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The Anatomy of the Grid (PowerPoint)

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					The Anatomy of the Grid
Ian Foster, Carl Kesselman, Steven Tuecke


          Professor: Dr. M. Sadjadi


             Presenter: Sri Medam
             Antagonist: Tariq King
                   Outline
   Purpose
   Introduction
   Concept of Virtual Organizations
   Need for Grid Technology
   Grid Architecture
   Relationships with other Technologies
   Conclusion
                Purpose

“ To argue that the Grid concept is indeed
  motivated by a real and specific problem
  (Grid problem) and that there is an
  emerging, well-defined technology base
  that addresses significant aspects of this
  problem”
                Introduction

 Grid Computing
     Large-scale, coordinated resource sharing.

 Grid Problem
     Flexible, secure, coordinated resource
     sharing among dynamic, multi-
     institutional Virtual Organizations (VOs).
        Virtual Organizations
 Virtual Organizations

   Group of individuals or institutions defined by
    sharing rules to share the resources of “Grid”
    for a common goal.

   Eg: Application service providers, storage
    service providers, databases, crisis
    management team, consultants.
     Need for Grid technology
 Common concerns and requirements for
   Flexible sharing relationships
   Sophisticated and precise control over how shared
    resources are used and conditions under which
    sharing occurs.
   Sharing of varied resources
   Diverse usage modes.

    Grid technology provides a general resource-sharing
    framework that addresses these VO requirements
     Nature of Grid Architecture
 Protocol Architecture

 Why interoperability main concern?
  To ensure that sharing relationships can be established
  among varied participants across different platforms.

 Why protocols critical to interoperability?
  “ Local control is preserved ”
 Grid Architecture Description
 Idea: Standardize the interfaces between interacting components of
  the grid.
                              Grid Architecture Maps to IP Architecture




Basis: Map Grid architecture to any standard protocol architecture
(here Internet protocol architecture)
                Fabric Layer
 Fabric : Interfaces to local control

   Provides resources.
   Fabric components implement resource specific
    operations
   Resources should implement Enquiry, resource
    management mechanisms…
                     Fabric layer
 Resources should implement Enquiry, resource
  management mechanisms.

    Computational resources: for starting programs and , for
     monitoring and controlling the execution of the process.
    Storage resources: Reading and writing files.
    Network resources: require mechanisms for controlling
     resources allocated to network transfer, enquire functions to
     determine network characteristics and load.
    Code repositories: for managing versioned code.( CVS)
    Catalogs: require mechanisms for implementing query and
     update operations ( relational database)
             Connectivity Layer
 Connectivity: Communicating Easily and
  Securely.

   Defines core communication and authentication protocols.
   Communication requirements: transport, routing, naming
   Authentication solutions :
      Single sign on, delegation, integration with various local
       security solutions, user-based trust relationships.
                Resource Layer
 Resource: Sharing Single Resources

   Defines protocols for secure negotiation, initiation, monitoring,
    control, accounting, payment of sharing operations on individual
    resources.

   Two primary classes of Resource layer protocols are
    Information protocols, Management protocols.

   Management protocol – “ policy application point”.
                  Collective Layer
 Collective: Coordinating Multiple Resources

    Defines protocols that capture interactions across collections of
     resources.

        Directory services – GRRP, GRIP
        Co-allocation, scheduling, brokering services – Condor-G, Nimrod-G, DRM
         broker.
        Monitoring and diagnostic
        Data Replication
        Grid enabled programming
        Workload management and collaboration frameworks
        Software discovery - NetSolve, Ninf
        Community authorization
        Community accounting and payment
        Collaboratory services – Access Grid.
             Application Layer
    Application: implement business logic over fabric,
    connectivity, resources and collective layers

Grid Architecture     Programmer’s View of Grid Architecture
       Example of Grid - Globus
 Define protocol architecture (layers)
     Fabric: GT primarily uses existing fabric components. Otherwise, it
      includes the missing functionality
     Connectivity: GT uses TCP/IP for communication, and PKI & TLS based
      Grid Security Infrastructure (GSI) for authentication
     Resource: GT uses
         Grid Resource Information Protocol (GRIP) which is based on LDAP,
         Grid Resource Registration Protocol (GRRP) to register resource information
          at servers called Grid Index Information Servers (GIIS),
         Grid Resource Access & Management (GRAM) protocol to allocate and
          monitor computational resources,
         FTP based GridFTP protocol for data access, and,
         LDAP for catalog access
     Collective: GT uses
         GIISs to support resource views,
         LDAP to access GRIS
     Application: GT allows development of many sophisticated frameworks
      and libraries to implement application layer logic for end use.
       Relationships with other
            Technologies
 Other technologies:
   DCE (Open Group) - inflexible
   Internet (IETF, W3C) – it is Client-Server
   ASP and SSP (singleton resource type)
   Enterprise CS (CORBA, DCOM, EJB) –
    Sharing arrangements are static and
    restricted to single organization.
   P2P – weak security, strong anonymity
              Conclusion
Current technologies either does not accommodate
the range of resource types or does not provide the
flexibility and control on sharing relationships needed
to establish VOs.

Current technologies integrated with Grid
technologies can enhance capabilities to great extent.

Grid technologies support the sharing and
coordinated use of resources in dynamic and scalable
VOs.
                References
 The Anatomy of the Grid, Ian Foster et al.,
  Supercomputing Journal, 2001
 Evolution of Grid Computing Architecture, J.
  Joseph, IBM Systems Journal, 2004
              Agnostic Questions
   For the connectivity layer, which the authors describe
    "communicating easily and securely", most of the attention is
    given to authentication solutions. Traditional Grid
    infrastructure, such as the GSI from Globus, has also
    concentrated on authentication and not provided a sufficient
    infrastructure for the rest of the trust hierarchy (i.e.
    authorisation, policy implementation, etc).

    Question 1:
   To date, what measures have been made towards providing
    a more complete security infrastructure on the Grid?
               Agnostic Questions
    Answer:
   As far as the trust hierarchy concerned verification, validation
    of Sender and receiver and protection of communication
    channel are important.
   Verification and Validation of sender, receiver will be taken
    care by CA verification.
   Channel is protected by many ways - TCP/IP for
    communication, and PKI & TLS based Grid Security
    Infrastructure (GSI) for authentication
   All of which are very strong and standard protocols for
    encrypting the channel.
               Agnostic Questions
Question 2:
  Are any of these solutions also “easy” to install and configure

Answer:
    Grid Accounts Management Architecture (GAMA)
   With GAMA, end users never have to know anything about grid security,
    credentials, proxies, or other technical matters. They simply request an
    account using a typical Web form interface, and after the account is
    created, they log in to the portal using a familiar username/password
    combination. All the grid activity happens in the background -- from
    creation of grid credentials to retrieval of these credentials for use by
    portlets.
   With respect to storage resources, the authors mention
    that "third party and high performance transfers are
    useful". Grid applications today generate very large
    datasets, and I/O is already the slowest computational
    component by several orders of magnitude when
    compared to memory or processor speed.

Question 3:
  As number and size of Virtual Organizations grow, will
   not data access and retrieval become a major bottleneck,
   and hence remove the attractiveness of the grid for
   meeting the needs of some members? What
   approaches are being used to address problem now
   rather than waiting for network speeds to improve?
          Agnostic Questions
    Answer:

   Keeping redundant copies in various portions
    of grid for faster parallel access using
    distributed system concepts.
   Data replication services: Support the
    management of VO storage resources to
    maximize the data access performance with
    respect to time, reliability and cost.
Question 4:   What work is being done to address some of the more
              difficult I/O topics for Grid computing such as
              noncontiguous I/O, caching, and fault tolerance?

Answer:       In my opinion Noncontiguous I/O, caching, fault
              tolerance are implementation details of the resources.
              Grid architecture is about the interaction of resources
              rather than their implementation.
Quesiton 5:   This paper discusses solutions to many of the technical
              challenges of the Grid. Do you think that management
              of collaboration efforts is just as important as solving
              the technical challenges? If so, why? Could including
              such information in the paper have improved the
              discussion of any particular section?


Answer:       This paper mainly about the anatomy means structural
              description of the grid. Collaboration to improve
              coordination and resolve conflicts among process is
              highly important.
              Management of collaboration will be further research into
              this field which will be more interesting and challenging.
              For this paper the idea is to present the anatomy how it
              looks, structure wise and concepts.
Question6:   By the definition of Grid computing, the authors stress
             the need for interoperability across organizations. In
             your opinion, is the ultimate vision of Grid computing
             obscured by the lack of interoperability standards
             among Grid technologies?


Answer:      Interoperability is necessary to ensure that sharing
             relationships can be initiated among dynamic
             participants across different platforms, languages, and
             programming environments for resource sharing.
             without interoperability it becomes a basic client/server
             technology.
             Applications and services on Grid will work together
             based on their requirements and set guidelines by the
             system architects.
Question7:   In previous presentations Global Grid Forum (GGF)
             and OASIS have been mentioned as leaders in moving
             towards a primary set of Grid standards. What other
             organizational bodies are currently pushing towards
             guaranteeing interoperability among Grids? Is this
             effort sufficient considering the grand challenges facing
             the Grid?

Answer:      Other leaders contributing to grid standards are W3C,
             Distributed Management Task Force, Web Services
             Interoperability Organization, Internet2, Liberty Alliance

				
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