The Anatomy of the Grid
Ian Foster, Carl Kesselman, Steven Tuecke
Professor: Dr. M. Sadjadi
Presenter: Sri Medam
Antagonist: Tariq King
Concept of Virtual Organizations
Need for Grid Technology
Relationships with other Technologies
“ To argue that the Grid concept is indeed
motivated by a real and specific problem
(Grid problem) and that there is an
emerging, well-defined technology base
that addresses significant aspects of this
Large-scale, coordinated resource sharing.
Flexible, secure, coordinated resource
sharing among dynamic, multi-
institutional Virtual Organizations (VOs).
Group of individuals or institutions defined by
sharing rules to share the resources of “Grid”
for a common goal.
Eg: Application service providers, storage
service providers, databases, crisis
management team, consultants.
Need for Grid technology
Common concerns and requirements for
Flexible sharing relationships
Sophisticated and precise control over how shared
resources are used and conditions under which
Sharing of varied resources
Diverse usage modes.
Grid technology provides a general resource-sharing
framework that addresses these VO requirements
Nature of Grid Architecture
Why interoperability main concern?
To ensure that sharing relationships can be established
among varied participants across different platforms.
Why protocols critical to interoperability?
“ Local control is preserved ”
Grid Architecture Description
Idea: Standardize the interfaces between interacting components of
Grid Architecture Maps to IP Architecture
Basis: Map Grid architecture to any standard protocol architecture
(here Internet protocol architecture)
Fabric : Interfaces to local control
Fabric components implement resource specific
Resources should implement Enquiry, resource
Resources should implement Enquiry, resource
Computational resources: for starting programs and , for
monitoring and controlling the execution of the process.
Storage resources: Reading and writing files.
Network resources: require mechanisms for controlling
resources allocated to network transfer, enquire functions to
determine network characteristics and load.
Code repositories: for managing versioned code.( CVS)
Catalogs: require mechanisms for implementing query and
update operations ( relational database)
Connectivity: Communicating Easily and
Defines core communication and authentication protocols.
Communication requirements: transport, routing, naming
Authentication solutions :
Single sign on, delegation, integration with various local
security solutions, user-based trust relationships.
Resource: Sharing Single Resources
Defines protocols for secure negotiation, initiation, monitoring,
control, accounting, payment of sharing operations on individual
Two primary classes of Resource layer protocols are
Information protocols, Management protocols.
Management protocol – “ policy application point”.
Collective: Coordinating Multiple Resources
Defines protocols that capture interactions across collections of
Directory services – GRRP, GRIP
Co-allocation, scheduling, brokering services – Condor-G, Nimrod-G, DRM
Monitoring and diagnostic
Grid enabled programming
Workload management and collaboration frameworks
Software discovery - NetSolve, Ninf
Community accounting and payment
Collaboratory services – Access Grid.
Application: implement business logic over fabric,
connectivity, resources and collective layers
Grid Architecture Programmer’s View of Grid Architecture
Example of Grid - Globus
Define protocol architecture (layers)
Fabric: GT primarily uses existing fabric components. Otherwise, it
includes the missing functionality
Connectivity: GT uses TCP/IP for communication, and PKI & TLS based
Grid Security Infrastructure (GSI) for authentication
Resource: GT uses
Grid Resource Information Protocol (GRIP) which is based on LDAP,
Grid Resource Registration Protocol (GRRP) to register resource information
at servers called Grid Index Information Servers (GIIS),
Grid Resource Access & Management (GRAM) protocol to allocate and
monitor computational resources,
FTP based GridFTP protocol for data access, and,
LDAP for catalog access
Collective: GT uses
GIISs to support resource views,
LDAP to access GRIS
Application: GT allows development of many sophisticated frameworks
and libraries to implement application layer logic for end use.
Relationships with other
DCE (Open Group) - inflexible
Internet (IETF, W3C) – it is Client-Server
ASP and SSP (singleton resource type)
Enterprise CS (CORBA, DCOM, EJB) –
Sharing arrangements are static and
restricted to single organization.
P2P – weak security, strong anonymity
Current technologies either does not accommodate
the range of resource types or does not provide the
flexibility and control on sharing relationships needed
to establish VOs.
Current technologies integrated with Grid
technologies can enhance capabilities to great extent.
Grid technologies support the sharing and
coordinated use of resources in dynamic and scalable
The Anatomy of the Grid, Ian Foster et al.,
Supercomputing Journal, 2001
Evolution of Grid Computing Architecture, J.
Joseph, IBM Systems Journal, 2004
For the connectivity layer, which the authors describe
"communicating easily and securely", most of the attention is
given to authentication solutions. Traditional Grid
infrastructure, such as the GSI from Globus, has also
concentrated on authentication and not provided a sufficient
infrastructure for the rest of the trust hierarchy (i.e.
authorisation, policy implementation, etc).
To date, what measures have been made towards providing
a more complete security infrastructure on the Grid?
As far as the trust hierarchy concerned verification, validation
of Sender and receiver and protection of communication
channel are important.
Verification and Validation of sender, receiver will be taken
care by CA verification.
Channel is protected by many ways - TCP/IP for
communication, and PKI & TLS based Grid Security
Infrastructure (GSI) for authentication
All of which are very strong and standard protocols for
encrypting the channel.
Are any of these solutions also “easy” to install and configure
Grid Accounts Management Architecture (GAMA)
With GAMA, end users never have to know anything about grid security,
credentials, proxies, or other technical matters. They simply request an
account using a typical Web form interface, and after the account is
created, they log in to the portal using a familiar username/password
combination. All the grid activity happens in the background -- from
creation of grid credentials to retrieval of these credentials for use by
With respect to storage resources, the authors mention
that "third party and high performance transfers are
useful". Grid applications today generate very large
datasets, and I/O is already the slowest computational
component by several orders of magnitude when
compared to memory or processor speed.
As number and size of Virtual Organizations grow, will
not data access and retrieval become a major bottleneck,
and hence remove the attractiveness of the grid for
meeting the needs of some members? What
approaches are being used to address problem now
rather than waiting for network speeds to improve?
Keeping redundant copies in various portions
of grid for faster parallel access using
distributed system concepts.
Data replication services: Support the
management of VO storage resources to
maximize the data access performance with
respect to time, reliability and cost.
Question 4: What work is being done to address some of the more
difficult I/O topics for Grid computing such as
noncontiguous I/O, caching, and fault tolerance?
Answer: In my opinion Noncontiguous I/O, caching, fault
tolerance are implementation details of the resources.
Grid architecture is about the interaction of resources
rather than their implementation.
Quesiton 5: This paper discusses solutions to many of the technical
challenges of the Grid. Do you think that management
of collaboration efforts is just as important as solving
the technical challenges? If so, why? Could including
such information in the paper have improved the
discussion of any particular section?
Answer: This paper mainly about the anatomy means structural
description of the grid. Collaboration to improve
coordination and resolve conflicts among process is
Management of collaboration will be further research into
this field which will be more interesting and challenging.
For this paper the idea is to present the anatomy how it
looks, structure wise and concepts.
Question6: By the definition of Grid computing, the authors stress
the need for interoperability across organizations. In
your opinion, is the ultimate vision of Grid computing
obscured by the lack of interoperability standards
among Grid technologies?
Answer: Interoperability is necessary to ensure that sharing
relationships can be initiated among dynamic
participants across different platforms, languages, and
programming environments for resource sharing.
without interoperability it becomes a basic client/server
Applications and services on Grid will work together
based on their requirements and set guidelines by the
Question7: In previous presentations Global Grid Forum (GGF)
and OASIS have been mentioned as leaders in moving
towards a primary set of Grid standards. What other
organizational bodies are currently pushing towards
guaranteeing interoperability among Grids? Is this
effort sufficient considering the grand challenges facing
Answer: Other leaders contributing to grid standards are W3C,
Distributed Management Task Force, Web Services
Interoperability Organization, Internet2, Liberty Alliance