TUGAS APLIKASI KOMPOTER BAB 9 1. What are the features of the new information technology (IT) infrastructure? The new information technology (IT) infrastructure: The new IT infrastructure link desktop workstations, network computers, LAN and server computers in an enterprise network so that information can flow freely between different parts of the organization. The enterprise network may also be linked to kiosks point-of- sale (POS) terminals., PDAs and information appliances, digital cellular telephones and PCS, and mobile computing devices as well as to the internet using public infrastructures. Customers, suppliers, and business partners may also be linked to the organization through this new IT infrastructure. 2. Why is connectivity so important for the digital firm? List and describe the major connectivity standards for networking and the internet. Today’s firms can use the information technologies we have described in previous chapters to create an information technology (IT) infrastructure capable of coordinating the activities of entire firms and even entire industries. By enabling companies to radically reduce their agency and transaction cost, this new IT infrastructure provides a broad platform for electronic commerce, electronic business, and the emerging digital firm. This new IT infrastructure is based on powerful network and internet technology. 3. What is the internet? List and describe alternative ways of accessing the internet. An internet provider (ISP) is a commercial organization with a permanent connection to the internet that sells temporary connections to subscribers. Individuals also can access the internet through such popular on-line services as prodigy and American Online and through networks established by such giants as Microsoft and AT & T. 4. List and describe the principal Internet capabilities. - E-mail, Person-to-person messaging, document sharing. - Usenet newsgroups, Discussion groups on electronic bulletin boards. - LISTSERVs , Discussion groups and messaging using E-mail mailing list server - Chatting, interactive conversations - telnet, long on to one computer system and do work on another - FTP, transfer files from computer to computer - Gophers , locate information using a hierarchy of menus - World wide web , retrieve, format, and display information (including text, audio, graphics and video) using hypertext links. 5. What is the internet2? How does it differ from the first-generation internet? What benefits does it provide? Internet2 is a research network with new protocols and transmission speeds that are much higher that the current internet. The internet2 infrastructure is based on a series of interconnected gigapops, which are regional high-speed points-of- presence that serve as aggregation points for traffic form participating institutions. 6. Why is the Word Wide Web so useful for individuals and businesses? The World Wide Web (the Web) is as the heart of the explosion in the business use of the Net. The web is a system with universally accepted standards for storing, retrieving, formatting, and displaying information using client/server architecture. The web combines text, hypermedia, graphics, and sound. It can handle all types of digital communication making it easy to link resources that are half-a-world apart. The web uses graphical user interfaces for easy viewing. It is based o a standard hypertext language called hypertext markup language (THML). This formats documents and incorporates dynamic link to other documents stored in the same or remote computer. 7. List and describe alternative ways of locating information on the web. Locating information the web critical function, with the more that one billion web pages in existence expected to double eight months. No comprehensive catalog of web sites exists. The principal methods of locating information on the web are web site directories, search engines, and broadcast or “push” technology. 8. What are intranets and extranets? How do they differ form the web? Organization can use internet networking standards and web technology to create private network called intranet. We introduced intranet in Chapter 1, explaining intranet is an internal organizational network that can provide access to data across the enterprise 9. Wireless web applications enable mobile users to access digital information from the internet and be connected anywhere, any time, any place. Specialized portals steer users of Web-enable wireless devices to the information they are most likely to need. Wireless Web =web based applications enabling users to access digital information from the internet using wireless mobile computing devices. 10. m-commerce, the use of the internet for purchasing goods and services as well as sending and receiving message using handheld wireless devices. With cell phones, PDAs, and other wireless computing devices becoming internet-enabled, many believe m-commerce represent the next wave of internet computing. M-commerce will become a significant subset of e-commerce. Businesses will increasingly incorporate wireless internet access into their information technology infrastructures so that employees can access information wherever they are, and make decisions instantly without being tethered to desk or computer. 11. I-mode is a rival standard developed by Japan’s NTT DoCoMo mobile phone network. It is widely used in Japan and is being introduced to Europe. I-mode uses compact HTML to deliver content, making it easier for businesses to convert their HTML Web sites to mobile service. 12. Abilities can be used to create interactive applications, and provide services and products. By using internet technology, organizations can reduce communication and transaction costs. Internet Benefits to Connectivity and global reach Reduced communication costs Lower agency cost Interactivity flexibility and customization Accelerated distribution of knowledge 13. Businesses seriously pursuing electronic commerce and electronic business need special tools for maintaining their web sites. These tools include web server and electronic commerce survey software, customer tracking and personalization tools, Web content management tools, and site performance monitoring tools. Web server as the software necessary to run web sites, internets, and extranets. The core capabilities of web server software revolve around locating and managing stored web pages. Customer Tracking and Personalization Tools -Collecting and storing data on the behavior of on line customers and combining that data with data already stored in the company’s back-office systems. -Analyzing the data in order better to understand the behavior of on line customers. - Identifying developing customer trends. 14. Companies that lack the financial or technical resources to operate their own web sites or electronic commerce services can use web hosting services. A web hosting service maintains a large web server computer or a series of server and provides fee-paying subscribers with space to maintain their web sites. The subscribing companies may create their own web pages or have the hosting service or a web design film create them. 15. The challenge of man managing the new information technology infrastructure -Loss of management control Managing information system technology and corporate data are proving much more difficult in a distributed environment because of the lack of a single, central point where needed management can occur. -Connectivity and application integration We have already described the connectivity problems created by incompatible networks and standard, including connectivity problems for wireless networks. -Organizational change requirements Enterprise-wide computing provides an opportunity to reengineer the organization into a more effective unit, but it will only create problems or chaos if the underlying organizational issues are not fully addressed (Duchessi and Chengalur- smith, 1998) -Hidden coast of enterprise computing Many companies have found that the saving they expected from distributed client/server computing did not materialize because of unexpected costs. -Scalability, Reliability, and security Companies seeking to digitally enable their business require robust IT infrastructures providing plentiful bandwidth and storage capacity for transmitting and maintaining all of the data generated by electronic commerce and electronic business transactions. 16. Some solutions Organizations can meet the challenges posed by the new IT infrastructure by planning for and managing the business and organizational changes; increasing end-user training; asserting data administration disciplines; and considering connectivity, application integration bandwidth, and cost controls in their technology planning.
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