Tugas aplikasi komputer BAB 9 by keralaguest



1.      What are the features of the new information technology (IT)
The new information technology (IT) infrastructure: The new IT infrastructure
link desktop workstations, network computers, LAN and server computers in an
enterprise network so that information can flow freely between different parts of
the organization. The enterprise network may also be linked to kiosks point-of-
sale (POS) terminals., PDAs and information appliances, digital cellular
telephones and PCS, and mobile computing devices as well as to the internet
using public infrastructures. Customers, suppliers, and business partners may also
be linked to the organization through this new IT infrastructure.

2.      Why is connectivity so important for the digital firm? List and describe the
major connectivity standards for networking and the internet.
Today’s firms can use the information technologies we have described in previous
chapters to create an information technology (IT) infrastructure capable of
coordinating the activities of entire firms and even entire industries. By enabling
companies to radically reduce their agency and transaction cost, this new IT
infrastructure provides a broad platform for electronic commerce, electronic
business, and the emerging digital firm. This new IT infrastructure is based on
powerful network and internet technology.

3.      What is the internet? List and describe alternative ways of accessing the
An internet provider (ISP) is a commercial organization with a permanent
connection to the internet that sells temporary connections to subscribers.
Individuals also can access the internet through such popular on-line services as
prodigy and American Online and through networks established by such giants as
Microsoft and AT & T.

4.       List and describe the principal Internet capabilities.
-        E-mail, Person-to-person messaging, document sharing.
-        Usenet newsgroups, Discussion groups on electronic bulletin boards.
-        LISTSERVs , Discussion groups and messaging using E-mail mailing list
-        Chatting, interactive conversations
-        telnet, long on to one computer system and do work on another
-        FTP, transfer files from computer to computer
-        Gophers , locate information using a hierarchy of menus
-       World wide web , retrieve, format, and display information (including
text, audio, graphics and video) using hypertext links.

5.      What is the internet2? How does it differ from the first-generation
internet? What benefits does it provide?
Internet2 is a research network with new protocols and transmission speeds that
are much higher that the current internet. The internet2 infrastructure is based on a
series of interconnected gigapops, which are regional high-speed points-of-
presence that serve as aggregation points for traffic form participating institutions.

6.      Why is the Word Wide Web so useful for individuals and businesses?
The World Wide Web (the Web) is as the heart of the explosion in the business
use of the Net. The web is a system with universally accepted standards for
storing, retrieving, formatting, and displaying information using client/server
architecture. The web combines text, hypermedia, graphics, and sound. It can
handle all types of digital communication making it easy to link resources that are
half-a-world apart. The web uses graphical user interfaces for easy viewing. It is
based o a standard hypertext language called hypertext markup language (THML).
This formats documents and incorporates dynamic link to other documents stored
in the same or remote computer.

7.     List and describe alternative ways of locating information on the web.
Locating information the web critical function, with the more that one billion web
pages in existence expected to double eight months. No comprehensive catalog of
web sites exists. The principal methods of locating information on the web are
web site directories, search engines, and broadcast or “push” technology.

8.      What are intranets and extranets? How do they differ form the web?
Organization can use internet networking standards and web technology to create
private network called intranet. We introduced intranet in Chapter 1, explaining
intranet is an internal organizational network that can provide access to data
across the enterprise
9. Wireless web applications enable mobile users to access digital information
from the internet and be connected anywhere, any time, any place. Specialized
portals steer users of Web-enable wireless devices to the information they are
most likely to need. Wireless Web =web based applications enabling users to
access digital information from the internet using wireless mobile computing

10. m-commerce, the use of the internet for purchasing goods and services as well
as sending and receiving message using handheld wireless devices. With cell
phones, PDAs, and other wireless computing devices becoming internet-enabled,
many believe m-commerce represent the next wave of internet computing.
M-commerce will become a significant subset of e-commerce. Businesses will
increasingly incorporate wireless internet access into their information technology
infrastructures so that employees can access information wherever they are, and
make decisions instantly without being tethered to desk or computer.
11. I-mode is a rival standard developed by Japan’s NTT DoCoMo mobile phone
network. It is widely used in Japan and is being introduced to Europe. I-mode uses
compact HTML to deliver content, making it easier for businesses to convert their
HTML Web sites to mobile service.
12. Abilities can be used to create interactive applications, and provide services
and products. By using internet technology, organizations can reduce
communication and transaction costs.
Internet Benefits to
Connectivity and global reach
Reduced communication costs
Lower agency cost
Interactivity flexibility and customization
Accelerated distribution of knowledge
13. Businesses seriously pursuing electronic commerce and electronic business
need special tools for maintaining their web sites. These tools include web server
and electronic commerce survey software, customer tracking and personalization
tools, Web content management tools, and site performance monitoring tools.
Web server as the software necessary to run web sites, internets, and extranets.
The core capabilities of web server software revolve around locating and
managing stored web pages.
Customer Tracking and Personalization Tools
-Collecting and storing data on the behavior of on line customers and combining
that data with data already stored in the company’s back-office systems.
-Analyzing the data in order better to understand the behavior of on line
- Identifying developing customer trends.
14. Companies that lack the financial or technical resources to operate their own
web sites or electronic commerce services can use web hosting services. A web
hosting service maintains a large web server computer or a series of server and
provides fee-paying subscribers with space to maintain their web sites. The
subscribing companies may create their own web pages or have the hosting
service or a web design film create them.
15. The challenge of man managing the new information technology
-Loss of management control
Managing information system technology and corporate data are proving much
more difficult in a distributed environment because of the lack of a single, central
point where needed management can occur.
-Connectivity and application integration
We have already described the connectivity problems created by incompatible
networks and standard, including connectivity problems for wireless networks.
-Organizational change requirements
Enterprise-wide computing provides an opportunity to reengineer the organization
into a more effective unit, but it will only create problems or chaos if the
underlying organizational issues are not fully addressed (Duchessi and Chengalur-
smith, 1998)
-Hidden coast of enterprise computing
Many companies have found that the saving they expected from distributed
client/server computing did not materialize because of unexpected costs.
-Scalability, Reliability, and security
Companies seeking to digitally enable their business require robust IT
infrastructures providing plentiful bandwidth and storage capacity for transmitting
and maintaining all of the data generated by electronic commerce and electronic
business transactions.
16. Some solutions
Organizations can meet the challenges posed by the new IT infrastructure by
planning for and managing the business and organizational changes; increasing
end-user training; asserting data administration disciplines; and considering
connectivity, application integration bandwidth, and cost controls in their
technology planning.

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