiar.

   6. Discuss with students, if appropriate, that while styles of writing have
      changed, the morals and lessons of many books have not changed.

   7. Have a student pretend to be a time traveler traveling into today’s world
      from the past. Have other students show and explain things from today
      to the traveler from the past.




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 I. COURSE OF STUDY CONTENT STANDARD

    11.   Recognize the power of language as it evokes emotion; expands thinking;
          and influences problem solving, decision making, and action.



II. ALABAMA HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION EXAM (AHSGE) STANDARD
    AND OBJECTIVE

    III-1



III. OVERVIEW/PREPARATION

    Discuss with students the power of language. Advertisements are written
    to persuade readers and listeners to purchase a product. The author’s
    selection of terminology will determine the strength or weakness of an
    advertisement.



IV. TIME ALLOTMENT

    45 minutes



 V. MATERIALS NEEDED

    Class set of newspaper and magazine advertisements




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VI. ACTIVITY

   1. Instruct students to search newspapers and magazines for
      advertisements that would influence them to purchase a product.

   2. Divide the class into cooperative groups of students and have groups
      discuss why a selected advertisement is convincing or persuasive.

   3. Instruct each cooperative group to create an advertisement persuading
      fellow classmates to purchase a product.




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 I. COURSE OF STUDY CONTENT STANDARD

    14. Use study processes to manage information.



II. ALABAMA HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION EXAM (AHSGE) STANDARDS
    AND OBJECTIVES

    IV-2, IV-3, IV-4



III. OVERVIEW/PREPARATION

    Review sections into which reference materials are organized such as table
    of contents, glossary, index. Review organizational patterns such as
    chronological order and order of importance. Review main idea with
    supporting details in stories read previously.



IV. TIME ALLOTMENT

    Three class periods (45 minutes each)



 V. MATERIALS NEEDED

    The World Treasury of Children’s Literature, Book Three, selected and with
       commentary by Clifton Fadiman, or any book of short stories appropriate
       for sixth grade
    Reference materials found in the media center that include a glossary and
       appendix




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VI. ACTIVITY

   1. Introduce students to The World Treasury of Children’s Literature, Book
      Three by referring to sections such as the Contents, Index of Titles, and
      Index of Contributors. Discuss information found in other reference
      sections such as the Glossary and the Appendix, and help students
      determine where these sections are usually found in reference books.

   2. Have students read selected stories or poems to determine
      organizational patterns. Refer to poems and stories that are organized
      by chronological or spatial order. Refer also to stories written by
      students that are organized by order of importance.

   3. Have students read a selected story and summarize the story, recalling
      the main idea and supporting details. Some examples are Lloyd
      Alexander’s story The Assistant Pig-Keeper and Mark Twain’s story The
      Punch-bug and His Prey.




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 I. COURSE OF STUDY CONTENT STANDARD

    15. Demonstrate an awareness of the research process.



II. ALABAMA HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION EXAM (AHSGE) STANDARD
    AND OBJECTIVE

    IV-4



III. OVERVIEW/PREPARATION

    Read Number the Stars by Lois Lowry with the class. This is a story of the
    determination of the people of Denmark to get the Jewish people to safety
    while the Nazis were equally determined to annihilate them. Discuss
    geographical locations, historical events, diverse people, ways of life, and
    religious beliefs that may be different from students’ beliefs. Discuss the
    involvement of the Nazis in World War II. Locate other resources in the
    media center about World War II.



IV. TIME ALLOTMENT

    Five class periods (45 minutes each) to read Number the Stars
    Five class periods (45 minutes each) for research in the media center




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V. MATERIALS NEEDED

  Class set of Number the Stars by Lois Lowry
  Reference materials: atlas, almanac, Internet, dictionary, encyclopedia
  Books:
    Encyclopedia of the United States at War by June English and Thomas
        Jones
    The Story of D-Day by Bruce Bliven
    The Allies Against the Axis by Richard Steins
    Uncle Sam Wants You by Sylvia Whitman
    The Holocaust by R. G. Grant
    World War II, The War in Europe by John J.Vail
    Exploring the Bismarck by Robert D. Ballard
    The Origins of World War II by Peter Allen
    Other books on World War II




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VI. ACTIVITIES

   The following activities are to be done individually by students:

   1. Have students use the DICTIONARY to determine the meaning of
      unfamiliar words used in Number the Stars. Examples include words
      such as sabotage, typhus, deprivation, executed, permeated,
      exasperated, and atrocities.

   2. Have students use the INTERNET to determine the meaning of the Star
      of David. This plays an important role in the book Number the Stars and
      should be explained to help students understand its significance.

   3. Tell students to use the ATLAS to locate the countries in Europe.

   4. Tell students to use the ENCYCLOPEDIA to determine if these countries
      were occupied by Germany during World War II.

   5. Have students refer to NONFICTION BOOKS, ENCYCLOPEDIAS, and
      the INTERNET to determine the goals of World War II. Ask them to
      locate information about the philosophy, leaders, countries invaded, and
      concentration camps identified.

   6. Have students use the ALMANAC to discover battles that took place
      during World War II and to find atrocities that took place.

   7. Select reference materials for students to use in presenting information
      on World War II. Review the components of a bibliography. Tell
      students to include author, title, place of publication, publishing company,
      and date of publication. Also, review outlining when used in writing a
      research paper.

   8. Have students write a research paper on World War II with emphasis on
      the Nazis’ involvement. Include a bibliography of references used.




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